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Sample records for prenatally elevated physiological

  1. Elevated Midpregnancy Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Is Associated with Prenatal, But Not Postpartum, Maternal Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rich-Edwards, J. W; Mohllajee, A. P; Kleinman, K; Hacker, M. R; Majzoub, J; Wright, R. J; Gillman, M. W

    2008-01-01

    Context: Elevated hypothalamic CRH has been implicated in melancholic major depression in nonpregnant individuals, but the role of placental CRH in maternal prenatal and postpartum depression is largely unexplored. Objective...

  2. Herpetological diversity along Andean elevational gradients: links with physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carlos A

    2002-11-01

    A well-defined macroecological pattern is the decline in biodiversity with altitude. However, this decline is taxa-specific. For example, amphibians are more diverse than squamates at extreme elevations in the tropical Andes, but this pattern is reversed at extreme elevations in the southern latitudes. Several ecophysiological and evolutionary factors may be related to this difference. At high-elevations in southern latitudes temperature differs dramatically among seasons and dry soils dominate, characteristics that appear to favor lizard physiological ecology. Tropical high altitudes, in contrast, are humid and offer abundant and diverse water resources. These characteristics allow for a richer anuran community but might complicate lizard egg development through temperature and oxygen constrains. Differences in strategies of thermal adaptation might also modulate diversity patterns. The thermal physiology of anurans is extremely labile so that behavioral and physiological performance is maintained despite an altitudinal decrease in field body temperature. Lizards, in contrast, exhibit a conservative thermal physiology and rely on behavioral thermoregulation to face cold and variable temperatures. Both, lizard behavioral strategies and anuran physiological adjustments seem equally efficient in allowing ecological success and diversification for both groups in the tropics up to approximately 3000 m. At higher elevations physiological thermal adaptation is required, and lizards are ecologically constrained, perhaps at various ontogenetic stages. Patterns of biodiversity along environmental clines can be better understood through a physiological approach, and can help to refine and propose hypotheses in evolutionary physiology.

  3. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  4. Inadequate prenatal care and elevated blood lead levels among children born in Providence, Rhode Island: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Anna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether children born to mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care are at an increased risk for having an elevated blood lead level during early childhood. The authors conducted a population-based study of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1997 to 2001 whose mothers had received adequate, intermediate, or inadequate prenatal care. The children's blood lead levels were compared between groups using bivariate and logistic regression. To understand the regulatory implications and public health impact of changing the definition of an elevated blood lead level, "elevated" was defined as 5 microg/dL, 10 microg/dL, and 15 microg/dL. Children born to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care were at an elevated risk for having an elevated blood lead level later in life. This relationship remained statistically significant for each definition of elevated blood lead level and after controlling for other socio-economic status measures and birthweight (at 5 microg/dL, odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.68, p = 0.006; at 10 microg/dL, OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.24, p prenatal care provision could help identify women possibly experiencing ongoing lead exposure and help reduce or prevent exposures to their offspring.

  5. Effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery on maxillary sinus physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmenga, NM; Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; van Weissenbruch, R; Manson, WL; Vissink, A

    2003-01-01

    In a prospective study, the effects of elevation surgery of the maxillary sinus floor on maxillary sinus physiology were assessed. Seventeen consecutive patients without preoperative anamnestic, clinical and radiological signs of maxillary sinusitis underwent sinus floor elevation surgery with iliac

  6. Frequency of infant stroking reported by mothers moderates the effect of prenatal depression on infant behavioural and physiological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Sharp

    Full Text Available Animal studies find that prenatal stress is associated with increased physiological and emotional reactivity later in life, mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR gene expression. Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. Post-natal maternal behaviours may therefore be expected to modify prenatal effects, but this has not previously been examined in humans. We examined whether, according to self-report, maternal stroking over the first weeks of life modified associations between prenatal depression and physiological and behavioral outcomes in infancy, hence mimicking effects of rodent licking and grooming. From a general population sample of 1233 first time mothers recruited at 20 weeks gestation we drew a stratified random sample of 316 for assessment at 32 weeks based on reported inter-partner psychological abuse, a risk to child development. Of these 271 provided data at 5, 9 and 29 weeks post delivery. Mothers reported how often they stroked their babies at 5 and 9 weeks. At 29 weeks vagal withdrawal to a stressor, a measure of physiological adaptability, and maternal reported negative emotionality were assessed. There was a significant interaction between prenatal depression and maternal stroking in the prediction of vagal reactivity to a stressor (p = .01, and maternal reports of infant anger proneness (p = .007 and fear (p = .043. Increasing maternal depression was associated with decreasing physiological adaptability, and with increasing negative emotionality, only in the presence of low maternal stroking. These initial findings in humans indicate that maternal stroking in infancy, as reported by mothers, has effects strongly resembling the effects of observed maternal behaviours in animals, pointing to future studies of the epigenetic

  7. Dihydrotestosterone: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Clinical Implications of Elevated Blood Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdloff, Ronald S; Dudley, Robert E; Page, Stephanie T; Wang, Christina; Salameh, Wael A

    2017-06-01

    Benefits associated with lowered serum DHT levels after 5α-reductase inhibitor (5AR-I) therapy in men have contributed to a misconception that circulating DHT levels are an important stimulus for androgenic action in target tissues (e.g., prostate). Yet evidence from clinical studies indicates that intracellular concentrations of androgens (particularly in androgen-sensitive tissues) are essentially independent of circulating levels. To assess the clinical significance of modest elevations in serum DHT and the DHT/testosterone (T) ratio observed in response to common T replacement therapy, a comprehensive review of the published literature was performed to identify relevant data. Although the primary focus of this review is about DHT in men, we also provide a brief overview of DHT in women. The available published data are limited by the lack of large, well-controlled studies of long duration that are sufficiently powered to expose subtle safety signals. Nonetheless, the preponderance of available clinical data indicates that modest elevations in circulating levels of DHT in response to androgen therapy should not be of concern in clinical practice. Elevated DHT has not been associated with increased risk of prostate disease (e.g., cancer or benign hyperplasia) nor does it appear to have any systemic effects on cardiovascular disease safety parameters (including increased risk of polycythemia) beyond those commonly observed with available T preparations. Well-controlled, long-term studies of transdermal DHT preparations have failed to identify safety signals unique to markedly elevated circulating DHT concentrations or signals materially different from T. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Sanyal; Vivek Kumar; Tapas Chandra Nag; Suman Jain; Vishnu Sreenivas; Shashi Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibe...

  9. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  10. The effects of elevated-CO2 on physiological performance of Bryopsis plumosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YILDIZ Gamze; DEREkran

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and the resultant rise in CO2 in seawater alter the inorganic carbon concentrations of seawater. This change, known as ocean acidification, causes lower pH in seawater and may affect the physiology of seaweed species. Accordingly, the main goal of the current study was to determine the physiological responses of Bryopsis plumosa to elevated-CO2. The results indicated that photosynthesis of B. plumosa was insignificantly affected to elevated-CO2, but photosynthetic pigment contents and phenolics were significantly decreased. The results obtained from the research reveal that B. plumosa may become physiologically advanced when exposed to CO2-induced ocean acidification. In particular, B. plumosa may be more able to compete with calcifying algae when it will become future predicted CO2 scenario.

  11. Elevated expression of steroidogenesis pathway genes; CYP17, GATA6 and StAR in prenatally androgenized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Marziyeh Salehi; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2016-11-15

    It is believed that excess androgen exposure of the fetus, via altered gene expression, causes hyperandrogenism a key feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of Cytochrome P450-17 (CYP17), GATA-binding protein (GAGT6) and Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), genes of adult female rats prenatally exposed to androgen excess, closely reflect endocrine and ovarian disturbances of PCOS in women, by comparing them during different phases of estrus cycle with those of non-treated rats. Both the adult prenatally testosterone exposed and control rats (n=23, each) were divided into four groups based on their observed vaginal smear (proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus) and the relative expression of CYP17, GATA6 and StAR genes was measured in ovarian theca cells using Cyber-green Real-Time PCR. Serum sex steroid hormones and gonadotropins levels were measured using the ELISA method; a comparison of these two groups showed that there was an overall increase in the studied genes (CYP17; 2.39 fold change, 95% CI: 1.23-3.55; P<0.05, GATA6; 2.08 fold change, 95% CI: 1.62-2.55; P<0.0001, and StAR; 1.4 fold change, 95% CI: 1.02-1.78; P<0.05), despite variations in different phases with maximum elevation for all genes in diestrus. The changes observed may impair the normal development of ovaries that mediate the programming of adult PCOS.

  12. Positive effects of elevated CO2 and its interaction with nitrogen on safflower physiology and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Shiren; Jellings, Anita; Fuller, Michael

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Over the last two decades, the impact of elevated CO2 on crops has become a major issue in the context of climate change. Increasing CO2 levels should modify the plant demand for nutrients, but precise effects on plant physiology are poorly known. Here, we studied the effect of ambient CO2 at 400 μmol mol−1 and high CO2 at 1,000 μmol mol−1 on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) at N levels from 25 to 175 kg ha−1. Growth and physiology of safflower were assessed in pots...

  13. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  14. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  15. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-07

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  16. Work fatigue and physiological symptoms in different occupations of high-elevation construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lin; Sun, Yih-Min; Chuang, Kao-Hsing; Hsu, Der-Jen

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether work fatigue and physiological symptoms that high-elevation construction workers experience would be affected by the occupations. Questionnaires of demographic data and subjective fatigue symptoms as well as some physiological measurements were carried out, pre- and post-shift, on scaffolders, steel fixers, formworkers, electrician-plumbers, concreters and miscellaneous workers at a high-rise building construction site. This study found that some subjective fatigue symptoms coincide with the life style of some workers and that the extent of fatigue symptoms and physiological strains varies among different occupations of construction workers. Scaffolders, steel fixers and formworkers are categorized as physically demanding fatigue type of workers, while concreters, electrician-plumbers and miscellaneous workers as general type. The prevalence and occurrence of subjective fatigue symptoms indicate high-elevation workers have more complaints of "projection of physical impairment" than "drowsiness and dullness" and "difficulty in concentration". Some unexpected changes (i.e., post-shift measurements are greater than pre-shift ones) in some strength tests in scaffolders and concreters were consistent with the observations of how they exercised their bodies during work shift. Considerable variation of average heart rate among occupations was found, with scaffolders the highest and concreters the lowest. This study concludes that questionnaires of subjective fatigue symptoms and some physiological measurements can be used as indicators to predict the extent of strains or hazards which construction workers encounter. In terms of management program of safety and health, more attention should be paid to those physically demanding workers, such as scaffolders, workers with lower sense of safety and health, such as miscellaneous workers, and workers with older age, such as concreters.

  17. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals.

  18. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations during bovine oocyte maturation compromise early embryo physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Hoeck

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, associated with maternal disorders such as obesity and type II diabetes, alter the ovarian follicular micro-environment and have been associated with subfertility arising from reduced oocyte developmental competence. We have asked whether elevated NEFA concentrations during oocyte maturation affect the development and physiology of zygotes formed from such oocytes, using the cow as a model. The zygotes were grown to blastocysts, which were evaluated for their quality in terms of cell number, apoptosis, expression of key genes, amino acid turnover and oxidative metabolism. Oocyte maturation under elevated NEFA concentrations resulted in blastocysts with significantly lower cell number, increased apoptotic cell ratio and altered mRNA abundance of DNMT3A, IGF2R and SLC2A1. In addition, the blastocysts displayed reduced oxygen, pyruvate and glucose consumption, up-regulated lactate consumption and higher amino acid metabolism. These data indicate that exposure of maturing oocytes to elevated NEFA concentrations has a negative impact on fertility not only through a reduction in oocyte developmental capacity but through compromised early embryo quality, viability and metabolism.

  19. Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Kelly D.; Jeffrey, Jennifer D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Suski, Cory D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium), exposed to control pCO2 (~1000 µatm) or intermittent conditions of pCO2 (ranging from ~1000 to ~55 000 µatm) 12 times per day over a 28 day period were gathered. There was no indication of recovery in the physiological responses of mussels between applications of CO2, suggesting that the recovery time between CO2 pulses (1.5 h) was not sufficient for recovery from the CO2 exposure period (0.5 h). Observations of acid–base and stress responses were consistent with what has been observed in chronic studies of freshwater mussels exposed to elevated pCO2 (i.e. elevations in HCO3 −, Ca2+, Na+ and glucose, and decreases in Mg2+ and Cl−). However, species differences were observed across almost all variables measured, which emphasizes the need for multispecies studies. PMID:28066552

  20. Physiological responses of three species of unionid mussels to intermittent exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Kelly D; Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Hasler, Caleb T; Suski, Cory D

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater systems are at risk owing to increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, and one of the possible reasons for these elevations is the deployment of non-physical fish barriers to prevent invasive fish movements. Carbon dioxide barriers have the potential to create short, chronic and intermittent exposures of CO2 for surrounding freshwater biota. Although intermittent exposures to a stressor may be more ecologically relevant, the majority of laboratory tests use chronic or short-term time periods to determine how organisms will respond to an environmental stressor. Measurements of the physiological responses of three species of unionid mussel, giant floaters (Pyganodon grandis), threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook (Lampsilis cardium), exposed to control pCO2 (~1000 µatm) or intermittent conditions of pCO2 (ranging from ~1000 to ~55 000 µatm) 12 times per day over a 28 day period were gathered. There was no indication of recovery in the physiological responses of mussels between applications of CO2, suggesting that the recovery time between CO2 pulses (1.5 h) was not sufficient for recovery from the CO2 exposure period (0.5 h). Observations of acid-base and stress responses were consistent with what has been observed in chronic studies of freshwater mussels exposed to elevated pCO2 (i.e. elevations in HCO3(-), Ca(2+), Na(+) and glucose, and decreases in Mg(2+) and Cl(-)). However, species differences were observed across almost all variables measured, which emphasizes the need for multispecies studies.

  1. EFFECT OF ELEVATED AIR TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF BROILER CHICKENS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muchacka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated air temperature in the first grow period on some physiological indicators of broiler chickens of different origin. Day-old Ross 308 and Hubbard Flex broiler chickens were assigned to 4 groups. Groups I (Ross 308 and II (Hubbard Flex were kept under standard thermal conditions throughout rearing, and groups III (Ross 308 and IV (Hubbard Flex were exposed to 10°C higher than recommended air temperature from 1 to 21 days of rearing. At 1, 21 and 42 days of the experiment, blood was collected from 10 birds in each group to determine T3 and T4, total protein, immunoglobulin complex, glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The exposure to the thermal challenge decreased T3 and T4 levels at 21 days of rearing in both Ross 308 and Hubbard flex broilers compared to birds raised under standard thermal conditions. At 21 days of the experiment was observed a statistically significantly lower concentration of total protein in group I compared with group III and between group II and IV. There was no effect of elevated air temperature on the immunoglobulin complex concentration in the blood of birds of both genetic groups. In both genetic groups, the exposure to the thermal challenge caused a tendency to decrease the concentration of glucose. Statistically significant differences at 21 days of rearing of the hemoglobin content were observed between Ross 308 birds from groups I and III. The thermal challenge caused a statistically significant decrease in hematocrit levels in birds from both genetic groups at 21 days of the experiment. The thermal challenge upset the body’s homeostasis in both genetic groups of chickens, which possibly suggests that elevated air temperature during the first period of rearing has a negative effect on the welfare of broilers, regardless of their origin.

  2. A meta-analysis of plant physiological and growth responses to temperature and elevated CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Wang, Xianzhong; Philpott, Stacy M

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and global mean temperature are expected to be significantly higher by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) and higher temperature each affect plant physiology and growth, but their interactive effects have not been reviewed statistically with respect to higher chronic mean temperatures and abrupt heat stress. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of CO(2) on the physiology and growth of plants subjected to different temperature treatments. The CO(2) treatments were categorized into ambient (560 ppm) levels, while temperature treatments were categorized into ambient temperature (AT), elevated temperature (ET; AT + 1.4-6°C), or heat stress (HS; AT + >8°C). Plant species were grouped according to photosynthetic pathways (C(3), C(4)), functional types (legumes, non-legumes), growth forms (herbaceous, woody), and economic purposes (crop, non-crop). eCO(2) enhanced net photosynthesis at AT, ET, and HS in C(3) species (especially at the HS level), but in C(4) species, it had no effect at AT, a positive effect at ET, and a negative effect at HS. The positive effect of eCO(2) on net photosynthesis was greater for legumes than for non-legumes at HS, for non-crops than crops at ET, and for woody than herbaceous species at ET and HS. Total (W (T)) and above- (W (AG)) and below-ground (W (BG)) biomass were increased by eCO(2) for most species groups at all temperatures, except for C(4) species and W (BG) of legumes at HS. Hence, eCO(2) × heat effects on growth were often not explained by effects on net photosynthesis. Overall, the results show that eCO(2) effects on plant physiology and growth vary under different temperature regimes, among functional groups and photosynthetic pathways, and among response variables. These findings have important implications for biomass accumulation and ecosystem functioning in the future when the CO(2) level is higher and climate extremes, such as heat waves, become more frequent.

  3. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sanyal

    Full Text Available Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  4. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  5. Instrumentation enabling study of plant physiological response to elevated night temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarpley Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global climate warming can affect functioning of crops and plants in the natural environment. In order to study the effects of global warming, a method for applying a controlled heating treatment to plant canopies in the open field or in the greenhouse is needed that can accept either square wave application of elevated temperature or a complex prescribed diurnal or seasonal temperature regime. The current options are limited in their accuracy, precision, reliability, mobility or cost and scalability. Results The described system uses overhead infrared heaters that are relatively inexpensive and are accurate and precise in rapidly controlling the temperature. Remote computer-based data acquisition and control via the internet provides the ability to use complex temperature regimes and real-time monitoring. Due to its easy mobility, the heating system can randomly be allotted in the open field or in the greenhouse within the experimental setup. The apparatus has been successfully applied to study the response of rice to high night temperatures. Air temperatures were maintained within the set points ± 0.5°C. The incorporation of the combination of air-situated thermocouples, autotuned proportional integrative derivative temperature controllers and phase angled fired silicon controlled rectifier power controllers provides very fast proportional heating action (i.e. 9 ms time base, which avoids prolonged or intense heating of the plant material. Conclusion The described infrared heating system meets the utilitarian requirements of a heating system for plant physiology studies in that the elevated temperature can be accurately, precisely, and reliably controlled with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors.

  6. The Effects of Sertraline administration from adolescence to adulthood on physiological and emotional development in prenatally stressed rats of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês ePereira-Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline is a clinically effective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor known to increase and stabilize serotonin levels. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in adolescent brain development in both rodents and humans, and its dysregulation has been correlated with deficits in behaviour and emotional regulation. Since prenatal stress may disturb serotoninergic homeostasis, the aim of this study was to examine the long-lasting effects of exposure to sertraline throughout adolescence on behavioural and physiological developmental parameters in prenatally stressed Wistar rats. Sertraline was administered (5mg/kg/day p.o. from the age of 1-3 months to half of the progeny, of both sexes, of gestating dams stressed by use of a restraint (PS or not stressed. Our data reveal that long-term sertraline treatment slightly reduced weight gain in both sexes, but reversed the developmental disturbed ‘catch-up’ growth found in PS females.Neither prenatal stress nor Sertraline treatment induced remarkable alterations in behaviour and had no effects on mean startle reflex values. However, a sex-dependent effects of PS was found: in males the PS paradigm slightly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the open field, while in females, it impaired startle habituation. In both cases, sertraline treatment reversed the phenomena. Additionally, the PS animals exhibited a disturbed leukocyte profile in both sexes, which was reversed by sertraline.The present findings are evidence that continuous sertraline administration from adolescence through adulthood is safe in rodents and lessens the impact of prenatal stress in rats.

  7. Physiological response of Polygonum perfoliatum L. following exposure to elevated manganese concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Wang, Jun; Wu, Chuan; Li, Song; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Feng; Cui, Mengqian

    2016-12-29

    Polygonum perfoliatum L. is a Mn-tolerant plant as considered having the potential to revegetate in manganese mine wasteland. The glasshouse experiments were carried out to evaluate its tolerance and physiological response in different Mn concentrations (5, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000 μmol L(-1)). Absorption bands of P. perfoliatum differed greatly in lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. With elevated levels of Mn (5-2000 μmol L(-1)), absorbance changed little, which demonstrated that lower Mn concentrations had negligible influence on transport functions. As Mn concentrations in excess of 2000 μmol L(-1), absorbance increased slightly but eventually decreased. Furthermore, a hydroponic culture was carried out in order to study its changes of ultrastructure with the increasing Mn concentrations (5, 1000, and 10,000 μmol L(-1)). Lower Mn levels with 5 and 1000 μmol L(-1) had no breakage function to the ultrastructure of P. perfoliatum. However, as Mn concentration was up to 10,000 μmol L(-1), visible damages began to appear, the quantity of mitochondria in root cells increased, and the granum lamellae of leaf cell chloroplasts presented a disordered state. In comparison with the controls, black agglomerations were found in the cells of P. perfoliatum under the controlling concentration of Mn with 1000 and 10,000 μmol L(-1) for 30 days, which became obvious at higher Mn concentrations. As Mn concentration was 10,000 μmol L(-1), a kind of new acicular substance was developed in leaf cells and intercellular spaces, possibly indicating a resistance mechanism in P. perfoliatum. These results confirm that P. perfoliatum shows potential for the revegetation of abandoned manganese tailings.

  8. Physiological responses of Norway spruce trees to elevated CO2 and SO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausz, M.; De Kok, L.J.; Stulen, I.

    1996-01-01

    Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (0.8 mL L(-1)), SO2 (0.06 mu L L(-1)), and elevated CO2 and SO2 (0.8 mL L(-1) and 0.06 mu L L(-1), respectively) for three months. Exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in an increased biomass production of the needles, whi

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Gynostemma pentaphyllum physiology and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Dong; Mantri, Nitin; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Jialei; Shen, Jiahao; Lu, Hongfei; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720μmolmol(-1)] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23°C (day/night) for 60days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  12. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  13. Growth and physiological responses of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Burgess; Bingru Huang

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide level has increased and is predicted to continue increasing, which may affect various aspects of plant growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of doubling the carbon dioxide level on the growth and physiological activities of a widely utilized cool-season turfgrass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’). ‘Penncross’ plants were established in fritted clay medium and maintained under well-irrigated and well-fe...

