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Sample records for prenatal visual stimulation

  1. Amount of prenatal visual stimulation alters incubation times and postnatal preferences in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, M J; Birchard, G F

    2001-09-01

    The authors exposed gecko (Eublepharis macularius) embryos to patterned visual stimulation beginning at either 1 week or 2 weeks prior to hatching. Embryos exposed to the substantially augmented amount of prenatal visual stimulation hatched significantly earlier than the embryos either exposed to the moderately augmented prenatal visual stimulation or not exposed to any prenatal visual stimulation (p geckos in all conditions failed to exhibit a preference for either stimulus.

  2. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  3. Visual evoked potentials in children prenatally exposed to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to methylmercury can cause both neurobehavioral deficits and neurophysiological changes. However, evidence of neurotoxic effects within the visual nervous system is inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete statistical adjustment for beneficial nutritional factors. We evaluated t...

  4. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging by visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yukiko; Negoro, Kiyoshi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hashida, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated functional magnetic resonance images obtained in 8 healthy subjects in response to visual stimulation using a conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging system with multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging. Activation in the visual cortex was clearly demonstrated by the multi-slice experiment with a task-related change in signal intensity. In addition to the primary visual cortex, other areas were also activated by a complicated visual task. Multi-slice spin-echo echo planar imaging offers high temporal resolution and allows the three-dimensional analysis of brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a useful noninvasive method of mapping brain function. (author)

  6. Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Nicholls, Sophie; Pattenden, Charlotte; Kilduff, Patrick; Milberg, William

    2008-08-01

    The experiments of Alessandro Volta were amongst the first to indicate that visuo-spatial function can be altered by stimulating the vestibular nerves with galvanic current. Until recently, the beneficial effects of the procedure were masked by the high levels of electrical current applied, which induced nystagmus-related gaze deviation and spatial disorientation. However, several neuropsychological studies have shown that much weaker, imperceptible currents that do not elicit unpleasant side-effects can help overcome visual loss after stroke. Here, we show that visual processing in neurologically healthy individuals can also benefit from galvanic vestibular stimulation. Participants first learnt the names of eight unfamiliar faces and then after a short delay, answered questions from memory about how pairs of these faces differed. Mean correct reaction times were significantly shorter when sub-sensory, noise-enhanced anodal stimulation was administered to the left mastoid, compared to when no stimulation was administered at all. This advantage occurred with no loss in response accuracy, and raises the possibility that the procedure may constitute a more general form of cognitive enhancement.

  7. Visual rehabilitation: visual scanning, multisensory stimulation and vision restoration trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dundon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological training methods of visual rehabilitation for homonymous vision loss caused by postchiasmatic damage fall into two fundamental paradigms: compensation and restoration. Existing methods can be classified into three groups: Visual Scanning Training (VST, Audio-Visual Scanning Training (AViST and Vision Restoration Training (VRT. VST and AViST aim at compensating vision loss by training eye scanning movements, whereas VRT aims at improving lost vision by activating residual visual functions by training light detection and discrimination of visual stimuli. This review discusses the rationale underlying these paradigms and summarizes the available evidence with respect to treatment efficacy. The issues raised in our review should help guide clinical care and stimulate new ideas for future research uncovering the underlying neural correlates of the different treatment paradigms. We propose that both local within-system interactions (i.e., relying on plasticity within peri-lesional spared tissue and changes in more global between-system networks (i.e., recruiting alternative visual pathways contribute to both vision restoration and compensatory rehabilitation that ultimately have implications for the rehabilitation of cognitive functions.

  8. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  9. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Xie, Changchun [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [BC Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Sjödin, Andreas [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dietrich, Kim N. [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [BC Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003–2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2 s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] −9.3, −1.1), 4.5 s (95% CI −8.1, −0.9), and 4.7 s (95% CI −9.0, −0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4 s, 95% CI −0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, −47, −99, and −100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations. - Highlights: • The VMWM test was used to assess visual spatial abilities in children at 8 years. • BDE-153 at 3 years was adversely associated with visual spatial learning. • BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years was associated with better visual spatial learning. • Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual

  10. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong, Ann M.; Braun, Joseph M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Chen, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003–2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2 s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] −9.3, −1.1), 4.5 s (95% CI −8.1, −0.9), and 4.7 s (95% CI −9.0, −0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4 s, 95% CI −0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, −47, −99, and −100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations. - Highlights: • The VMWM test was used to assess visual spatial abilities in children at 8 years. • BDE-153 at 3 years was adversely associated with visual spatial learning. • BDE-47, −99, and −100 at 5 years was associated with better visual spatial learning. • Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual

  11. Visual Evoked Response in Children Subjected to Prenatal Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neural conduction, or arousal level. S. Afr. Med. J., 48 ... pression treatment in either development or IQ, whether ... children in brain function at an electrophysiological level, ..... Perry, N. W. and Childers, D. G. (1969): The Human Visual Evoked.

  12. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  14. Is theta burst stimulation applied to visual cortex able to modulate peripheral visual acuity?

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    Sabrina Brückner

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is usually applied to visual cortex to explore the effects on cortical excitability. Most researchers therefore concentrate on changes of phosphene threshold, rarely on consequences for visual performance. Thus, we investigated peripheral visual acuity in the four quadrants of the visual field using Landolt C optotypes before and after repetitive stimulation of the visual cortex. We applied continuous and intermittend theta burst stimulation with various stimulation intensities (60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of individual phosphene threshold as well as monophasic and biphasic 1 Hz stimulation, respectively. As an important result, no serious adverse effects were observed. In particular, no seizure was induced, even with theta burst stimulation applied with 120% of individual phosphene threshold. In only one case stimulation was ceased because the subject reported intolerable pain. Baseline visual acuity decreased over sessions, indicating a continuous training effect. Unexpectedly, none of the applied transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols had an effect on performance: no change in visual acuity was found in any of the four quadrants of the visual field. Binocular viewing as well as the use of peripheral instead of foveal presentation of the stimuli might have contributed to this result. Furthermore, intraindividual variability could have masked the TMS- induced effects on visual acuity.

  15. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  16. Prenatal androgen excess enhances stimulation of the GNRH pulse in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2014-07-01

    In adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), neuroendocrine derangements manifest after the onset of puberty, characterized by rapid LH pulse frequency. The early mechanism underlying the pubertal regulation of the GNRH/LH pulsatile release in adolescents with PCOS remains uncertain. To determine the effects of prenatal androgen exposure on the activation of GNRH neurons and generation of LH pulse at puberty, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone to pregnant rats and observed serum LH levels and expression of hypothalamic genes in female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The 6-week-old prenatally androgenized (PNA) female rats exhibited an increase in LH pulse frequency. The hypothalamic expression of neurokinin B (Nkb (Tac2)) and Lepr mRNA levels in PNA rats increased remarkably before puberty and remained high during puberty, whereas elevated Kiss1 mRNA levels were detected only after the onset of puberty. Exogenous kisspeptin, NK3R agonist, and leptin triggered tonic stimulation of GNRH neurons and increased LH secretion in 6-week-old PNA rats. Leptin upregulated Kiss1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of pubertal PNA rats; however, pretreatment with a kisspeptin antagonist failed to suppress the elevated serum LH stimulated by leptin, indicating that the stimulatory effects of leptin may be conveyed indirectly to GNRH neurons via other neural components within the GNRH neuronal network, rather than through the kisspeptin-GPR54 pathway. These findings validate the hypotheses that NKB and leptin play an essential role in the activation of GNRH neurons and initiation of increased LH pulse frequency in PNA female rats at puberty and that kisspeptin may coordinate their stimulatory effects on LH release. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

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    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of rat visual system after prenatal X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, G.; Biesold, D.; Mares, V.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pregnant for 16 or 19 days (ED 16 or 19) were irradiated with 1 Gy and killed after 24 hrs or at age 24 or 180 days. The primary influence of X-rays consists in a lethal lesion of cells located in the periventricular zone as well as some of the more differentiated cells in the brain parenchyma. After irradiation on ED 16, the acute damage was greater in the cerebral cortex and the superior colliculus (SC) than in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Irradiation on ED 19 damaged mainly the cortical part of the visual system. In adult animals the acute radiation damage results in a deficit in packing density and the total number of neurons. Animals irradiated on ED 16 revealed more pronounced changes in deep layers of the cortex (L VI) than in the superficial layers. The deficit was smaller in the SC, and in the LGN an increase in the packing density of nerve cells was found. In animals irradiated on ED 19, the deficit in neurons density occurred mainly in more superficial layers of the cortex, with a maximum deficit in layer IV. From comparison of acute and final changes it may be concluded that the damage of preneuroblastic cell populations is compensated during later embryonic development, while the damage induced in populations already at early neuroblast stage is irreversible and leads to a permanent deficit. Glia cell population is altered in a similar way as the number of neurons in regions poor in myelin, while in regions rich in myelin the number of glia cells seems to depend on changes in the number of efferent and afferent nerve fibres. (author)

  19. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Fujita, Motoi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Takeo; Naruse, Shoji; Takagi, Mineo.

    1995-01-01

    Signal changes in the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation were evaluated using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The experiments were performed on 10 normal human volunteers and 2 patients with homonymous hemianopsia, including one who was recovering from the exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. The visual stimuli were provided by a pattern generator using the checkerboard pattern for determining the visual evoked potential of full-field and hemifield stimulation. In normal volunteers, a signal increase was observed on the bilateral primary visual cortex during the full-field stimulation and on the contra-lateral cortex during hemifield stimulation. In the patient with homonymous hemianopsia after cerebral infarction, the signal change was clearly decreased on the affected side. In the other patient, the one recovering from multiple sclerosis with an almost normal visual field, the fMRI was within normal limits. These results suggest that it is possible to visualize the activation of the visual cortex during visual stimulation, and that there is a possibility of using this test as an objective method of visual field examination. (author)

  20. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Visual stimulation, {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy and fMRI of the human visual pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, Christine C.; Cornelissen, Frans W. [University of Groningen, Laboratory for Experimental Ophthalmology, Postbus 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, BCN Neuro-imaging Center, Postbus 196, Groningen (Netherlands); Mostert, Jop P.; Keyser, Jacques De [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs; Sijens, Paul E. [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose was to assess changes in lactate content and other brain metabolites under visual stimulation in optical chiasm, optic radiations and occipital cortex using multiple voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS). {sup 1}H chemical shift imaging (CSI) examinations of transverse planes centered to include the above structures were performed in four subjects at an echo time of 135 ms. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to confirm the presence of activity in the visual cortex during the visual stimulation. Spectral maps of optical chiasm were of poor quality due to field disturbances caused by nearby large blood vessels and/or eye movements. The optic radiations and the occipital lobe did not show any significant MR spectral change upon visual stimulation, i.e., the peak areas of inositol, choline, creatine, glutamate and N-acetylaspartate were not affected. Reproducible lactate signals were not observed. fMRI confirmed the presence of strong activations in stimulated visual cortex. Prolonged visual stimulation did not cause significant changes in MR spectra. Any signal observed near the 1.33 ppm resonance frequency of the lactate methyl-group was artifactual, originating from lipid signals from outside the volume of interest (VOI). Previous claims about changes in lactate levels in the visual cortex upon visual stimulation may have been based on such erroneous observations. (orig.)

  2. CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.

  3. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A L S; Gonçalves-de-Freitas, E; Volpato, G L; Oliveira, C

    2009-04-01

    Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition): 1) visual contact (V); 2) chemical contact (Ch); 3) chemical and visual contact (Ch+V); 4) no sensory contact (Iso) - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean +/- SEM; V: 24.79 +/- 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 +/- 3.09, Ch: 0.1 +/- 0.07, Iso: 4.68 +/- 1.26 events/30 min; P communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  4. Prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation facilitates postnatal spatial learning but transiently impairs memory in the domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Roy, S; Pal, A; Sreenivas, V; Mathur, R; Wadhwa, S; Jain, S

    2011-01-01

    Early experience has a profound influence on brain development, and the modulation of prenatal perceptual learning by external environmental stimuli has been shown in birds, rodents and mammals. In the present study, the effect of prenatal complex rhythmic music sound stimulation on postnatal spatial learning, memory and isolation stress was observed. Auditory stimulation with either music or species-specific sounds or no stimulation (control) was provided to separate sets of fertilized eggs from day 10 of incubation. Following hatching, the chicks at age 24, 72 and 120 h were tested on a T-maze for spatial learning and the memory of the learnt task was assessed 24 h after training. In the posthatch chicks at all ages, the plasma corticosterone levels were estimated following 10 min of isolation. The chicks of all ages in the three groups took less (p memory after 24 h of training, only the music-stimulated chicks at posthatch age 24 h took a significantly longer (p music sounds facilitates spatial learning, though the music stimulation transiently impairs postnatal memory. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Magnetic stimulation of visual cortex impairs perceptual learning.

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    Baldassarre, Antonello; Capotosto, Paolo; Committeri, Giorgia; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    The ability to learn and process visual stimuli more efficiently is important for survival. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptual learning on a shape identification task differently modulates activity in both frontal-parietal cortical regions and visual cortex (Sigman et al., 2005;Lewis et al., 2009). Specifically, fronto-parietal regions (i.e. intra parietal sulcus, pIPS) became less activated for trained as compared to untrained stimuli, while visual regions (i.e. V2d/V3 and LO) exhibited higher activation for familiar shape. Here, after the intensive training, we employed transcranial magnetic stimulation over both visual occipital and parietal regions, previously shown to be modulated, to investigate their causal role in learning the shape identification task. We report that interference with V2d/V3 and LO increased reaction times to learned stimuli as compared to pIPS and Sham control condition. Moreover, the impairment observed after stimulation over the two visual regions was positive correlated. These results strongly support the causal role of the visual network in the control of the perceptual learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological Effects of Visual Stimulation with Forest Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to clarify the physiological effects of visual stimulation using forest imagery on activity of the brain and autonomic nervous system. Seventeen female university students (mean age, 21.1 ± 1.0 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF and high-frequency components (LF/HF, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Forest and city (control images were used as visual stimuli using a large plasma display window. After sitting at rest viewing a gray background for 60 s, participants viewed two images for 90 s. During rest and visual stimulation, HRV and oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of feelings was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method. The results showed that visual stimulation with forest imagery induced (1 a significant decrease in oxy-Hb concentrations in the right prefrontal cortex and (2 a significant increase in perceptions of feeling “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural.”

  7. Visual training paired with electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain improves orientation-selective visual acuity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Il; Groleau, Marianne; Dotigny, Florence; Giguère, Hugo; Vaucher, Elvire

    2014-07-01

    The cholinergic afferents from the basal forebrain to the primary visual cortex play a key role in visual attention and cortical plasticity. These afferent fibers modulate acute and long-term responses of visual neurons to specific stimuli. The present study evaluates whether this cholinergic modulation of visual neurons results in cortical activity and visual perception changes. Awake adult rats were exposed repeatedly for 2 weeks to an orientation-specific grating with or without coupling this visual stimulation to an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain. The visual acuity, as measured using a visual water maze before and after the exposure to the orientation-specific grating, was increased in the group of trained rats with simultaneous basal forebrain/visual stimulation. The increase in visual acuity was not observed when visual training or basal forebrain stimulation was performed separately or when cholinergic fibers were selectively lesioned prior to the visual stimulation. The visual evoked potentials show a long-lasting increase in cortical reactivity of the primary visual cortex after coupled visual/cholinergic stimulation, as well as c-Fos immunoreactivity of both pyramidal and GABAergic interneuron. These findings demonstrate that when coupled with visual training, the cholinergic system improves visual performance for the trained orientation probably through enhancement of attentional processes and cortical plasticity in V1 related to the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory inputs. This study opens the possibility of establishing efficient rehabilitation strategies for facilitating visual capacity.