  14. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations hamper bovine oviductal epithelial cell physiology in three different in vitro culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaens, L; Arias-Alvarez, M; Pintelon, I; Thys, S; Valckx, S; Dezhkam, Y; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been recognized as an important link between lipolytic metabolic conditions and impaired fertility in high-yielding dairy cows. However, NEFA effects on the oviductal micro-environment currently remain unknown. We hypothesize that elevated NEFAs may contribute to the complex pathology of subfertility by exerting a negative effect on bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) physiology. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to elucidate direct NEFA effects on BOEC physiology in three different in vitro cell culture systems. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells (four replicates) were mechanically isolated, pooled, and cultured as conventional monolayers, as explants, and in a polarized cell culture system with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12-based culture medium. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells were exposed to an NEFA mixture of oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids for 24 hours at both physiological and pathologic concentrations. A control (0 μM NEFA) and a solvent control (0 μM NEFA + 0.45% ethanol) group were implemented. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells physiology was assessed by means of cell number and viability, a sperm binding assay, transepithelial electric resistance (TER), and a wound-healing assay. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy on cell polarity, presence of microvilli and cilia, and monolayer integrity. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell number was negatively affected by increasing NEFAs, however, cell viability was not. Sperm binding affinity significantly decreased with increasing NEFAs and tended (P = 0.051) to be more affected by the direction of NEFA exposure in the polarized cell culture system. The absolute TER increase after NEFA exposure in the control (110 ± 11 Ω.cm(2)) was significantly higher than that in all the other treatments and was also different depending on the exposure side. Bidirectional exposed monolayers were even

  15. Growth and Physiological Response of Tropical Lianas and Trees to Elevated CO2 and Soil Nutrient Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, D. C.; Morrison, E.; Quebbeman, A.; Turner, B. L.; Winter, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent increase in the abundance and size of native lianas (woody climbing vines) in tropical forests may lead to changes in species community composition and decreased carbon storage capacity (Schnitzer & Bongers 2011). Lianas are associated with an increased risk of tree mortality and decreased tree growth due to intense above and belowground competition with trees for light, water, and soil nutrients (Schnitzer & Bongers 2002). Increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition are potential drivers of the liana increase. Phosphorus availability, often assumed to be of key importance in constraining the productivity of lowland tropical forests, may decline as a consequence of increased nitrogen deposition (Matson et al. 1999). Our goal is to determine whether there is any difference in the growth and physiological response of tropical lianas and trees grown under elevated CO2, and whether any response differs as soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability change. We investigated locally abundant tropical liana and tree species grown in open-top chambers in Panama, half of which were maintained at twice-ambient levels of CO2. In two separate studies, seedlings were grown in pots that had either reduced soil nitrogen or phosphorus. Half of the pots in each experiment then received weekly additions of a nutrient mixture to return the soil nutrients to current levels found in neotropical forests. We found that elevated CO2 alone leads to a larger relative increase in the biomass of lianas than trees. The relative effect of elevated CO2 on the increase in liana biomass was much larger under low soil phosphorus availability. Nitrogen fertilization in combination with elevated CO2 led to a greater increase in tree height compared to lianas, but no other differences in growth response were found between the two plant types. These results suggest the liana increase will continue as elevated CO2 increases and phosphorus limitation is strengthened by increasing

  16. Physiological elevation of endogenous hormones results in superior strength training adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Nygaard, Håvard; Raastad, Truls

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of transiently elevated endogenous hormone concentrations during exercise on strength training adaptations. Nine subjects performed four unilateral strength training session per week on the elbow flexors for 11 weeks. During two of the weekly sessions, leg exercises were performed to acutely increase the systemic anabolic hormone concentration immediately before the exercises for one of the elbow flexors (L + A). On the two other weekly training sessions, the contralateral elbow flexors were trained without prior leg exercises (A). By randomizing one arm of the subjects to serve as a control and the other as experimental, both conditions have the same nutritional and genetic environment. Serum testosterone and growth hormone was significantly increased during the L - A training session, while no hormonal changes occurred in the A session. Both A and L + A increased 1RM in biceps curl, peak power in elbow flexors at 30 and 60% of 1RM, and muscle volume of the elbow flexors (p superior relative improvement in 1RM biceps curl and favorable muscle adaptations in elbow flexors compared to A (p superior strength training adaptations compared to arm training without acute elevation of hormones.

  17. Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Rachael M; Grosell, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Most fish studied to date efficiently compensate for a hypercapnic acid-base disturbance; however, many recent studies examining the effects of ocean acidification on fish have documented impacts at CO2 levels predicted to occur before the end of this century. Notable impacts on neurosensory and behavioral endpoints, otolith growth, mitochondrial function, and metabolic rate demonstrate an unexpected sensitivity to current-day and near-future CO2 levels. Most explanations for these effects seem to center on increases in Pco2 and HCO3- that occur in the body during pH compensation for acid-base balance; however, few studies have measured these parameters at environmentally relevant CO2 levels or directly related them to reported negative endpoints. This compensatory response is well documented, but noted variation in dynamic regulation of acid-base transport pathways across species, exposure levels, and exposure duration suggests that multiple strategies may be utilized to cope with hypercapnia. Understanding this regulation and changes in ion gradients in extracellular and intracellular compartments during CO2 exposure could provide a basis for predicting sensitivity and explaining interspecies variation. Based on analysis of the existing literature, the present review presents a clear message that ocean acidification may cause significant effects on fish across multiple physiological systems, suggesting that pH compensation does not necessarily confer tolerance as downstream consequences and tradeoffs occur. It remains difficult to assess if acclimation responses during abrupt CO2 exposures will translate to fitness impacts over longer timescales. Nonetheless, identifying mechanisms and processes that may be subject to selective pressure could be one of many important components of assessing adaptive capacity.

  18. Elevated atmospheric CO2 negatively impacts photosynthesis through radiative forcing and physiology-mediated climate feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Ciais, Philippe; Welp, Lisa; Li, Wenyu; Xin, Qinchuan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 affects photosynthesis involving directly increasing leaf carboxylation rates, stomatal closure, and climatic effects. The direct effects are generally thought to be positive leading to increased photosynthesis, while its climatic effects can be regionally positive or negative. These effects are usually considered to be independent from each other, but they are in fact coupled through interactions between land surface exchanges of gases and heat and the physical climate system. In particular, stomatal closure reduces evapotranspiration and increases sensible heat emissions from ecosystems, leading to decreased atmospheric moisture and precipitation and local warming. We use a coupled earth system model to attribute the influence of the increase in CO2 on gross primary productivity (GPP) during the period of 1930-2011. In our model, CO2 radiative effects cause climate change that has only a negligible effect on global GPP (a reduction of 0.9 ± 2% during the last 80 years) because of opposite responses between tropical and northern biomes. On the other hand, CO2 physiological effects on GPP are both positive, by increased carboxylation rates and water use efficiency (7.1 ± 0.48% increase), and negative, by vegetation-climate feedback reducing precipitation, as a consequence of decreased transpiration and increased sensible heat in areas without water limitation (2.7 ± 1.76% reduction).When considering the coupled atmosphere-vegetation system, negative climate feedback on photosynthesis and plant growth due to the current level of CO2 opposes 29-38% of the gains from direct fertilization effects.

  19. Evolution and challenges of dynamic global vegetation models for some aspects of plant physiology and elevated atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, L. F. C.; Arenque, B. C.; Aidar, S. T.; Moura, M. S. B.; Von Randow, C.; Tourigny, E.; Menezes, R. S. C.; Ometto, J. P. H. B.

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate surface processes such as the transfer of energy, water, CO2, and momentum between the terrestrial surface and the atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, carbon assimilation by vegetation, phenology, and land use change in scenarios of varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations. DGVMs increase the complexity and the Earth system representation when they are coupled with atmospheric global circulation models (AGCMs) or climate models. However, plant physiological processes are still a major source of uncertainty in DGVMs. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax), for example, has a direct impact over productivity in the models. This parameter is often underestimated or imprecisely defined for the various plant functional types (PFTs) and ecosystems. Vcmax is directly related to photosynthesis acclimation (loss of response to elevated CO2), a widely known phenomenon that usually occurs when plants are subjected to elevated atmospheric CO2 and might affect productivity estimation in DGVMs. Despite this, current models have improved substantially, compared to earlier models which had a rudimentary and very simple representation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we describe this evolution through generations of models and the main events that contributed to their improvements until the current state-of-the-art class of models. Also, we describe some main challenges for further improvements to DGVMs.

  20. Evolution and challenges of dynamic global vegetation models for some aspects of plant physiology and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, L F C; Arenque, B C; Aidar, S T; Moura, M S B; Von Randow, C; Tourigny, E; Menezes, R S C; Ometto, J P H B

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate surface processes such as the transfer of energy, water, CO2, and momentum between the terrestrial surface and the atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, carbon assimilation by vegetation, phenology, and land use change in scenarios of varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations. DGVMs increase the complexity and the Earth system representation when they are coupled with atmospheric global circulation models (AGCMs) or climate models. However, plant physiological processes are still a major source of uncertainty in DGVMs. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax), for example, has a direct impact over productivity in the models. This parameter is often underestimated or imprecisely defined for the various plant functional types (PFTs) and ecosystems. Vcmax is directly related to photosynthesis acclimation (loss of response to elevated CO2), a widely known phenomenon that usually occurs when plants are subjected to elevated atmospheric CO2 and might affect productivity estimation in DGVMs. Despite this, current models have improved substantially, compared to earlier models which had a rudimentary and very simple representation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we describe this evolution through generations of models and the main events that contributed to their improvements until the current state-of-the-art class of models. Also, we describe some main challenges for further improvements to DGVMs.

  1. Effect of Elevated CO2 in Different Fertilizer Conditions on Physiological Traits in Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis at Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and nutrients supply are generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of crops as a result considerably increase yields. The present study aims to investigate effects of elevated CO2 and different fertilizer conditions on physiological traits in Lemon balm. A factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications and nine treatments at the greenhouse in 2010. The experiment factors were included three CO2 concentrations (380, 700 and 1050 ppm and three kinds of conditions fertilizer (no fertilizer, manure fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. The results indicated that increasing of CO2 from 380 to 1050 ppm led to improve in leaf area, plant height, relative growth ratio, total dry matter and final yield of individual plant. The highest and the lowest amount of measured traits related to with and without nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Impact of elevated CO2 in conjunction with nitrogen and manure fertilizers increased. These effects were more on total dry matter and final yield than other growth indices. Therefore, it can be concluded that, whereas increase of temperature caused by rising CO2 is not considered or there is not any limitation for resources, CO2 enrichment will be improved lemon balm production.

  2. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks: e67347

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tania Sanyal; Vivek Kumar; Tapas Chandra Nag; Suman Jain; Vishnu Sreenivas; Shashi Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    .... However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored...

  4. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    .... However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored...

  5. Stress induced by hooking, net towing, elevated sea water temperature and air in sablefish: Lack of concordance between mortality and physiological measures of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In a series of laboratory studies designed to simulate bycatch processes, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria were either hooked for up to 24 h or towed in a net for 4 h and then subjected to an abrupt transfer to elevated sea water temperature and air. Mortality did not result from hooking or net towing followed by exposure to air, but increased for both capture methods as fish were exposed to elevated temperatures, reflecting the magnifying effect of elevated temperature on mortality. Hooking and exposure to air resulted in increased plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations, while the combination of hooking and exposure to elevated temperature and air resulted in increased lactate and potassium concentrations. In fish that were towed in a net and exposed to air, cortisol, lactate, potassium and sodium concentrations increased, but when subjected to elevated temperature and air, no further increases occurred above the concentrations induced by net towing and air, suggesting a possible maximum of the physiological stress response. The results suggest that caution should be exercised when using physiological measures to quantify stress induced by capture and exposure to elevated temperature and air, that ultimately result in mortality, since the connections between physiological stress and mortality in bycatch processes remain to be fully understood.

  6. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  8. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment.

  9. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  10. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  11. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  12. Physiological effects of elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations in broiler chickens. An alternative means by which to assess the physiological effects of stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research on physical or psychological stress, in order to monitor objective parameters for animal welfare, is usually performed during experimental stress induction. To avoid treatment of animals with physical or physiological stress, addition of the stress-related hormone corticosterone to the drin

  13. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on some morphological and physiological characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goldani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is the most important resource for crop growth. In order to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 concentration on morphological and physiological characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L. an experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions. The experiment was factorial based on randomized complete block design with six treatments and three replications. Different CO2 concentrations (including 360, 520 and 750 ppm on monoculture and mixture of two species were investigated. The results indicated that plant height, node number, internode and stem dry weight had significant differences in the CO2 concentrations. Elevated CO2 concentration caused increasing plant height, node number, internode and stem dry weight in sesame and monoculture was better than mixtures, but in the amaranthus, elevated CO2 concentration resulted is decreasing plant height, node number, and internode and stem dry weight. Number and length of branches and their dry weight had significant different in CO2 concentrations. So, effect of elevated CO2 concentration was positive for sesame and negative for amaranthus. In amaranthus, monoculture was more successful than mixture. In the sesame, yield was included number and weight capsule and in the amaranthus was included total seed weight, that both had significant affected. Elevated CO2 concentration had positive effect on yield of sesame and negative effect on yield of amaranthus. In the sesame, monoculture was more successful. The effect of elevated CO2 concentration was significant on transpiration and photosynthesis rates. In the sesame, elevated CO2 concentration increased transpiration and photosynthesis rates and decreased them in the amaranthus. In the sesame, shoot total length and root dry weight was significantly different in CO2 concentrations and increased by elevated CO2 concentration, but in the amaranthus, decreased by elevated CO2 concentration

  14. One-year experiment on the physiological response of the Mediterranean crustose coralline alga, Lithophyllum cabiochae, to elevated pCO2 and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sophie; Cohu, Stéphanie; Vignot, Céline; Zimmerman, Guillaume; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    The response of respiration, photosynthesis, and calcification to elevated pCO2 and temperature was investigated in isolation and in combination in the Mediterranean crustose coralline alga Lithophyllum cabiochae. Algae were maintained in aquaria during 1 year at near-ambient conditions of irradiance, at ambient or elevated temperature (+3°C), and at ambient (ca. 400 μatm) or elevated pCO2 (ca. 700 μatm). Respiration, photosynthesis, and net calcification showed a strong seasonal pattern following the seasonal variations of temperature and irradiance, with higher rates in summer than in winter. Respiration was unaffected by pCO2 but showed a general trend of increase at elevated temperature at all seasons, except in summer under elevated pCO2. Conversely, photosynthesis was strongly affected by pCO2 with a decline under elevated pCO2 in summer, autumn, and winter. In particular, photosynthetic efficiency was reduced under elevated pCO2. Net calcification showed different responses depending on the season. In summer, net calcification increased with rising temperature under ambient pCO2 but decreased with rising temperature under elevated pCO2. Surprisingly, the highest rates in summer were found under elevated pCO2 and ambient temperature. In autumn, winter, and spring, net calcification exhibited a positive or no response at elevated temperature but was unaffected by pCO2. The rate of calcification of L. cabiochae was thus maintained or even enhanced under increased pCO2. However, there is likely a trade-off with other physiological processes. For example, photosynthesis declines in response to increased pCO2 under ambient irradiance. The present study reports only on the physiological response of healthy specimens to ocean warming and acidification, however, these environmental changes may affect the vulnerability of coralline algae to other stresses such as pathogens and necroses that can cause major dissolution, which would have critical consequence for the

  15. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-09-11

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p elevated 2.4% (p elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  16. Stage-Specific Changes in Physiological and Life-History Responses to Elevated Temperature and Pco2 during the Larval Development of the European Lobster Homarus gammarus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Daniel P; Calosi, Piero; Boothroyd, Dominic; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John I

    2015-01-01

    An organism's physiological processes form the link between its life-history traits and the prevailing environmental conditions, especially in species with complex life cycles. Understanding how these processes respond to changing environmental conditions, thereby affecting organismal development, is critical if we are to predict the biological implications of current and future global climate change. However, much of our knowledge is derived from adults or single developmental stages. Consequently, we investigated the metabolic rate, organic content, carapace mineralization, growth, and survival across each larval stage of the European lobster Homarus gammarus, reared under current and predicted future ocean warming and acidification scenarios. Larvae exhibited stage-specific changes in the temperature sensitivity of their metabolic rate. Elevated Pco2 increased C∶N ratios and interacted with elevated temperature to affect carapace mineralization. These changes were linked to concomitant changes in survivorship and growth, from which it was concluded that bottlenecks were evident during H. gammarus larval development in stages I and IV, the transition phases between the embryonic and pelagic larval stages and between the larval and megalopa stages, respectively. We therefore suggest that natural changes in optimum temperature during ontogeny will be key to larvae survival in a future warmer ocean. The interactions of these natural changes with elevated temperature and Pco2 significantly alter physiological condition and body size of the last larval stage before the transition from a planktonic to a benthic life style. Thus, living and growing in warm, hypercapnic waters could compromise larval lobster growth, development, and recruitment.

  17. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  18. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON, walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN, or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE or ramp (RAM. Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05. Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05; however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05. After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05. The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05. In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  19. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  20. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  1. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Danyagri

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1 and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1 [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M regimes, at high light (100% and low light (30% in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (g s, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE, maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax, rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J, triose phosphate utilization (TPU, leaf respiration (R d, light compensation point (LCP and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx. A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  2. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  3. Sensitivity of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedling physiology to elevation, warming, and water availability across a timberline ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, A. B.; Castanha, C.; Ferrenberg, S.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Treelines occur where environmental gradients such as temperature become limiting to tree establishment, and are thus likely to respond to changes in climate. We collected gas exchange, water potential, and fluorescence measurements from limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings planted into experimental plots at three elevations at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, ranging from within forest to alpine. At each site seeds from local high- and low-elevation populations were sewn into replicated and controlled watering and infrared heating treatment plots. Heating led to earlier snowmelt, germination, and soil moisture availability in spring; higher soil surface temperatures throughout the growing season; and drier soils in late summer. Assimilation rates in all plots were most strongly associated with soil moisture availability following germination, and decreased as soils dried over the growing season. Intrinsic water use efficiency was consistent for the two source populations, but there was evidence that individuals germinating from high-elevation seeds respired more per unit carbon assimilated under our experimental conditions. Chlorophyll fluorescence showed no evidence of photoinhibition in any elevation or treatment category. Earlier soil moisture depletion in heated plots was associated with lower midday stem water potentials and reduced stomatal conductance in August. Our watering treatments did not substantially reduce apparent midsummer water stress. Seedlings in ambient temperature plots had higher assimilation rates in August than those in heated plots, but also greater carbon loss via photorespiration. Moisture limitation in heated plots in summer interacted with variability in afternoon sun exposure within plots, and qualitative observations suggested that many seedlings were killed by desiccation and heat girdling at all elevations. While early snowmelt and moisture availability in heated plots provided a longer growing season, earlier reduction of soil moisture

  4. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  5. Physiological plasticity and local adaptation to elevated pCO 2 in calcareous algae: an ontogenetic and geographic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla‐Gamiño, Jacqueline L.; Gaitán‐Espitia, Juan Diego; Kelly, Morgan W.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To project how ocean acidification will impact biological communities in the future, it is critical to understand the potential for local adaptation and the physiological plasticity of marine organisms throughout their entire life cycle, as some stages may be more vulnerable than others. Coralline algae are ecosystem engineers that play significant functional roles in oceans worldwide and are considered vulnerable to ocean acidification. Using different stages of coralline algae, we ...

  6. Changes in gene expression, cell physiology and toxicity of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eSandrini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising CO2 concentrations may have large effects on aquatic microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how elevated pCO2 affects the harmful freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. This species is capable of producing dense blooms and hepatotoxins called microcystins. Strain PCC 7806 was cultured in chemostats that were shifted from low to high pCO2 conditions. This resulted in a transition from a C-limited to a light-limited steady state, with a ~2.7 fold increase of the cyanobacterial biomass and ~2.5 fold more microcystin per cell. Cells increased their chlorophyll a and phycocyanin content, and raised their PSI/PSII ratio at high pCO2. Surprisingly, cells had a lower dry weight and contained less carbohydrates, which might be an adaptation to improve the buoyancy of Microcystis when light becomes more limiting at high pCO2. Only 234 of the 4,691 genes responded to elevated pCO2. For instance, expression of the carboxysome, RuBisCO, photosystem and C metabolism genes did not change significantly, and only a few N assimilation genes were expressed differently. The lack of large-scale changes in the transcriptome could suit a buoyant species that lives in eutrophic lakes with strong CO2 fluctuations very well. However, we found major responses in inorganic carbon uptake. At low pCO2, cells were mainly dependent on bicarbonate uptake, whereas at high pCO2 gene expression of the bicarbonate uptake systems was down-regulated and cells shifted to CO2 and low-affinity bicarbonate uptake. These results show that the need for high-affinity bicarbonate uptake systems ceases at elevated CO2. Moreover, the combination of an increased cyanobacterial abundance, improved buoyancy, and higher toxin content per cell indicates that rising atmospheric CO2 levels may increase the problems associated with the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis in eutrophic lakes.

  7. Effects of elevated pCO2 on physiological performance of marine microalgae Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shunxin; Wang, You; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Ming; Tang, Xuexi

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of elevated pCO2 on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration and inorganic carbon acquisition in the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. To accomplish this, D. salina was incubated in semi-continuous cultures under present-day CO2 levels (390 μatm, pHNBS: 8.10), predicted year 2100 CO2 levels (1 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.78) and predicted year 2300 CO2 levels (2 000 μatm, pHNBS: 7.49). Elevated pCO2 significantly enhanced photosynthesis (in terms of gross photosynthetic O2 evolution, effective quantum yield (ΔF/F' m ), photosynthetic efficiency (α), maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity) and dark respiration of D. salina, but had insignificant effects on growth. The photosynthetic O2 evolution of D. salina was significantly inhibited by the inhibitors acetazolamide (AZ), ethoxyzolamide (EZ) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), indicating that D. salina is capable of acquiring HCO3 - via extracellular carbonic anhydrase and anion-exchange proteins. Furthermore, the lower inhibition of the photosynthetic O2 evolution at high pCO2 levels by AZ, EZ and DIDS and the decreased carbonic anhydrase showed that carbon concentrating mechanisms were down-regulated at high pCO2. In conclusion, our results show that photosynthesis, dark respiration and CCMs will be affected by the increased pCO2/low pH conditions predicted for the future, but that the responses of D. salina to high pCO2/low pH might be modulated by other environmental factors such as light, nutrients and temperature. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the interactive effects of pCO2, temperature, light and nutrients on marine microalgae.

  8. Maternal depression and neurobehavior in newborns prenatally exposed to methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Monica S.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of maternal depression on neonatal neurodevelopment in MA exposed neonates have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neonates exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Design The purpose of the IDEAL study is to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on child outcome. IDEAL screened 13,808 subjects, 1632 were eligible and consented and 176 mothers were enrolled. Only biological mothers with custody of their child at the one-month visit (n=50 MA; n=86 comparison) had the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) administered. The NNNS was administered to the neonate by an examiner blinded to MA exposure within the first five days of life. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS outcomes, with and without covariates. Significance was accepted at p<.05. Results After adjusting for covariates, regardless of exposure status, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower handling and arousal scores, elevated physiological stress scores and an increased incidence of hypotonicity. When adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and higher lethargy scores. Conclusions Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of decreased arousal and increased stress. Prenatal MA exposure combined with maternal depression was not associated with any additional neonatal neurodevelopmental differences. PMID:19059478

  9. Physiological and biochemical responses of rainbow trout and brook trout exposed to elevated selenium from coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.; Rasmussen, J.; Hontela, A. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Palace, V.; Carroll, L. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Wang, F. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Since selenium (Se) is an element that bioaccumulates, anthropogenic activities in areas that already have high Se in parent rock can result in an increase in Se in aquatic systems. Se causes reproductive deformities in rainbow trout (RT), at lower concentrations than for brook trout (BT). This presentation reported on a study conducted at coal mines in northeastern Alberta in which juvenile hatchery-reared RT and BT were stocked into 2 reference and 2 Se contaminated end pit lakes. Fish were sampled at 0, 6, and 12 months after stocking, and will be sampled at 18 and 24 months. Water Se levels were found to be high in contaminated lakes. Selenite, the more toxic form of Se, was the highest in Pit C4. Liver glutathione levels were similar in the 2 fish species, and cellular damage in the fish was beginning to increase. At 6 months, liver glycogen levels were higher in the BT than in the RT, but no tangible site specific patterns emerged. At all sites except Pit C4, the RT were in better condition than BT. BT from Pit C4 also had a lower ability to secrete cortisol, suggesting that the elevated selenite levels may negatively affect fish. Se accumulation results from 28 fish sampled at 12 months were also discussed.