  8. Visual communication stimulates reproduction in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive fish behavior is affected by male-female interactions that stimulate physiological responses such as hormonal release and gonad development. During male-female interactions, visual and chemical communication can modulate fish reproduction. The aim of the present study was to test the effect of visual and chemical male-female interaction on the gonad development and reproductive behavior of the cichlid fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Fifty-six pairs were studied after being maintained for 5 days under one of the four conditions (N = 14 for each condition: 1 visual contact (V; 2 chemical contact (Ch; 3 chemical and visual contact (Ch+V; 4 no sensory contact (Iso - males and females isolated. We compared the reproductive behavior (nesting, courtship and spawning and gonadosomatic index (GSI of pairs of fish under all four conditions. Visual communication enhanced the frequency of courtship in males (mean ± SEM; V: 24.79 ± 3.30, Ch+V: 20.74 ± 3.09, Ch: 0.1 ± 0.07, Iso: 4.68 ± 1.26 events/30 min; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test, induced spawning in females (3 spawning in V and also 3 in Ch+V condition, and increased GSI in males (mean ± SEM; V: 1.39 ± 0.08, Ch+V: 1.21 ± 0.08, Ch: 1.04 ± 0.07, Iso: 0.82 ± 0.07%; P < 0.05, two-way ANOVA with LSD post hoc test. Chemical communication did not affect the reproductive behavior of pairs nor did it enhance the effects of visual contact. Therefore, male-female visual communication is an effective cue, which stimulates reproduction among pairs of Nile tilapia.

  9. Transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation of human primary visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhye; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Jung, Yujin; Chung, Yong An; Song, In-Uk; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is making progress as a new non-invasive mode of regional brain stimulation. Current evidence of FUS-mediated neurostimulation for humans has been limited to the observation of subjective sensory manifestations and electrophysiological responses, thus warranting the identification of stimulated brain regions. Here, we report FUS sonication of the primary visual cortex (V1) in humans, resulting in elicited activation not only from the sonicated brain area, but also from the network of regions involved in visual and higher-order cognitive processes (as revealed by simultaneous acquisition of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging). Accompanying phosphene perception was also reported. The electroencephalo graphic (EEG) responses showed distinct peaks associated with the stimulation. None of the participants showed any adverse effects from the sonication based on neuroimaging and neurological examinations. Retrospective numerical simulation of the acoustic profile showed the presence of individual variability in terms of the location and intensity of the acoustic focus. With exquisite spatial selectivity and capability for depth penetration, FUS may confer a unique utility in providing non-invasive stimulation of region-specific brain circuits for neuroscientific and therapeutic applications.

  10. Multifocal visual evoked responses to dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles: Multifocal VER to dichoptic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind, Hemamalini; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L; Grigg, John R

    2006-05-01

    Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs) have demonstrated good diagnostic capabilities in glaucoma and optic neuritis. This study aimed at evaluating the possibility of simultaneously recording mfVEP for both eyes with dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles and also to determine the stimulus characteristics that yield maximum amplitude. ten healthy volunteers were recruited and temporally sparse pattern pulse stimuli were presented dichoptically using virtual reality goggles. Experiment 1 involved recording responses to dichoptically presented checkerboard stimuli and also confirming true topographic representation by switching off specific segments. Experiment 2 involved monocular stimulation and comparison of amplitude with Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, orthogonally oriented gratings were dichoptically presented. Experiment 4 involved dichoptic presentation of checkerboard stimuli at different levels of sparseness (5.0 times/s, 2.5 times/s, 1.66 times/s and 1.25 times/s), where stimulation of corresponding segments of two eyes were separated by 16.7, 66.7,116.7 & 166.7 ms respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated good traces in all regions and confirmed topographic representation. However, there was suppression of amplitude of responses to dichoptic stimulation by 17.9+/-5.4% compared to monocular stimulation. Experiment 3 demonstrated similar suppression between orthogonal and checkerboard stimuli (p = 0.08). Experiment 4 demonstrated maximum amplitude and least suppression (4.8%) with stimulation at 1.25 times/s with 166.7 ms separation between eyes. It is possible to record mfVEP for both eyes during dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles, which present binocular simultaneous patterns driven by independent sequences. Interocular suppression can be almost eliminated by using a temporally sparse stimulus of 1.25 times/s with a separation of 166.7 ms between stimulation of corresponding segments of the two eyes.

  11. [Is it possible to train Achatina fulica using visual stimulation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkova, I B; Zhukov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The conditioned behavior to visual stimuli was obtained in Achatina fulica mollusk on the basis of its negative phototaxis. Directional moving of snails toward black cards was accompanied by the negative unconditioned stimulation (electric current). Learning was expressed in a statistically significant decrease in locomotor activity of animals and decrease in the rate of preference of sections with black cards. Learning developed within two daily training sessions with 30 trials in each of them. Learning traces were observed as defensive behavior at least during a month after reinforcement elimination.

  12. Prolonged fasting impairs neural reactivity to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, N; Wassenberg, A; Toygar, T; Kellermann, T; Weidenfeld, C; Berthold-Losleben, M; Chechko, N; Orfanos, S; Vocke, S; Laoutidis, Z G; Schneider, F; Karges, W; Habel, U

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that hypoglycemia influences the intensity of the BOLD signal. A similar but smaller effect may also be elicited by low normal blood glucose levels in healthy individuals. This may not only confound the BOLD signal measured in fMRI, but also more generally interact with cognitive processing, and thus indirectly influence fMRI results. Here we show in a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study on 40 healthy subjects, that overnight fasting and low normal levels of glucose contrasted to an activated, elevated glucose condition have an impact on brain activation during basal visual stimulation. Additionally, functional connectivity of the visual cortex shows a strengthened association with higher-order attention-related brain areas in an elevated blood glucose condition compared to the fasting condition. In a fasting state visual brain areas show stronger coupling to the inferior temporal gyrus. Results demonstrate that prolonged overnight fasting leads to a diminished BOLD signal in higher-order occipital processing areas when compared to an elevated blood glucose condition. Additionally, functional connectivity patterns underscore the modulatory influence of fasting on visual brain networks. Patterns of brain activation and functional connectivity associated with a broad range of attentional processes are affected by maturation and aging and associated with psychiatric disease and intoxication. Thus, we conclude that prolonged fasting may decrease fMRI design sensitivity in any task involving attentional processes when fasting status or blood glucose is not controlled.

  13. Prenatal Testosterone, Visual-Spatial Memory, and Numerical Skills in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Davidson, Wendy Anne; Nordmann, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Lateralization of the brain is strongly influenced by prenatal androgens, with differential exposure thought to account for cognitive sex differences. This study investigated sex and individual differences and relationships between 2D:4D (the ratio of the 2nd to 4th digit [digit ratio] as a proxy indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure),…

  14. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = –2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = –1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  15. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  16. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  17. Cocaine enhances resistance to extinction of responding for brain-stimulation reward in adult prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuibo; Suenaga, Toshiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yukie, Masao; Nakahara, Daiichiro

    2011-10-01

    The present experiment assessed whether prenatal stress (PS) can alter the ability of acute and chronic cocaine administration to increase and decrease the rewarding effectiveness of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), and also whether PS can affect the extinction of the MFB stimulation response. Adult male offspring of female rats that received PS or no PS (nPS) were implanted with MFB stimulating electrodes, and were then tested in ICSS paradigms. In both nPS and PS offspring, acute cocaine injection decreased ICSS thresholds dose-dependently. However, the threshold-lowering effects at any dose were not significantly different between groups. There was also no group-difference in the threshold-elevating effects of chronic cocaine administration. Nevertheless, chronically drug-administered PS rats exhibited a resistance to the extinguishing of the response for brain-stimulation reward when acutely treated with cocaine, as compared to extinction without cocaine treatment. The results suggest that PS may weaken the ability for response inhibition under cocaine loading in male adult offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team. A CVFQ quality of life questionnaire was used. This instrument has a version for less than three years old children and another one for children older than three years (three to seven years) divided in six subscales: General health, General vision health, Competence, Personality, Family impact and Treatment. The correlation between the subscales on two moments was significant. There was a statistically significant difference in general vision health (p=0,029) and other important differences obtained in general health, family impact and quality of life general score. The questionnaire showed to be effective in order to measure the quality of life related to vision on families followed on this ambulatory. The multidisciplinary interventions provided visual function and familiar quality of life improvement. The quality of life related to vision in children followed in Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp showed a significant improvement on general vision health.

  19. Disturbance of visual search by stimulating to posterior parietal cortex in the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iramina, Keiji; Ge, Sheng; Hyodo, Akira; Hayami, Takehito; Ueno, Shoogo

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we applied a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the temporal aspect for the functional processing of visual attention. Although it has been known that right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the brain has a role in certain visual search tasks, there is little knowledge about the temporal aspect of this area. Three visual search tasks that have different difficulties of task execution individually were carried out. These three visual search tasks are the "easy feature task," the "hard feature task," and the "conjunction task." To investigate the temporal aspect of the PPC involved in the visual search, we applied various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and measured the reaction time of the visual search. The magnetic stimulation was applied on the right PPC or the left PPC by the figure-eight coil. The results show that the reaction times of the hard feature task are longer than those of the easy feature task. When SOA=150 ms, compared with no-TMS condition, there was a significant increase in target-present reaction time when TMS pulses were applied. We considered that the right PPC was involved in the visual search at about SOA=150 ms after visual stimulus presentation. The magnetic stimulation to the right PPC disturbed the processing of the visual search. However, the magnetic stimulation to the left PPC gives no effect on the processing of the visual search.

  20. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, G; Dias, C S B; Foerster, B; Li, L M; Covolan, R J M

    2012-11-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  1. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B.; Foerster, B.; Li, L.M.; Covolan, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate

  2. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  3. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Castellano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s, followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s and another rest period (10 min and 40 s. MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  4. Enhanced alpha-oscillations in visual cortex during anticipation of self-generated visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Haggard, Patrick; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Ray

    2014-11-01

    The perceived intensity of sensory stimuli is reduced when these stimuli are caused by the observer's actions. This phenomenon is traditionally explained by forward models of sensory action-outcome, which arise from motor processing. Although these forward models critically predict anticipatory modulation of sensory neural processing, neurophysiological evidence for anticipatory modulation is sparse and has not been linked to perceptual data showing sensory attenuation. By combining a psychophysical task involving contrast discrimination with source-level time-frequency analysis of MEG data, we demonstrate that the amplitude of alpha-oscillations in visual cortex is enhanced before the onset of a visual stimulus when the identity and onset of the stimulus are controlled by participants' motor actions. Critically, this prestimulus enhancement of alpha-amplitude is paralleled by psychophysical judgments of a reduced contrast for this stimulus. We suggest that alpha-oscillations in visual cortex preceding self-generated visual stimulation are a likely neurophysiological signature of motor-induced sensory anticipation and mediate sensory attenuation. We discuss our results in relation to proposals that attribute generic inhibitory functions to alpha-oscillations in prioritizing and gating sensory information via top-down control.

  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals the content of visual short-term memory in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvanto, Juha; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2010-05-01

    Cortical areas involved in sensory analysis are also believed to be involved in short-term storage of that sensory information. Here we investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can reveal the content of visual short-term memory (VSTM) by bringing this information to visual awareness. Subjects were presented with two random-dot displays (moving either to the left or to the right) and they were required to maintain one of these in VSTM. In Experiment 1, TMS was applied over the motion-selective area V5/MT+ above phosphene threshold during the maintenance phase. The reported phosphene contained motion features of the memory item, when the phosphene spatially overlapped with memory item. Specifically, phosphene motion was enhanced when the memory item moved in the same direction as the subjects' V5/MT+ baseline phosphene, whereas it was reduced when the motion direction of the memory item was incongruent with that of the baseline V5/MT+ phosphene. There was no effect on phosphene reports when there was no spatial overlap between the phosphene and the memory item. In Experiment 2, VSTM maintenance did not influence the appearance of phosphenes induced from the lateral occipital region. These interactions between VSTM maintenance and phosphene appearance demonstrate that activity in V5/MT+ reflects the motion qualities of items maintained in VSTM. Furthermore, these results also demonstrate that information in VSTM can modulate the pattern of visual activation reaching awareness, providing evidence for the view that overlapping neuronal populations are involved in conscious visual perception and VSTM. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Alpha-Band Rhythms in Visual Task Performance: Phase-Locking by Rhythmic Sensory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A.; Gross, Joachim; Paterson, Gavin; Rusch, Tessa; Sack, Alexander T.; Thut, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations are an important aspect of neuronal activity. Interestingly, oscillatory patterns are also observed in behaviour, such as in visual performance measures after the presentation of a brief sensory event in the visual or another modality. These oscillations in visual performance cycle at the typical frequencies of brain rhythms, suggesting that perception may be closely linked to brain oscillations. We here investigated this link for a prominent rhythm of the visual system (the alpha-rhythm, 8–12 Hz) by applying rhythmic visual stimulation at alpha-frequency (10.6 Hz), known to lead to a resonance response in visual areas, and testing its effects on subsequent visual target discrimination. Our data show that rhythmic visual stimulation at 10.6 Hz: 1) has specific behavioral consequences, relative to stimulation at control frequencies (3.9 Hz, 7.1 Hz, 14.2 Hz), and 2) leads to alpha-band oscillations in visual performance measures, that 3) correlate in precise frequency across individuals with resting alpha-rhythms recorded over parieto-occipital areas. The most parsimonious explanation for these three findings is entrainment (phase-locking) of ongoing perceptually relevant alpha-band brain oscillations by rhythmic sensory events. These findings are in line with occipital alpha-oscillations underlying periodicity in visual performance, and suggest that rhythmic stimulation at frequencies of intrinsic brain-rhythms can be used to reveal influences of these rhythms on task performance to study their functional roles. PMID:23555873

  7. Cortical deactivation induced by visual stimulation in human slow-wave sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Law, Ian; Lund, Torben E

    2002-01-01

    . It is unresolved whether this negative BOLD response pattern is of developmental neurobiological origin particular to a given age or to a general effect of sleep or sedative drugs. To further elucidate this issue, we used fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the brain activation pattern during......It has previously been demonstrated that sleeping and sedated young children respond with a paradoxical decrease in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in the rostro-medial occipital visual cortex during visual stimulation...... visual stimulation in spontaneously sleeping adult volunteers. In five sleeping volunteers fMRI studies confirmed a robust signal decrease during stimulation in the rostro-medial occipital cortex. A similar relative decrease at the same location was found during visual stimulation...

  8. Prenatal acoustic stimulation influences neuronal size and the expression of calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin) in chick hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal auditory enrichment by species-specific sounds and sitar music enhances the expression of immediate early genes, synaptic proteins and calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) as well as modifies the structural components of the brainstem auditory nuclei and auditory imprinting area in chicks. There is also facilitation of postnatal auditory preference of the chicks to maternal calls following both types of sound stimulation indicating prenatal perceptual learning. To examine whether the sound enrichment protocol also affects the areas related to learning and memory, we assessed morphological changes in the hippocampus at post-hatch day 1 of control and prenatally sound-stimulated chicks. Additionally, the proportions of neurons containing calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin immunoreactivity as well as their protein levels were determined. Fertilized eggs of domestic chick were incubated under normal conditions of temperature, humidity, forced draft of air as well as light and dark (12:12h) photoperiods. They were exposed to patterned sounds of species-specific and sitar music at 65 dB for 15 min per hour over a day/night cycle from day 10 of incubation till hatching. The hippocampal volume, neuronal nuclear size and total number of neurons showed a significant increase in the music-stimulated group as compared to the species-specific sound-stimulated and control groups. However, in both the auditory-stimulated groups the protein levels of calbindin and parvalbumin as well as the percentage of the immunopositive neurons were increased. The enhanced proportion of CaBPs in the sound-enriched groups suggests greater Ca(2+) influx, which may influence long-term potentiation and short-term memory.

  9. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  10. Visual cortex responses reflect temporal structure of continuous quasi-rhythmic sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Christian; Thut, Gregor; Gross, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG. Our findings substantiate a systematic and sustained neural phase-locking to stimulation in all three frequency ranges. Further, we found that allocation of spatial attention enhances EEG-stimulus locking to theta- and alpha-band stimulation. Our results bridge recent findings regarding phase locking ("entrainment") to quasi-rhythmic visual input and "frequency-tagging" experiments employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. We propose that sustained EEG-stimulus locking can be considered as a continuous neural signature of processing dynamic sensory input in early visual cortices. Accordingly, EEG-stimulus locking serves to trace the temporal evolution of rhythmic as well as quasi-rhythmic visual input and is subject to attentional bias. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus (PPN Influences Visual Contrast Sensitivity in Human Observers.