  10. Dwarifng apple rootstock responses to elevated temperatures:A study on plant physiological features and transcription level of related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bei-bei; SUN Jian; LIU Song-zhong; JIN Wan-mei; ZHANG Qiang; WEI Qin-ping

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of heat stress on physiological features, together with endogenous hormones and the transcription level of related genes, to estimate the heat resistance ability and stress injury mechanism of different dwarifng apple rootstocks. Among the six rootstocks, the rootstocks of native Shao series (SH series) showed better heat stress resistance than those of Budagovski 9 (B9), Cornel-Geneva 24 (CG24), and Maling 26 (M26) from abroad. Among SH series rootstocks, SH1 and SH6 showed higher heat stress resistance than SH40. M26 demonstrated the lowest adaption ability to heat stress, showing higher leaf conductivity and lower liquid water content (LWC) with the increase in temperature. Heat stress also resulted in the suppression of photosynthesis, which showed no signiifcant res-toration after 7-day recovery. It should be noted that although a higher temperature led to a lower LWC and photosynthetic efifciency (Pn) of CG24, there was no signiifcant increase in leaf conductivity, and 7 days after the treatment, thePn of CG24 recovered. The extremely high temperature tolerance of SH series rootstocks could be related to the greater osmotic ad-justment (OA), which was relfected by smaler reductions in leaf relative water content (RWC) and higher turgor potentials and leaf gas exchange compared with the other rootstocks. Determination of hormones indicated multivariate regulation, and it is presumed that a relatively stable expression levels of functional genes under high-temperature stress is necessary for heat stress resistance of rootstocks.

  11. The biophysical and physiological basis for mitigated elevations in heart rate with electric fan use in extreme heat and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanelli, Nicholas M.; Gagnon, Daniel; Hodder, Simon G.; Havenith, George; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    Electric fan use in extreme heat wave conditions has been thought to be disadvantageous because it might accelerate heat gain to the body via convection. However, it has been recently shown that fan use delays increases in heart rate even at high temperatures (42 °C) in young adults. We here assess the biophysical and physiological mechanisms underlying the apparently beneficial effects of fan use. Eight males (24 ± 3 y; 80.7 ± 11.7 kg; 2.0 ± 0.1 m2) rested at either 36 °C or 42 °C, with (F) or without (NF) electric fan use (4.2 m/s) for 120 min while humidity increased every 7.5 min by 0.3 kPa from a baseline value of 1.6 kPa. Heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), core and mean skin temperatures, and the combined convective/radiative heat loss (C+R), evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) and maximum evaporative potential (Emax) were assessed. C+R was greater with fan use at 36 °C (F 8 ± 6, NF 2 ± 2 W/m2; P = 0.04) and more negative (greater dry heat gain) with fan use at 42 °C (F -78 ± 4, NF -27 ± 2 W/m2; P prevented by fan use but not without a fan, LSR was higher in NF at both 36 °C ( P = 0.04) and 42 °C ( P = 0.05), and skin temperature was higher in NF at 42 °C ( P = 0.05), but no differences in CVC or core temperatures were observed (all P > 0.05). These results suggest that the delayed increase in heart rate with fan use during extreme heat and humidity is associated with improved evaporative efficiency.

  12. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  13. Impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels on the physiological energetics of the mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jorge M; Torres, Rodrigo; Acuña, Karin; Duarte, Cristian; Manriquez, Patricio H; Lardies, Marco; Lagos, Nelson A; Vargas, Cristian; Aguilera, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels (750-1200 ppm) on the physiological processes of juvenile Mytilus chilensis mussels over a period of 70 d in a mesocosm system. Three equilibration tanks filled with filtered seawater were adjusted to three pCO(2) levels: ~380 (control), ~750 and ~1200 ppm by bubbling air or an air-CO(2) mixture through the water. For the control, atmospheric air (with aprox. 380 ppm CO(2)) was bubbled into the tank; for the 750 and 1200 ppm treatments, dry air and pure CO(2) were blended to each target concentration using mass flow controllers for air and CO(2). No impact on feeding activity was observed at the beginning of the experiment, but a significant reduction in clearance rate was observed after 35 d of exposure to highly acidified seawater. Absorption rate and absorption efficiency were reduced at high pCO(2) levels. In addition, oxygen uptake fell significantly under these conditions, indicating a metabolic depression. These physiological responses of the mussels resulted in a significant reduction of energy available for growth (scope for growth) with important consequences for the aquaculture of this species during medium-term exposure to acid conditions. The results of this study clearly indicate that high pCO(2) levels in the seawater have a negative effect on the health of M. chilensis. Therefore, the predicted acidification of seawater associated with global climate change could be harmful to this ecologically and commercially important mussel.

  14. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  17. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-06-03

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  19. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  20. Physiological, biochemical, and genome-wide transcriptional analysis reveals that elevated CO2 mitigates the impact of combined heat wave and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana at multiple organizational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Domagalska, Malgorzata A; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Nijs, Ivan; Janssens, Ivan A; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han

    2014-12-01

    Climate changes increasingly threaten plant growth and productivity. Such changes are complex and involve multiple environmental factors, including rising CO2 levels and climate extreme events. As the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying plant responses to realistic future climate extreme conditions are still poorly understood, a multiple organizational level analysis (i.e. eco-physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional) was performed, using Arabidopsis exposed to incremental heat wave and water deficit under ambient and elevated CO2 . The climate extreme resulted in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, and considerable increases in stress parameters. Photosynthesis was a major target as demonstrated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. In contrast, the climate extreme treatment induced a protective effect on oxidative membrane damage, most likely as a result of strongly increased lipophilic antioxidants and membrane-protecting enzymes. Elevated CO2 significantly mitigated the negative impact of a combined heat and drought, as apparent in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, chlorophyll fluorescence decline, H2 O2 production, and protein oxidation. Analysis of enzymatic and molecular antioxidants revealed that the stress-mitigating CO2 effect operates through up-regulation of antioxidant defense metabolism, as well as by reduced photorespiration resulting in lowered oxidative pressure. Therefore, exposure to future climate extreme episodes will negatively impact plant growth and production, but elevated CO2 is likely to mitigate this effect.

  1. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  2. Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshniku, Fiona; Murray, Michelle E; Fazio, Rachel L; Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M

    2015-11-01

    Evidence is steadily accumulating to support a neurodevelopmental basis for pedophilia. This includes increased incidence of non-right-handedness, which is a result primarily of prenatal neural development and solidified very early in life. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs; superficial deviations from typical morphological development, such as un-detached earlobes) also develop only prenatally, suggesting them as another potential marker of atypical physiological development during the prenatal period among pedophiles. This study administered the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale to assess the prevalence of MPAs in a clinical sample of men referred for assessment following a sexual assault, or another illegal or clinically significant sexual behavior. Significant associations emerged between MPA indices and indicators of pedophilia, including penile responses to depictions of children, number of child victims, and possession of child pornography. Moreover, greater sexual attraction to children was associated with an elevated craniofacial-to-peripheral anomalies ratio. The overall sample demonstrated a greater number of MPAs relative to prior samples of individuals with schizophrenia as well as to healthy controls.

  3. The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornas-Biela Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal, psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional. This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

  4. Prenatal Substance Exposure: Neurobiological Organization at One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge among 1-month old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Study design We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) in 1,129, 1-month infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (i.e. alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). Results Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had the highest HRs and lowest levels of RSA during a sustained visual attention procedure compared with the other three groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the NNNS exam compared with the other three exposure groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal cocaine exposure only and infants with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Conclusions Problems with arousal regulation were identified among infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with both prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, which may place these infants at risk for developing problems associated with physiological and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. PMID:23743094

  5. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  6. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  7. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Role of cone-beam CT on anatomic physiological and pathological maxillary sinus for sinus floor elevation%上颌窦提升术中上颌窦解剖生理及病理的 CBCT 探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 王虎; 任家银; 赵书平; 丁虹; 刘媛媛

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To explore the appearance of physiological and pathological maxillary sinus in Cone-beam CT (CBCT) and provide visual mark points and safe surgical planes for sinus floor elevation in dental implant. Methods: Collect and analysis anatomic characteristics and lesions of maxillary sinus of patients from hospital of West China required for sinus floor elevation in CBCT. Results: 1. The maxil-lary sinus has a complicated relationship between anatomic structure and position. 2. Physiological and pathological factors are two predominant influences for sinus floor elevation in dental implant. Physio-logical factors include antral septa, bone thickness of the maxillary sinus wall, size of the blood vessels of wall; pathological factors show mucosal thickening, polypoid lesions, and large effusion. Conclusions:Sinus floor elevation in the right space by use of anatomic mark point in CBCT which could be able to accurately display the complete image of the maxillary sinus, is safer and more accurate, more minimal-ly invasive.%  目的:探讨上颌窦生理及病理性 CBCT 影像表现,为上颌窦提升术解剖定位和操作入路提供参考依据.方法:收集涉及上颌窦的 CBCT 资料,分析上颌窦解剖特征及病变.结果:1.上颌窦解剖结构位置及其比邻关系复杂;2.影响上颌窦提升术的解剖因素有生理及病理性两种:生理性如上颌窦内的分隔,上颌窦外侧壁的厚度,窦壁上存在的血管影像的粗细,病理性如窦腔内黏膜的增厚,上颌窦内的黏液囊肿,上颌窦内的大量积液等等.结论: CBCT 能够准确地显示完整的上颌窦影像,利用 CBCT 确定解剖定位标志,确定上颌窦提升手术路径和方式,更符合安全、准确、微创的口腔种植理念.

  9. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  10. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  12. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  13. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  14. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  15. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  16. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  17. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  18. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  19. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  1. Gross primary production responses to warming, elevated CO2 , and irrigation: quantifying the drivers of ecosystem physiology in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmund M; Ogle, Kiona; Peltier, Drew; Walker, Anthony P; De Kauwe, Martin G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Williams, David G; Parton, William; Asao, Shinichi; Guenet, Bertrand; Harper, Anna B; Lu, Xingjie; Luus, Kristina A; Zaehle, Sönke; Shu, Shijie; Werner, Christian; Xia, Jianyang; Pendall, Elise

    2017-08-01

    Determining whether the terrestrial biosphere will be a source or sink of carbon (C) under a future climate of elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) and warming requires accurate quantification of gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux of C in the global C cycle. We evaluated 6 years (2007-2012) of flux-derived GPP data from the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment, situated in a grassland in Wyoming, USA. The GPP data were used to calibrate a light response model whose basic formulation has been successfully used in a variety of ecosystems. The model was extended by modeling maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax ) and light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of soil water, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, vegetation greenness, and nitrogen at current and antecedent (past) timescales. The model fits the observed GPP well (R(2)  = 0.79), which was confirmed by other model performance checks that compared different variants of the model (e.g. with and without antecedent effects). Stimulation of cumulative 6-year GPP by warming (29%, P = 0.02) and eCO2 (26%, P = 0.07) was primarily driven by enhanced C uptake during spring (129%, P = 0.001) and fall (124%, P = 0.001), respectively, which was consistent across years. Antecedent air temperature (Tairant ) and vapor pressure deficit (VPDant ) effects on Amax (over the past 3-4 days and 1-3 days, respectively) were the most significant predictors of temporal variability in GPP among most treatments. The importance of VPDant suggests that atmospheric drought is important for predicting GPP under current and future climate; we highlight the need for experimental studies to identify the mechanisms underlying such antecedent effects. Finally, posterior estimates of cumulative GPP under control and eCO2 treatments were tested as a benchmark against 12 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs). The narrow uncertainties of these data-driven GPP estimates suggest that they could be useful semi-independent data

  2. A Carbonic Anhydrase Serves as an Important Acid-Base Regulator in Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to Elevated CO2: Implication for Physiological Responses of Mollusk to Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Mengqiang; Jia, Zhihao; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Anguo; Song, Linsheng

    2017-02-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in acid-base regulation in vertebrates. However, the classification and modulatory function of CAs in marine invertebrates, especially their responses to ocean acidification remain largely unknown. Here, a cytosolic α-CA (designated as CgCAII-1) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its molecular activities against CO2 exposure were investigated. CgCAII-1 possessed a conserved CA catalytic domain, with high similarity to invertebrate cytoplasmic or mitochondrial α-CAs. Recombinant CgCAII-1 could convert CO2 to HCO3(-) with calculated activity as 0.54 × 10(3) U/mg, which could be inhibited by acetazolamide (AZ). The mRNA transcripts of CgCAII-1 in muscle, mantle, hepatopancreas, gill, and hemocytes increased significantly after exposure to elevated CO2. CgCAII-1 could interact with the hemocyte membrane proteins and the distribution of CgCAII-1 protein became more concentrated and dense in gill and mantle under CO2 exposure. The intracellular pH (pHi) of hemocytes under CO2 exposure increased significantly (p ocean acidification and participate in acid-base regulation. Such cytoplasmic CA-based physiological regulation mechanism might explain other physiological responses of marine organisms to OA.

  3. Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S P; Jovanovic-Peterson, L; Peterson, C M

    1993-10-01

    Optimal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly related to glucose control of the mother. If prenatal vitamins cause a large glycemic excursion, then the best prenatal vitamin would be one that produces the lowest blood glucose. Nine GDM women participated in two, 8-day test periods. Each subject ingested one of six prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations, a placebo, or a sucrose capsule, in random order. Blood glucose was determined by the One Touch System at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. The sucrose capsule contained 1 g sucrose (equivalent to highest glucose/carbohydrate content of any prenatal vitamin). The placebo contained 1 g table salt in the same color capsule. Relative glycemic index (RGI, defined as the area under glucose curve for the test substance divided by the area under glucose curve for 1 g sucrose) and maximum rise of blood glucose above time 0 were calculated for each preparation. RGI was significantly elevated for all vitamins: TRN 3.86, Natalins Rx 3.00, Filibon Forte 2.16, Prenatal Formula 2.10, Materna 1.66, Placebo 1.33, Stuartnatal 1 + 1 1.16. Two thousand mg vitamin C (n = 4) resulted in an RGI of 1.37. In conclusion, ingestion of prenatal vitamins produces a rise in blood glucose greater than that seen following ingestion of sucrose equal to the carbohydrate content of prenatal vitamins. The cause of the blood glucose rise is not known, but it would appear prudent to prescribe a prenatal vitamin with a low RGI.

  4. Disentangling prenatal and inherited influences in humans with an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale F; van den Bree, Marianne; Thapar, Anita

    2009-02-17

    Exposure to adversity in utero at a sensitive period of development can bring about physiological, structural, and metabolic changes in the fetus that affect later development and behavior. However, the link between prenatal environment and offspring outcomes could also arise and confound because of the relation between maternal and offspring genomes. As human studies cannot randomly assign offspring to prenatal conditions, it is difficult to test whether in utero events have true causal effects on offspring outcomes. We used an unusual approach to overcome this difficulty whereby pregnant mothers are either biologically unrelated or related to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In this sample, prenatal smoking reduces offspring birth weight in both unrelated and related offspring, consistent with effects arising through prenatal mechanisms independent of the relation between the maternal and offspring genomes. In contrast, the association between prenatal smoking and offspring antisocial behavior depended on inherited factors because association was only present in related mothers and offspring. The results demonstrate that this unusual prenatal cross-fostering design is feasible and informative for disentangling inherited and prenatal effects on human health and behavior. Disentangling these different effects is invaluable for pinpointing markers of prenatal adversity that have a causal effect on offspring outcomes. The origins of behavior and many common complex disorders may begin in early life, therefore this experimental design could pave the way for identifying prenatal factors that affect behavior in future generations.

  5. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  6. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  7. Visual evoked potentials in children prenatally exposed to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2013-01-01

    the effect of prenatal methylmercury exposure on visual evoked potential (VEP) latencies in Faroese children with elevated prenatal methylmercury exposure. A cohort of 182 singleton term births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1994-1995. At age 7 years, VEP tracings were obtained from 139 cohort...... subjects after exclusion of subjects with abnormal vision conditions. We used multiple regression analysis to evaluate the association of mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair at parturition with VEP latencies after adjustment for potential confounders that included the cord...

  8. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  9. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  10. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the influence of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on children born with low birth weight%孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣莲; 陈烈平; 陈起燕; 修晓燕; 陈菊芳; 王晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿(LBW)的影响.方法 采用回顾性LBW-小于胎龄儿(SGA)-对照(正常)三组病例对照研究方法,对2004年11月至2006年6月在福建省妇幼保健院住院分娩的婴儿及产妇,于产后对896例的产妇进行问卷调查和摘取病历相关资料.将所得变量采用χ2检验进行单因素分析,再将有意义的变量入选logistic回归多因素分析.结果 22个变量因素中有统计学意义的单因素有15个,包括孕妇心理因素2个、生理因素4个、病理因素6个、孕期保健因素3个.经logistic回归多因素分析结果显示孕妇身高、产检次数、无应激试验异常、脐带绕颈、脐血流阻力异常、初检孕周、胎膜早破、孕妇对婴儿性别的企盼、异常家族史等9个因素是LBW的主要影响因素,健康教育知识获取与否是保护因素,说明有些LBW可以在孕期预防.结论 LBW的发生是多种因素综合作用的结果.%Objective To explore the role of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on low birth weight (LBW). Methods A LBW-small for gestation age (SGA)-control group retrospective study was conducted based upon a population of infants born from November 2004 to June 2006. 896 cases involved in this study were entirely under voluntary participation and subject could withdraw their consent at any point. All subject recruitment and enrollment took place at Fujian Provincial Maternal and Children Hospital at the time of delivery. Using χ2 test for single factor analysis and logistic regression for multiple analyses Results There were 15 out of 22 single factors having statistical significances, including 2 maternal psychological, 4 physiological, 6 pathological and 3 prenatal health care factors respectively. When multi-factorial stepwise regression analyses was performed, there were 9 factors for main relative factors of LBW ,including women's height, number of prenatal

  12. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  13. Prenatal Brain-Body Allometry in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Variation in relative brain size among adult mammals is produced by different patterns of brain and body growth across ontogeny. Fetal development plays a central role in generating this diversity, and aspects of prenatal physiology such as maternal relative metabolic rate, altriciality, and placental morphology have been proposed to explain allometric differences in neonates and adults. Primates are also uniquely encephalized across fetal development, but it remains unclear when this pattern emerges during development and whether it is common to all primate radiations. To reexamine these questions across a wider range of mammalian radiations, data on the primarily fetal rapid growth phase (RGP) of ontogenetic brain-body allometry was compiled for diverse primate (np = 12) and nonprimate (nnp = 16) mammalian species, and was complemented by later ontogenetic data in 16 additional species (np = 9; nnp = 7) as well as neonatal proportions in a much larger sample (np = 38; nnp = 83). Relative BMR, litter size, altriciality, and placental morphology fail to predict RGP slopes as would be expected if physiological and life history variables constrained fetal brain growth, but are associated with differences in birth timing along allometric trajectories. Prenatal encephalization is shared by all primate radiations, is unique to the primate Order, and is characterized by: (1) a robust change in early embryonic brain/body proportions, and (2) higher average RGP allometric slopes due to slower fetal body growth. While high slopes are observed in several nonprimate species, primates alone exhibit an intercept shift at 1 g body size. This suggests that primate prenatal encephalization is a consequence of early changes to embryonic neural and somatic tissue growth in primates that remain poorly understood.

  14. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... and neurotransmitter function of glutamate, pregnant rats were subjected to restrain stress during the last week of gestation. Brains of the adult offspring were used to assess glutamate metabolism, uptake and release as well as expression of glutamate receptors and transporters. While glutamate metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  15. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  16. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  17. [Prenatal exposure to birth control pills: risk of fetal death and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesen, Rikke; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-06-19

    About 1% of pregnant women uses oral contraceptives during the first part of their pregnancy and thereby exposes their offspring to artificial estrogens. Artificial estrogens, such as oral contraceptives, accidentally used during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the fetus. This article reviews the literature on prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives and the risk of congenital malformations and fetal death. The conclusion is that prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives may be associated with a slightly elevated risk of certain specific congenital malformations.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CO2浓度升高对万寿菊生长发育与光合生理的影响%Effects of Elevated [CO2] Concentration on Growth and Photosynthetic Physiology in Marigold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓雪; 宗毓铮; 张仟雨; 董琦; 尹美强; 李萍; 郝兴宇

    2017-01-01

    为探究经济花卉万寿菊响应CO2浓度升高的生理机制,以万寿菊金币品种为试材,利用OTC(open top chamber)系统进行CO2浓度控制试验,测定了万寿菊形态特征、叶片组织结构、光合色素含量、光合作用及糖类代谢物的变化.结果表明,本试验种植的万寿菊维管束中无“花环状”结构,是菊科中的 C3 植物.CO2浓度升高后,万寿菊叶片栅栏组织增多,栅栏组织内的叶绿体数量增加,光合色素含量增加,净光合速率增强,气孔导度和蒸腾速率在现蕾期和初花期下降,而在盛花期增加,水分利用率在各生育时期均增加.此外,CO2浓度升高后,万寿菊叶片中还原糖含量、可溶性总糖含量、淀粉含量、纤维素含量均增加.植株的株高、茎粗、单株茎秆重、单株总生物量均有增加,花朵总产量增加27.46%.综上可知,CO2浓度升高促进了万寿菊叶片光合作用和碳代谢,有利于万寿菊的生长发育.本研究结果有助于揭示万寿菊响应CO2浓度升高的生理机制,为未来的万寿菊生产开发提供了依据.%To explore the physiological mechanism of the economic flower marigold in response toelevating of CO2 concentration,the OTC (open top chamber) system was used to control the CO2 concentration and the morphological characteristics,leaf tissue structure,pigment content,photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolites of the marigold were measured.The results showed that there was no floral hoop structure in the vascular bundles of marigold in this experiment,which was C3 plant in Compositae.When the CO2 concentration increased,the number of chloroplasts,the photosynthetic pigment content and the net photosynthetic rate were increased.Meanwhile,leaf stomatal conductance and transpiration rate was decreased in the squaring stage and the initial flowering stage under elevated [CO2],but was increased in full flowering stage;Water use efficiency of marigold was significantly

  20. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary sy

  1. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy--a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary sy

  2. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy--a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary

  3. Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been found to have long-lasting effects on the behavioral and physiological development of the offspring. These programming effects on the fetus would be physiologically mediated through heightened and/or abnormal activity of the maternal sympathetic-adrenal-medullary

  4. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  5. Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Parpia, Alyssa S; Galvani, Alison P

    2016-10-18

    Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious neurologic conditions, and fetal death, health ministries across the region have advised women to delay pregnancy. However, the effectiveness of this policy in reducing prenatal Zika virus infection has yet to be quantified. To evaluate the effectiveness of pregnancy-delay policies on the incidence and prevalence of prenatal Zika virus infection. Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. Colombia, August 2015 to July 2017. Population of Colombia, stratified by sex, age, and pregnancy status. Recommendations to delay pregnancy by 3, 6, 9, 12, or 24 months, at different levels of adherence. Weekly and cumulative incidence of prenatal infections and microcephaly cases. With 50% adherence to recommendations to delay pregnancy by 9 to 24 months, the cumulative incidence of prenatal Zika virus infections is likely to decrease by 17% to 44%, whereas recommendations to delay pregnancy by 6 or fewer months are likely to increase prenatal infections by 2% to 7%. This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. Sexual transmission was not explicitly accounted for in the model because of limited data but was implicitly subsumed within the overall transmission rate, which was calibrated to observed incidence. Pregnancy delays can have a substantial effect on reducing cases of microcephaly but risks exacerbating the Zika virus outbreak if the duration is not sufficient. Duration of the delay, population adherence, and the timing of initiation of the intervention must be carefully considered. National Institutes of Health.

  6. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  7. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  8. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  9. Effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and human development: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that prenatal stress can have significant effects on pregnancy, maternal health and human development across the lifespan. These effects may occur directly through the influence of prenatal stress-related physiological changes on the developing fetus, or indirectly through the effects of prenatal stress on maternal health and pregnancy outcome which, in turn, affect infant health and development. Animal and human studies suggest that activation of the maternal stress response and resulting changes in endocrine and inflammatory activity play a role in the aetiology of these effects. Ongoing research is focusing on clarifying these mechanisms, understanding the role of racial and cultural factors in these effects, and examining the epigenetic and transgenerational influences of prenatal stress. PMID:27757157

  10. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  11. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  12. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  13. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riikonen, J. [Kuopio Univ., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Kets, K.; Sober, A. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Botany and Ecology; Darbah, J.; Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technical Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science; Oksanen, E. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Biosciences; Vapaavuori, E. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Inst.; Kubiske, M.E.; Nelson, N. [USDA Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-02-15

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhances photosynthesis by increasing carboxylation rates and decreasing the rate of photorespiration. While elevated CO{sub 2} has the potential to increase frost hardiness in trees by increasing bud size and concentrations of cryoprotective soluble sugars in overwintering organs, little is known about the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on late-season photosynthesis. This study examined 3 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones and 3 paper birch (Betula papyrifera) grown at a site with elevated CO{sub 2} and ozone (O{sub 3}) applied singly and in combination. Gas exchange was studied throughout the eighth growing season. The study also examined specific leaf area and size in September and final size, carbohydrate, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water concentrations in November. The timing of leaf abscission was also studied, as well as bud burst and the development of leaf area index the following Spring. Results of the study showed that net photosynthesis was enhanced by between 49 and 73 per cent with elevated levels of CO{sub 2}, and decreased by between 13 and 30 per cent with elevated O{sub 3}. Elevated CO{sub 2} delayed leaf abscission and increased the ratio of monosaccharides in aspen buds. Total carbon concentrations in overwintering buds were unaffected by the treatments. It was concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} ameliorated the effects of elevated O{sub 2}, but had the potential to alter C metabolism of overwintering buds. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  15. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  16. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  17. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  18. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making.

  19. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  20. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Carmelinda A; Fried, Peter A; Cameron, Ian; Smith, Andra M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition were investigated in young adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood, which allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a Go/No-Go task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants prenatally exposed to nicotine demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve response inhibition including the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe, the thalamus and the basal ganglia. In addition, prenatally exposed participants showed greater activity in relatively large posterior regions of the cerebellum. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure leads to altered neural functioning during response inhibition that continues into adulthood. This alteration is compensated for by recruitment of greater neural resources within regions of the brain that subserve response inhibition and the recruitment of additional brain regions to successfully perform the task. Response inhibition is an important executive functioning skill and impairments can impede functioning in much of everyday life. Thus, awareness of the continued long-term neural physiological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure is critical.

  1. Prenatal care utilization in New York City: comparison of measures and assessment of their significance for urban health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, J D; Jaffee, K D

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers policy and programmatic consequences of shifting measurement of prenatal care utilization from the Kessner Index (KI) to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index (APNCUI). In gauging the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, the KI considers the timing of prenatal care initiation and the number of prenatal visits. The APNCUI also considers both timing of initiation and number of visits, but the approach taken to conceptualizing and measuring these two aspects of prenatal care utilization is more refined. We used birth certificates to calculate the KI and the APNGUI for 217,183 New York City (NYC) births in 1991-1992. We used cross-tabulations and bivariate odds ratios to compare the classifications resulting from the respective indexes. The APNCUI detected some important dimensions of the problem of inadequate prenatal care use that are not evident when using the KI. The proportion of births with inadequate use increases from 18% with the KI to 35% with the APNGUI. Groups of women at elevated risk for inadequate use are the same, but the KI understates significantly the risk for Hispanic women, teens, women who are less well educated, and those on WIC and Medicaid. The APNGUI yields a fuller picture of the degree to which some urban women are at risk for inadequate prenatal care use. Use of the APNGUI in quality assurance, monitoring, and research is recommended.

  2. Long-term effects of prenatal stress : Changes in adult cardiovascular regulation and sensitivity to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastorci, Francesca; Vicentini, Massimo; Viltart, Odile; Manghi, Massimo; Graiani, Gallia; Quaini, Federico; Meerlo, Peter; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Maccari, Stefania; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal environment exerts profound influences on the development of an organism and stressful events during pregnancy can bring about long-term physiological/behavioral alterations in the offspring. Epidemiological evidence points to a relationship between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), b

  3. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  4. Tuna comparative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  5. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  6. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  7. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  10. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  11. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  12. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  13. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  14. Prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations predict neurodevelopment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Head, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and cortical thickness was determined. Child cognitive functioning was evaluated using standardized measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Second Edition). Higher maternal cortisol concentrations during the third trimester were associated with greater child cortical thickness primarily in frontal regions. No significant associations were observed between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child cortical thinning. Elevated third trimester maternal cortisol additionally was associated with enhanced child cognitive performance. Findings in this normative sample of typically developing children suggest that elevated maternal cortisol during late gestation exert lasting benefits for brain development and cognitive functioning 6-9 years later. The benefits of fetal exposure to higher maternal cortisol during the third trimester for child neurodevelopment are consistent with the role cortisol plays in maturation of the human fetus. It is plausible that more extreme elevations in maternal cortisol concentrations late in gestation, as well as exposure to pharmacological levels of synthetic glucocorticoids, may have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetal brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  16. Prenatal development of respiratory chemoreceptors in endothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempleman, Steven C; Pilarski, Jason Q

    2011-08-31

    Respiratory chemoreceptors are neurons that detect PCO(2), PO(2), and/or pH in body fluids and provide sensory feedback for the control of breathing. They play a critical role in coupling pulmonary ventilation to metabolic demand in endothermic vertebrates. During birth in mammals and hatching in birds, the state change from placental or chorioallantoic gas exchange to pulmonary respiration makes acute demands on the neonatal lungs and ventilatory control system, including the respiratory chemoreceptors. Here we review the literature on prenatal development of carotid body chemoreceptors, central chemoreceptors, and airway chemoreceptors, with emphasis on the histology, histochemistry, and neurophysiology of chemosensory cells or their afferents, and their physiological genomics if known. In general, respiratory chemoreceptors develop prenatally and are functional but immature at birth or hatching. Each type of respiratory chemoreceptor has a unique prenatal developmental time course, and all studied to date require a period of postnatal maturation to express the full adult response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  1. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  2. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  4. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  5. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  6. Roles of MicroRNA across Prenatal and Postnatal Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Floris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Communication between mother and offspring in mammals starts at implantation via the maternal–placental–fetal axis, and continues postpartum via milk targeted to the intestinal mucosa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, short, noncoding single-stranded RNAs, of about 22 nucleotides in length, are actively involved in many developmental and physiological processes. Here we highlight the role of miRNA in the dynamic signaling that guides infant development, starting from implantation of conceptus and persisting through the prenatal and postnatal periods. miRNAs in body fluids, particularly in amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk may offer new opportunities to investigate physiological and/or pathological molecular mechanisms that portend to open novel research avenues for the identification of noninvasive biomarkers.

  7. Association between prenatal exposure to bacterial infection and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prenatal exposure to nonviral infection may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and we hypothesized an association between maternal bacterial infection during pregnancy and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia. Data on maternal infections from...... the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort were linked with the Danish National Psychiatric Register. Offspring cases of narrowly defined schizophrenia (International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision [ICD-8]) and more broadly defined schizophrenia (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were identified before the ages of 32......-34 and 45-47 years, respectively. The effect of prenatal exposure to bacterial infections was adjusted for prenatal exposure to analgesics and parental social status. In a risk set of 7941 individuals, 85 cases (1.1%) of ICD-8 schizophrenia were identified by the age of 32-34 years and 153 cases (1...

  8. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  9. Effect of prenatal haloperidol exposure on behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Mandavi

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Charles-Foster rats were exposed to haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug that binds to and blocks dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) from Gestation Day (GD) 12 to 20. The animals from both treated as well as vehicle control groups were allowed to deliver on GD 21. The offspring culled at birth on the basis of sex and weight were subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 8 weeks. The HAL-treated rat offspring showed a significant increase in anxiogenic behavior on the open field, elevated plus-maze and elevated zero-maze tests when compared with the vehicle-treated (control) rat offspring of the same age group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HAL during a critical period of brain development leaves a lasting imprint on the brain, resulting in abnormal anxiety states, possibly through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms.

  10. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  11. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U;

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  12. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  13. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  14. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  15. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  17. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  20. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  1. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  2. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  3. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  4. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  6. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Yang, Yan-ling; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Shi, Chun-yan; Song, Jin-qing; Sayami, Sujan; Liu, Ping; Yan, Rong; Dong, Jin-hua; Qin, Jiong

    2008-02-05

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China. Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA. However, since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid, the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses. The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA. The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated. Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16 - 24 weeks of gestation. Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS, propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS, and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In two pregnancies, high levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, propionylcarnitine, and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses. One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment, and the other terminated her pregnancy. In one pregnancy, significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, and propionylcarnitine, and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus; abortion was performed on this case. In the other six pregnancies, all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine. The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation. The level of total

  9. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  10. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  11. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  12. Prenatal cranial ossification of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Oliver; Franke, Helena; Hipsley, Christy A; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Müller, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. We use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to reinvestigate humpback whale fetuses from the Kükenthal collection at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, thus, extending historic descriptions of their skeletogenesis and providing for the first time sequences of cranial ossification for this species. Principally, the ossification sequence of prenatal Megaptera follows a typical mammalian pattern with the anterior dermal bones being the first ossifying elements in the skull, starting with the dentary. In contrast to other mammals, the ectotympanic bone ossifies at an early stage. Alveolar structure can be observed in both the maxillae and dentaries in these early prenatal specimens but evidence for teeth is lacking. Although the possibility of obtaining new embryological material is unlikely due to conservation issues, our study shows that reexamination of existing specimens employing new technologies still holds promise for filling gaps in our knowledge of whale evolution and ontogeny.

  13. Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Islam, Tariqul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Mohammad Hasan; Yunus, Mohammad; Graziano, Joseph H; Harjes, Judith; Baron, John A; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Argos, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a public health concern in many parts of the world, with elevated concentrations in groundwater posing a threat to millions of people. Arsenic is associated with various cancers and an array of chronic diseases; however, the relationship with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality is less established. We evaluated associations between individual-level prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality in a pregnancy study among 498 women nested in a larger population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh. Creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration, a comprehensive measure of exposure from water, food, and air sources, reflective of the prenatal period was available for participants. Self-reported pregnancy outcomes (livebirth, stillbirth, spontaneous/elective abortion) were ascertained. Generalized estimating equations, accounting for multiple pregnancies of participants, were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Vital status of livebirths was subsequently ascertained through November 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to child mortality. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and the risk of stillbirth (greater than median; adjusted OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.04, 6.01). We also observed elevated risk of child mortality (greater than median; adjusted HR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.78, 4.68) in relation to prenatal arsenic exposure. Prospective studies should continue to evaluate prenatal and early life health effects of arsenic exposure and arsenic remediation strategies for women of child-bearing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  15. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  16. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  17. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paublo M,Mario; Bustos V.,Juan Carlos; Ramírez H,Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.

  18. 大气O3浓度升高对毛竹光合生理的影响%Impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone concentration on the photosynthetic physiology of Phyllostachys edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李迎春; 李应; 陈双林; 庄明浩; 郭子武; 杨清平

    2013-01-01

    In this study, open-top chambers (OTCs) were employed to approach the impacts of elevated atmospheric ozone ( O3) concentration on the photosynthesis of Phyllostachys edulis. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , CF (background atmosphere after filtrated by activated car-bon, 22-25 nL·L-1) , NF (directly introduce the background atmosphere to the gas chamber, 40-45 nL·L-1) , T, (92-106 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 100 nL·L-1) , T2( 142-160 nL·L-1 of O3, averagely 150 nL·L-1). Under different O3 concentrations, the diurnal variations of P. edulis leaf Pn and Tr represented one-peak curves. With the increasing concentration of O3, the diurnal variations of the leaf Gs, Ci, and Ls trended to be simplified, while that of WUE be-came stable gradually. Under higher concentrations (≥100 nL·L-1)O3, the diurnal means of Pn, Ls, and WUE and the contents Chl, Chl-a, Chl-b, and Car decreased significantly, those of Gs and Tr had a significant increase, while the diurnal mean of Ci and the composition of photo-synthetic pigment changed less. In treatments T1 and T2, the Pn, Tr, and Gs were significantly correlated with the environmental factors FpdL, Tair, Ca and RH, and the Pn and Tr were signifi-cantly correlated with the PPED while the Gs was less correlated with the PPED. All the results indicated that 100 and 150 nL·L-1 of O3 could induce the leaf stomatal or non-stomatal limita-tion of P. edulis, respectively, and the stoma became insensitive to the environment, which im-pacted the leaf' s normal feedback mechanisms, increased leaf evapotranspiration, and inhibited the degradation or synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, exerting serious negative effects on the photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation of P. edulis.%以毛竹(phyllostachys edulis)为试材,运用开顶式气室(OTCs)模拟了4个大气O3浓度情景,分别为CF(背景大气经活性炭过滤后的处理,22~25 nL·L-1)、NF(直接将背景大气输入气室内,40~45 nL·L-1)、T1(O3

  19. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  20. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  1. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  3. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  4. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  5. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  6. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreases anxiety in developing rats: hippocampal neuropeptide y as a target molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velísek, Libor

    2006-10-01

    Repeated antenatal administration of betamethasone is frequently used as a life-saving treatment in obstetrics. However, limited information is available about the outcome of this therapy in children. The initial prospective studies indicate that there are behavioral impairments in children exposed to repeated courses of prenatal betamethasone during the third trimester of pregnancy. In this study, pregnant rats received two betamethasone injections on day 15 of gestation. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of a powerful anxiolytic molecule neuropeptide Y (NPY) was determined on postnatal day (PN) 20 in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (structures related to anxiety and fear) of the offspring. Prenatal betamethasone exposure induced significant increases in NPY expression in the hippocampus but not in the amygdala. Indeed, behavioral tests in the offspring, between PN20 and PN22 in the open field, on the horizontal bar, and in the elevated plus maze, indicated decreases in anxiety, without impairments in motor performance or total activity. Decreased body weight in betamethasone-exposed rats confirmed long-lasting effects of prenatal exposure. Thus, prenatal betamethasone treatment consistently increases hippocampal NPY, with decreases in anxiety-related behaviors and hippocampal role in anxiety in rats. Animal models may assist in differentiation between pathways of the desired main effect of the antenatal corticosteroid treatment and pathways of unwanted side effects. This differentiation can lead to specific therapeutic interventions directed against the side effects without eliminating the beneficial main effect of the corticosteroid treatment.

  7. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  8. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  9. The prenatal roots of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  10. UV-B增强下施硅对水稻抽穗期生理特性日变化的影响%Effects of silicon supply on diurnal variations of physiological properties at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蕾; 娄运生; 孟艳; 王卫清; 崔合洋

    2015-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了UV-B增强下施硅对水稻抽穗期光合和蒸腾生理相关参数日变化的影响.光辐射设对照(自然光,A)和UV-B辐射增强(比自然光增加20%,E)2个水平;硅肥设4个水平,即Si0(不施硅,0 kg SiO2·hm-2)、Si1(硅酸钠,100 kg SiO2·hm-2)、Si2(硅酸钠,200 kg SiO2·hm-2)和Si3(钢渣硅肥,200 kg SiO2·hm-2).结果表明:不施硅条件下(Si0),UV-B增强处理的净光合速率(Pn)、胞间二氧化碳浓度(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(gs)和水分利用效率(WUE)的日均值比对照(A)分别下降了11.3%、5.5%、10.4%、20.3%和6.3%,施硅条件下(Si1、Si2和Si3)上述参数则分别下降了3.8% ~5.5%、0.7% ~4.8%、4.0%~8.7%、7.4% ~ 20.2%和0.7% ~5.9%,说明UV-B增强降低了水稻Pn、Ci、Tr、gs和WUE,而施硅能缓解UV-B增强引起的抑制效应.UV-B增强下施硅处理(Si1、Si2和Si3)的Pn、Ci、gs和WUE的日均值比不施硅对照(E +Si0)分别提高了16.9% ~28.0%、3.5%~14.3%、16.8% ~38.7%、29.0% ~51.2%,Z降低了1.9% ~ 10.8%,说明施硅通过显著提高水稻Pn、Ci、gs和WUE,降低Tr,以缓解UV-B增强引起的抑制效应.不同施硅处理对UV-B增强的缓解效应存在明显差异,表现为Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0.表明在水稻生产中,施用钢渣硅肥不仅能实现废弃物再利用,而且可有效缓解UV-B增强对水稻光合和蒸腾生理的抑制作用.%A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) supply on diurnal variations of photosynthesis and transpiration-related physiological parameters at rice heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels,i.e.ambient UV-B (ambient,A) and elevated UV-B (elevated by 20%,E),and four Si supply levels,i.e.Si0 (control,0 kg SiO2 · hm-2),Si1 (sodium silicate,100 kg SiO2 · hm-2),Si2 (sodium silicate,200 kg SiO2 · hm-2),Si3 (slag fertilizer,200 kg SiO2

  11. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  12. Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Wonder if you need to take prenatal vitamins? Which brand is best? Or what ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-vitamins/art- ...

  13. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  14. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  15. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  16. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  17. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  18. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects.

  19. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  1. Schizophrenia and reelin: a model based on prenatal stress to study epigenetics, brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Palacios-García, Ismael; Fuentealba, Pablo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2016-03-11

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in a significant disability for the patient. The disorder is characterized by impairment of the adaptive orchestration of actions, a cognitive function that is mainly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This behavioral deficit, together with cellular and neurophysiological alterations in the prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced density of GABAergic cells and aberrant oscillatory activity, all indicate structural and functional deficits of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Among the several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia, stress during the prenatal period has been identified as crucial. Thus, it is proposed that prenatal stress induces neurodevelopmental alterations in the prefrontal cortex that are expressed as cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms that link prenatal stress with the impairment of prefrontal cortex function is largely unknown. Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the development of cortical neural connectivity at embryonic stages, and in synaptic plasticity at postnatal stages. Interestingly, down-regulation of reelin expression has been associated with epigenetic changes in the reelin gene of the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that, similar to schizophrenic patients, prenatal stress induces down-expression of reelin associated with the methylation of its promoter in the rodent prefrontal cortex. These alterations were paralleled with altered prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and impairment in prefrontal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks. Therefore, considering molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral evidence, we propose a unifying framework that links prenatal stress and prefrontal malfunction through epigenetic alterations of the reelin gene.

  2. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the relative fitness of Taraxacum officinale genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    I tested whether elevated carbon dioxide concentration differentially affected which genotypes of the apomictic species dandelion produced the largest number of viable seeds in two different field experiments, and identified morphological and physiological traits associated with fitness at elevated ...

  3. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT ha...

  4. Video recording to improve the quality of prenatal genetic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E.; Gitsels, J.; Pereboom, M.; Martin, L.; Hutton, E.; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Counselling on prenatal testing has become an increasing part of obstetric care in the Netherlands. The majority of Dutch women (>70%) are counselled by midwives on prenatal testing (Wiegers and Hingstman, 2008). Prenatal screening on congenital abnormalities is not routinely done and pr

  5. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  7. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  8. Prenatal betamethasone does not affect glutamatergic or GABAergic neurogenesis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vose, L R; Vinukonda, G; Diamond, D; Korumilli, R; Hu, F; Zia, M T K; Hevner, R; Ballabh, P

    2014-06-13

    Prenatal glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used for pregnant women in preterm labor to prevent respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants. However, the effect of antenatal GCs on neurogenesis in preterm neonates remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that prenatal GCs might suppress both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurogenesis in preterm rabbits and that this treatment would induce distinct changes in the expression of transcription factors regulating these developmental events. To test our hypotheses, we treated pregnant rabbits with betamethasone at E27 and E28, delivered the pups at E29 (term=32d), and assessed neurogenesis at birth and postnatal day 3. We quantified radial glia (Sox2(+)) and intermediate progenitor cells (Tbr2(+)) in the dorsal cortical subventricular zone to assess glutamatergic neuronal progenitors, and counted Nkx2.1(+) and Dlx2(+) cells in the ganglionic eminence to evaluate GABAergic neurogenesis. In addition, we assayed transcription factors regulating neurogenesis. We found that prenatal GCs did not affect the densities of radial glia and intermediate progenitors of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. The number of GABA(+) interneurons in the ganglionic eminence was similar between the prenatal GC-treated pups compared to untreated controls. Moreover, the mRNA expression of transcription factors, including Pax6, Ngn1/2, Emx1/2, Insm1, Dlx1, Nkx2.1, and Gsh2, were comparable between the two groups. However, there was a transient elevation in Mash1 protein in betamethasone-treated pups relative to controls at birth. These data suggest that prenatal GC treatment does not significantly impact the balance of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurogenesis in premature infants.