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    Hendrik Strumpf

    Full Text Available The parapontine nucleus of the thalamus (PPN is a neuromodulatory midbrain structure with widespread connectivity to cortical and subcortical motor structures, as well as the spinal cord. The PPN also projects to the thalamus, including visual relay nuclei like the LGN and the pulvinar. Moreover, there is intense connectivity with sensory structures of the tegmentum in particular with the superior colliculus (SC. Given the existence and abundance of projections to visual sensory structures, it is likely that activity in the PPN has some modulatory influence on visual sensory selection. Here we address this possibility by measuring the visual discrimination performance (luminance contrast thresholds in a group of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD treated with deep-brain stimulation (DBS of the PPN to control gait and postural motor deficits. In each patient we measured the luminance-contrast threshold of being able to discriminate an orientation-target (Gabor-grating as a function of stimulation frequency (high 60Hz, low 8/10, no stimulation. Thresholds were determined using a standard staircase-protocol that is based on parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST. We observed that under low frequency stimulation thresholds increased relative to no and high frequency stimulation in five out of six patients, suggesting that DBS of the PPN has a frequency-dependent impact on visual selection processes at a rather elementary perceptual level.

  12. Exploring BOLD changes during spatial attention in non-stimulated visual cortex.

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    Linda Heinemann

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured in parts of primary visual cortex that represented unstimulated visual field regions at different distances from a stimulated central target location. The composition of the visual scene varied by the presence or absence of additional peripheral distracter stimuli. Bottom-up effects were assessed by comparing peripheral activity during central stimulation vs. no stimulation. Top-down effects were assessed by comparing active vs. passive conditions. In passive conditions subjects simply watched the central letter stimuli and in active conditions they had to report occurrence of pre-defined targets in a rapid serial letter stream. Onset of the central letter stream enhanced activity in V1 representations of the stimulated region. Within representations of the periphery activation decreased and finally turned into deactivation with increasing distance from the stimulated location. This pattern was most pronounced in the active conditions and during the presence of peripheral stimuli. Active search for a target did not lead to additional enhancement at areas representing the attentional focus but to a stronger deactivation in the vicinity. Suppressed neuronal activity was also found in the non distracter condition suggesting a top-down attention driven effect. Our observations suggest that BOLD signal decreases in primary visual cortex are modulated by bottom-up sensory-driven factors such as the presence of distracters in the visual field as well as by top-down attentional processes.

  13. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of visual cortex in memory: cortical state, interference and reactivation of visual content in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-01-01

    Memory for perceptual events includes the neural representation of the sensory information at short or longer time scales. Recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies of human visual cortex provided evidence that sensory cortex contributes to memory functions. In this review, we provide an exhaustive overview of these studies and ascertain how well the available evidence supports the idea of a causal role of sensory cortex in memory retention and retrieval. We discuss the validity and implications of the studies using a number of methodological and theoretical criteria that are relevant for brain stimulation of visual cortex. While most studies applied TMS to visual cortex to interfere with memory functions, a handful of pioneering studies used TMS to 'reactivate' memories in visual cortex. Interestingly, similar effects of TMS on memory were found in different memory tasks, which suggests that different memory systems share a neural mechanism of memory in visual cortex. At the same time, this neural mechanism likely interacts with higher order brain areas. Based on this overview and evaluation, we provide a first attempt to an integrative framework that describes how sensory processes contribute to memory in visual cortex, and how higher order areas contribute to this mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dissociates fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligte, Ilja G; Wokke, Martijn E; Tesselaar, Johannes P; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2011-05-01

    To guide our behavior in successful ways, we often need to rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). While VSTM is usually broken down into iconic memory (brief and high-capacity store) and visual working memory (sustained, yet limited-capacity store), recent studies have suggested the existence of an additional and intermediate form of VSTM that depends on activity in extrastriate cortex. In previous work, we have shown that this fragile form of VSTM can be dissociated from iconic memory. In the present study, we provide evidence that fragile VSTM is different from visual working memory as magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) disrupts visual working memory, while leaving fragile VSTM intact. In addition, we observed that people with high DLPFC activity had superior working memory capacity compared to people with low DLPFC activity, and only people with high DLPFC activity really showed a reduction in working memory capacity in response to magnetic stimulation. Altogether, this study shows that VSTM consists of three stages that have clearly different characteristics and rely on different neural structures. On the methodological side, we show that it is possible to predict individual susceptibility to magnetic stimulation based on functional MRI activity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of relationship among visual evoked potential, oscillatory potential and visual acuity under stimulated weightlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the influence of head-down tilt simulated weightlessness on visual evoked potential(VEP, oscillatory potentials(OPsand visual acuity, and analyse the relationship among them. METHODS: Head-down tilt for -6° was adopted in 14 healthy volunteers. Distant visual acuity, near visual acuity, VEP and OPs were recorded before, two days and five days after trial. The record procedure of OPs followed the ISCEV standard for full-field clinical electroretinography(2008 update. RESULTS: Significant differences were detected in the amplitude of P100 waves and ∑OPs among various time points(P<0.05. But no relationship was observed among VEP, OPs and visual acuity. CONCLUSION: Head-down tilt simulated weightlessness induce the rearrange of blood of the whole body including eyes, which can make the change of visual electrophysiology but not visual acuity.

  16. Prenatal Visualization of the Pulmonary and Aortic Valves and Leaflets Is Feasible Using 4-Dimensional Sonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, B.M.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Tromp, C.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Haak, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the morphologic characteristics and area of the semilunar valves in healthy fetuses and fetuses with cardiac defects can be visualized by using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). METHODS: Spatiotemporal image correlation volumes

  17. Assessment of the risk of fall, related to visual stimulation, in patients with central vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, H; Musé, P; Suárez, A; Arocena, M

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the influence of visual stimulation in the triggering of imbalance and falls in the elderly population, the postural responses of 18 elderly patients with central vestibular disorders and clinical evidence of instability and falls were studied while receiving different types of visual stimuli. The stimulation conditions were: (i) no specific stimuli; (ii) smooth pursuit with pure sinusoids of 0.2 Hz as foveal stimulation; and (iii) optokinetic stimulation (OK) as retinal stimuli. Using a platform AMTI Accusway platform, the 95% confidence ellipse (CE) and sway velocity (SV) were evaluated with a scalogram using wavelets in order to assess the relationship between time and frequency in postural control. Velocity histograms were also constructed in order to observe the distribution of velocity values during the recording. A non-homogeneous postural behavior after visual stimulation was found among this population. In five of the patients the OK stimulation generated: (i) significantly higher average values of CE ( > 3.4+/-0.69 cm2); (ii) a significant increase in the average values of the SV ( > 3.89+/-1.15 cm/s) and a velocity histogram with a homogeneous distribution between 0 and 18 cm/s; and (iii) a scalogram with sway frequencies of up to 4 Hz distributed in both the X and Y directions (backwards and forwards and lateral) during visual stimulation with arbitrary units of energy density > 5. These three qualitative and quantitative aspects could be "markers" of visual dependence in the triggering of the mechanism of lack of equilibrium and hence falls in some elderly patients and should be considered in order to prevent falls and also to assist in the rehabilitation program of these patients.

  18. Evidence for a basal temporal visual language center: cortical stimulation producing pure alexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, J; Diehl, B; Piao, Z; Schuele, S S; Lapresto, E; Liu, P; Nair, D R; Dinner, D S; Lüders, H O

    2008-11-11

    Dejerine and Benson and Geschwind postulated disconnection of the dominant angular gyrus from both visual association cortices as the basis for pure alexia, emphasizing disruption of white matter tracts in the dominant temporooccipital region. Recently functional imaging studies provide evidence for direct participation of basal temporal and occipital cortices in the cognitive process of reading. The exact location and function of these areas remain a matter of debate. To confirm the participation of the basal temporal region in reading. Extraoperative electrical stimulation of the dominant hemisphere was performed in three subjects using subdural electrodes, as part of presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. Pure alexia was reproduced during cortical stimulation of the dominant posterior fusiform and inferior temporal gyri in all three patients. Stimulation resulted in selective reading difficulty with intact auditory comprehension and writing. Reading difficulty involved sentences and words with intact letter by letter reading. Picture naming difficulties were also noted at some electrodes. This region is located posterior to and contiguous with the basal temporal language area (BTLA) where stimulation resulted in global language dysfunction in visual and auditory realms. The location corresponded with the visual word form area described on functional MRI. These observations support the existence of a visual language area in the dominant fusiform and occipitotemporal gyri, contiguous with basal temporal language area. A portion of visual language area was exclusively involved in lexical processing while the other part of this region processed both lexical and nonlexical symbols.

  19. Standing postural reaction to visual and proprioceptive stimulation in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Clement P; Tasseel-Ponche, Sophie; Lozeron, Pierre; Piccinini, Giulia; Quintaine, Victorine; Arnulf, Bertrand; Kubis, Nathalie; Yelnik, Alain P

    2018-02-28

    To investigate the weight of visual and proprioceptive inputs, measured indirectly in standing position control, in patients with chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP). Prospective case study. Twenty-five patients with CADP and 25 healthy controls. Posture was recorded on a double force platform. Stimulations were optokinetic (60°/s) for visual input and vibration (50 Hz) for proprioceptive input. Visual stimulation involved 4 tests (upward, downward, rightward and leftward) and proprioceptive stimulation 2 tests (triceps surae and tibialis anterior). A composite score, previously published and slightly modified, was used for the recorded postural signals from the different stimulations. Despite their sensitivity deficits, patients with CADP were more sensitive to proprioceptive stimuli than were healthy controls (mean composite score 13.9 ((standard deviation; SD) 4.8) vs 18.4 (SD 4.8), p = 0.002). As expected, they were also more sensitive to visual stimuli (mean composite score 10.5 (SD 8.7) vs 22.9 (SD 7.5), p <0.0001). These results encourage balance rehabilitation of patients with CADP, aimed at promoting the use of proprioceptive information, thereby reducing too-early development of visual compensation while proprioception is still available.

  20. Standing postural reaction to visual and proprioceptive stimulation in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement P. Provost

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the weight of visual and proprioceptive inputs, measured indirectly in standing position control, in patients with chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP. Design: Prospective case study. Subjects: Twenty-five patients with CADP and 25 healthy controls. Methods: Posture was recorded on a double force platform. Stimulations were optokinetic (60°/s for visual input and vibration (50 Hz for proprioceptive input. Visual stimulation involved 4 tests (upward, downward, rightward and leftward and proprioceptive stimulation 2 tests (triceps surae and tibialis anterior. A composite score, previously published and slightly modified, was used for the recorded postural signals from the different stimulations. Results: Despite their sensitivity deficits, patients with CADP were more sensitive to proprioceptive stimuli than were healthy controls (mean composite score 13.9 ((standard deviation; SD 4.8 vs 18.4 (SD 4.8, p = 0.002. As expected, they were also more sensitive to visual stimuli (mean composite score 10.5 (SD 8.7 vs 22.9 (SD 7.5, p< 0.0001. Conclusion: These results encourage balance rehabilitation of patients with CADP, aimed at promoting the use of proprioceptive information, thereby reducing too-early development of visual compensation while proprioception is still available.

  1. Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation; a neural effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christianne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-02

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has established the functional relevance of early visual cortex (EVC) for visual awareness with great temporal specificity non-invasively in conscious human volunteers. Many studies have found a suppressive effect when TMS was applied over EVC 80-100 ms after the onset of the visual stimulus (post-stimulus TMS time window). Yet, few studies found task performance to also suffer when TMS was applied even before visual stimulus presentation (pre-stimulus TMS time window). This pre-stimulus TMS effect, however, remains controversially debated and its origin had mainly been ascribed to TMS-induced eye-blinking artifacts. Here, we applied chronometric TMS over EVC during the execution of a visual discrimination task, covering an exhaustive range of visual stimulus-locked TMS time windows ranging from -80 pre-stimulus to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. Electrooculographical (EoG) recordings, sham TMS stimulation, and vertex TMS stimulation controlled for different types of non-neural TMS effects. Our findings clearly reveal TMS-induced masking effects for both pre- and post-stimulus time windows, and for both objective visual discrimination performance and subjective visibility. Importantly, all effects proved to be still present after post hoc removal of eye blink trials, suggesting a neural origin for the pre-stimulus TMS suppression effect on visual awareness. We speculate based on our data that TMS exerts its pre-stimulus effect via generation of a neural state which interacts with subsequent visual input. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortical deactivation induced by visual stimulation in human slow-wave sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, Alfred Peter; Law, Ian; Lund, Torben E

    2002-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that sleeping and sedated young children respond with a paradoxical decrease in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in the rostro-medial occipital visual cortex during visual stimulation. It is unreso...... that this decrease was secondary to a relative rCBF decrease. Possible mechanisms for the paradoxical response pattern during sleep include an active inhibition of the visual cortex or a disruption of an energy-consuming process...

  3. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend......MRI) in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness...... was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual...

  4. Assessing the Effect of Early Visual Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Working Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining visual working memory (VWM) representations recruits a network of brain regions, including the frontal, posterior parietal, and occipital cortices; however, it is unclear to what extent the occipital cortex is engaged in VWM after sensory encoding is completed. Noninvasive brain stimulation data show that stimulation of this region can affect working memory (WM) during the early consolidation time period, but it remains unclear whether it does so by influencing the number of items that are stored or their precision. In this study, we investigated whether single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS) to the occipital cortex during VWM consolidation affects the quantity or quality of VWM representations. In three experiments, we disrupted VWM consolidation with either a visual mask or spTMS to retinotopic early visual cortex. We found robust masking effects on the quantity of VWM representations up to 200 msec poststimulus offset and smaller, more variable effects on WM quality. Similarly, spTMS decreased the quantity of VWM representations, but only when it was applied immediately following stimulus offset. Like visual masks, spTMS also produced small and variable effects on WM precision. The disruptive effects of both masks and TMS were greatly reduced or entirely absent within 200 msec of stimulus offset. However, there was a reduction in swap rate across all time intervals, which may indicate a sustained role of the early visual cortex in maintaining spatial information.

  5. Cerebral Asymmetry of fMRI-BOLD Responses to Visual Stimulation.

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    Anders Hougaard

    Full Text Available Hemispheric asymmetry of a wide range of functions is a hallmark of the human brain. The visual system has traditionally been thought of as symmetrically distributed in the brain, but a growing body of evidence has challenged this view. Some highly specific visual tasks have been shown to depend on hemispheric specialization. However, the possible lateralization of cerebral responses to a simple checkerboard visual stimulation has not been a focus of previous studies. To investigate this, we performed two sessions of blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 54 healthy subjects during stimulation with a black and white checkerboard visual stimulus. While carefully excluding possible non-physiological causes of left-to-right bias, we compared the activation of the left and the right cerebral hemispheres and related this to grey matter volume, handedness, age, gender, ocular dominance, interocular difference in visual acuity, as well as line-bisection performance. We found a general lateralization of cerebral activation towards the right hemisphere of early visual cortical areas and areas of higher-level visual processing, involved in visuospatial attention, especially in top-down (i.e., goal-oriented attentional processing. This right hemisphere lateralization was partly, but not completely, explained by an increased grey matter volume in the right hemisphere of the early visual areas. Difference in activation of the superior parietal lobule was correlated with subject age, suggesting a shift towards the left hemisphere with increasing age. Our findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance of these areas, which could lend support to the generally observed leftward visual attentional bias and to the left hemifield advantage for some visual perception tasks.

  6. From motor cortex to visual cortex: the application of noninvasive brain stimulation to amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin; Mansouri, Behzad; Koski, Lisa; Hess, Robert F

    2012-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation is a technique for inducing changes in the excitability of discrete neural populations in the human brain. A current model of the underlying pathological processes contributing to the loss of motor function after stroke has motivated a number of research groups to investigate the potential therapeutic application of brain stimulation to stroke rehabilitation. The loss of motor function is modeled as resulting from a combination of reduced excitability in the lesioned motor cortex and an increased inhibitory drive from the nonlesioned hemisphere over the lesioned hemisphere. This combination of impaired neural function and pathological suppression resonates with current views on the cause of the visual impairment in amblyopia. Here, we discuss how the rationale for using noninvasive brain stimulation in stroke rehabilitation can be applied to amblyopia, review a proof-of-principle study demonstrating that brain stimulation can temporarily improve amblyopic eye function, and propose future research avenues. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effect of first visual stimulation incorporation of labelled leucine into cerebral cortex of binocularly deprived kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitros, K.; Kossut, M.; Skangiel-Kramska, J.; Mueller, L.; Niemierko, S.; Zernicki, B.