  9. Swimming exercise ameliorates depression-like behaviors induced by prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Yongjun; Lu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yanmin; Sheng, Hui; Ni, Xin

    2012-08-30

    Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to affective dysfunction in adulthood, which may be associated with the alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Physical exercise has been shown to ameliorate depressive symptoms. The objectives of present study were to investigate whether prenatal exposure to GCs induces depression-like behaviors in adult offspring rats, and determine whether swimming exercise alleviates the depression-like behaviors induced by this paradigm. Pregnant rats received dexamethasone (DEX) (0.1mg/kg/day) in the last third of pregnancy or vehicle. DEX treatment reduced body weight in 1, 3, 6, 9-week old male offspring, and 3, 6, 9-week old female offspring. DEX treatment resulted in an elevated level of serum corticosterone in adult offspring (9weeks). Female and male adult offspring rats exhibited decreased number of poking into holes and rearing and decreased central distance traveled in open field test (OFT), and reduced sucrose consumption, suggesting prenatal DEX exposure increase depression-like behaviors in the adult offspring rats. Four-week swimming exercise reduced serum corticosterone levels, and alleviated the depressive behavior by reversing the decreased number of poking into holes and rearing as well as decreased central distance traveled, and reversing the reduced sucrose consumption in male and female adult offspring. These findings suggested prenatal exposure to GCs increase the activity of HPA axis and depression-like behaviors of adult offsprings. Swimming exercise decreases HPA activity and ameliorates depression in rats exposed to DEX prenatally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  11. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  12. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  13. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  14. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, R.V.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Dondorp, W.J.; Pajkrt, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Holtkamp, K.C.A.; Karsten, M.; Vlietstra, A.L.; Lachmeijer, A.M.A.; Henneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherla

  15. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  16. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring...

  17. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  18. Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sept 2013-31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT According to the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder

  19. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  20. Prenatal screening for congenital malformations: diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care of the pregnancy in terms of antenatal care, and referral for birth as ... photographed and only represent a proportion of all the malformed ... KEY WORDS: foetal malformafion, newborn deaths, prenatal care, pregnancy terminafion. Figure 1. Case 1 ... multiple methods, including ultrasound, are combined to make a ...

  1. Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical lateralization, as indicated by mixed-handedness, has been related to diverse psychopathologies. Maternal prenatal stress has recently been associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In the present study, this relationship was investigated further in a prospective, methodologically

  2. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  3. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  4. Noninvasive prenatal detection of genetic defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, Jessica Maria Elisabeth van den

    2016-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnostics is mainly based on obtaining fetal DNA through invasive procedures such as chorionic villi sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. These procedures are associated with a small, but significant risk of fetal loss. The discovery of the presence of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  6. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  7. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood con

  8. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  9. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  10. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are normal in Fanconi anemia: Can it be a lack of postnatal inhibition of AFP gene resulting in the elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz; Karabacak, Recep Onur; Aslan, Oner Deniz

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as a screening test for prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia (FA). Serial measurements in maternal serum were recorded. Parents, both heterozygous for FA, had declined prenatal molecular testing. The infant was born with no somatic abnormalities, and FA was confirmed by postnatal molecular analysis. Maternal serum AFP levels during each trimester of pregnancy were normal indicating that these levels cannot be used as a screening test in prenatal diagnosis. Three-year follow-up after birth showed constantly elevated serum levels in the patient from the start, suggesting a lack of postnatal inhibition on AFP gene.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  12. Children's physiological responses to childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Harriet J; Groeneveld, Marleen G

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on children's physiological responses to out-of-home childcare. The finding that children's cortisol levels are higher at childcare than at home has been well-replicated. Here we summarize recent evidence examining possible correlates of elevated cortisol levels. Reviewed studies suggest that childcare quality matters, whereas group sizes and type of care do not. As for child characteristics, elevated cortisol at childcare is more pronounced in toddlers than in infants, and in inhibited and aggressive children. We discuss recent advances focusing on hair cortisol analysis and immunomarkers of stress, and suggest that there is a need for experimental and longitudinal studies to examine causal relations and possible negative long-term consequences for children's health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  14. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  15. Mechanisms of prenatal programing: identifying and distinguishing the impact of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Barrett, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Developmental programing is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programing research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological, and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing findings for further research and practice.

  16. Effects of repeated prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on long-term potentiation in the juvenile guinea-pig hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F; Matthews, Stephen G

    2007-06-15

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) are routinely used to treat women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung maturation. There is now strong evidence that exposure to excess glucocorticoid during periods of rapid brain development has permanent consequences for endocrine function and behaviour in the offspring. Prenatal exposure to sGC alters the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) subunits in the fetal and neonatal hippocampus. Given the integral role of the NMDA-R in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that prenatal sGC exposure will have effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) after birth. Further, this may occur in either the presence or absence of elevated cortisol concentrations, in vitro. Pregnant guinea-pigs were injected with betamethasone (Beta, 1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on gestational days (gd) 40, 41, 50, 51, 60 and 61 (term approximately 70 days), a regimen comparable to that given to pregnant women. On postnatal day 21, LTP was examined at Schaffer collateral synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile animals exposed to betamethasone or vehicle, in utero. Subsequently, the acute glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent effects of cortisol (0.1-10 microM; bath applied 30 min before LTP induction) were examined. There was no effect of prenatal sGC treatment on LTP under basal conditions. The application of 10 microM cortisol depressed excitatory synaptic transmission in all treatment groups regardless of sex. Similarly, LTP was depressed by 10 microM cortisol in all groups, with the exception of Beta-exposed females, in which LTP was unaltered. Hippocampal MR and GR protein levels were increased in Beta-exposed females, but not in any other prenatal treatment group. This study reveals sex-specific effects of prenatal exposure to sGC on LTP in the presence of elevated cortisol, a situation that would occur in vivo during stress.

  17. Prenatal cocaine alters later responses to morphine in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, Josefina; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Maldonado, Concepción; Manzanedo, Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2006-08-30

    Mice prenatally exposed to cocaine (25 mg/kg), physiological saline or non-treated during the last 6 days of pregnancy were evaluated as adults for the rewarding properties of 2 mg/kg of morphine, using the conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Likewise, isolated animals underwent a social interaction test with conspecifics after receiving the same morphine dose. Unlike control or animals pre-treated with saline, subjects prenatally treated with cocaine did not develop CPP with this dose of morphine. Only cocaine-exposed animals showed increased threat, avoidance and fleeing during the social encounter. No differences in motor effects of morphine were observed. Analysis of monoamines revealed effects of housing conditions, isolated animals having fewer DOPAC but higher levels of HVA than those grouped, but in both groups there was a decrease in DOPAC in cocaine- and saline-treated mice. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases the response to the rewarding properties of drugs in mature offspring. They also implicate cocaine consumption during pregnancy could affect the response of offspring to take other drugs of abuse.

  18. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Ikram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met and thymoquinone (TQ during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔψM, which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol

  19. Prenatal high-dose pyridoxine may prevent hypertension and syndrome X in-utero by protecting the fetus from excess glucocorticoid activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2000-05-01

    The increased risk for hypertension, insulin resistance syndrome, and coronary events associated with small-for-gestational-age birth, has plausibly been attributed to excessive prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids; this may up-regulate glucocorticoid activity throughout life by permanently decreasing expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors crucial for feedback control of cortisol secretion. Since pyridoxal phosphate is a safe physiological antagonist of glucocorticoid activity, it is proposed that prenatal supplementation with high-dose pyridoxine may counteract the adverse impact of glucocorticoids on fetal growth, as well as on subsequent cardiovascular risk.

  20. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids sensitizes the hpa axis response to stress among full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the consequences for HPA axis functioning among healthy full-term newborns of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), betamethasone, which is the routine treatment for threatened preterm delivery. Ninety full-term infants were recruited into two study groups (30 betamethasone treated; 60 comparison group matched for GA at birth and sex). The cortisol and behavioral response to the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw was assessed 24 hr after birth. Full-term infants exposed to prenatal betamethasone displayed a larger cortisol response to the heel-stick procedure, despite no differences in baseline levels. Further, within the recommended window of betamethasone administration (24-34 gestational weeks), infants exposed to betamethasone earlier in gestation displayed the largest cortisol response to the heel-stick. These data add to accumulating evidence that prenatal exposure to elevated GCs programs the development of the HPA axis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  2. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  3. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA )is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China.Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA.However,since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid,the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses.The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA.Methods The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated.Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16-24 weeks of gestation.Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS,propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS,and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.Results In two pregnancies,high levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,propionylcarnitine,and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses.One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment,and the other terminated her pregnancy.In one pregnancy,significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,and propionylcarnitine,and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus;abortion was performed on this case.In the other six pregnancies,all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine.Conclusions The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation.The level of

  6. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  8. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  9. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established.

  10. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  11. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored......, individual sessions and by way of written materials. None of the interventions leads to a raise in anxiety scores or influence up-take rates. Satisfaction with information provided is found unrelated to level of knowledge, but associated with having expectations for information met. Information does not seem...

  12. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  13. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

  14. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  15. Chromosomal microarray versus karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapner, Ronald J; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C; Eng, Christine M; Zachary, Julia M; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N; Thom, Elizabeth A; Beaudet, Arthur L; Ledbetter, David H; Shaffer, Lisa G; Jackson, Laird

    2012-12-06

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down's syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.).

  16. Prenatal exclusion of severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Levinsky, R J; Linch, D. C.; Beverly, C L; Rodeck, C.

    1982-01-01

    By analysing leucocyte subpopulations with monoclonal antisera, we have shown that the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency can be made soon after birth. The technique of staining has been adapted for small blood samples, and normal ranges of leucocyte subpopulations have been established for fetal blood taken from mid-trimester pregnancies. Using this information, we gave prenatal advice to an at risk family and predicted that the pregnancy would be normal; this was confirmed after ...

  17. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Seetha; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Lester, Barry; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Poole, Ken; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Woldt, Eunice

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome. Design/Methods This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships. Results At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index. Conclusion High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term. PMID:20486281

  18. Prenatal stress diminishes the cytokine response of leukocytes to endotoxin stimulation in juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Christopher L; Kramer, Marian; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Netter, Petra; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated whether exposing the fetal primate to repeated episodes of maternal stress would have long-lasting effects on the endotoxin-induced cytokine response and corticosteroid sensitivity of peripheral blood cells in juvenile animals. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were acutely aroused on a daily basis for 6 wk using an acoustical startle protocol, either early or late in the 24-wk pregnancy. To quantify cytokine responses and corticosteroid sensitivity in their offspring at 2 yr of age, whole blood cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and incubated with dexamethasone (DEX). TNFalpha and IL-6 levels were determined in the culture supernatants. The blood samples were collected from undisturbed monkeys under baseline conditions, as well as in an aroused state induced by a 2 h social separation. Juvenile monkeys from stressed pregnancies had significantly lower cellular cytokine responses compared with the undisturbed controls. When DEX was added to the cell cultures, it systematically inhibited TNFalpha and IL-6 production, bringing the values for control animals down into the range of the prenatally stressed animals. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was also markedly suppressed by the experience of acute stress, reducing cytokine responses of controls to the levels found for prenatally disturbed monkeys under baseline conditions. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that prenatal disturbance can induce a lasting change in cytokine biology, which persists well beyond the fetal and infant stage. Further, these effects may be due to elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the prenatally stressed animals, because both DEX and acute arousal made the cells from control monkeys appear more similar to those from disturbed pregnancies.

  19. Prenatal substance use in a Western urban community.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, K F; Varner, M W

    1994-01-01

    To assess the extent of prenatal substance use in a predominantly white population in an urban area of the western United States and to develop a risk profile for this population, a cross-sectional prevalence study was done. Prenatal clinics (10 public and 10 private) anonymously recorded demographic information about and collected aliquots of routinely obtained urine specimens from women during prenatal visits. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay for amphetamines, marijuana, ...

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of cyclopia associated to trisomy 13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A cyclopia case with prenatal diagnosis by two dimensional and three dimensional ecography is presented, chordocentesis was realized, the chariotype in fetal blood with G banding presented trisomy 13. Phenotypic characteristics prenatally found where confirmed with the physical examination of the newborn. A revision to the literature about cyclops associated with trisomy 13 was made, and important aspects in prenatal diagnosis were highlighted.

  1. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  2. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  4. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  5. [When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-04-01

    The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  8. Effects of Elevated Ambient Temperature on Reproductive Outcomes and Offspring Growth Depend on Exposure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Yahia Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance has been shown to be greatly affected by changes in environmental factors, such as temperature. However, it is also crucial to identify the particular stage of pregnancy that is most adversely affected by elevated ambient temperature. The aims of this study were to determine the effect on reproductive outcomes of exposure to elevated ambient temperature during different stages of pregnancy and to determine the effect of prenatal heat stress on offspring growth. Sixty pregnant rats were used in this study. The rats were divided equally into four groups as group 1 (control, group 2 (exposed to elevated temperature following implantation, group 3 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation, and group 4 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation and following implantation. Groups 3 and 4 had prolonged gestation periods, reduced litter sizes, and male-biased sex ratios. Moreover, the growth patterns of group 3 and 4 pups were adversely affected by prenatal exposure to elevated temperature. The differences between group 1 and group 3 and between group 1 and group 4 were highly significant. However, no significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 in the gestation length, sex ratios, and growth patterns. Thus, it can be concluded that exposure to elevated ambient temperature during pre- and periimplantation has stronger adverse effects on reproductive outcomes and offspring growth than postimplantation exposure.

  9. Prenatal sex ratios influence sexual dimorphism in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2003-02-01

    The prenatal environment influences offspring traits in a variety of ways and in a wide range of taxa. For example, maternal allocation of steroids to the eggs influences offspring traits in birds, and in some mammals the intrauterine position influences morphological, behavioural, and physiological traits due to sex-related steroid transfer between sibling fetuses. We show that similar phenomena occur in the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara), a viviparous reptile. Females developing in male-biased clutches had a more masculine allometry (relatively larger heads) at parturition than females developing in female-biased clutches. Males were correspondingly feminized in female-biased clutches. The effects could either be due to diffusion of steroids produced by the offspring or by a general tendency for females to allocate steroids according to the sex ratio of her clutch. Subsequent to parturition, the sexes differed in their growth trajectories depending on sex ratio environment. In males, the difference in allometry between sex ratio environments remained over time, whereas in females the corresponding effect disappeared. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  11. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  12. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  13. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit.

  14. Lymphatic function is required prenatally for lung inflation at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Zoltán; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Enis, David R.; Sen, Aslihan; Chia, Stephanie; Liu, Xi; Rawnsley, David R.; Yang, Yiqing; Hess, Paul R.; Zou, Zhiying; Yang, Jisheng; Guttentag, Susan H.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals must inflate their lungs and breathe within minutes of birth to survive. A key regulator of neonatal lung inflation is pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex which increases lung compliance by reducing alveolar surface tension (Morgan, 1971). Whether other developmental processes also alter lung mechanics in preparation for birth is unknown. We identify prenatal lymphatic function as an unexpected requirement for neonatal lung inflation and respiration. Mice lacking lymphatic vessels, due either to loss of the lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 or VEGFR3 function, appear cyanotic and die shortly after birth due to failure of lung inflation. Failure of lung inflation is not due to reduced surfactant levels or altered development of the lung but is associated with an elevated wet/dry ratio consistent with edema. Embryonic studies reveal active lymphatic function in the late gestation lung, and significantly reduced total lung compliance in late gestation embryos that lack lymphatics. These findings reveal that lymphatic vascular function plays a previously unrecognized mechanical role in the developing lung that prepares it for inflation at birth. They explain respiratory failure in infants with congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia, and suggest that inadequate late gestation lymphatic function may also contribute to respiratory failure in premature infants. PMID:24733830

  15. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  16. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  17. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  18. Prenatal exposure to noise stress: anxiety, impaired spatial memory, and deteriorated hippocampal plasticity in postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Marzieh; Sajjadi, Fatemeh Sadat; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Hamidi, Gholamali; Salami, Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Sound pollution is known as an annoying phenomenon in modern life. Especially, development of organisms during fetal life is more sensitive to environmental tensions. To address a link between the behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of brain function with action of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in stressed animals, this study was carried out on the male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to sound stress. Groups of pregnant rats were exposed to noise stress for 1, 2, and 4 hour(s). The degree of anxiety and the spatial memory were evaluated by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Basic synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction were assessed in the CA3-CA1 pathway of hippocampus. The serum level of corticosterone was measured in the pregnant mothers and the offspring. The behavioral experiments appeared that the stressed animals performed considerably weaker than the control rats. The prenatal stress negatively affected the basic synaptic responses and led to a lower level of LTP. The pregnant animals showed an increased serum corticosterone in comparison with the nonpregnant females. Also the offspring exposed to the noise stress had a more elevated level of corticosterone than the control rats. Our findings indicate that the corticosterone concentration changes markedly coincides the results of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. We conclude that, similar to other environmental stresses, the sound stress during fetal life efficiently disturbs both cognitive abilities and synaptic activities. The changes in action of HPA axis may contribute to problems of the brain function in the prenatally stress exposed animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  20. Physiological Disorders in Closed, Controlled Environment Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the physiological disorders that affect crops grown in closed controlled environments. A physiological disorder is understood to be a problem resulting from the influence of environmental and horticultural factors on plan development other than a problem caused by a pathogen or some other abiotic cause. The topics that are addressed are: (1) Calcium-Related Disorders (2) Oedema (Intumescence) (3) Long-Photoperiod Injury (4) Light Spectral Quality Effects (5) Super-Elevated CO2 Injuries (6) Ethylene (7) Other Disorders (8) Considerations for Closed Space Environments. Views of plant with the disorders are shown.

  1. Urodynamics in boys after prenatally diagnosed vesicoureteric reflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, several theories have been presented regarding the pathogenesis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children without neurological disease or posterior urethral valves. Primary VUR is one of many fetal uropathies detectable by prenatal sonography. Thirteen boys with a prenatal...

  2. Prenatal tobacco exposure influences cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Elise A.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.; Keating, Paul; van den Berg, Paul P.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to determine the influence of prenatal tobacco exposure on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that as a result of vasoconstriction caused by prenatal tobacco exposure r(c)SO(2) wou

  3. Prenatal toxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterial in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmanna, T.; Schneider, S.; Wolterbeek, A.; Sandt, H. van de; Landsiedel, R.; Ravenzwaay, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica is a nanostructured material, which is produced and used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. No regulatory prenatal toxicity studies with this substance were reported yet. Therefore, synthetic amorphous silica was tested for prenatal

  4. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  5. Nonuse of Prenatal Care: Implications for Social Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie C.

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 44 women who did not obtain prenatal care. Identified four categories of reasons for nonuse: women's lifestyles differed from mainstream; stressful events took priority over prenatal care; women attempted to receive care but were discouraged, turned away, or given poor information by service delivery system personnel; and women did not…

  6. Prenatal toxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterial in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmanna, T.; Schneider, S.; Wolterbeek, A.; Sandt, H. van de; Landsiedel, R.; Ravenzwaay, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica is a nanostructured material, which is produced and used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. No regulatory prenatal toxicity studies with this substance were reported yet. Therefore, synthetic amorphous silica was tested for prenatal toxi

  7. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  8. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  9. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  10. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  12. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  14. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  15. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  16. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  17. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing.

  19. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. L. Sebastián Illanes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio no invasivo del material genético fetal es hoy en día una realidad. Mediante el uso de tecnología de avanzada, se puede actualmente determinar el grupo Rh fetal, el sexo fetal y trastornos genéticos fetales. El NIPD (Non Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis ha generado revuelo en la comunidad científica debido a las grandes perspectivas que se abren desde el punto vista del manejo de las pacientes. En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo que ha tenido el NIPD y sus aplicaciones clínicas actuales.

  20. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  1. Mesenchymal hamartoma: prenatal diagnosis by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Leysia [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada); Howse, Erica; Ryan, Greg [University of Toronto, Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    The clinical presentation of thoracic mesenchymal hamartomas varies from an asymptomatic chest wall mass to severe respiratory distress resulting from compression of the airways and lungs. We present the findings on fetal US and MRI of a histologically confirmed case. Following surgical resection, pathological examination corresponded to the cross-sectional imaging features with haemorrhagic, cystic and calcified components. An awareness of the characteristic imaging findings will allow accurate diagnosis of this condition, even prenatally, and thus facilitate appropriate perinatal management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  3. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  4. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  5. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  6. Influence of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annibale, D' Alessandra; Larsen, Thomas; Sechi, Valentina; Cortet, Jérôme; Strandberg, Beate; Vincze, Éva; Filser, Juliane; Audisio, Paolo Aldo; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the combined effect of rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and increasing use of genetically modified (GM) crops in agriculture may affect soil food-webs. So we designed a study for the assessment of the effects of elevated CO2

  7. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  8. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  9. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  10. Environmental noise and human prenatal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    To determine whether chronic exposure to relatively loud noise has demonstrable biological effects in humans, a study was conducted on the effect of mother's exposure to airport noise while pregnant, and of social and biological characteristics of the family upon birthweight and gestation length. The sample of births was drawn from a community located adjacent to an international airport in the U.S., where noise levels had been measured previously. Mother's noise exposure was based upon noise levels near her residence in the community while she was pregnant. Data from 115 births were used, these being from mothers whose noise exposure history was most complete throughout the pregnancy. Using multivariate analysis to correct for family characteristics, the partial correlation coefficient for noise exposure and gestation length was negative, large, and significant in girls (r . -0.49, p less than 0.001). In boys the partial correlation coefficient was also negative but was smaller and did not quite reach statistical significance. Partial correlations with birthweight were smaller in both boys and girls and not significant. These results agree best with previous studies that suggest that noise may reduce prenatal growth. The size of the observed effects may be related to a conservative research design biased towards underestimation, as well as to the real effects of noise upon human prenatal growth.

  11. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  12. NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  14. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23,665 deliveries, 198 were classified as patients with little or no prenatal care who received traditional, individualized, and physician-based discontinuous prenatal care (community-based model), and 187 were classified as control patients who received tertiary hospital-based continuous prenatal care. The effects on perinatal outcome were significantly different between the two groups. The cases in the hospital-based care group were less likely to be associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. After adjustment of confounding factors, the factors associated with pregnant women who received little or no prenatal care by individualized physician groups were diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mmHg, serum aspartate transaminase level ≥ 150 IU/L, and low-birth-weight deliveries. This study also demonstrated the dose-response effect of inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive prenatal care status on fetal birth weight and gestational periods (weeks to delivery). The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  16. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  17. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  18. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  19. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  20. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  1. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-06-22

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  2. Childhood maltreatment history, posttraumatic relational sequelae, and prenatal care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or had used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, M M; Willett, W C; Michels, K B

    2015-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to multivitamins may be associated with obesity in the offspring; however, data in humans are sparse. We therefore examined the association between prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity. We investigated the association between prenatal vitamin intake and obesity among 29,160 mother-daughter dyads in the Nurses' Health Study II. Mothers of participants provided information on prenatal vitamin use during pregnancy with the nurse daughter. Information on body fatness at ages 5 and 10, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, weight in 1989 and 2009, waist circumference, and height was obtained from the daughter. Polytomous logistic regression was used to predict BMI in early adulthood and adulthood, and body fatness in childhood. Linear regression was used to predict waist circumference in adulthood. In utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness, either in childhood or in adulthood. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being obese in adulthood of 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05, P-value = 0.68) compared with women whose mothers did not take prenatal vitamins. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted OR of having the largest body shape at age 5 of 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15, P-value = 0.78). In additional analyses, in utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was also unrelated to adult abdominal adiposity. Exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness either in childhood or in adulthood.

  5. Prenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI: The comparative value of each modality in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugash, Denise [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: dpugash@cw.bc.ca; Brugger, Peter C. [Integrative Morphology Group, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bettelheim, Dieter [University Clinics of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Fetal MRI is used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to ultrasound (US) in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the relative value of both prenatal US and MRI in evaluating fetal and extra-fetal structures for a variety of clinical indications. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are addressed. In summary, MRI has advantages in demonstrating pathology of the brain, lungs, complex syndromes, and conditions associated with reduction of amniotic fluid. At present, US is the imaging method of choice during the first trimester, and in the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities, as well as for screening. In some conditions, such as late gestational age, increased maternal body mass index, skeletal dysplasia, and metabolic disease, neither imaging method may provide sufficient diagnostic information.

  6. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group.

  7. Genetic Considerations in the Prenatal Diagnosis of Overgrowth Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Large (>90%) for gestational age (LGA) fetuses are usually identified incidentally. Detection of the LGA fetus should first prompt the provider to rule out incorrect dates and maternal diabetes. Once this is done, consideration should be given to certain overgrowth syndromes, especially if anomalies are present. The overgrowth syndromes have significant clinical and molecular overlap, and are associated with developmental delay, tumors, and other anomalies. Although genetic causes of overgrowth are considered postnatally, they are infrequently diagnosed prenatally. Here, we review prenatal sonographic findings in fetal overgrowth syndromes, including Pallister-Killian, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Sotos, Perlman, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel. We also discuss prenatal diagnosis options and recurrence risks. PMID:19609940

  8. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  9. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: prenatal sonographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Jeong ha; Kim, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Ji Young; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare, benign lesion that arises from one or more ribs, almost exclusively found in infants. Some cases that developed in the fetal period have been reported, but accurate diagnosis was usually possible only after birth, except in a few cases in which fetal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were performed. We present a case of a congenital mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed until birth, the prenatal sonographic examination showed strongly suggestive findings. We review the published reports on this condition, and suggest the prenatal sonographic features. Prenatal sonography is valuable in the differential diagnosis of chest mass.

  10. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  11. Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different.

  12. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos: significance for maternal stress and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Cauley, Marty; Johnson, Joshua E; Cooper, Ellen M; Stapleton, Heather M; Ferguson, P Lee; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment given in preterm labor and are also elevated by maternal stress; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous, so human developmental coexposures to these two agents are common. This study explores how prenatal dexamethasone exposure modifies the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used organophosphates. We administered dexamethasone to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-19 at a standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg); offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1 mg/kg) that produces barely-detectable (<10%) inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. Dexamethasone did not alter brain chlorpyrifos concentrations, nor did either agent alone or in combination affect brain thyroxine levels. Assessments were carried out from adolescence through adulthood encompassing T-maze alternation, Figure 8 maze (locomotor activity, habituation), novelty-suppressed feeding and novel object recognition tests. For behaviors where chlorpyrifos or dexamethasone individually had small effects, the dual exposure produced larger, significant effects that reflected additivity (locomotor activity, novelty-suppressed feeding, novel object recognition). Where the individual effects were in opposite directions or were restricted to only one agent, we found enhancement of chlorpyrifos' effects by prenatal dexamethasone (habituation). Finally, for behaviors where controls displayed a normal sex difference in performance, the combined treatment either eliminated or reversed the difference (locomotor activity, novel object recognition). Combined exposure to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos results in a worsened neurobehavioral outcome, providing a proof-of-principle that prenatal glucocorticoids can create a subpopulation with enhanced vulnerability to environmental toxicants.

  13. Changes in endocrine and neurochemical profiles in neonatal pigs prenatally exposed to increased maternal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret

    2006-10-01

    Early life environmental factors are able to influence prenatal development and may cause structural and functional effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neurotransmitter systems in the offspring. These effects seem to be species specific and may depend on the period of gestation when the factors are effective. Elevated maternal cortisol levels are assumed to play a crucial role as a programming factor during prenatal development. Thus, the present study was performed in order to examine the effects of increased maternal cortisol levels during mid- and late gestation on central and peripheral alterations of the HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter profiles in piglets. Endogenous cortisol release was induced by i.m. administration of ACTH to sows every second day either during mid- (day 49 until 75) or late gestation (day 85 until 107). Controls received injections of saline. ACTH treatment of sows during mid- and late gestation had no effects on the gestation length, the number of total born and the frequency of stillborn piglets. However, ACTH treatment during late gestation caused an increase of birth weight (P pigs affect growth, HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter systems in the offspring in a sex-specific manner. The observed alterations in endocrine and neurotransmitter systems are dependent on the gestational period. Late gestation appears to be a more sensitive phase for cortisol-induced programming in pigs. Moreover, the present data show that there are marked developmental differences between laboratory animals and domestic pigs, and highlight the importance of species-specific studies on prenatal influences.

  14. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Liu

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Aarskog syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, W; Dezerega, V; Horvath, E; Aracena, M

    1999-10-01

    In 1970, Aarskog described a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by short stature in association with a variety of structural anomalies involving mainly the face, distal extremities, and external genitalia (faciodigitogenital syndrome). The major facial manifestations of this syndrome include hypertelorism, broad forehead, broad nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, widow's peak hair anomaly, and ocular and ear anomalies. Limb abnormalities consist of short broad hands, brachydactyly, interdigital webbing, hypoplasia of the middle phalanges, proximal interphalangeal joint laxity with concomitant flexion and restriction of movement of distal interphalangeal joints, and flat broad feet with bulbous toes. Genital anomalies are characteristics and include shawl scrotum, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. Most affected patients have normal intelligence, but some authors have noted mild neurodevelopmental delay in up to 30% of the cases. We describe a case of Aarskog syndrome diagnosed prenatally by sonography at 28 weeks' gestation in a high-risk pregnancy for this disorder.

  17. PRENATAL SEX DETERMINATION: Issues and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande JD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of knowledge and voluminous literature is available on sex discrimination in India over the last twenty years. Moreover, detailed statistics about sex ratio from various sources exist.Understanding the rationale behind prenatal sex determination is no doubt key to deciphering the dynamics of sex ratio in India. Present article is an attempt to review the main dimensions of the recentsex-ratio degradation in India: its origin, its mechanisms and social characteristics, its implications in the long run and its major causes. Analysis also points to the positive linkage between abnormal sex ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy. Child Sex ratio is not lowest in poor tribal districts or other backward areas, but in prosperous Western Maharashtra and other economically empowered districts. It is essential to raise awareness and seek attitudinal and behavior changes to tackle the problem.

  18. Short hard palate in prenatal trisomy 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, H; Hansen, Birgit; Reintoft, I;

    2005-01-01

    and palatine parts) in trisomy 21 fetuses, and to compare the results to normal standards. Design - Material from 31 human fetuses with genetically verified trisomy 21 was studied. The fetuses were derived from legally induced or spontaneous abortions. Palates were, after sectioning, radiographed in lateral...... of the palatal components in trisomy 21 was compared to normal standards. Results - For CRL 150 mm and CRL 170 mm it appears that all three palatal lengths, total length, maxillary length, and palatinal length are significantly shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion - The main conclusion of our study...... is that the total palatal length in prenatal trisomy 21 is shorter than normal and that this is due both to a shortness of the maxillary and the palatine components of the hard palate....

  19. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  20. Prenatal mercury exposure and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Mario; Ballester, Ferran; Enning, Ashley Michel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Valvi, Damaskini; Basterrechea, Mikel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Maruri, Maite; Tardon, Adonina; Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina

    2016-11-01

    Results regarding the association between mercury exposure and anthropometry at birth, gestational length and placental weight are inconsistent, as is the role of seafood intake in these associations. We assessed whether prenatal mercury exposure is associated with anthropometry at birth, placental weight and gestational length in a population with a relatively high exposure to mercury from seafood consumption. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood from 1869 newborns with birth outcome measures, within the Spanish multicenter INMA cohort from 2004 to 2008. We adjusted cohort specific linear and Cox regression models to evaluate the association between T-Hg and birth anthropometry (weight, length, and head circumference), placental weight and gestational length. Non-spontaneous labor was taken to be censoring in the survival analysis. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Geometric mean T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. A doubling of T-Hg was associated with a 7.7g decrease in placental weight (95% CI: -13.6, -1.8) and marginally with head circumference (beta: -0.052cm, 95% CI: -0.109, 0.005). T-Hg was also inversely related to weight and length, although with weaker estimates. Mercury exposure was not associated with the length of gestation. The inverse relation between T-Hg and growth was enhanced when the intake of different seafood groups was adjusted for in the models. Prenatal mercury exposure may be associated with reduced placental and fetal growth. Confounding by fish intake should be considered when assessing these relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral outcome in the USA and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Derauf, Chris; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Wilcox, Tara; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is a world-wide problem, but little is known of its impact on exposed infants. Design The prospective, controlled longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study of prenatal MA exposure from birth to 36 months was conducted in the US and NZ. The US cohort has 183 exposed and 196 comparison infants; the NZ cohort has 85 exposed and 95 comparison infants. Exposure was determined by self-report and meconium assay with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco exposures present in both groups. The NICU Neurobehavior Scale (NNNS) was administered within 5 days of life. NNNS summary scores were analyzed for exposure including heavy exposure and frequency of use by trimester and dose-response relationship with the amphetamine analyte. Results MA Exposure was associated with poorer quality of movement, more total stress/abstinence, physiological stress, and CNS stress with more nonoptimal reflexes in NZ but not in the USA. Heavy MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and excitability. First trimester MA use predicted more stress and third trimester use more lethargy and hypotonicity. Dose-response effects were observed between amphetamine concentration in meconium and CNS stress. Conclusion Across cultures, prenatal MA exposure was associated with a similar neurobehavioral pattern of under arousal, low tone, poorer quality of movement and increased stress. PMID:20615464

  2. Status-Relevant Experiences and Conspicuous Consumption - the Moderating Role of Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gert; Palacios-Fenech, Javier

    2016-09-20

    In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products. However, we demonstrate that some individuals are predictably more responsive to those experiences than others. We used a physiological measure (the proportion of the length of the index finger and ring finger of the right hand, 2D:4D) as a proxy for individual differences in exposure to prenatal androgens (i.e., testosterone). This measure has been related to dominant and competitive behavior later in life. We predict and find that individuals with a low 2D:4D (i.e., high exposure to prenatal androgens) were more responsive to the status-relevant experiences: they became more interested in luxury goods after these experiences. This was not the case for high 2D:4D individuals.

  3. Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Javier Masquijo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7. En el 25% (13/52 de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28. En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of

  4. Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted external environmental conditions, but because both affect phenotypes similarly, they are largely indistinguishable. Only external (not internal) PARs rely on high environmental stability particularly in long-lived species. We report on a crucial test case in a wild long-lived mammal, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), which evolved and lives in an unpredictable environment where external PARs are probably not advantageous. We quantified food availability, growth, motor skills, maternal caretaking style and maternal physiological stress from faecal glucocorticoid measures. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively correlated to prenatal food availability and led to accelerated offspring growth accompanied by decelerated motor skill acquisition and reduced immune function. These results support the ‘internal PAR’ theory, which stresses the role of stable adverse internal somatic states rather than stable external environments. PMID:27655764

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  6. Sirenomelia: Case Report and Discussion of its Prenatal Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Diabetes mellitus, dysmorphic lower limb, prenatal diagnosis, sirenomelia ... get any routine investigation done. ... study. In view of a congenitally anomalous fetus, tocolysis was not given and ... associated genetic predisposition.

  7. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  9. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  10. New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162970.html New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects ... HealthDay News) -- In a recommendation that reaffirms previous guidelines, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said that ...

  11. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

      Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered...... in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining...... a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers...

  12. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Anthony Peters

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  13. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  14. Fetal MRI in Prenatal Diagnosis of CNS Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The value of fetal MRI (fMRI compared to ultrasound in the prenatal detection of CNS abnormalities and impact on counseling were determined in 25 pregnant women examined at University of Dusseldorf, Germany.

  15. Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and ... (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, ... extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal ...

  16. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Scheinost

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  17. Follow-up of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Lenz, K; Rabol, A

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous experience with prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis, we found that the primary indications for surgical intervention should be symptoms or functional impairment of the hydronephrotic kidney. Nonoperative management of neonates without symptoms and with normal function...

  18. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  19. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    : Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  20. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  1. Prenatal exposure to maternal infection alters cytokine expression in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakubo, A; Jarskog, L F; Lieberman, J A; Gilmore, J H

    2001-01-15

    Prenatal exposure to infection appears to increase the risk of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We have hypothesized that cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, play a key mechanistic role in this association. E16 timed pregnancy rats were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to model prenatal exposure to infection. Placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brains were collected 2 and 8h after LPS exposure. There was a significant treatment effect of low-dose (0.5mg/kg) LPS on placenta cytokine levels, with significant increases of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.0001), IL-6 (P<0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P=0.0001) over the 2 and 8h time course. In amniotic fluid, there was a significant effect of treatment on IL-6 levels (P=0.0006). Two hours after maternal administration of high-dose (2.5mg/kg) LPS, there were significant elevations of placenta IL-6 (P<0.0001), TNF-alpha (P<0.0001), a significant increase of TNF-alpha in amniotic fluid (P=0.008), and a small but significant decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.035) in fetal brain. Maternal exposure to infection alters pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the fetal environment, which may have a significant impact on the developing brain.

  2. Effects of Adaptation to Elevated Salinity on Some Enzymes' Salt-tolerance in Vitro and Physiological Changes of Eelgrass%盐分胁迫对大叶藻某些胞内酶耐盐性及其生理功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春江; 赵可夫

    2002-01-01

    分别以3个盐度(100%、150% 和200%人工海水)处理大叶藻(Zostera marina L.)植株5 d,然后在体外测定了大叶藻叶片中两个胞内酶(PEP羧化酶和苹果酸脱氢酶)的耐盐性和在不同盐度介质中(100%、150%、200%、300%人工海水)经不同盐度(100%、150% 和200%人工海水)海水预处理的大叶藻叶片光合速率以及一些生理指标的改变.结果表明在高于海水的盐度下,大叶藻叶片中丙二醛(MDA)、还原性糖和Na+, Cl-含量及渗透势(绝对值)均随海水盐度的提高而增加,但K+和游离氨基酸的含量均降低.从处理5 d的植株中提取的苹果酸脱氢酶在体外每一盐度下,其活性(A)大小依次为: A100% ASW>A150% ASW>A200% ASW(artificial seawater),并且其活性对盐度敏感(低盐度激活高盐度抑制);但从100%及200%人工海水(ASW)处理的植株中提取的PEP羧化酶的活性在体外对盐度不敏感,而从150%人工海水处理的植株中提取的PEP羧化酶的活性对盐度具有很高的抗性.实验结果显示由150%人工海水处理的植株,在每一特定的盐度下其光合速率均高于另外两组处理(100% ASW和200% ASW),并且3个处理的光合速率均与其PEPC在不同盐度下的活性表现相一致.但是,经150% ASW 处理的大叶藻植株是否受到盐害还有待于进一步探讨.实验表明"大叶藻耐盐性在一定程度上是由于其代谢酶对盐度的耐性造成的"这一说法是不合适的;不存在蒸腾作用可能是大叶藻耐盐机理的重要组成部分.%The eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) was treated with artificial seawater (ASW) of different salinities (100%, 150% and 200% seawater) for 5 d. The activities of two enzymes extracted from the plant leaves were determined under a salinity grade in vitro. So were the photosynthesis rates of the plants from the three treatments in the media with different salinities (100%, 150%, 200%, 300% ASW) and some physiological data. The data showed that under

  3. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  4. Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Green, Chris G; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of regional variations in use of prenatal care to identify individual-level and neighbourhood-level determinants of inadequate prenatal care among women giving birth in the province of Manitoba. Data were obtained from Manitoba Health administrative databases and the 1996 Canadian Census. An index of prenatal care use was calculated for each singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 149,291). Births were geocoded into 498 geographic districts, and a spatial analysis was conducted, consisting of data visualization, spatial clustering, and data modelling using Poisson regression. We found wide variation in rates of inadequate prenatal care across geographic areas, ranging from 1.1% to 21.5%. Higher rates of inadequate care were found in the inner-city of Winnipeg and in northern Manitoba. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care were among women living in neighbourhoods with the lowest average family income, the highest proportion of the population who were unemployed, the highest rates of recent immigrants, the highest percentage of the population reporting Aboriginal status, the highest percentage of single parent families, the highest percentage of the population with fewer than nine years of education, and the highest rates of women who smoked during pregnancy. Social inequalities exist in the use of prenatal care among Manitoba women, despite there being a universally funded health care system. Regional disparities in rates of inadequate prenatal care emphasize the need for further research to determine specific risk factors for inadequate prenatal care in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, followed by provision of effective targeted services.

  5. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome: looking beyond craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorine, Anna S; Weida, Jennifer; Hines, Karrie A; Robinson, Barrett; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Weaver, David D

    2014-03-01

    Carpenter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, and brachydactyly. It occurs in approximately 1 birth per million. We present a patient with Carpenter syndrome (confirmed by molecular diagnosis) who has several unique and previously unreported manifestations including a large ovarian cyst and heterotaxy with malrotation of stomach, intestine, and liver. These findings were first noted by prenatal ultrasound and may assist in prenatally diagnosing additional cases of Carpenter syndrome.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of common single gene disorders by DNA technology

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Using the new DNA technology, it is now possible to offer prenatal diagnosis or presymptomatic testing for many genetic diseases. For prenatal diagnosis, foetal tissue is obtained y chorionic villus sampling at 9 to 11 weeks gestation or amniocentesis at 18 weeks. The programme in Hong Kong, which started in 1982, is reviewed here and now included alpha and beta thalassaemia, haemophilia A and B, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington's diseases, and spinal muscular atrophy. DNA diagnosis ca...

  8. Congenital epulis: prenatal imaging with MRI and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sylvain; Patenaude, Yves G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, CHUS-Hopital Fleurimont, 3001 12 Ave Nord, J1H 5N4, Fleurimont, Quebec (Canada); Sinsky, Anna [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, UNC School of Medicine, 3322 Old Infirmary Building, NC 27599-7510, Chapel Hill (United States); Williams, Bruce [Department of Surgery, Montreal Children' s Hospital, Room C1139, 2300 Tupper Street, H3H 1P3, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Desilets, Valerie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Avenue West, H3A 1A1, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)

  9. [Rare case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis and prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluppillai, C; Jossic, F; Quéré, M-P; Philippe, H-J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA) is a rare congenital lung malformation. The prognosis is severe as it is incompatible with extra-uterine life. Although multiple prenatal imaging modalities are developed, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. We report a case of BPA observed in our unity and for which the diagnosis was not clearly identified during the evaluation. This report illustrates the need to consider all the imaging aspects and particularly during US examination suspecting BPA.

  10. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures: a developing countries' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With appropriate prenatal invasive test were able to prevent birth of affected fetus which is of huge importance considering the patients who give birth to abnormal babies only to see them suffering and frequently dying also. Prenatal invasive test were able to prevent this psychological, mental as well as physical trauma in these patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 41-47

  11. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  12. Nurse managed prenatal programs affect outcomes for corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P E; Bitowski, B E; Bell, P L

    1997-09-01

    Faced with higher medical costs and increased insurance premiums, corporations are focusing on health promotion and wellness. With increasing numbers of women in the workforce, corporations have identified the need for prenatal programs. By developing, initiating, and evaluating outcome-based prenatal programs nurses can target the health care needs of this select population. One such program documented several outcomes including improved employee health and an 86% reduction in maternal/newborn costs.

  13. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Yu Jin; Song, Mi Jin; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kyung Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence.

  15. A national perspective on prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Victoria; Alston, Charlotte L; Blakely, Emma L; Fratter, Carl; Feeney, Catherine L; Poulton, Joanna; Brown, Garry K; Turnbull, Doug M; Taylor, Robert W; McFarland, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial diseases affect >1 in 7500 live births and may be due to mutations in either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA). Genetic counselling for families with mitochondrial diseases, especially those due to mtDNA mutations, provides unique and difficult challenges particularly in relation to disease transmission and prevention. We have experienced an increasing demand for prenatal diagnostic testing from families affected by mitochondrial disease since we first offered this service in 2007. We review the diagnostic records of the 62 prenatal samples (17 mtDNA and 45 nDNA) analysed since 2007, the reasons for testing, mutation investigated and the clinical outcome. Our findings indicate that prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease is reliable and informative for the nuclear and selected mtDNA mutations we have tested. Where available, the results of mtDNA heteroplasmy analyses from other family members are helpful in interpreting the prenatal mtDNA test result. This is particularly important when the mutation is rare or the mtDNA heteroplasmy is observed at intermediate levels. At least 11 cases of mitochondrial disease were prevented following prenatal testing, 3 of which were mtDNA disease. On the basis of our results, we believe that prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease is an important option for couples where appropriate genetic analyses and pre/post-test counselling can be provided.

  16. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-07-18

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Metabolic programming of adipose tissue structure and function in male rat offspring by prenatal undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nichola; Huber, Korinna; Bedürftig, Mirijam; Hansen, Kathrin; Miles-Chan, Jennifer; Breier, Bernhard H

    2014-01-01

    A number of different pathways to obesity with different metabolic outcomes are recognised. Prenatal undernutrition in rats leads to increased fat deposition in adulthood. However, the form of obesity is metabolically distinct from obesity induced through other pathways (e.g. diet-induced obesity). Previous rat studies have shown that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to insulin hyper-secretion and obesity in offspring, but not to systemic insulin resistance. Increased muscle and liver glycogen stores indicated that glucose is taken up efficiently, reflecting an active physiological function of these energy storage tissues. It is increasingly recognised that adipose tissue plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism and pathophysiology of obesity development. The present study investigated the cell size and endocrine responsiveness of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from prenatally undernourished rats. We aimed to identify whether these adipose tissue depots contribute to the altered energy metabolism observed in these offspring. Adipocyte size was measured in both subcutaneous (ScAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RpAT) in male prenatally ad libitum fed (AD) or prenatally undernourished (UN) rat offspring. Metabolic responses were investigated in adipose tissue explants stimulated by insulin and beta3 receptor agonists ex vivo. Expression of markers of insulin signalling was determined by Western blot analyses. Data were analysed by unpaired t-test or Two Way ANOVA followed by Fisher's PLSD post-hoc test, where appropriate. Adipocytes in offspring of undernourished mothers were larger, even at a lower body weight, in both RpAT and ScAT. The insulin response of adipose tissue was reduced in ScAT, and statistically absent in RpAT of UN rats compared with control. This lack of RpAT insulin response was associated with reduced expression of insulin signalling pathway proteins. Adrenergic receptor-driven lipolysis was observed in both

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  20. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury alters development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral sympathetic target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Orband, L.; Cowdery, T.; Kavlock, R.J.; Bartolome, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on sympathetic neurotransmission, effects on development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral tissues was evaluated. In the liver, methylmercury produced a dose-dependent increase in alpha/sub 1/, alpha/sub 2/, and beta-receptor binding of radioliganda throughout the first 5 weeks of postnatal life. Similarly, renal alpha-receptor subtypes showed increased binding capabilities, but binding to alpha-receptor sites was reduced. At least some of the changes in receptors appear to be of functional significance, as physiological reactivity to adrenergic stimulation is altered in the same directions in these two tissues. The actions of methylmercury displayed tissue specificity in that the same receptor populations were largely unaffected in other tissues (lung, heart). These results suggest that methylmercury exposure in utero alters adrenergic responses through targeted effects on postsynaptic receptor populations in specific tissues.