    1978-01-01

    One-month old kittens, binocularly deprived with hoods from birth, were used. Before the experiments in which visual stimulation was applied the brainstem of kittens was transected at the pretrigeminal level. Cortical EEG activity and ocular behavior indicated that the isolated cerebrum of preparations was usually awake during experiment. Patterned visual stimulation was directed to one hemisphere, while the other was used as a control. Visual stimulation evoked in some cases (in 8 out of 17) an increase of incorporation of labelled leucine into the proteins of the striate cortex. Electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel did not reveal any differences in the pattern of insoluble proteins between the stimulated and control visual cortex. It is suggested that first visual stimulation may enhance the protein metabolism of striate cortex in young kittens. Some unknown up to now physiological factors (motivation, attention) may be critical for these phenomena. (author)

  8. GABAA receptors in visual and auditory cortex and neural activity changes during basic visual stimulation

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    Pengmin eQin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that levels of resting GABA in the visual cortex predict the degree of stimulus-induced activity in the same region. These studies have used the presentation of discrete visual stimulus; the change from closed eyes to open also represents a simple visual stimulus, however, and has been shown to induce changes in local brain activity and in functional connectivity between regions. We thus aimed to investigate the role of the GABA system, specifically GABAA receptors, in the changes in brain activity between the eyes closed (EC and eyes open (EO state in order to provide detail at the receptor level to complement previous studies of GABA concentrations. We conducted an fMRI study involving two different modes of the change from EC to EO: An EO and EC block design, allowing the modelling of the haemodynamic response, followed by longer periods of EC and EO to allow the measuring of functional connectivity. The same subjects also underwent [18F]Flumazenil PET measure GABAA receptor binding potentials. It was demonstrated that the local-to-global ratio of GABAA receptor binding potential in the visual cortex predicted the degree of changes in neural activity from EC to EO. This same relationship was also shown in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, the local-to-global ratio of GABAA receptor binding potential in the visual cortex also predicts the change of functional connectivity between visual and auditory cortex from EC to EO. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of GABAA receptors in stimulus-induced neural activity in local regions and in inter-regional functional connectivity.

  9. The Joint Effects of Spatial Cueing and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visual Acuity

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    Taly Bonder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the mutual influence of cortical neuroenhancement and allocation of spatial attention on perception. Specifically, it explored the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on visual acuity measured with a Landolt gap task and attentional precues. The exogenous cues were used to draw attention either to the location of the target or away from it, generating significant performance benefits and costs. Anodal tDCS applied to posterior occipital area for 15 min improved performance during stimulation, reflecting heightened visual acuity. Reaction times were lower, and accuracy was higher in the tDCS group, compared to a sham control group. Additionally, in post-stimulation trials tDCS significantly interacted with the effect of precuing. Reaction times were lower in valid cued trials (benefit and higher in invalid trials (cost compared to neutrally cued trials, the effect which was pronounced stronger in tDCS group than in sham control group. The increase of cost and benefit effects in the tDCS group was of a similar magnitude, suggesting that anodal tDCS influenced the overall process of attention orienting. The observed interaction between the stimulation of the visual cortex and precueing indicates a magnification of attention modulation.

  10. Probing feedforward and feedback contributions to awareness with visual masking and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    A number of influential theories posit that visual awareness relies not only on the initial, stimulus-driven (i.e., feedforward) sweep of activation but also on recurrent feedback activity within and between brain regions. These theories of awareness draw heavily on data from masking paradigms in which visibility of one stimulus is reduced due to the presence of another stimulus. More recently transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to study the temporal dynamics of visual awareness. TMS over occipital cortex affects performance on visual tasks at distinct time points and in a manner that is comparable to visual masking. We draw parallels between these two methods and examine evidence for the neural mechanisms by which visual masking and TMS suppress stimulus visibility. Specifically, both methods have been proposed to affect feedforward as well as feedback signals when applied at distinct time windows relative to stimulus onset and as a result modify visual awareness. Most recent empirical evidence, moreover, suggests that while visual masking and TMS impact stimulus visibility comparably, the processes these methods affect may not be as similar as previously thought. In addition to reviewing both masking and TMS studies that examine feedforward and feedback processes in vision, we raise questions to guide future studies and further probe the necessary conditions for visual awareness.

  11. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Fried

    Full Text Available Phosphenes are commonly evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to study the functional organization, connectivity, and excitability of the human visual brain. For years, phosphenes have been documented only from stimulating early visual areas (V1-V3 and a handful of specialized visual regions (V4, V5/MT+ in occipital cortex. Recently, phosphenes were reported after applying TMS to a region of posterior parietal cortex involved in the top-down modulation of visuo-spatial processing. In the present study, we systematically characterized parietal phosphenes to determine if they are generated directly by local mechanisms or emerge through indirect activation of other visual areas. Using technology developed in-house to record the subjective features of phosphenes, we found no systematic differences in the size, shape, location, or frame-of-reference of parietal phosphenes when compared to their occipital counterparts. In a second experiment, discrete deactivation by 1 Hz repetitive TMS yielded a double dissociation: phosphene thresholds increased at the deactivated site without producing a corresponding change at the non-deactivated location. Overall, the commonalities of parietal and occipital phosphenes, and our ability to independently modulate their excitability thresholds, lead us to conclude that they share a common neural basis that is separate from either of the stimulated regions.

  12. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.; Money, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed

  13. Effects of deuterium oxide and galvanic vestibular stimulation on visual cortical cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinis, S.; Landolt, J.P.; Weiss, D.S.; Money, K.E.

    1984-03-01

    The spontaneous and evoked unit activities of complex visual cortical cells were recorded from Brodmann's area 18 in immobilized, unanesthetized cats before, during, and after stimulation of the vestibular system. The vestibular system was stimulated by intravenous injection of deuterium oxide (D2O)--a noted nystagmogenic agent--or by direct galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth. Measures of the receptive-field areas, poststimulus time histograms, directional preferences, and the optimal speed of the light bar stimulating the cell were obtained before and after the application of D2O. Directional preferences were determined in a novel manner, using a method derived from a hierarchical clustering technique. Data were collected and analyzed from a) visual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths, b) visual cortical cells in cats following bilateral labrinthectomies, and c) nonvisual cortical cells in cats with intact labyrinths. The other cellular characteristics were also altered by the D2O. Galvanic stimulation of the labyrinth resembles, in its effects, the injection of D2O. In labyrinth-intact cats, the time course of area 18 spontaneous activity dramatically increased 30 min or more after D2O was administered. It peaked 2-3 h later and still had not returned to preinjection levels even 7 h after the D2O administration. In bilaterally labyrinthectomized cats, the spontaneous activity of the visual cells did not change following D2O administration. In nonvisual cells from labyrinth-intact cats, the spontaneous activity demonstrated a slight but significant decrease over time after D2O injection. In pilot studies, the cats were injected with D2O. Within 8-10 min afterward, signs of positional nystagmus commenced; and within 30 min, problems in maintaining balance were noted. This continued for 7-8 h before disappearing. In the labyrinthectomized animals, such effects were not observed.

  14. Hemispheric differences in electrical and hemodynamic responses during hemifield visual stimulation with graded contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Juanning; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yujin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-04-01

    A multimodal neuroimaging technique based on electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used with horizontal hemifield visual stimuli with graded contrasts to investigate the retinotopic mapping more fully as well as to explore hemispheric differences in neuronal activity, the hemodynamic response, and the neurovascular coupling relationship in the visual cortex. The fNIRS results showed the expected activation over the contralateral hemisphere for both the left and right hemifield visual stimulations. However, the EEG results presented a paradoxical lateralization, with the maximal response located over the ipsilateral hemisphere but with the polarity inversed components located over the contralateral hemisphere. Our results suggest that the polarity inversion as well as the latency advantage over the contralateral hemisphere cause the amplitude of the VEP over the contralateral hemisphere to be smaller than that over the ipsilateral hemisphere. Both the neuronal and hemodynamic responses changed logarithmically with the level of contrast in the hemifield visual stimulations. Moreover, the amplitudes and latencies of the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were linearly correlated with the hemodynamic responses despite differences in the slopes.

  15. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on state/trait anxiety in full-term pregnancy and its influence on childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R

    2018-04-01

    Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were

  16. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  17. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Robert M. G.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of attention propose that we rely on working memory to control attention by maintaining target presentations in this active store as our visual systems are used to search for certain objects. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated by noninvasive brain stimulation. Our electrophysiological measurements showed that these improvements in attentional tuning were preceded by changes in event-related potentials thought to index long-term memory, bu...

  18. Task-specific impairments and enhancements induced by magnetic stimulation of human visual area V5.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, V; Ellison, A; Battelli, L; Cowey, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to simulate the effects of highly circumscribed brain damage permanently present in some neuropsychological patients, by reversibly disrupting the normal functioning of the cortical area to which it is applied. By using TMS we attempted to recreate deficits similar to those reported in a motion-blind patient and to assess the specificity of deficits when TMS is applied over human area V5. We used six visual search tasks and showed that subje...

  19. Visual Colour-Impulse Stimulation Treatment of Hyperactivity with Deficiency of Attention at Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Рoverennova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The causes of occurrence and development of the syndrome of hyperactivity with deficiency of attention at children аre considered. The diagnostic complex for application at patients with the given syndrome in conditions of polyclinic is under the study. The new technique in complex treatment of hyperactivity with deficiency of attention with application of visual colour-impulse stimulation for easing emotional tension (“ASIR” is proposed.

  20. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

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    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  1. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate.

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    Rosanne L Rademaker

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise.

  2. The impact of early visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual working memory precision and guess rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Rosanne L; van de Ven, Vincent G; Tong, Frank; Sack, Alexander T

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield. Memory for one of the four gratings was probed at random, and participants reported this orientation via method of adjustment. Recall errors were smaller when the visual field location targeted by TMS overlapped with that of the cued memory item, compared to errors for stimuli probed diagonally to TMS. This implied topographic storage of orientation information, and a memory-enhancing effect at the targeted location. Furthermore, early pulses impaired performance at all four locations, compared to late pulses. Next, response errors were fit empirically using a mixture model to characterize memory precision and guess rates. Memory was more precise for items proximal to the pulse location, irrespective of pulse timing. Guesses were more probable with early TMS pulses, regardless of stimulus location. Thus, while TMS administered at the offset of the stimulus array might disrupt early-phase consolidation in a non-topographic manner, TMS also boosts the precise representation of an item at its targeted retinotopic location, possibly by increasing attentional resources or by injecting a beneficial amount of noise.

  3. Prenatal exposure to dietary fat induces changes in the transcriptional factors, TEF and YAP, which may stimulate differentiation of peptide neurons in rat hypothalamus.

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    Kinning Poon

    Full Text Available Gestational exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD stimulates the differentiation of orexigenic peptide-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus of offspring. To examine possible mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon, this study investigated the transcriptional factor, transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF, and co-activator, Yes-associated protein (YAP, which when inactivated stimulate neuronal differentiation. In rat embryos and postnatal offspring prenatally exposed to a HFD compared to chow, changes in hypothalamic TEF and YAP and their relationship to the orexigenic peptide, enkephalin (ENK, were measured. The HFD offspring at postnatal day 15 (P15 exhibited in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus a significant reduction in YAP mRNA and protein, and increased levels of inactive and total TEF protein, with no change in mRNA. Similarly, HFD-exposed embryos at embryonic day 19 (E19 showed in whole hypothalamus significantly decreased levels of YAP mRNA and protein and TEF mRNA, and increased levels of inactive TEF protein, suggesting that HFD inactivates TEF and YAP. This was accompanied by increased density and fluorescence intensity of ENK neurons. A close relationship between TEF and ENK was suggested by the finding that TEF co-localizes with this peptide in hypothalamic neurons and HFD reduced the density of TEF/ENK co-labeled neurons, even while the number and fluorescence intensity of single-labeled TEF neurons were increased. Increased YAP inactivity by HFD was further evidenced by a decrease in number and fluorescence intensity of YAP-containing neurons, although the density of YAP/ENK co-labeled neurons was unaltered. Genetic knockdown of TEF or YAP stimulated ENK expression in hypothalamic neurons, supporting a close relationship between these transcription factors and neuropeptide. These findings suggest that prenatal HFD exposure inactivates both hypothalamic TEF and YAP, by either decreasing their levels or increasing their inactive

  4. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Integrated trimodal SSEP experimental setup for visual, auditory and tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Rafał; Spustek, Tomasz; Zieleniewska, Magdalena; Duszyk, Anna; Rogowski, Piotr; Suffczyński, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), the brain responses to repetitive stimulation, are commonly used in both clinical practice and scientific research. Particular brain mechanisms underlying SSEPs in different modalities (i.e. visual, auditory and tactile) are very complex and still not completely understood. Each response has distinct resonant frequencies and exhibits a particular brain topography. Moreover, the topography can be frequency-dependent, as in case of auditory potentials. However, to study each modality separately and also to investigate multisensory interactions through multimodal experiments, a proper experimental setup appears to be of critical importance. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a novel SSEP experimental setup providing a repetitive stimulation in three different modalities (visual, tactile and auditory) with a precise control of stimuli parameters. Results from a pilot study with a stimulation in a particular modality and in two modalities simultaneously prove the feasibility of the device to study SSEP phenomenon. Approach. We developed a setup of three separate stimulators that allows for a precise generation of repetitive stimuli. Besides sequential stimulation in a particular modality, parallel stimulation in up to three different modalities can be delivered. Stimulus in each modality is characterized by a stimulation frequency and a waveform (sine or square wave). We also present a novel methodology for the analysis of SSEPs. Main results. Apart from constructing the experimental setup, we conducted a pilot study with both sequential and simultaneous stimulation paradigms. EEG signals recorded during this study were analyzed with advanced methodology based on spatial filtering and adaptive approximation, followed by statistical evaluation. Significance. We developed a novel experimental setup for performing SSEP experiments. In this sense our study continues the ongoing research in this field. On the

  6. Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visually Guided Learning of Grip Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Minarik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to be an effective non-invasive brain stimulation method for improving cognitive and motor functioning in patients with neurological deficits. tDCS over motor cortex (M1, for instance, facilitates motor learning in stroke patients. However, the literature on anodal tDCS effects on motor learning in healthy participants is inconclusive, and the effects of tDCS on visuo-motor integration are not well understood. In the present study we examined whether tDCS over the contralateral motor cortex enhances learning of grip-force output in a visually guided feedback task in young and neurologically healthy volunteers. Twenty minutes of 1 mA anodal tDCS were applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the dominant (right hand, during the first half of a 40 min power-grip task. This task required the control of a visual signal by modulating the strength of the power-grip for six seconds per trial. Each participant completed a two-session sham-controlled crossover protocol. The stimulation conditions were counterbalanced across participants and the sessions were one week apart. Performance measures comprised time-on-target and target-deviation, and were calculated for the periods of stimulation (or sham and during the afterphase respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant performance improvements over the stimulation and the afterphase, but this learning effect was not modulated by tDCS condition. This suggests that the form of visuomotor learning taking place in the present task was not sensitive to neurostimulation. These null effects, together with similar reports for other types of motor tasks, lead to the proposition that tDCS facilitation of motor learning might be restricted to cases or situations where the motor system is challenged, such as motor deficits, advanced age, or very high task demand.

  7. Tactile-Foot Stimulation Can Assist the Navigation of People with Visual Impairment

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    Ramiro Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tactile interfaces that stimulate the plantar surface with vibrations could represent a step forward toward the development of wearable, inconspicuous, unobtrusive, and inexpensive assistive devices for people with visual impairments. Objective. To study how people understand information through their feet and to maximize the capabilities of tactile-foot perception for assisting human navigation. Methods. Based on the physiology of the plantar surface, three prototypes of electronic tactile interfaces for the foot have been developed. With important technological improvements between them, all three prototypes essentially consist of a set of vibrating actuators embedded in a foam shoe-insole. Perceptual experiments involving direction recognition and real-time navigation in space were conducted with a total of 60 voluntary subjects. Results. The developed prototypes demonstrated that they are capable of transmitting tactile information that is easy and fast to understand. Average direction recognition rates were 76%, 88.3%, and 94.2% for subjects wearing the first, second, and third prototype, respectively. Exhibiting significant advances in tactile-foot stimulation, the third prototype was evaluated in navigation tasks. Results show that subjects were capable of following directional instructions useful for navigating spaces. Conclusion. Footwear providing tactile stimulation can be considered for assisting the navigation of people with visual impairments.