  1. Heat shock response and mammal adaptation to high elevation (hypoxia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolin; XU Cunshuan; WANG Xiujie; WANG Dongjie; WANG Qingshang; ZHANG Baochen

    2006-01-01

    The mammal's high elevation (hypoxia) adaptation was studied by using the immunological and the molecular biological methods to understand the significance of Hsp (hypoxia) adaptation in the organic high elevation, through the mammal heat shock response. (1) From high elevation to low elevation (natural hypoxia): Western blot and conventional RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quota PCR were adopted. Expression difference of heat shock protein of 70 (Hsp70) and natural expression of brain tissue of Hsp70 gene was determined in the cardiac muscle tissue among the different elevation mammals (yak). (2)From low elevation to high elevation (hypoxia induction):The mammals (domestic rabbits) from the low elevation were sent directly to the areas with different high elevations like 2300, 3300 and 5000 m above sea level to be raised for a period of 3 weeks before being slaughtered and the genetic inductive expression of the brain tissue of Hsp70 was determined with RT-PCR. The result indicated that all of the mammals at different elevations possessed their heat shock response gene. Hsp70 of the high elevation mammal rose abruptly under stress and might be induced to come into being by high elevation (hypoxia). The speedy synthesis of Hsp70 in the process of heat shock response is suitable to maintain the cells' normal physiological functions under stress. The Hsp70 has its threshold value. The altitude of 5000 m above sea level is the best condition for the heat shock response, and it starts to reduce when the altitude is over 6000 m above sea level. The Hsp70 production quantity and the cell hypoxia bearing capacity have their direct ratio.

  2. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-12-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance.

  3. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  4. Prenatal corticosterone exposure programs growth, behavior, reproductive function and genes in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper was to understand the role of prenatal corticosterone exposure on growth, aggressive behavior, reproductive performance and gene expression in the chicken. The phenotype, physiology, reproductive function and behavioral characteristics of an organism are not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors that play a critical role in shaping offspring morphology. Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development influences offspring growth, physiology and behaviors associated with alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and serotonergic system gene expression. Another influential factor for phenotype, physiology and behavioral development is maternal derived steroid hormones that deposit in the egg. In avian species, maternal influences have aroused much attention after the discovery that avian eggs contain a variety of maternal derived steroid hormones. In addition, the environment condition during ontogeny has played a critical role in behavioral development. In avian species, for example laying chicken, high quality mother care produced chicks that were less fearful. Laying hen maternal care is found to reduce cannibalistic pecking phenomenon. Genetic selection and selection experiments will also play a critical role in animals breeding for the housing systems of the future. To optimize animal welfare and to reduce risks factors such as pecking behavior, fundamental approaches are required that merge selection of the optimal genotype with provision of a positive environment for parents and offspring, both throughout ontogeny and later life.

  5. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwid, Samantha; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offsprings were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females; (2) although BPA elevated plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes, it stimulated the expression of StAR and cyp11A1, the two rate-limiting factors in the steroidogenic pathway, only in female adrenal glands; and interestingly (3) BPA did not alter plasma ACTH levels or adrenal expression of the key steroidogenic transcription factor SF-1 in either sex. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the long-term consequences of developmental BPA exposure on adrenal steroidogenesis.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  7. Trial by Dutch laboratories for evaluation of non‐invasive prenatal testing. Part I—clinical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oepkes, Dick; Page‐Christiaens, G. C. (Lieve); Bax, Caroline J.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Bilardo, Catia M.; Boon, Elles M. J.; Schuring‐Blom, G. Heleen; Coumans, Audrey B. C.; Faas, Brigitte H.; Galjaard, Robert‐Jan H.; Go, Attie T.; Henneman, Lidewij; Macville, Merryn V. E.; Pajkrt, Eva; Suijkerbuijk, Ron F.; Huijsdens‐van Amsterdam, Karin; Van Opstal, Diane; Verweij, E. J. (Joanne); Weiss, Marjan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the clinical impact of nationwide implementation of genome‐wide non‐invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in pregnancies at increased risk for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 (TRIDENT study). Method Women with elevated risk based on first trimester combined testing (FCT ≥ 1:200) or medical history, not advanced maternal age alone, were offered NIPT as contingent screening test, performed by Dutch University Medical laboratories. We analyzed uptake, test performance, redraw/failure rate, turn‐around time and pregnancy outcome. Results Between 1 April and 1 September 2014, 1413/23 232 (6%) women received a high‐risk FCT result. Of these, 1211 (85.7%) chose NIPT. One hundred seventy‐nine women had NIPT based on medical history. In total, 1386/1390 (99.7%) women received a result, 6 (0.4%) after redraw. Mean turn‐around time was 14 days. Follow‐up was available in 1376 (99.0%) pregnancies. NIPT correctly predicted 37/38 (97.4%) trisomies 21, 18 or 13 (29/30, 4/4 and 4/4 respectively); 5/1376 (0.4%) cases proved to be false positives: trisomies 21 (n = 2), 18 (n = 1) and 13 (n = 2). Estimated reduction in invasive testing was 62%. Conclusion Introduction of NIPT in the Dutch National healthcare‐funded Prenatal Screening Program resulted in high uptake and a vast reduction of invasive testing. Our study supports offering NIPT to pregnant women at increased risk for fetal trisomy. © 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27750376

  8. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  9. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  10. [Morphological changes in ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in human fetuses and newborns on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, E V; Vasil'eva, M E; Peretiatko, L P; Malyshkina, A I

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the morphology of the ventricular germinal zone and neocortex of the cerebral hemispheres in the projection field no. 4 of the motor area in human fetuses in dynamics from week 22 to 40 of fetal development. Morphological study allowed us to clarify the following patterns of prenatal ontogeny of the human CNS. On weeks 22-27, an intensive formation of the main sulci of the first order, differentiating the brain into lobes, is observed. By weeks 28-32, the formation of all sulci of the first order is completed; and on weeks 33-37, additional sulci characteristic of an individual are formed. The spurt of gyrification of the cortex (weeks 22-27) practically coincides with the completion of neuronal differentiation and formation of the motor neocortex. The structure of the latter is characterized by a clear stratification of cytoarchitectonic layers and modular organization of neurons with their vertical orientation in cell columns (weeks 25-27). In subsequent weeks of prenatal development until birth, no significant changes in the topography and structure of the neocortex are observed. Structural rearrangement of the ventricular germinal zone on weeks 22-40 of prenatal development consists in its gradual reduction and is completed on weeks 37-40. The criteria of physiological reduction of this area are the zonal location of glioblasts and a progressive decrease in its thickness on weeks 33-37 of prenatal development.

  11. Effects of treadmill running exercise during the adolescent period of life on behavioral deficits in juvenile rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to morphine throughout pregnancy results in an array of prolonged or permanent neurochemical and behavioral deficits, including deficits in learning and memory in children of addicted mothers. This study investigated the effects of forced exercise on behavioral deficits of pups born to mothers addicted to morphine in rats. After mating and ensuring of pregnancy of female Wistar rats, they were divided into morphine or saline groups and in the second half of pregnancy (on days 11-18 of gestation) were injected subcutaneously with morphine or saline, respectively. Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and trained at mild intensity on a treadmill 20 days. On PND 41-47, the behavioral responses were studied. Light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus were used for investigation of anxiety, shuttle box and forced swimming tests were used to assess passive avoidance learning and memory and depression behavior, respectively. The results showed that prenatal morphine exposure caused reductions in time spent in light compartment of L/D box and EPM open arm, while postnatal exercise reversed these effects. We also found that prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in step through latency in passive avoidance memory test and exercise counteracted with this effect. Performance in the forced swimming test did not affected by prenatal morphine exposure or postnatal exercise. Exercise seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits of children born to addicted mothers to morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  13. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide......Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  14. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  15. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  16. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  17. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  18. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  19. Quality of Prenatal Care Services in Karabuk Community Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162

  20. Prenatal psychosocial risk assessment using event history calendars with Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Lori, Jody R; Martyn, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical acceptability and perceptions of use of a prenatal event history calendar (EHC) for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment in Black pregnant women. A qualitative descriptive study focused on interviews and prenatal EHCs completed by Black pregnant women. Inner city hospital prenatal care clinic in Southeastern Michigan. Thirty 18-35 year old pregnant Black women receiving prenatal care at the participating clinic. Women completed the prenatal EHCs and their perceptions of its use were obtained through face to face interviews. The constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) revealed themes from participants' descriptions about use of a prenatal EHC for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment. Three main themes emerged describing how the prenatal EHC enhanced communication. The prenatal EHC provided "an opening" for disclosure, "an understanding with you," and a way for providers to "know you, your life, and future plans." The participants' completed prenatal EHCs included information regarding their pre-pregnancies, trimester histories, and future plans. These completed prenatal EHCs showed patterns of change in life events and behaviors that included worries, stressors, and risk behaviors. The participants perceived the prenatal EHC as an easy to use tool that should be used to improve communication with health care providers. The prenatal EHC allows the patient and provider to "start on the same page" and provides an additional avenue for discussion of sensitive psychosocial issues with Black pregnant women. As a clinical tool, the prenatal EHC facilitated patient-provider communication for pregnant women often marked by health disparities. The prenatal EHC is a clinically acceptable tool to assess for psychosocial risk factors of Black women in a prenatal clinical setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.J. (New York Power Authority, White Plains (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed.

  3. Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L; Royall, Joshua J; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A; Facer, Benjamin A C; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E; Jochim, Jayson M; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana E; Stevens, Allison; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V; Shen, Elaine H; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glass, Ian A; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R; Knowles, James A; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G; Lein, Ed S

    2014-04-10

    The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.

  4. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  5. A prenatal case with discrepant findings between non-invasive prenatal testing and fetal genetic testings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiong; Sun, Baojuan; Huang, Xiaoli; Jing, Xin; Liu, Hailiang; Jiang, Fuman; Zhou, Jie; Lin, Mengmeng; Yue, Hongni; Hu, Ping; Ning, Ying

    2014-01-01

    At 17(+4) week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19(+3) week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19(+3) week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with non-mosaic T18 fetus and multiclonal placenta with high prevalence of 45, X and low level of T18 cells. FISH and SNP-array evidence from the placental tissue confirmed genetic discrepancy between the fetus and placenta. Because the primary source of the fetal cell-free DNA that NIPT assesses is mostly originated from trophoblast cells, the level of T18 placental mosaicism may cause false negative NIPT result in this rare case of double aneuploidy.

  6. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  7. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  8. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  9. Hidronefrosis prenatal en doble sistema excretor Prenatal hydronephrosis in double excretory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción del ultrasonido materno-fetal en el seguimiento sistemático del embarazo normal se detectan anomalías congénitas en el 1 % de los fetos, el 20 % de las cuales corresponden al tracto urinario. Se realizó el estudio de recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis prenatal, cuyos ultrasonidos materno-fetales demostraron la presencia de un doble sistema excretor. Para este propósito todos los recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis detectada prenatalmente, y doble sistema excretor diagnosticado antes o después del nacimiento, fueron seguidos mediante ultrasonografía renal evolutiva, uretrocistografía miccional, gammagrafía estática o dinámica y, en algunos casos, mediante urograma excretor. Hallamos doble sistema excretor en 7 de los 182 pacientes (3,8 % con anormalidades del tracto urinario diagnosticadas antes del nacimiento. El diagnóstico fue prenatal solo en uno de los fetos (31 semanas de embarazo. La dilatación hidronefrótica fue ligera en dos fetos y grave en cinco. La hidronefrosis obedeció a diferentes causas. Se realizó nefrectomía polar superior en los casos de ectopia ureteral y de uréter superior obstruido, reimplantación en un ureterocele, y en otro se comprobó la ruptura espontánea mediante endoscopia. Los restantes pacientes se trataron sintomáticamente. La hidronefrosis detectada antes del nacimiento mediante ultrasonografía materno-fetal puede estar asociada a un doble sistema excretor. La dilatación hidronefrótica asociada a un doble sistema puede deberse a diferentes causas, y es necesario estudiar cuidadosa y sistemáticamente a estos niños y tratarlos adecuadamente, porque cada uno puede necesitar una conducta diferente.With the introduction of the maternofetal ultrasound in the systematic follow-up of normal pregnancy, congenital anomalies are detected in 1 % of the fetuses, 20 % of which correspond to the urinary tract. The newborns and infants with prenatal

  10. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in

  11. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil...

  12. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  13. Women's and healthcare professionals' preferences for prenatal testing: a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Groenewoud, H.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates pregnant women's and healthcare professionals' preferences regarding specific prenatal screening and diagnostic test characteristics. METHOD: A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess preferences for prenatal tests that differed in seven attributes: minimal

  14. Short Bi-Iliac Distance in Prenatal Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Ulla B.; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W.;

    2002-01-01

    prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography......prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography...

  15. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  16. Statistical Methods for the Evaluation of Health Effects of Prenatal Mercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe;

    2002-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose......Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose...

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on interactions of zucchini and powdery mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo PUGLIESE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of increased CO2 and temperature on powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, were evaluated under controlled conditions. Zucchini plants were grown in phytotrons under four different simulated climatic conditions: 450 ppm of CO2 at standard (18°C night, 24°C day and elevated temperatures (22°C night, 28°C day, elevated CO2 (800 ppm with standard temperature and elevated CO2 (800 ppm with elevated temperature (4°C higher than standard. Physiological responses of zucchini and pathogen development were studied. Under elevated CO2 both healthy and infected zucchini plants grew better when temperature was lower. Elevated CO2 generally caused no significant differences in pathogen development or disease severity, whereas elevated temperature stimulated the development of the pathogen. A combination of elevated CO2 and temperature always stimulated the development of the pathogen and disease severity compared to standard conditions.

  18. Pallister-Killian syndrome: difficulties of prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Bérénice; Girard-Lemaire, Françoise; Gasser, Bernard; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; De Geeter, Bernard; Spizzo, Michèle; Zeidan, Charles; Flori, Elisabeth

    2002-06-01

    The first prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) was reported by Gilgenkrantz et al. in1985. Since this report, about 60 prenatal cases have been reported but both sonographic and cytogenetic diagnoses remain difficult. Although ultrasound anomalies such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, polyhydramnios and rhizomelic micromelia in association with fetal overgrowth are very suggestive of the syndrome, they are inconstant and they may even be absent. The mosaic distribution of the supernumerary isochromosome 12p greatly increases these difficulties. No prenatal cytogenetic technique is sensitive enough to ensure prenatal diagnosis and false-negative results have been described on fetal blood, chorionic villi and amniocentesis. We report here two prenatal cases of PKS which illustrate the great variability of the fetal phenotype. In reviewing the 63 reported cases, we attempt to determine ultrasound indicators of the syndrome and to define a cytogenetic strategy. In cases where ultrasound indicators are present, our proposal is first to perform chorionic villus or placental sampling and then amniocentesis when the first cytogenetic result is normal. Fetal blood sampling is the least indicated method because of the low frequency of the isochromosome in lymphocytes. In this cytogenetic strategy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and especially interphase FISH on non-cultured cells increases the probability or identifying the isochromosome. A misdiagnosis remains possible when ultrasound is not contributory; the identification of new discriminating ultrasound indicators would be very helpful in this context.

  19. Factors Influencing the Use of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.

  20. Determinants of inadequate prenatal care utilization by African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Allan A; Hatcher, Barbara J; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil; Milligan, Renee A; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret F; Richards, Leslie; Wingrove, Barbara K; Laryea, Haziel A

    2007-08-01

    A convenience sample of city-dwelling African American women (n=246) was interviewed during each woman's postpartum stay at one of five hospitals in Washington, D.C. to determine their perceptions of factors influencing their prenatal care utilization. The Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to classify prenatal care utilization as either adequate (Adequate Plus and Adequate groups combined) or inadequate (Intermediate and Inadequate groups combined). Of the 246 women studied, 40% (99) had adequate prenatal care utilization. Using Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the following risk groups for inadequate prenatal care utilization were identified: women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers and who were not participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) (percent adequate=8.8); women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers, were participants of the WIC program, and reported substance use (percent adequate=13.8); and women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers, were participants of the WIC program, denied substance use, and reported childcare problems as barriers (percent adequate=20.0).

  1. The results of cytogenetic analyses in prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Privrodski Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. G-banding and other classical cytogenetic methods are still in use, together with molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and SKY (Spectral Karyotyping. Material and methods. This retrospective study evaluated clinical data on individuaols seeking genetic counseling over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 at the Medical Genetic Center, Child and Youth Health Care Institute of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. The study included 37.191 genetic counselings, and 20.607 prenatal analyses (amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Results Over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 17.937 amniotic fluid samples were analyzed and 274 abnormal karyotypes were found; out of 2.670 fetal blood samples, there were 78 abnormal karyotypes. During a 15-year period, prenatal diagnosis, using amniocentesis and/or cordocentesis, showed 352 fetuses with chromosomal aberrations. Discussion. On average, over the past 15-year period, 8% of pregnancies were controlled with invasive prenatal procedures. The percentage has changed; in fact, it is increasing from year to year. In 1992, only 0.82% (N=139/17000 of pregnant women in Vojvodina underwent invasive prenatal procedures, and in 2006 the rate increased to 15.65% (N=2660/17000. Conclusion. It is necessary to improve and promote the possibilities of genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis in order to prevent the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and other genetic diseases.

  2. Structural chromosomal anomalies detected by prenatal genetic diagnosis: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcaş, Simona; Crişan, C D; Andreescu, Nicoleta; Stoian, Monica; Motoc, A G M

    2013-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis is currently widely spread and facilitates the acquiring of important genetic information about the fetus by a rate extremely accelerate and considered without precedent. In this paper, we like to present our experience concerning the genetic diagnosis and counseling offered for pregnancies in which a structural chromosomal aberration was found. The study group is formed by 528 prenatal samples of amniotic fluid and chorionic villi, received by our laboratory from 2006 through October 2012 for cytogenetic diagnosis. The appropriate genetic investigation was selected based on the indications for prenatal diagnosis. The cases with structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were analyzed as regard to the maternal age, gestational age, referral indications and type of chromosomal anomaly found. A total number of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants were identified in the study group. Out of 21 structural chromosomal anomalies and polymorphic variants, six deletions and microdeletions, four situations with abnormal long "p" arm of acrocentric chromosomes, two duplications, two reciprocal translocations, two inversions, two additions, one Robertsonian translocation associating trisomy 13, one 9q heteromorphism and one complex chromosome rearrangement were noticed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Romanian study in which the diagnostic strategies and the management of the prenatal cases with structural rearrangements are presented. The data provided about the diagnosis strategy and the management of the prenatal cases with structural chromosomal anomalies represents a useful tool in genetic counseling of pregnancies diagnosed with rare structural chromosomal anomalies.

  3. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  4. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  5. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A comparison of indices

    OpenAIRE

    Green Chris G; Newburn-Cook Christine V; Heaman Maureen I; Elliott Lawrence J; Helewa Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA]), using each of the indices; and, to asse...

  6. Prenatal sonographic findings of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Won Sang; Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University Hospital, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The Backwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is and unusual complex with variable clinical features. Major findings included defects in the abdominal wall, macroglossia and macrosomia. These features should be amenable to prenatal ultrasound detection. Serious complications are possible in the neonatal period, which may result from the hypoglycemia or the airway obstruction due to macroglossia. Accurate prenatal diagnosis allows optimum prenatal care and prevention of serious complications. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed BWS with omphalocele, macroglossia, nephromegaly and hepatic cyst.

  7. Prenatal Calcification of the Inferior Vena Cava and Renal Veins in a Normal Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ranch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal calcification of the inferior vena cava (IVC and renal veins is a rare condition with unclear etiology and prognosis. It occurs with renal vein thrombosis in utero and is associated with congenital anomalies and abnormal prenatal hemodynamic status. We report a rare case of prenatal IVC and renal vein calcification in a normal neonate without any history of compromised prenatal or perinatal condition, or significant deterioration of kidney function.