  8. The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.

  9. Enhancing long-term memory with stimulation tunes visual attention in one trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Robert M G; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2015-01-13

    Scientists have long proposed that memory representations control the mechanisms of attention that focus processing on the task-relevant objects in our visual field. Modern theories specifically propose that we rely on working memory to store the object representations that provide top-down control over attentional selection. Here, we show that the tuning of perceptual attention can be sharply accelerated after 20 min of noninvasive brain stimulation over medial-frontal cortex. Contrary to prevailing theories of attention, these improvements did not appear to be caused by changes in the nature of the working memory representations of the search targets. Instead, improvements in attentional tuning were accompanied by changes in an electrophysiological signal hypothesized to index long-term memory. We found that this pattern of effects was reliably observed when we stimulated medial-frontal cortex, but when we stimulated posterior parietal cortex, we found that stimulation directly affected the perceptual processing of the search array elements, not the memory representations providing top-down control. Our findings appear to challenge dominant theories of attention by demonstrating that changes in the storage of target representations in long-term memory may underlie rapid changes in the efficiency with which humans can find targets in arrays of objects.

  10. Xenopus laevis Retinal Ganglion Cell Dendritic Arbors Develop Independently of Visual Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly formed neurons must locate their appropriate target cells and then form synaptic connections with these targets in order to establish a functional nervous system. In the vertebrate retina, retinal ganglion cell (RGC dendrites extend from the cell body and form synapses with nearby amacrine and bipolar cells. RGC axons, however, exit the retina and synapse with the dendrites of midbrain neurons in the optic tectum. We examined how visual stimulation influenced Xenopus RGC dendritic arborization. Neuronal activity is known to be an important factor in shaping dendritic and axonal arborization. Thus, we reared tadpoles in dark and light environments then used rhodamine dextran retrograde labeling to identify RGCs in the retina. When we compared RGC dendritic arbors from tadpoles reared in dark and light environments, we found no morphological differences, suggesting that physiological visual activity did not contribute to the morphological development of Xenopus RGC dendritic arbors.

  11. Frequency-dependent tACS modulation of BOLD signal during rhythmic visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuhui; Sheng, Jingwei; Bandettini, Peter A; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for modulating cortical oscillations. In previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, tACS has been found to modulate brain oscillatory activity in a frequency-specific manner. However, the spatial distribution and hemodynamic response for this modulation remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantage of measuring neuronal activity in regions not only below the tACS electrodes but also across the whole brain with high spatial resolution. Here, we measured fMRI signal while applying tACS to modulate rhythmic visual activity. During fMRI acquisition, tACS at different frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz) was applied along with visual flicker stimulation at 8 and 16 Hz. We analyzed the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal difference between tACS-ON vs tACS-OFF, and different frequency combinations (e.g., 4 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker vs 8 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker). We observed significant tACS modulation effects on BOLD responses when the tACS frequency matched the visual flicker frequency or the second harmonic frequency. The main effects were predominantly seen in regions that were activated by the visual task and targeted by the tACS current distribution. These findings bridge different scientific domains of tACS research and demonstrate that fMRI could localize the tACS effect on stimulus-induced brain rhythms, which could lead to a new approach for understanding the high-level cognitive process shaped by the ongoing oscillatory signal. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prenatal Co 60-irradiation effects on visual acuity, maturation of the fovea in the retina, and the striate cortex of squirrel monkey offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Young, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, foveal striate cortex depth increased significantly from 1400 μm to 1650 μm by 90 days, whereas prenatal 100 rad exposure resulted in a significant reduction of foveal striate cortex thickness at 90 days of age. From birth to 90 days, cell packing density decreased, whereas overall neuropil density increased in both control and 100 rad exposed offspring. Regarding the effects of prenatal radiation on Meynert cells, there was a significant difference in the time course of early postnatal spine frequency reduction on apical dendrites of Meynert cells, particularly in laminae V and IV. It seems possible that the significant differences in the time course of perinatal increases and subsequent decreases of spines and synapses on such pyramidal neurons as Meynert cells in the deep layers of the striate cortex may play an important role in the development of binocular acuity. Future follow-up studies will be essential from 90 days to 1 and 2 years to determine the extent of recovery from, and persistence of visual acuity impairments in relation to structural alterations in the foveal projection of the retino-geniculo-striate system of diurnal primates. (orig./MG)

  13. Gravity dependence of the effect of optokinetic stimulation on the subjective visual vertical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Bockisch, Christopher J; Caramia, Nicoletta; Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander Andrea

    2017-05-01

    Accurate and precise estimates of direction of gravity are essential for spatial orientation. According to Bayesian theory, multisensory vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive input is centrally integrated in a weighted fashion based on the reliability of the component sensory signals. For otolithic input, a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio was demonstrated with increasing roll angle. We hypothesized that the weights of vestibular (otolithic) and extravestibular (visual/proprioceptive) sensors are roll-angle dependent and predicted an increased weight of extravestibular cues with increasing roll angle, potentially following the Bayesian hypothesis. To probe this concept, the subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed in different roll positions (≤ ± 120°, steps = 30°, n = 10) with/without presenting an optokinetic stimulus (velocity = ± 60°/s). The optokinetic stimulus biased the SVV toward the direction of stimulus rotation for roll angles ≥ ± 30° ( P stimulation. Variability and optokinetic bias were correlated ( R 2 = 0.71, slope = 0.71, 95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.86). An optimal-observer model combining an optokinetic bias with vestibular input reproduced measured errors closely. These findings support the hypothesis of a weighted multisensory integration when estimating direction of gravity with optokinetic stimulation. Visual input was weighted more when vestibular input became less reliable, i.e., at larger roll-tilt angles. However, according to Bayesian theory, the variability of combined cues is always lower than the variability of each source cue. If the observed increase in variability, although nonsignificant, is true, either it must depend on an additional source of variability, added after SVV computation, or it would conflict with the Bayesian hypothesis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Applying a rotating optokinetic stimulus while recording the subjective visual vertical in different whole body roll angles, we noted the optokinetic

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation changes response selectivity of neurons in the visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekjun; Allen, Elena A.; Pasley, Brian N.; Freeman, Ralph D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to selectively alter neuronal activity of specific regions in the cerebral cortex. TMS is reported to induce either transient disruption or enhancement of different neural functions. However, its effects on tuning properties of sensory neurons have not been studied quantitatively. Objective/Hypothesis Here, we use specific TMS application parameters to determine how they may alter tuning characteristics (orientation, spatial frequency, and contrast sensitivity) of single neurons in the cat’s visual cortex. Methods Single unit spikes were recorded with tungsten microelectrodes from the visual cortex of anesthetized and paralyzed cats (12 males). Repetitive TMS (4Hz, 4sec) was delivered with a 70mm figure-8 coil. We quantified basic tuning parameters of individual neurons for each pre- and post-TMS condition. The statistical significance of changes for each tuning parameter between the two conditions was evaluated with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results We generally find long-lasting suppression which persists well beyond the stimulation period. Pre- and post-TMS orientation tuning curves show constant peak values. However, strong suppression at non-preferred orientations tends to narrow the widths of tuning curves. Spatial frequency tuning exhibits an asymmetric change in overall shape, which results in an emphasis on higher frequencies. Contrast tuning curves show nonlinear changes consistent with a gain control mechanism. Conclusions These findings suggest that TMS causes extended interruption of the balance between sub-cortical and intra-cortical inputs. PMID:25862599

  15. Open-Loop Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS): A Useful Tool for Management of Insomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean; Riegel, Barbara; McCurry, Susan M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS), a form of neurofeedback, is a non-pharmacological intervention that has been used for both performance enhancement and symptom management. We review the history of AVS, its two sub-types (close- and open-loop), and discuss its clinical implications. We also describe a promising new application of AVS to improve sleep, and potentially decrease pain. AVS research can be traced back to the late 1800s. AVS's efficacy has been demonstrated for both performance enhancement and symptom management. Although AVS is commonly used in clinical settings, there is limited literature evaluating clinical outcomes and mechanisms of action. One of the challenges to AVS research is the lack of standardized terms, which makes systematic review and literature consolidation difficult. Future studies using AVS as an intervention should; (1) use operational definitions that are consistent with the existing literature, such as AVS, Audio-visual Entrainment, or Light and Sound Stimulation, (2) provide a clear rationale for the chosen training frequency modality, (3) use a randomized controlled design, and (4) follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and/or related guidelines when disseminating results.

  16. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weerd, Peter; Reithler, Joel; van de Ven, Vincent; Been, Marin; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-02-08

    Practice-induced improvements in skilled performance reflect "offline " consolidation processes extending beyond daily training sessions. According to visual learning theories, an early, fast learning phase driven by high-level areas is followed by a late, asymptotic learning phase driven by low-level, retinotopic areas when higher resolution is required. Thus, low-level areas would not contribute to learning and offline consolidation until late learning. Recent studies have challenged this notion, demonstrating modified responses to trained stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and offline activity after very limited training. However, the behavioral relevance of modified V1 activity for offline consolidation of visual skill memory in V1 after early training sessions remains unclear. Here, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to a trained retinotopic V1 location to test for behaviorally relevant consolidation in human low-level visual cortex. Applying TMS to the trained V1 location within 45 min of the first or second training session strongly interfered with learning, as measured by impaired performance the next day. The interference was conditional on task context and occurred only when training in the location targeted by TMS was followed by training in a second location before TMS. In this condition, high-level areas may become coupled to the second location and uncoupled from the previously trained low-level representation, thereby rendering consolidation vulnerable to interference. Our data show that, during the earliest phases of skill learning in the lowest-level visual areas, a behaviorally relevant form of consolidation exists of which the robustness is controlled by high-level, contextual factors.

  17. Visual Sexual Stimulation and Erection, a Brief Review with New fMRI Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sharon L; Chow, Maggie S M; L, Jiang Y; Yang, Jingjin; Zhou, Hao; Yew, David T

    2017-05-31

    This review examines brain sites involved in sexual stimulation. New data on brain activation sites in individuals having erections concomitant with visual erotic stimulation were documented. The activation was chiefly at the midbrain around the cerebral peduncle, and in the pons centering on the tegmentum, they are indicated by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) images captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The cerebellum and inferior temporal lobe were activated more extensively in individuals viewing pornographic movie with a concomitant erection than those without. Similarly, individuals with erection had activations in the midbrain and pons, while drug addicts had neither erections nor any of these brainstem active sites. From our observation in the new data, we deduced three possible transmitters might be involved in erection: i) cholinergic neurons forming descending pathways and associated with motor activity ii) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), directly or indirectly via decreasing pathways, modulating autonomic vascular responses in the penile vasculature causing the filling of blood iii) GABA decreases to stimulate dopamine increase in ventral tegmentum of the brain, leading to euphoric responses. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Simultaneous recording of electroretinogram and visual evoked response. Focal stimulation under direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, T; Miyake, Y; Hara, A

    1977-07-01

    A system has been tested that allows simultaneous recording of the retinal response (electroretinogram [ERG]) and the occipital response (visual evoked response [VER]) with focal photic stimulation of the retina under direct observation of the fundus. A helium-neon gas laser is used as a stimulus source. The laser is chopped either by a pen motor or a rotating disc. The laser is attached to a biomicroscope through which the examiner can observe the fundus of the subject during the entire recording session. The optically clear contact lens is made with a flat surface that neutralizes refraction due to the cornea, thereby allowing fundus observation by microscope. Two metal wires mounted inside and outside of the lens serve as the electrode for the ERG. Graticules consisting of concentric circles and radial lines are projected onto the subject's fundus, providing a pattern that the examiner can use to determine the exact location to be stimulated in the fundus. With proper adjustment of stimulus and background illumination, local ERG and VER can be recorded simultaneously by stimulating the macula.

  19. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  20. Pharmacological Mechanisms of Cortical Enhancement Induced by the Repetitive Pairing of Visual/Cholinergic Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Il Kang

    Full Text Available Repetitive visual training paired with electrical activation of cholinergic projections to the primary visual cortex (V1 induces long-term enhancement of cortical processing in response to the visual training stimulus. To better determine the receptor subtypes mediating this effect the selective pharmacological blockade of V1 nicotinic (nAChR, M1 and M2 muscarinic (mAChR or GABAergic A (GABAAR receptors was performed during the training session and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded before and after training. The training session consisted of the exposure of awake, adult rats to an orientation-specific 0.12 CPD grating paired with an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain for a duration of 1 week for 10 minutes per day. Pharmacological agents were infused intracortically during this period. The post-training VEP amplitude was significantly increased compared to the pre-training values for the trained spatial frequency and to adjacent spatial frequencies up to 0.3 CPD, suggesting a long-term increase of V1 sensitivity. This increase was totally blocked by the nAChR antagonist as well as by an M2 mAChR subtype and GABAAR antagonist. Moreover, administration of the M2 mAChR antagonist also significantly decreased the amplitude of the control VEPs, suggesting a suppressive effect on cortical responsiveness. However, the M1 mAChR antagonist blocked the increase of the VEP amplitude only for the high spatial frequency (0.3 CPD, suggesting that M1 role was limited to the spread of the enhancement effect to a higher spatial frequency. More generally, all the drugs used did block the VEP increase at 0.3 CPD. Further, use of each of the aforementioned receptor antagonists blocked training-induced changes in gamma and beta band oscillations. These findings demonstrate that visual training coupled with cholinergic stimulation improved perceptual sensitivity by enhancing cortical responsiveness in V1. This enhancement is mainly mediated by n

  1. Global perception depends on coherent work of bilateral visual cortices: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Han, ShiHui

    2007-08-01

    Previous research suggests that the right and left hemispheres dominate global and local perception of hierarchical patterns, respectively. The current work examined whether global perception of hierarchical stimuli requires coherent work of bilateral visual cortices using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects discriminated global or local properties of compound letters in Experiment 1. Reaction times were recorded when single-pulse real TMS or sham TMS was delivered over the left or right visual cortex. While a global precedence effect (i.e., faster responses to global than local targets and stronger global-to-local interference than the reverse) was observed, TMS decreased global-to-local interference whereas increased local-to-global interference. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that the effects observed in Experiment 1 resulted from perceptual learning. Experiment 3 used compound shapes and observed TMS effect similar to that in Experiment 1. Moreover, TMS also slowed global RTs whereas speeded up local RTs in Experiment 3. Finally, the TMS effects observed in Experiments 1 and 3 did not differ between the conditions when TMS was applied over the left and right hemispheres. The results support a coherence hypothesis that global perception of compound stimuli depends upon the coherent work of bilateral visual cortices.

  2. Task-specific impairments and enhancements induced by magnetic stimulation of human visual area V5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, V; Ellison, A; Battelli, L; Cowey, A

    1998-03-22

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to simulate the effects of highly circumscribed brain damage permanently present in some neuropsychological patients, by reversibly disrupting the normal functioning of the cortical area to which it is applied. By using TMS we attempted to recreate deficits similar to those reported in a motion-blind patient and to assess the specificity of deficits when TMS is applied over human area V5. We used six visual search tasks and showed that subjects were impaired in a motion but not a form 'pop-out' task when TMS was applied over V5. When motion was present, but irrelevant, or when attention to colour and form were required, TMS applied to V5 enhanced performance. When attention to motion was required in a motion-form conjunction search task, irrespective of whether the target was moving or stationary, TMS disrupted performance. These data suggest that attention to different visual attributes involves mutual inhibition between different extrastriate visual areas.

  3. Playing the electric light orchestra--how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-09-19

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the 'causal map' of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making.

  4. Playing the electric light orchestra—how electrical stimulation of visual cortex elucidates the neural basis of perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Krug, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Vision research has the potential to reveal fundamental mechanisms underlying sensory experience. Causal experimental approaches, such as electrical microstimulation, provide a unique opportunity to test the direct contributions of visual cortical neurons to perception and behaviour. But in spite of their importance, causal methods constitute a minority of the experiments used to investigate the visual cortex to date. We reconsider the function and organization of visual cortex according to results obtained from stimulation techniques, with a special emphasis on electrical stimulation of small groups of cells in awake subjects who can report their visual experience. We compare findings from humans and monkeys, striate and extrastriate cortex, and superficial versus deep cortical layers, and identify a number of revealing gaps in the ‘causal map′ of visual cortex. Integrating results from different methods and species, we provide a critical overview of the ways in which causal approaches have been used to further our understanding of circuitry, plasticity and information integration in visual cortex. Electrical stimulation not only elucidates the contributions of different visual areas to perception, but also contributes to our understanding of neuronal mechanisms underlying memory, attention and decision-making. PMID:26240421

  5. The Effects of Modafinil and Ove-the-Counter Stimulants on Two- and Three- Dimensional Visual Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-19

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0029 The Effects of Modafinil and Over-the-Counter Stimulants on Two- and Three- Dimensional Visual Localization...per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) June 2012 – May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Modafinil and Over-the-Counter Stimulants on Two- and

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  7. Visual Prosthesis: Interfacing Stimulating Electrodes with Retinal Neurons to Restore Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barriga-Rivera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The bypassing of degenerated photoreceptors using retinal neurostimulators is helping the blind to recover functional vision. Researchers are investigating new ways to improve visual percepts elicited by these means as the vision produced by these early devices remain rudimentary. However, several factors are hampering the progression of bionic technologies: the charge injection limits of metallic electrodes, the mechanical mismatch between excitable tissue and the stimulating elements, neural and electric crosstalk, the physical size of the implanted devices, and the inability to selectively activate different types of retinal neurons. Electrochemical and mechanical limitations are being addressed by the application of electromaterials such as conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and nanocrystalline diamonds, among other biomaterials, to electrical neuromodulation. In addition, the use of synthetic hydrogels and cell-laden biomaterials is promising better interfaces, as it opens a door to establishing synaptic connections between the electrode material and the excitable cells. Finally, new electrostimulation approaches relying on the use of high-frequency stimulation and field overlapping techniques are being developed to better replicate the neural code of the retina. All these elements combined will bring bionic vision beyond its present state and into the realm of a viable, mainstream therapy for vision loss.

  8. Visualizing Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in vivo using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Mayank Anant

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a low-cost, non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been shown to treat clinical symptoms as well as improve cognition. However, no techniques exist at the time of research to visualize tDCS currents in vivo. This dissertation presents the theoretical framework and experimental implementations of a novel MRI technique that enables non-invasive visualization of the tDCS electric current using magnetic field mapping. The first chapter establishes the feasibility of measuring magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. The following chapter discusses the state of the art implementation that can measure magnetic field changes in individual subjects undergoing concurrent tDCS/MRI. The final chapter discusses how the developed technique was integrated with BOLD fMRI-an established MRI technique for measuring brain function. By enabling a concurrent measurement of the tDCS current induced magnetic field as well as the brain's hemodynamic response to tDCS, our technique opens a new avenue to investigate tDCS mechanisms and improve targeting.

  9. Dynamic relationship between neurostimulation and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the human visual cortex: evidence that NAA functions as a molecular water pump during visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H; Hrabe, Jan; Guilfoyle, David N

    2007-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid (NAA), an amino acid synthesized and stored primarily in neurons in the brain, has been proposed to be a molecular water pump (MWP) whose function is to rapidly remove water from neurons against a water gradient. In this communication, we describe the results of a functional (1)H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) study, and provide evidence that in the human visual cortex, over a 10-min period of visual stimulation, there are stimulation-induced graded changes in the NAA MRS signal from that of a preceding 10-min baseline period with a decline in the NAA signal of 13.1% by the end of the 10-min stimulation period. Upon cessation of visual stimulation, the NAA signal gradually increases during a 10-min recovery period and once again approaches the baseline level. Because the NAA MRS signal reflects the NAA concentration, these changes indicate rapid focal changes in its concentration, and transient changes in its intercompartmental metabolism. These include its rates of synthesis and efflux from neurons and its hydrolysis by oligodendrocytes. During stimulation, the apparent rate of NAA efflux and hydrolysis increased 14.2 times, from 0.55 to 7.8 micromol g(-1) h(-1). During recovery, the apparent rate of synthesis increased 13.3 times, from 0.55 to 7.3 micromol g(-1) h(-1). The decline in the NAA signal during stimulation suggests that a rapid increase in the rate of NAA-obligated water release to extracellular fluid (ECF) is the initial and seminal event in response to neurostimulation. It is concluded that the NAA metabolic cycle in the visual cortex is intimately linked to rates of neuronal signaling, and that the functional cycle of NAA is associated with its release to ECF, thus supporting the hypothesis that an important function of the NAA metabolic cycle is that of an efflux MWP.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9{sup 9m}Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  12. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc- HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juh, Ra Hyeong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kwark, Chul Eun; Choe, Bo Young; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of '9 9m Tc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map(SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  13. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A. [The Catholic Univ., of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50{+-}5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann.

  14. Investigation of the metabolic changes in visual cortex due to visual stimulation using high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yan; Peter, M.; Wu Renhua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the metabolic changes in the visual cortex due to visual stimulation using high field functional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7.0 T. A clear picture of brain metabolism and neurotransmitter activity during activation was expected to be established. Methods: Nine healthy subjects participated in this study. All MR measurements were acquired using a 7.0 T MR system and a 16-channel SENSE head coil. An initial fMRI scan was performed prior to spectroscopic acquisition in order to determine the activated region in the visual cortex. A cubic ROI of 2 cm× 2 cm × 2 cm was positioned inside the activated region for functional MRS acquisition. A short TE STEAM sequence was used for acquiring the MRS data. The functional paradigm comprised 6.6 min baseline followed by 13.2 min of visual stimulation and 19.8 min recovery. Summed averaged spectra for visual stimulus off and visual stimulus on were analyzed separately using LC Model and internal reference of water. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was conducted to compare the metabolite changes. Results During stimulation, concentration in Asp [(3.20 ± 0.28) μmol/g], Gln [(2.07 ± 0.10) μmol/g] and Gly [(1.65 ± 0.11)μmol/g] was found to be significantly decreased,compared with that of (3.52 ± 0.28), (2.25 ± 0.10) and (1.85 ± 0.11) μmol/g in rest (Z=-2.073, -2.073 and -2.429, respectively, P<0.05). The level in Glu [(11.50 ± 0.11) μmol/g], GSH [(2.45 ± 0.10) μmol/g] and Lac [(0.89 ± 0.05) μmol/g] due to neuronal activation was found to be significantly increased,versus resting concentration of (11.28 ± 0.11), (2.28 ± 0.10) and (0.79 ± 0.05) μmol/g,respectively (Z=2.521, 2.310, 2.016, respectively, P<0.05). Glc level [(1.54 ± 0.23)μmol/g] exhibited a tendency to decrease throughout the period of stimulation, compared with that of [(1.78 ± 0.28) μmol/g] in rest,but the decrease did not reach statistical significance (Z=-1.897, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a novel visual

  15. Improving visual functions in adult amblyopia with combined perceptual training and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCampana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a visual disorder due to an abnormal pattern of functional connectivity of the visual cortex and characterized by several visual deficits of spatial vision including impairments of visual acuity (VA and of the contrast sensitivity function (CSF. Despite being a developmental disorder caused by reduced visual stimulation during early life (critical period, several studies have shown that extensive visual perceptual training can improve VA and CSF in people with amblyopia even in adulthood. With the present study we assessed whether a much shorter perceptual training regime, in association with high-frequency transcranial electrical stimulation (hf-tRNS, was able to improve visual functions in a group of adult participants with amblyopia. Results show that, in comparison with previous studies where a large number sessions with a similar training regime were used (Polat, Ma-Naim, Belkin & Sagi, 2004, here just eight sessions of training in contrast detection under lateral masking conditions combined with hf-tRNS, were able to substantially improve VA and CSF in adults with amblyopia.

  16. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act

  17. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  18. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. Glucose metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET: a preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Woo, Se Joon; Seo, Jong Mo; Chung, Hum; Lee, Dong Soo; Zhou, Zing Ai; Kim, Sung June [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We studied to compare the cerebral cortical metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina. Five PET scans were performed on five different days in an albino rabbit. One FDG PET study was done at rest state. In another two FDG PET studies, repetitive flash light stimulation (0.3 Hz, 6 min total) on each eye started 1 min prior to FDG injection and continued for 5 min into uptake. In the other two FDG studies, electrical retinal stimulation (500 {mu}A, 1 Hz, 6 min total) of each eye using a suprachoroidal electrode placed under the visual streak was performed with the same procedure. Static PET data was acquired for 10 min after injection of [{sup 18}F]FDG (37 MBq) through the catheter placed in the ear vein. All images were realigned to the rest state image. To remove the effects of global differences, each voxel value of the images was normalized versus mean value in whole brain. Change of cerebral glucose metabolism was examined with difference between rest and stimulation state. After visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina, the cerebral area of increased metabolism could be determined. The hypermetabolic area of electrical stimulation overlapped with the area of visual stimulation, while electrically simulated cerebral area was focal and confined within the visually activated area. The electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina could increase the metabolism of the visual cortex which indicates electrical retinal stimulation caused visual perception of brain.

  20. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation transiently improves contrast sensitivity and normalizes visual cortex activation in individuals with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Daniel P; Byblow, Winston D; Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-10-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is associated with abnormal patterns of neural inhibition within the visual cortex. This disorder is often considered to be untreatable in adulthood because of insufficient visual cortex plasticity. There is increasing evidence that interventions that target inhibitory interactions within the visual cortex, including certain types of noninvasive brain stimulation, can improve visual function in adults with amblyopia. We tested the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) would improve visual function in adults with amblyopia by enhancing the neural response to inputs from the amblyopic eye. Thirteen adults with amblyopia participated and contrast sensitivity in the amblyopic and fellow fixing eye was assessed before, during and after a-tDCS or cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS). Five participants also completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study designed to investigate the effect of a-tDCS on the blood oxygen level-dependent response within the visual cortex to inputs from the amblyopic versus the fellow fixing eye. A subgroup of 8/13 participants showed a transient improvement in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity for at least 30 minutes after a-tDCS. fMRI measurements indicated that the characteristic cortical response asymmetry in amblyopes, which favors the fellow eye, was reduced by a-tDCS. These preliminary results suggest that a-tDCS deserves further investigation as a potential tool to enhance amblyopia treatment outcomes in adults.

  1. Magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dissociates fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Wokke, M.E.; Tesselaar, J.P.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    To guide our behavior in successful ways, we often need to rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). While VSTM is usually broken down into iconic memory (brief and high-capacity store) and visual working memory (sustained, yet limited-capacity

  2. Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-04

    The neural correlates for retention of visual information in visual short-term memory are considered separate from those of sensory encoding. However, recent findings suggest that sensory areas may play a role also in short-term memory. We investigated the functional relevance, spatial specificity, and temporal characteristics of human early visual cortex in the consolidation of capacity-limited topographic visual memory using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Topographically specific TMS pulses were delivered over lateralized occipital cortex at 100, 200, or 400 ms into the retention phase of a modified change detection task with low or high memory loads. For the high but not the low memory load, we found decreased memory performance for memory trials in the visual field contralateral, but not ipsilateral to the side of TMS, when pulses were delivered at 200 ms into the retention interval. A behavioral version of the TMS experiment, in which a distractor stimulus (memory mask) replaced the TMS pulses, further corroborated these findings. Our findings suggest that retinotopic visual cortex contributes to the short-term consolidation of topographic visual memory during early stages of the retention of visual information. Further, TMS-induced interference decreased the strength (amplitude) of the memory representation, which most strongly affected the high memory load trials.

  3. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-14

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated with greater deficits in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex would modulate VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. tDCS can transiently alter cortical excitability and may influence suppressive neural interactions. Twenty-one patients with amblyopia and twenty-seven controls completed separate sessions of anodal (a-), cathodal (c-) and sham (s-) visual cortex tDCS. A-tDCS transiently and significantly increased VEP amplitudes for amblyopic, fellow and control eyes and contrast sensitivity for amblyopic and control eyes. C-tDCS decreased VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity and s-tDCS had no effect. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate visual cortex responses to information from adult amblyopic eyes and provide a foundation for future clinical studies of tDCS in adults with amblyopia.

  4. Real-time visualization of magnetic flux densities for transcranial magnetic stimulation on commodity and fully immersive VR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivarapu, Vijay K.; Serrate, Ciro; Hadimani, Ravi L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive procedure that uses time varying short pulses of magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain. In this method, a magnetic field generator ("TMS coil") produces small electric fields in the region of the brain via electromagnetic induction. This technique can be used to excite or inhibit firing of neurons, which can then be used for treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, migraine, and depression. It is however challenging to focus the induced electric field from TMS coils to smaller regions of the brain. Since electric and magnetic fields are governed by laws of electromagnetism, it is possible to numerically simulate and visualize these fields to accurately determine the site of maximum stimulation and also to develop TMS coils that can focus the fields on the targeted regions. However, current software to compute and visualize these fields are not real-time and can work for only one position/orientation of TMS coil, severely limiting their usage. This paper describes the development of an application that computes magnetic flux densities (h-fields) and visualizes their distribution for different TMS coil position/orientations in real-time using GPU shaders. The application is developed for desktop, commodity VR (HTC Vive), and fully immersive VR CAVETM systems, for use by researchers, scientists, and medical professionals to quickly and effectively view the distribution of h-fields from MRI brain scans.

  5. GABA(A) receptors in visual and auditory cortex and neural activity changes during basic visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengmin; Duncan, Niall W; Wiebking, Christine; Gravel, Paul; Lyttelton, Oliver; Hayes, Dave J; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kostikov, Alexey; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Reader, Andrew J; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that levels of resting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the visual cortex predict the degree of stimulus-induced activity in the same region. These studies have used the presentation of discrete visual stimulus; the change from closed eyes to open also represents a simple visual stimulus, however, and has been shown to induce changes in local brain activity and in functional connectivity between regions. We thus aimed to investigate the role of the GABA system, specifically GABA(A) receptors, in the changes in brain activity between the eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) state in order to provide detail at the receptor level to complement previous studies of GABA concentrations. We conducted an fMRI study involving two different modes of the change from EC to EO: an EO and EC block design, allowing the modeling of the haemodynamic response, followed by longer periods of EC and EO to allow the measuring of functional connectivity. The same subjects also underwent [(18)F]Flumazenil PET to measure GABA(A) receptor binding potentials. It was demonstrated that the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex predicted the degree of changes in neural activity from EC to EO. This same relationship was also shown in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex also predicted the change in functional connectivity between the visual and auditory cortex from EC to EO. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of GABA(A) receptors in stimulus-induced neural activity in local regions and in inter-regional functional connectivity.

  6. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  7. Mapping and characterization of positive and negative BOLD responses to visual stimulation in multiple brain regions at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Gruetter, Rolf; van der Zwaag, Wietske

    2018-02-20

    External stimuli and tasks often elicit negative BOLD responses in various brain regions, and growing experimental evidence supports that these phenomena are functionally meaningful. In this work, the high sensitivity available at 7T was explored to map and characterize both positive (PBRs) and negative BOLD responses (NBRs) to visual checkerboard stimulation, occurring in various brain regions within and beyond the visual cortex. Recently-proposed accelerated fMRI techniques were employed for data acquisition, and procedures for exclusion of large draining vein contributions, together with ICA-assisted denoising, were included in the analysis to improve response estimation. Besides the visual cortex, significant PBRs were found in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, as well as the pre-central sulcus; in these regions, response durations increased monotonically with stimulus duration, in tight covariation with the visual PBR duration. Significant NBRs were found in the visual cortex, auditory cortex, default-mode network (DMN) and superior parietal lobule; NBR durations also tended to increase with stimulus duration, but were significantly less sustained than the visual PBR, especially for the DMN and superior parietal lobule. Responses in visual and auditory cortex were further studied for checkerboard contrast dependence, and their amplitudes were found to increase monotonically with contrast, linearly correlated with the visual PBR amplitude. Overall, these findings suggest the presence of dynamic neuronal interactions across multiple brain regions, sensitive to stimulus intensity and duration, and demonstrate the richness of information obtainable when jointly mapping positive and negative BOLD responses at a whole-brain scale, with ultra-high field fMRI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) facilitates overall visual search response times but does not interact with visual search task factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyongje; Gordon, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects mental functions, and how any such effects arise from its neural effects, continue to be debated. We investigated whether tDCS applied over the visual cortex (Oz) with a vertex (Cz) reference might affect response times (RTs) in a visual search task. We also examined whether any significant tDCS effects would interact with task factors (target presence, discrimination difficulty, and stimulus brightness) that are known to selectively influence one or the other of the two information processing stages posited by current models of visual search. Based on additive factor logic, we expected that the pattern of interactions involving a significant tDCS effect could help us colocalize the tDCS effect to one (or both) of the processing stages. In Experiment 1 (n = 12), anodal tDCS improved RTs significantly; cathodal tDCS produced a nonsignificant trend toward improvement. However, there were no interactions between the anodal tDCS effect and target presence or discrimination difficulty. In Experiment 2 (n = 18), we manipulated stimulus brightness along with target presence and discrimination difficulty. Anodal and cathodal tDCS both produced significant improvements in RTs. Again, the tDCS effects did not interact with any of the task factors. In Experiment 3 (n = 16), electrodes were placed at Cz and on the upper arm, to test for a possible effect of incidental stimulation of the motor regions under Cz. No effect of tDCS on RTs was found. These findings strengthen the case for tDCS having real effects on cerebral information processing. However, these effects did not clearly arise from either of the two processing stages of the visual search process. We suggest that this is because tDCS has a DIFFUSE, pervasive action across the task-relevant neuroanatomical region(s), not a discrete effect in terms of information processing stages.