  8. The Monitoring of Some Blood Physiological and Biochemical Index of Cows During Perinatal Period%围产期奶牛几种血液生理生化指标监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 申国新; 汪恩强; 安锡忠; 陨祺

    2014-01-01

    In order to monitor and diagnose common perinatal cow nutrition and metabolic diseases,totally 60 perinatal cows (10 cows respectively in prenatal 15d, prenatal 7d, prenatal 1d, postpartum 1d, postpartum 7d, postpartum 15d) were selected for physiological and biochemical blood testing. The experimental results showed that:all transition cows white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit of blood were little changed. It can not be served as the basis for monitoring of nutritional and metabolic diseases on transition cows. the minimum content of prenatal 1d cow serum free fatty acid was the lowest (460.76±268.34)μmol/L, in which respectively having the signiifcant differences (P<0.01) among prenatal 15d, postpartum 7d, 15d postpartum. The minimum content of postpartum cow serum glucose was the lowest (2.12±0.35)mmol/L, in which respectively compared with other times measured values were significantly different (P<0.01). The maximum content of postpartum 1d cow serum aspartate aminotransferase was the highest (15.33±3.24)U/L, in which respectively having the signiifcant differences(P<0.01)among prenatal 15d and prenatal 7d. 15d postpartum cow serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triglyceride levels were elevated (14.10 ± 4.40) U/L and (0.90 ± 0.14) mmol / L, compared with prenatal different periods were significantly different (P<0.01). The minimize content of Ca in the serum of postpartum 1d down to(1.76±0.32)mmol/L, serum hydroxyproline content and alkaline phosphatase activity were elevated (25.50 ± 7.90)μmol/L and (85.13±7.57) IU/L respectively, having signiifcant difference with prenatal(P<0.01). Conclusion:Using serum FFA, serum GLU and serum AST, and according to formula calculate Y as a basis for the diagnosis of fatty liver cows. The content of cow serum Ca was decreased. The content of serum HYP and activity increasing of serum ALP serve as the basis for the diagnosis of malnutrition cow bone. Ketone monitoring

  9. Results and Pitfalls in Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lillian Y. F.; Dubin, Elyse C.; Kerenyi, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Since 1969, we have cultured over 200 diagnostic amniotic fluids. Of these, 183 were for cytogenetic diagnosis. The chromosome analysis was successful in 168 cases. The indications and the results of the affected fetuses (followed by therapeutic abortion) are: (1) previous child with Down's syndrome: 62 cases (1:47,XX,+21); (2) advanced maternal age: 54 cases (1:47,XXY; 1:45,X/46,XY mosaicism; 1:47,+18); (3) previous child with multiple anomalies: 12 cases; (4) previous child with 47,XY,+18 or 47,+13: five cases; (5) translocation carrier: two cases; (6) parental mosaicism: three cases; (7) X-linked disorders: six cases (3:XY); (8) others: 24 cases. We have found firstly, that for prenatal sex determination, karyotype analysis of the cultured amniotic fluid cells is the only accurate means and that caution must be taken if sex chromatin and Y-fluorescent body determination from the uncultured amniotic fluid cells is used. Secondly, that diagnosis of chromosomal mosaicism can be problematic as exemplified by our case of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, where only 45,X cells were recovered from the first culture. Thirdly, that in cases with enlarged satellites, cells of late prophase or early metaphase must be used to eliminate confusion with translocations. We encountered three cases of enlarged satellites—one in the D group and two in the G group—and all three resulted in normal infants. Fourthly, that the karyotype may be altered by contamination and/or treatment or other unknown factors. We have observed two such cases where each mother delivered a normal infant. Images PMID:4268389

  10. Congenital toxoplasmosis and prenatal care state programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Mariza M; Amaral, Waldemar N; Rodrigues, Isolina M X; Rassi, Alan R; Gomes, Maria B F; Costa, Tatiane L; Castro, Ana M

    2014-01-18

    Control programs have been executed in an attempt to reduce vertical transmission and the severity of congenital infection in regions with a high incidence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate whether treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin associated with a lack of monitoring for toxoplasmosis seroconversion affects the prognosis of patients. We performed a prospective cohort study with 246 newborns (NB) at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis in Goiânia (Brazil) between October 2003 and October 2011. We analyzed the efficacy of maternal treatment with spiramycin. A total of 40.7% (66/162) of the neonates were born seriously infected. Vertical transmission associated with reactivation during pregnancy occurred in 5.5% (9/162) of the NB, with one showing severe infection (systemic). The presence of specific immunoglobulins (fetal IgM and NB IgA) suggested the worst prognosis. Treatment of pregnant women by spiramycin resulted in reduced vertical transmission. When infected pregnant women did not undergo proper treatment, the risk of severe infection (neural-optical) in NB was significantly increased. Fetal IgM was associated with ocular impairment in 48.0% (12/25) of the fetuses and neonatal IgA-specific was related to the neuro-ophthalmologic and systemic forms of the disease. When acute toxoplasmosis was identified in the postpartum period, a lack of monitoring of seronegative pregnant women resulted in a higher risk of severe congenital infection. Treatment of pregnant women with spiramycin reduces the possibility of transmission of infection to the fetus. However, a lack of proper treatment is associated with the onset of the neural-optical form of congenital infection. Primary preventive measures should be increased for all pregnant women during the prenatal period and secondary prophylaxis through surveillance of seroconversion in seronegative pregnant woman should be introduced to reduce the severity of congenital infection in the

  11. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  12. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  13. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  14. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal st

  15. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  16. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  17. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  18. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  19. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To establish a means for prenatal prediction of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) through survival motor neuron (SMN) gene deletion analysis and genetic counseling in families with a child affected with SMA. Methods Genetic analysis for prenatal prediction of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease was performed in a at risk Chinese family by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in SMN gene exons 7 and 8.Results The pregnancy was positive for the homozygous deletion of the SMN gene, thus the fetus was diagnosed as being affected and the pregnancy was terminated.Conclusion This approach is fast and reliable for DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: 10-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Fredj, S; Ouali, F; Siala, H; Bibi, A; Othmani, R; Dakhlaoui, B; Zouari, F; Messaoud, T

    2015-06-01

    We present in this study our 10years experience in prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis performed in the Tunisian population. Based on family history, 40 Tunisian couples were selected for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal DNA was isolated from amniotic fluid collected by transabdominal amniocentesis or from chronic villi by transcervical chorionic villus sampling. The genetic analysis for cystic fibrosis mutations was performed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and denaturing high-pressure liquid phase chromatography. We performed microsatellites analysis by capillary electrophoresis in order to verify the absence of maternal cell contamination. Thirteen fetuses were affected, 21 were heterozygous carriers and 15 were healthy with two normal alleles of CFTR gene. Ten couples opted for therapeutic abortion. The microsatellites genotyping showed the absence of contamination of the fetal DNA by maternal DNA in 93.75%. Our diagnostic strategy provides rapid and reliable prenatal diagnosis at risk families of cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of prenatally diagnosed partial monosomy 13q syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenat Eris Yalcin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 is a rare chromosomal aberration which is related to mental retardation, growth restriction and various congenital malformations. Central nervous system, cardiac, genitourinary, skeletal malformations and craniofacial dysmorphism can be observed. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by karyotyping and early genetic sonogram. Prenatal diagnosis can be difficult in cases that are not accompanied by major malformations but mental retardation and developmental delay in the forefront. In this report we aimed to present a case diagnosed 13-q syndrome prenatally as a result of karyotyping done due to multiple abnormal ultrasound findings in 14 weeks of pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 189-191

  3.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

      Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...... using a semi-structured interview guide and includes 26 pregnant women each interviewed shortly after having received information at their general practitioner, and again after having completed prenatal screenings tests.   Results:Only very few of the pregnant women in this study remember having...

  4. Prenatal transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to treat osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry KY Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI can be a severe disorder that can be diagnosed before birth. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC has the potential to improve the bone structure, growth and fracture healing. In this review we give an introduction to OI and MSC, and the basis for prenatal and postnatal transplantation in OI. We also summarize the two patients with OI who has received prenatal and postnatal transplantation of MSC.The findings suggest that prenatal transplantation of allogeneic MSC in OI is safe. The cell therapy is of likely clinical benefit with improved linear growth, mobility and reduced fracture incidence. Unfortunately, the effect is transient. For this reason postnatal booster infusions using same-donor MSC have been performed with clinical benefit, and without any adverse events.So far there is limited experience in this specific field and proper studies are required to accurately conclude on clinical benefits of MSC transplantation to treat OI.

  5. Physician liability and non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Maeghan; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    Although non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) marks a notable development in the field of prenatal genetic testing, there are some physician liability considerations raised by this technology. As NIPT is still emerging as the standard of care and is just starting to receive provincial funding, the question arises of whether physicians are obligated to disclose the availability of NIPT to eligible patients as part of the physician-patient discussion about prenatal screening and diagnosis. If NIPT is discussed with patients, it is important to disclose the limitations of this technology with respect to its accuracy and the number of disorders that it can detect when compared with invasive diagnostic options. A failure to sufficiently disclose these limitations could leave patients with false assurances about the health of their fetuses and could raise informed consent and liability issues, particularly if a child is born with a disability as a result.

  6. Congenital anomalies: Impact of prenatal diagnosis on mode of delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, M A

    2010-03-01

    An important aspect of prenatal diagnosis is the avoidance of emergency caesarean delivery (CD) where the abnormality is considered lethal and the infant will not survive. A consecutive cohort of 211,163 women delivered of infants weighing 500 grams or more in three tertiary referral centers from 01\\/95 to 12\\/04, was analyzed for perinatal death attributed to congenital malformations. In the group that died in the neonatal period, the emergency CD rate was significantly lower where anomaly was detected versus undetected (17.5% versus 31%). Further, in contrast to undiagnosed anomalies, the indication for emergency CD was more often maternal in the diagnosed group (42% versus 19%, p=0.019). When a diagnosis of lethal congenital anomaly has been made in the prenatal period, the reduction in the emergency CD rate by almost half in this study supports a pivotal role for prenatal diagnosis in optimizing maternal care.

  7. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  8. Male-specific alteration in excitatory post-synaptic development and social interaction in pre-natal valproic acid exposure model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Kim, Pitna; Go, Hyo Sang; Choi, Chang Soon; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Se Jin; Dela Pena, Ike Campomayor; Han, Seol-Heui; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by three main behavioral symptoms including social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped and repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence shows gender bias to male. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), a drug used in epilepsy and bipolar disorder, induces autistic symptoms in both human and rodents. As we reported previously, prenatally VPA-exposed animals at E12 showed impairment in social behavior without any overt reproductive toxicity. Social interactions were not significantly different between male and female rats in control condition. However, VPA-exposed male offspring showed significantly impaired social interaction while female offspring showed only marginal deficits in social interaction. Similar male inclination was observed in hyperactivity behavior induced by VPA. In addition to the ASD-like behavioral phenotype, prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring shows crooked tail phenotype, which was not different between male and female groups. Both male and female rat showed reduced GABAergic neuronal marker GAD and increased glutamatergic neuronal marker vGluT1 expression. Interestingly, despite of the similar increased expression of vGluT1, post-synaptic marker proteins such as PSD-95 and α-CAMKII expression was significantly elevated only in male offspring. Electron microscopy showed increased number of post-synapse in male but not in female at 4 weeks of age. These results might suggest that the altered glutamatergic neuronal differentiation leads to deranged post-synaptic maturation only in male offspring prenatally exposed to VPA. Consistent with the increased post-synaptic compartment, VPA-exposed male rats showed higher sensitivity to electric shock than VPA-exposed female rats. These results suggest that prenatally VPA-exposed rats show the male preponderance of ASD-like behaviors including defective social interaction similar to human autistic patients, which

  9. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  10. 67. Do prenatal intracardiac echogenic foci affect postnatal cardiac function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bader

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Echogenic foci in the prenatal hear is not an uncommon finding. To determine whether prenatally diagnosed intracardiac echogenic foci are associated with neonatal cardiac dysfunction and persistence. Fetuses in which intracardiac echogenic foci were shown on prenatal sonography at 1 perinatal center from (September 2009 to December 2013 underwent postnatal echocardiography at ages 1 month to1 year. A single pediatric cardiologist assessed cardiac function by measuring the left ventricular shortening fraction and myocardial performance index. The presence of tricuspid valve regurgitation was also sought. Prenatally 60 fetuses had intracardiac echogenic foci mean age ± SD at diagnosis (23 ± 3.1. 53 (88.3% had left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci, and 7 (11.6% had right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci. 12 preganant ladies were lost for follow up (2 fetuses of 7 (28.5% with right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci., and 10 fetuses of 53 (18.8% with LV intracardiac echogenic foci %. Post natally, those infants, 32 (66.6% males and 16 (33.3% females were examined. At a mean age ± SD of 7.4 ± 3.1 months. Prenatally, all infants had a normal left ventricular shortening fraction. The overall mean left ventricular myocardial performance index (reference value, 0.36 ± 0.06, was normal for both infants with left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci (0.32 ± 0.01 and those with right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci (0.33 ± 0.05. Trace tricuspid valve regurgitation were noted in 15 (31% of the infants. Left ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci persisted in 15 infants (34.8%, whereas right ventricular intracardiac echogenic foci persisted in 1 infant (20%. Prenatally diagnosed intracardiac echogenic foci can be persistent but is not associated with myocardial dysfunction in the first year of life.

  11. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue.

  12. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. PMID:24655090

  13. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  15. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  16. Ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of congenital primary aphakia: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Filippo; Vascone, Carmine; Di Meglio, Letizia; Turco, Luigi Carlo Lo; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Cignini, Pietro; Valenti, Gaetano; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Cianci, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Introduction the ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of aphakia is a difficult diagnosis and often requires a genetic study of the karyotype. Case report we present a rare case of prenatal bilateral aphakia, confirmed after bird. The patient was observed by ultrasound during the 23rd week of pregnancy. Through transabdominal ultrasound the lens could not be visualized bilaterally. The remaining anathomy, explorable by ultrasound, was still regular. When aphakia is suspected, genetic counseling is essential. Conclusion a differential diagnosis between aphakia and anophtalmia is necessary. A TORCH complex evaluation can be useful. Amniocentesis is always required. PMID:26918094

  17. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning.

  18. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    L.C. Coimbra; Figueiredo,F.P.; Silva,A.A.M.; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol,H.; Caldas,A.J.M.; Mochel,E.G.; V.S. Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differ...

  19. Prenatal influenza exposure and cardiovascular events in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza and cardiovascular events in adulthood. Design Using Danish surveillance data to identify months when influenza activity was highest during three previous pandemics (1918, 1957, and 1968), persons were......, the corresponding IRRs were 0·99 (95% CI: 0·97, 1·02), 0·99 (95% CI: 0·92, 1·05), and 0·85 (95% CI: 0·77, 0·94), respectively. Conclusions There was generally no evidence of an association between prenatal influenza exposure and acute MI or stroke in adulthood. However, survivor bias and left truncation of outcomes...

  20. Difficulties with Prenatal Diagnosis of the Walker-Warburg Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, A.S.C.; Lee, S.L.; Tan, A.S.A.; Chan, D.K.L.; Chan, L.L. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Neonatology

    2005-10-01

    We describe a postnatally diagnosed case of Walker-Warburg syndrome - a form of congenital muscular dystrophy with lissencephaly and eye abnormalities. We reviewed the literature to highlight its clinico-radiological diagnostic features and discuss the difficulties encountered with prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases with no positive family history. An increased awareness of this rare but lethal condition, and a high index of suspicion during routine antenatal ultrasound, could prompt further advanced fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and aid in timely prenatal diagnosis, management, and counseling. Brain/brainstem, congenital, magnetic resonance imaging, obstetrics, pediatrics, ultrasound.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary agenesis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Seung Mi; Jun, Jong Kwan; Kang, Jieun; Seo, Jeong-Wook

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA), which was suspected during a prenatal US examination and diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BPA is an extremely rare congenital anomaly and, although many fetal structural defects can be detected with a high degree of confidence after introducing high-resolution US, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. Other thoracic abnormalities, such as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and pulmonary sequestration, should be excluded from the list of possible diagnoses before coming to the conclusion of BPA, because BPA is absolutely incompatible with extrauterine life, and an accurate internal diagnosis can prevent a futile intervention from being performed.

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Bilateral Pulmonary Agenesis: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung A; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Seung Mi; Jun, Jong Kwan; Kang, Ji Eun; Seo, Jeong Wook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    We report a case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA), which was suspected during a prenatal US examination and diagnosed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BPA is an extremely rare congenital anomaly and, although many fetal structural defects can be detected with a high degree of confidence after introducing high-resolution US, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. Other thoracic abnormalities, such as a congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and pulmonary sequestration, should be excluded from the list of possible diagnoses before coming to the conclusion of BPA, because BPA is absolutely incompatible with extrauterine life, and an accurate internal diagnosis can prevent a futile intervention from being performed.

  3. Control prenatal vs resultado obstétrico perinatal

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Venegas, RM.; Ramos Frausto, VM.; Martínez, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    La cobertura del control prenatal, calidad, y atención del parto se refleja en la resolución obstétrica como en la morbi-mortalidad del binomio madre-hijo. Esta investigación aborda el problema del impacto de los controles prenatales sobre el resultado obstétrico y perinatal. Objetivo: conocer el impacto del control prenatal sobre los resultados obstétricos obtenidos. Material y método: mediante un estudio de cohortes reconstruidas en una población obtenida azarosamente por conglomerado...

  4. Control prenatal vs resultado obstétrico perinatal

    OpenAIRE

    RM. Rico Venegas; VM. Ramos Frausto; PC. Martínez

    2012-01-01

    La cobertura del control prenatal, calidad, y atención del parto se refleja en la resolución obstétrica como en la morbi-mortalidad del binomio madre-hijo. Esta investigación aborda el problema del impacto de los controles prenatales sobre el resultado obstétrico y perinatal. Objetivo: conocer el impacto del control prenatal sobre los resultados obstétricos obtenidos. Material y método: mediante un estudio de cohortes reconstruidas en una población obtenida azarosamente por conglomerados diar...

  5. Prenatal Diagnosis of Concurrent Achondroplasia and Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Perez-Carbajo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia is the most frequent nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with a prevalence of 1 : 5000 to 1 : 40,000 live births, and it is caused by a fibroblast growth factor receptor alteration. The combination of achondroplasia and Klinefelter syndrome is extremely rare and just four reports have been published in the literature, which were all diagnosed postnatally. We report the fifth case described of this uncommon association and its prenatal diagnosis. In cases of prenatal diagnosis of achondroplasia with additional suspicious morphological abnormalities, an invasive test such as amniocentesis must be carried out to assess the karyotype normality.

  6. Prenatally acquired hypoxic encephalopathy (prenatal CTG and postpartal CT-changes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricker, H.S.; Sauter, M.; Buchs, B.

    A para III was found to have a constantly silent CTG. In weo fetas blood analyses the pH was normal. During the first few hours post partum the infant had rapidly increasing neurologic disturbances with violent convulsions and coma. As early as on the first day of life the computer tomogram showed extensive, later persistent hypodense zones corresponding to severe asphyxial cerebral necrosis. Based an the course of CT changes it has to be assumed that the hypoxic crisis occurred some days prior to the onset of labor. Pathologic changes in the umbilical cord indicated that the cause could have been a transitory occlusion in utero. The computer tomogram enables cerebral insults to be dated more accurately. If prenatal hypoxia occurs repeatedly new methods of prevention must be sought.

  7. Comparative effectiveness of a prenatal medical food to prenatal vitamins on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Susan; Hermes, Amy; Phillips, Diane; Daoud, Yahya A; Hanna, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    The role of folate in pregnancy is well established, with most prenatal vitamins (PNVs) on the market containing at least 800 μg of folic acid. Folic acid must be converted in the body to L-methylfolate, the natural and biologically active form of folate. The role of vitamin B(12) in pregnancy is less characterized, and most PNV formulations contain only 0 to 12 μg. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether taking a prenatal medical food containing L-methylfolate and much higher doses of vitamin B(12) results in higher hemoglobin levels and thus, a lower incidence of anemia during pregnancy. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effects of the prenatal medical food versus standard PNVs on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes throughout pregnancy. For this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the charts of female patients taking either a prenatal medical food or standard PNV during pregnancy. Hemoglobin levels measured at initiation of prenatal care, end of second trimester, and delivery were recorded. Patients who had received additional iron supplementation, beyond that contained in the prenatal medical food or PNV they were taking and before anemia screening at the end of the second trimester, were excluded from the study. Fisher exact test, χ(2) test, student t test, and ANOVA were used to evaluate differences between the treatment groups. Data were analyzed from 112 charts: 58 patients (51.8%) were taking the prenatal medical food; 54 patients (48.2%) were taking standard PNVs. Mean (SD) age at first prenatal visit was 27 (4.6) years in the medical food group and 28.8 (3.5) years in the PNV group (P = 0.024). Mean (SD) body mass indices were 29.1 (6.5) and 31.7 (8.9) in the medical food and PNV groups, respectively (P = NS). In the medical food group, 35 women (60.3%) were white/Caucasian, 17 (29.3%) were African American, and 6 (10.4%) were of other races. In the PNV group, 24 women (44.4%) were white/Caucasian, 25 (46

  8. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  9. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  10. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  11. Studieintro: fra elev til studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2011-01-01

    Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år.......Dette kompendium indeholder materiale til kurset Studieintro: fra elev til studerende. Kurset er obligatorisk for studerende på bacheloruddannelsens første år....

  12. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  13. [The role of fetal echocardiography in the prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy based upon prenatally diagnosed patau syndrome fetuses (case analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Krasoń, Aneta; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2002-07-01

    Assessment of usefulness of the fetal echocardiography and genetic sonography in prenatal diagnosis trisomy 13 (retrospective analysis). Between 1994-1999 at the Department for Diagnosis of Congenital Malformation at the Institute of PPMH in 11 fetuses with Patau Syndrome ultrasound and echocardiography examination were performed. In our study the most of cases come from low risk of pregnant women. Fetal heart defect was the most common anomaly diagnosed prenatally in fetuses with Patau Syndrome (7/11), the second one were central nervous system anomalies (6/11) and genitourinary system anomalies (6/11).

  14. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ming Liu; Shuenn-Dyh Chang; Po-Jen Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Materials and Methods: Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23...

  15. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-07

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes.

  16. Current issues and perspectives in prenatal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison JC

    2011-05-01

    intrauterine growth restriction. There is not enough evidence to support routine use of antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E during pregnancy, but coenzyme Q10 and lycopene are additional antioxidants under study and are yielding promising results by decreasing the occurrence of maternal complications.Keywords: prenatal nutrition, oxidative stress, coenzyme Q10, lycopene

  17. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal T females and its amplification by postnatal obesity. Stereological examinations were performed at 5 (prepubertal, control and prenatal T) and 21 months (control, prenatal T and prenatal T obese, following estrus synchronization) of age. Obesity was induced by overfeeding from weaning. At 5 months, prenatal T females had 46% less primordial follicles than controls (P obesity did not exaggerate the impact of prenatal T on follicular recruitment indicating that compounding effects of obesity on loss of cyclicity females is not due to depletion of ovarian reserve. Assessment of follicular dynamics across several time points during the reproductive life span (this and earlier study combined) provides evidence supportive of a shift in follicular dynamics in prenatal T females from one of accelerated follicular depletion initiated prior to puberty to stockpiling of growing follicles after puberty, a time point critical in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

  18. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  19. Reduced risk of inadequate prenatal care in the era after Medicaid expansions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessol, Nancy A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2004-05-01

    To improve perinatal outcomes in the United States, access to prenatal care was expanded through Medicaid and women were encouraged to enter prenatal care early. The objective of this study was to determine if expanded eligibility for Medicaid increased use of prenatal care and reduced ethnic differences in use of prenatal care. We conducted secondary analysis of California birth certificate data for 1990, 1995, and 1998. We studied live-born singleton infants born to black, Asian, Latina, and white women (n = 1,483,951). Inadequate utilization of prenatal care. The proportion of live-born infants whose mothers had inadequate prenatal care decreased from 20% in 1990 to 14% in 1995 and 12% in 1998. In addition, the proportion of pregnant women with no insurance or who were self-paying fell from 13.1% in 1990 to 4.2% in 1995 and 3.6% in 1998 (P inadequate use of prenatal care and ethnic disparities in use of prenatal care were not fully explained by increases in Medicaid coverage. Since California expanded access to Medicaid-funded prenatal care, there has been a substantial reduction in inadequate use of prenatal care and fewer women have no insurance or are self-paying. To further reduce ethnic disparities in use of health services, new policies must be developed to remove nonfinancial barriers to early and continuous use of prenatal care.

  20. The California Prenatal Screening Program: "options and choices" not "coercion and eugenics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessel, Monica C; Lorey, Fred W

    2011-08-01

    The California Prenatal Screening Program is designed to make prenatal screening available to the state's large and diverse population. The Program provides information to women which will allow them to make informed choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. Since the Program's inception in 1986, women in California have had the option to participate in prenatal screening or to decline prenatal screening. The California Program offers prenatal diagnostic services to women whose screening tests indicate an increased risk for birth defects, including Down syndrome. Women can decline any or all of these follow-up services. Genetic counseling, diagnostic services, and the presentation of diagnostic results are performed by medical professionals (not State staff) who follow established guidelines for nondirective counseling. Program data clearly demonstrate that women in California have a wide range of options and make a wide range of choices regarding prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis. California's comprehensive Prenatal Screening Program promotes optimal care for all women within all options and choices. The important and necessary communication among organizations and stakeholders involved in prenatal screening and diagnosis, and in related care for pregnant women and for people with Down syndrome, is not served by misrepresentation and inflammatory rhetoric.