  9. Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: studies in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    These studies demonstrated increasing glucose metabolic rates in the human primary (PVC) and associative (AVC) visual cortex as the complexity of visual scenes increased. The metabolic response of the AVC increased more rapidly with scene complexity than that of the PVC, indicating the greater involvement of the higher order AVC for complex visual interpretations. Increases in local metabolic activity by as much as a factor of 2 above that of control subjects with eyes closed indicate the wide range and metabolic reserve of the visual cortex

  10. Differential sensory cortical involvement in auditory and visual sensorimotor temporal recalibration: Evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytemür, Ali; Almeida, Nathalia; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk

    2017-02-01

    Adaptation to delayed sensory feedback following an action produces a subjective time compression between the action and the feedback (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). TRE is important for sensory delay compensation to maintain a relationship between causally related events. It is unclear whether TRE is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon. In 3 experiments employing a sensorimotor synchronization task, we investigated this question using cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). We found that cathodal tDCS over the visual cortex, and to a lesser extent over the auditory cortex, produced decreased visual TRE. However, both auditory and visual cortex tDCS did not produce any measurable effects on auditory TRE. Our study revealed different nature of TRE in auditory and visual domains. Visual-motor TRE, which is more variable than auditory TRE, is a sensory modality-specific phenomenon, modulated by the auditory cortex. The robustness of auditory-motor TRE, unaffected by tDCS, suggests the dominance of the auditory system in temporal processing, by providing a frame of reference in the realignment of sensorimotor timing signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasaruddin, N H; Yusoff, A N; Kaur, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus

  12. Brain activation in response to randomized visual stimulation as obtained from conjunction and differential analysis: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, N. H.; Yusoff, A. N.; Kaur, S.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this multiple-subjects functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to identify the common brain areas that are activated when viewing black-and-white checkerboard pattern stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size and to investigate specific brain areas that are involved in processing static and moving visual stimuli. Sixteen participants viewed the moving (expanding ring, rotating wedge, flipping hour glass and bowtie and arc quadrant) and static (full checkerboard) stimuli during an fMRI scan. All stimuli have black-and-white checkerboard pattern. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used in generating brain activation. Differential analyses were implemented to separately search for areas involved in processing static and moving stimuli. In general, the stimuli of various shapes, pattern and size activated multiple brain areas mostly in the left hemisphere. The activation in the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was found to be significantly higher in processing moving visual stimuli as compared to static stimulus. In contrast, the activation in the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus were significantly higher for static stimulus as compared to moving stimuli. Visual stimulation of various shapes, pattern and size used in this study indicated left lateralization of activation. The involvement of the right MTG in processing moving visual information was evident from differential analysis, while the left calcarine sulcus and left lingual gyrus are the areas that are involved in the processing of static visual stimulus.

  13. No evidence for enhancements to visual working memory with transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal or posterior parietal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Matthew K; McGuirk, William P; Unsworth, Nash

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to visual working memory. Evidence from a number of different techniques has led to the theory that the PFC controls access to working memory (i.e., filtering), determining which information is encoded and maintained for later use whereas the parietal cortex determines how much information is held at 1 given time, regardless of relevance (i.e., capacity; McNab & Klingberg, 2008; Vogel, McCollough, & Machizawa, 2005). To test this theory, we delivered transcranial DC stimulation (tDCS) to the right PFC and right PPC and measured visual working memory capacity and filtering abilities both during and immediately following stimulation. We observed no evidence that tDCS to either the PFC or PPC significantly improved visual working memory. Although the present results did not allow us to make firm theoretical conclusions about the roles of the PFC and PPC in working memory, the results add to the growing body of literature surrounding tDCS and its associated behavioral and neurophysiological effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual stimulation facilitates penile responses to vibration in men with and without erectile disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Lunsen, R. H.; Oerlemans, S.

    1994-01-01

    This study compared reflexogenic and psychogenic penile responses in men with and without erectile disorder. It was hypothesized that men with psychogenic erectile dysfunction respond minimally to vibrotactile stimulation. An enhancement of penile responses was expected when vibration was combined

  16. Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior...

  17. Steady-state multifocal visual evoked potential (ssmfVEP) using dartboard stimulation as a possible tool for objective visual field assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Folkert K; Selle, Franziska; Hohberger, Bettina; Kremers, Jan

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether a conventional, monitor-based multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) system can be used to record steady-state mfVEP (ssmfVEP) in healthy subjects and to study the effects of temporal frequency, electrode configuration and alpha waves. Multifocal pattern reversal VEP measurements were performed at 58 dartboard fields using VEP recording equipment. The responses were measured using m-sequences with four pattern reversals per m-step. Temporal frequencies were varied between 6 and 15 Hz. Recordings were obtained from nine normal subjects with a cross-shaped, four-electrode device (two additional channels were derived). Spectral analyses were performed on the responses at all locations. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was computed for each response using the signal amplitude at the reversal frequency and the noise at the neighbouring frequencies. Most responses in the ssmfVEP were significantly above noise. The SNR was largest for an 8.6-Hz reversal frequency. The individual alpha electroencephalogram (EEG) did not strongly influence the results. The percentage of the records in which each of the 6 channels had the largest SNR was between 10.0 and 25.2 %. Our results in normal subjects indicate that reliable mfVEP responses can be achieved by steady-state stimulation using a conventional dartboard stimulator and multi-channel electrode device. The ssmfVEP may be useful for objective visual field assessment as spectrum analysis can be used for automated evaluation of responses. The optimal reversal frequency is 8.6 Hz. Alpha waves have only a minor influence on the analysis. Future studies must include comparisons with conventional mfVEP and psychophysical visual field tests.

  18. The effects of pattern shape, subliminal stimulation, and voluntary control on multistable visual perception

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taddei-Ferretti, C.; Radilová, Jiřina; Musio, C.; Santillo, S.; Cibelli, E.; Cotugno, A.; Radil, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1225, - (2008), s. 163-170 ISSN 0006-8993 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : visual perception * figure reversal Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2008

  19. Versatile Stimulation Back-End With Programmable Exponential Current Pulse Shapes for a Retinal Visual Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir M; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and test of a stimulation back-end, for an implantable retinal prosthesis. In addition to traditional rectangular pulse shapes, the circuit features biphasic stimulation pulses with both rising and falling exponential shapes, whose time constants are digitally programmable. A class-B second generation current conveyor is used as a wide-swing, high-output-resistance stimulation current driver, delivering stimulation current pulses of up to ±96 μA to the target tissue. Duration of the generated current pulses is programmable within the range of 100 μs to 3 ms. Current-mode digital-to-analog converters (DACs) are used to program the amplitudes of the stimulation pulses. Fabricated using the IBM 130 nm process, the circuit consumes 1.5×1.5 mm 2 of silicon area. According to the measurements, the DACs exhibit DNL and INL of 0.23 LSB and 0.364 LSB, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the stimuli generator meets expected requirements when connected to electrode-tissue impedance of as high as 25 k Ω. Maximum power consumption of the proposed design is 3.4 mW when delivering biphasic rectangular pulses to the target load. A charge pump block is in charge of the upconversion of the standard 1.2-V supply voltage to ±3.3V.

  20. Correlation between electrical and hemodynamic responses during visual stimulation with graded contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Juanning; Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuejun; Zhang, Yujin; Zuo, Nianming; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-09-01

    Brain functional activity involves complex cellular, metabolic, and vascular chain reactions, making it difficult to comprehend. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) have been combined into a multimodal neuroimaging method that captures both electrophysiological and hemodynamic information to explore the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. Because of the significance of visually evoked functional activity in clinical applications, numerous studies have explored the amplitude of the visual evoked potential (VEP) to clarify its relationship with the hemodynamic response. However, relatively few studies have investigated the influence of latency, which has been frequently used to diagnose visual diseases, on the hemodynamic response. Moreover, because the latency and the amplitude of VEPs have different roles in coding visual information, investigating the relationship between latency and the hemodynamic response should be helpful. In this study, checkerboard reversal tasks with graded contrasts were used to evoke visual functional activity. Both EEG and fNIRS were employed to investigate the relationship between neuronal electrophysiological activities and the hemodynamic responses. The VEP amplitudes were linearly correlated with the hemodynamic response, but the VEP latency showed a negative linear correlation with the hemodynamic response.

  1. Interaction of visual and vestibular stimulation on spatial coordinates for eye movements in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Minciotti, M; Barmack, N H

    1998-07-01

    Researchers investigated how vestibular and optokinetic signals alter the spatial transformation of the coordinate system that governs the spatial orientation of reflexive eye movements. Also examined were the effects of sensory stimulation when vestibular and optokinetic signals act synergistically and when the two signals are in conflict.

  2. Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-06-11

    A new type of visual display for presentation of a visual stimulus with high quality was assessed. The characteristics of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display (Sony PVM-2541, 24.5 in.; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were measured in detail from the viewpoint of its applicability to visual psychophysics. We found the new display to be superior to other display types in terms of spatial uniformity, color gamut, and contrast ratio. Changes in the intensity of luminance were sharper on the OLED display than those on a liquid crystal display. Therefore, such OLED displays could replace conventional cathode ray tube displays in vision research for high quality stimulus presentation. Benefits of using OLED displays in vision research were especially apparent in the fields of low-level vision, where precise control and description of the stimulus are needed, e.g., in mesopic or scotopic vision, color vision, and motion perception.

  3. The application of online transcranial random noise stimulation and perceptual learning in the improvement of visual functions in mild myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Rebecca; Pavan, Andrea; Campana, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been demonstrated how perceptual learning, that is an improvement in a sensory/perceptual task upon practice, can be boosted by concurrent high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). It has also been shown that perceptual learning can generalize and produce an improvement of visual functions in participants with mild refractive defects. By using three different groups of participants (single-blind study), we tested the efficacy of a short training (8 sessions) using a single Gabor contrast-detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS in comparison with the same training with sham stimulation or hf-tRNS with no concurrent training, in improving visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) of individuals with uncorrected mild myopia. A short training with a contrast detection task is able to improve VA and CS only if coupled with hf-tRNS, whereas no effect on VA and marginal effects on CS are seen with the sole administration of hf-tRNS. Our results support the idea that, by boosting the rate of perceptual learning via the modulation of neuronal plasticity, hf-tRNS can be successfully used to reduce the duration of the perceptual training and/or to increase its efficacy in producing perceptual learning and generalization to improved VA and CS in individuals with uncorrected mild myopia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fetal programming: excess prenatal testosterone reduces postnatal luteinizing hormone, but not follicle-stimulating hormone responsiveness, to estradiol negative feedback in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Hirendra N; Manikkam, Mohan; Herkimer, Carol; Dell'Orco, James; Welch, Kathleen B; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2005-10-01

    Exposure of female sheep fetuses to excess testosterone (T) during early to midgestation produces postnatal hypergonadotropism manifest as a selective increase in LH. This hypergonadotropism may result from reduced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) negative feedback and/or increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. We tested the hypothesis that excess T before birth reduces responsiveness of LH and FSH to E2 negative feedback after birth. Pregnant ewes were treated with T propionate (100 mg/kg in cotton seed oil) or vehicle twice weekly from d 30-90 gestation. Responsiveness to E2 negative feedback was assessed at 12 and 24 wk of age in the ovary-intact female offspring. Our experimental strategy was first to arrest follicular growth and reduce endogenous E2 by administering the GnRH antagonist (GnRH-A), Nal-Glu (50 microg/kg sc every 12 h for 72 h), and then provide a fixed amount of exogenous E2 via an implant. Blood samples were obtained every 20 min at 12 wk and every 10 min at 24 wk before treatment, during and after GnRH-A treatment both before and after E2 implant. GnRH-A ablated LH pulsatility, reduced FSH by approximately 25%, and E2 production diminished to near detection limit of assay at both ages in both groups. Prenatal T treatment produced a precocious and selective reduction in responsiveness of LH but not FSH to E2 negative feedback, which was manifest mainly at the level of LH/GnRH pulse frequency. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to excess T decreases postnatal responsiveness to E2 inhibitory feedback of LH/GnRH secretion to contribute to the development of hypergonadotropism.

  5. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on Psychomotor and Visual Perception Functions Related to Driving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Brunnauer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far.Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design. Standardized computerized psychomotor tests according to the German guidelines for road and traffic safety were administered at baseline. Then they performed the same tests during an anodal or sham tDCS of the left DLPFC in two separated sessions.Results: No significant improvements in skills related to driving performance like visual perception, stress tolerance, concentration, and vigilance could be shown after left anodal prefrontal tDCS. Side effects were low and did not differ between active and sham stimulation.Conclusions: The findings of our study indicate that left prefrontal tDCS may not alter driving skills affording more automated action patterns but as shown in previous studies may have an influence on driving behavior requiring executive control processes. This however has to be proved in future studies and within greater samples.

  6. The Role of the Parietal Lobe in Visual Extinction Studied with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battelli, Lorella; Alvarez, George A.; Carlson, Thomas; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Interhemispheric competition between homologous areas in the human brain is believed to be involved in a wide variety of human behaviors from motor activity to visual perception and particularly attention. For example, patients with lesions in the posterior parietal cortex are unable to selectively track objects in the contralesional side of…

  7. Time courses of MRI BOLD signals in prolonged visual stimulation. Comparison between colors and orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashikura, Kenichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kershaw, J.B.; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Seki, Chie; Kashikura, Akemi; Ardekani, B.A.; Kanno, Iwao

    1998-01-01

    We investigated: the BOLD signal response during 270 second photic stimulation using an EPI pulse sequence; the BOLD signal response for two different color checkerboards; and the BOLD signal response during six consecutive stimulation series. Ten healthy human subjects (age 25±5.5 years) were studied with a 1.5 T MRI system (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany). Black and white (BW) and red and white (RW) checkerboards alternating at 8 Hz were applied in turns for a total series of six. Stimulation timing was: 30 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 270 sec. on, 15 sec. off, 15 sec. on, 15 sec. off. Acquired data were analyzed according to color and/or order: color (without considering the order); color and order (1st BW vs. 1st RW, 2nd BW vs. 2nd RW, 3rd BW vs. 3rd RW); and order (without considering the color). A t-test (p<0.001) was used for obtaining the activated areas, and simple regression and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA were used for testing the statistical significance of the BOLD response. Results were: the BOLD signal responses during sustained photic stimulation maintained a constant level for the full duration and all series, suggesting stable levels of oxygen extraction and metabolism during cortical activation; the BOLD signal responses in two colors showed no significant difference in time response, suggesting that the neuronal populations perceiving black and red give a similar time response; and the effect of habituation or fatigue as observed by a signal decrease was not obtained, although the S.D. for each subject greatly increased with time and might be an indicator for evaluation fatigue or attention. (author)

  8. The importance of stimulation of sensory perception by preschool-aged children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    NOHAVOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...

  9. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."

  10. Polarity-Dependent Misperception of Subjective Visual Vertical during and after Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Rimoli, Brunna P; Favoretto, Diandra B; Mazin, Suleimy C; Truong, Dennis Q; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Babyar, Suzanne R; Reding, Michael; Bikson, Marom; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic tilt of subjective visual vertical (SVV) frequently has adverse functional consequences for patients with stroke and vestibular disorders. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the supramarginal gyrus can produce a transitory tilt on SVV in healthy subjects. However, the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on SVV has never been systematically studied. We investigated whether bilateral tDCS over the temporal-parietal region could result in both online and offline SVV misperception in healthy subjects. In a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind crossover pilot study, thirteen healthy subjects performed tests of SVV before, during and after the tDCS applied over the temporal-parietal region in three conditions used on different days: right anode/left cathode; right cathode/left anode; and sham. Subjects were blind to the tDCS conditions. Montage-specific current flow patterns were investigated using computational models. SVV was significantly displaced towards the anode during both active stimulation conditions when compared to sham condition. Immediately after both active conditions, there were rebound effects. Longer lasting after-effects towards the anode occurred only in the right cathode/left anode condition. Current flow models predicted the stimulation of temporal-parietal regions under the electrodes and deep clusters in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. The present findings indicate that tDCS over the temporal-parietal region can significantly alter human SVV perception. This tDCS approach may be a potential clinical tool for the treatment of SVV misperception in neurological patients.

  11. Wireless data and power transfer of an optogenetic implantable visual cortex stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Nabeel; Laha, Soumyasanta; Sokolov, Danil; Chester, Graeme; Degenaar, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the wireless data and power transfer for a novel optogenetic visual cortex implant system was demonstrated by using pork tissue mimic in-vitro at the ISM 2.4 GHz and 13.5 MHz frequency band respectively. The observed data rate was 120 kbps with no loss in data for up to a thickness of 35 mm in both water & pork. To increase the power level of the implant a Class E power amplifier is separately designed and simulated for the transmitter end and has an output power of around 223 mW with an efficiency of 81.83%. The transferred power at the receiver was measured to be 66.80 mW for the pork tissue medium considering a distance of 5 mm between the transmitter and the receiver coils, with a coupling coefficient of ~0.8. This serves the power requirement of the visual cortex implant.

  12. Effects of pleasant visual stimulation on attention, working memory, and anxiety in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, Débora; Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins de

    2013-01-01

    Different emotional reactions can be induced by the presentation of visual stimuli with affective content. Emotional stimuli are processed and linked with cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, and anxiety, and have implications in the mental health field. Previous studies have reported that positive and negative emotions tend to change cognitive processes in individuals, ultimately resulting in better and worse performance, respectively. Many studies have emphasized the crucial role...

  13. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  15. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  16. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain's reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias, gaze

  17. Chewing Stimulation Reduces Appetite Ratings and Attentional Bias toward Visual Food Stimuli in Healthy-Weight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akitsu; Miyamoto, Jun J.; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Moriyama, Keiji

    2018-01-01

    Based on the theory of incentive sensitization, the exposure to food stimuli sensitizes the brain’s reward circuits and enhances attentional bias toward food. Therefore, reducing attentional bias to food could possibly be beneficial in preventing impulsive eating. The importance of chewing has been increasingly implicated as one of the methods for reducing appetite, however, no studies to investigate the effect of chewing on attentional bias to food. In this study, we investigated whether chewing stimulation (i.e., chewing tasteless gum) reduces attentional bias to food as well as an actual feeding (i.e., ingesting a standardized meal) does. We measured reaction time, gaze direction and gaze duration to assess attentional bias toward food images in pairs of food and non-food images that were presented in a visual probe task (Experiment 1, n = 21) and/or eye-tracking task (Experiment 2, n = 20). We also measured appetite ratings using visual analog scale. In addition, we conducted a control study in which the same number of participants performed the identical tasks to Experiments 1 and 2, but the participants did not perform sham feeding with gum-chewing/actual feeding between tasks and they took a rest. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after actual feeding, subjective ratings of hunger, preoccupation with food, and desire to eat significantly decreased, whereas fullness significantly increased. Sham feeding showed the same trends, but to a lesser degree. Results of the visual probe task in Experiment 1 showed that both sham feeding and actual feeding reduced reaction time bias significantly. Eye-tracking data showed that both sham and actual feeding resulted in significant reduction in gaze direction bias, indexing initial attentional orientation. Gaze duration bias was unaffected. In both control experiments, one-way ANOVAs showed no significant differences between immediately before and after the resting state for any of the appetite ratings, reaction time bias

  18. Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior fMRI scan, TMS could be used to link the fMRI activations with evoked potentials recorded. However, conducting such experiments presents significant technical challenges given the high amplitude artifacts introduced into the EEG signal by the magnetic pulse, and the difficulty to successfully target areas that were functionally defined by fMRI. Here we describe a methodology for combining these three common tools: TMS, EEG, and fMRI. We explain how to guide the stimulator's coil to the desired target area using anatomical or functional MRI data, how to record EEG during concurrent TMS, how to design an ERP study suitable for EEG-TMS combination and how to extract reliable ERP from the recorded data. We will provide representative results from a previously published study, in which fMRI-guided TMS was used concurrently with EEG to show that the face-selective N1 and the body-selective N1 component of the ERP are associated with distinct neural networks in extrastriate cortex. This method allows us to combine the high spatial resolution of fMRI with the high temporal resolution of TMS and EEG and therefore obtain a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of various cognitive processes. PMID:24893706

  19. Extracting visual evoked potentials from EEG data recorded during fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Boaz; Yovel, Galit

    2014-05-12

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is an effective method for establishing a causal link between a cortical area and cognitive/neurophysiological effects. Specifically, by creating a transient interference with the normal activity of a target region and measuring changes in an electrophysiological signal, we can establish a causal link between the stimulated brain area or network and the electrophysiological signal that we record. If target brain areas are functionally defined with prior fMRI scan, TMS could be used to link the fMRI activations with evoked potentials recorded. However, conducting such experiments presents significant technical challenges given the high amplitude artifacts introduced into the EEG signal by the magnetic pulse, and the difficulty to successfully target areas that were functionally defined by fMRI. Here we describe a methodology for combining these three common tools: TMS, EEG, and fMRI. We explain how to guide the stimulator's coil to the desired target area using anatomical or functional MRI data, how to record EEG during concurrent TMS, how to design an ERP study suitable for EEG-TMS combination and how to extract reliable ERP from the recorded data. We will provide representative results from a previously published study, in which fMRI-guided TMS was used concurrently with EEG to show that the face-selective N1 and the body-selective N1 component of the ERP are associated with distinct neural networks in extrastriate cortex. This method allows us to combine the high spatial resolution of fMRI with the high temporal resolution of TMS and EEG and therefore obtain a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of various cognitive processes.

  20. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of right inferior parietal cortex causally influences prefrontal activation for visual detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Lee, Hweeling

    2017-01-01

    -parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS...... affect participants' performance accuracy, it affected how observers adjusted their response times after making an error. We therefore suggest that activation increases in superior frontal gyri for misses relative to correct responses may not be critical for signal detection performance, but rather...

  1. Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tania, Toshikazu; Zinchuk, V.; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

  2. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jed D.; Arnold, Sara L.; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.; Enticott, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding. There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric). Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self) and allocentric (i.e., other) viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation. PMID:24137125

  3. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jed D; Arnold, Sara L; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Enticott, Peter G

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding. There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric). Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self) and allocentric (i.e., other) viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation.

  4. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Donald Burgess

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have been implicated in interpersonal understanding There is evidence to suggest that the mirror response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., egocentric or allocentric. Most human research, however, has only examined this when presenting intransitive actions. Twenty-three healthy adult participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS experiment that assessed corticospinal excitability whilst viewing transitive hand gestures from both egocentric (i.e., self and allocentric (i.e., other viewpoints. Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity, there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation.

  5. Olfactory or auditory stimulation and their hedonic valúes differentially modulate visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M DONOSO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM designates the retention of objects or events in conscious awareness when these are not present in the environment. Many studies have focused on the interference properties of distracter stimuli in working memory, but these studies have mainly examined the influence of the intensity of these stimuli. Little is known about the memory modulation of hedonic content of distracter stimuli as they also may affect WM performance or attentional tasks. In this paper, we have studied the performance of a visual WM task where subjects recollect from five to eight visually presented objects while they are simultaneously exposed to additional - albeit weak- auditory or olfactory distracter stimulus. We found that WM performance decreases as the number of Ítems to remember increases, but this performance was unaltered by any of the distracter stimuli. However, when performance was correlated to the subject's perceived hedonic valúes, distracter stimuli classified as negative exhibit higher error rates than positive, neutral or control stimuli. We demónstrate that some hedonic content of otherwise neutral stimuli can strongly modulate memory processes.

  6. Effects of visual erotic stimulation on vibrotactile detection thresholds in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chuanshu; Knight, Peter K; Weerakoon, Patricia; Turman, A Bulent

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the effects of sexual arousal on vibration detection thresholds in the right index finger of 30 healthy, heterosexual males who reported no sexual dysfunction. Vibrotactile detection thresholds at frequencies of 30, 60, and 100 Hz were assessed before and after watching erotic and control videos using a forced-choice, staircase method. A mechanical stimulator was used to produce the vibratory stimulus. Results were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. After watching the erotic video, the vibrotactile detection thresholds at 30, 60, and 100 Hz were significantly reduced (p erotic stimulus. The results show that sexual arousal resulted in an increase in vibrotactile sensitivity to low frequency stimuli in the index finger of sexually functional men.

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and preparation of visually-guided reaching movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo eBusan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To better define the neural networks related to preparation of reaching, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to the lateral parietal and frontal cortex. TMS did not evoke effects closely related to preparation of reaching, suggesting that neural networks already identified by our group are not larger than previously thought. We also replicated previous TMS/EEG data by applying TMS to the parietal cortex: new analyses were performed to better support reliability of already reported findings (Zanon et al., 2010; Brain Topography 22, 307-317. We showed the existence of neural circuits ranging from posterior to frontal regions of the brain after the stimulation of parietal cortex, supporting the idea of strong connections among these areas and suggesting their possible temporal dynamic. Connection with ventral stream was confirmed.The present work helps to define those areas which are involved in preparation of natural reaching in humans. They correspond to parieto-occipital, parietal and premotor medial regions of the left hemisphere, i.e. the contralateral one with respect to the moving hand, as suggested by previous studies. Behavioral data support the existence of a discrete stream involved in reaching. Besides the serial flow of activation from posterior to anterior direction, a parallel elaboration of information among parietal and premotor areas seems also to exist. Present cortico-cortical interactions (TMS/EEG experiment show propagation of activity to frontal, temporal, parietal and more posterior regions, exhibiting distributed communication among various areas in the brain.The neural system highlighted by TMS/EEG experiments is wider with respect to the one disclosed by the TMS behavioral approach. Further studies are needed to unravel this paucity of overlap. Moreover, the understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for the comprehension of response inhibition and changes in prepared actions, which are common behaviors in

  8. Investigation of NAA and NAAG dynamics underlying visual stimulation using MEGA-PRESS in a functional MRS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Ricardo C G; Edden, Richard A E; Foerster, Bernd; Li, Li Min; Covolan, Roberto J M; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) is responsible for the majority of the most prominent peak in (1)H-MR spectra, and has been used as diagnostic marker for several pathologies. However, ~10% of this peak can be attributed to N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide whose release may be triggered by intense neuronal activation. Separate measurement of NAA and NAAG using MRS is difficult due to large superposition of their spectra. Specifically, in functional MRS (fMRS) experiments, most work has evaluated the sum NAA+NAAG, which does not appear to change during experiments. The aim of this work was to design and perform an fMRS experiment using visual stimulation and a spectral editing sequence, MEGA-PRESS, to further evaluate the individual dynamics of NAA and NAAG during brain activation. The functional paradigm used consisted of three blocks, starting with a rest (baseline) block of 320 s, followed by a stimulus block (640 s) and a rest block (640 s). Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. On average, subjects followed a pattern of NAA decrease and NAAG increase during stimulation, with a tendency to return to basal levels at the end of the paradigm, with a peak NAA decrease of -(21±19)% and a peak NAAG increase of (64±62)% (Wilcoxon test, pNAA and glutamate; 2) a relationship between NAAG and the BOLD response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  10. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people’s attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile–vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-‘hot’ vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-‘hot’) associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli. PMID:23051899

  11. Benefit of bi-ocular visual stimulation for postural control in children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Chrystal; Creux, Charlotte; Espinasse-Berrod, Marie-Andrée; Orssaud, Christophe; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Kapoula, Zoï

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for postural control as is shown by the Romberg quotient (RQ): with eyes closed, postural instability increases relative to eyes open (RQ = 2). Yet while fixating at far distance, postural stability is similar with eyes open and eyes closed (RQ = 1). Postural stability can be better with both eyes viewing than one eye, but such effect is not consistent among healthy subjects. The first goal of the study is to test the RQ as a function of distance for children with convergent versus divergent strabismus. The second goal is to test whether vision from two eyes relative to vision from one eye provides better postural stability. Thirteen children with divergent strabismus and eleven with convergent strabismus participated in this study. Posturtography was done with the Techno concept device. Experiment 1, four conditions: fixation at 40 cm and at 200 cm both with eyes open and eyes covered (evaluation of RQ). Experiment 2, six conditions: fixation at 40 cm and at 200 cm, with both eyes viewing or under monocular vision (dominant and non-dominant eye). For convergent strabismus, the groups mean value of RQ was 1.3 at near and 0.94 at far distance; for divergent, it was 1.06 at near and 1.68 at far. For all children, the surface of body sway was significantly smaller under both eyes viewing than monocular viewing (either eye). Increased RQ value at near for convergent and at far for divergent strabismus is attributed to the influence of the default strabismus angle and to better use of ocular motor signals. Vision with the two eyes improves postural control for both viewing distances and for both types of strabismus. Such benefit can be due to complementary mechanisms: larger visual field, better quality of fixation and vergence angle due to the use of visual inputs from both eyes.

  12. Benefit of bi-ocular visual stimulation for postural control in children with strabismus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystal Gaertner

    Full Text Available Vision is important for postural control as is shown by the Romberg quotient (RQ: with eyes closed, postural instability increases relative to eyes open (RQ = 2. Yet while fixating at far distance, postural stability is similar with eyes open and eyes closed (RQ = 1. Postural stability can be better with both eyes viewing than one eye, but such effect is not consistent among healthy subjects. The first goal of the study is to test the RQ as a function of distance for children with convergent versus divergent strabismus. The second goal is to test whether vision from two eyes relative to vision from one eye provides better postural stability. Thirteen children with divergent strabismus and eleven with convergent strabismus participated in this study. Posturtography was done with the Techno concept device. Experiment 1, four conditions: fixation at 40 cm and at 200 cm both with eyes open and eyes covered (evaluation of RQ. Experiment 2, six conditions: fixation at 40 cm and at 200 cm, with both eyes viewing or under monocular vision (dominant and non-dominant eye. For convergent strabismus, the groups mean value of RQ was 1.3 at near and 0.94 at far distance; for divergent, it was 1.06 at near and 1.68 at far. For all children, the surface of body sway was significantly smaller under both eyes viewing than monocular viewing (either eye. Increased RQ value at near for convergent and at far for divergent strabismus is attributed to the influence of the default strabismus angle and to better use of ocular motor signals. Vision with the two eyes improves postural control for both viewing distances and for both types of strabismus. Such benefit can be due to complementary mechanisms: larger visual field, better quality of fixation and vergence angle due to the use of visual inputs from both eyes.

  13. A PC-based shutter glasses controller for visual stimulation using multithreading in LabWindows/CVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Ivan; Simons, Kurt; Guyton, David; Gramatikov, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Amblyopia, commonly known as "lazy eye," is poor vision in an eye from prolonged neurologic suppression. It is a major public health problem, afflicting up to 3.6% of children, and will lead to lifelong visual impairment if not identified and treated in early childhood. Traditional treatment methods, such as occluding or penalizing the good eye with eye patches or blurring eye drops, do not always yield satisfactory results. Newer methods have emerged, based on liquid crystal shutter glasses that intermittently occlude the better eye, or alternately occlude the two eyes, thus stimulating vision in the "lazy" eye. As yet there is no technology that allows easy and efficient optimization of the shuttering characteristics for a given individual. The purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive, computer-based system to perform liquid crystal shuttering in laboratory and clinical settings to help "wake up" the suppressed eye in amblyopic patients, and to help optimize the individual shuttering parameters such as wave shape, level of transparency/opacity, frequency, and duty cycle of the shuttering. We developed a liquid crystal glasses controller connected by USB cable to a PC computer. It generates the voltage waveforms going to the glasses, and has potentiometer knobs for interactive adjustments by the patient. In order to achieve good timing performance in this bidirectional system, we used multithreading programming techniques with data protection, implemented in LabWindows/CVI. The hardware and software developed were assessed experimentally. We achieved an accuracy of ±1Hz for the frequency, and ±2% for the duty cycle of the occlusion pulses. We consider these values to be satisfactory for the purpose of optimizing the visual stimulation by means of shutter glasses. The system can be used for individual optimization of shuttering attributes by clinicians, for training sessions in clinical settings, or even at home, aimed at stimulating vision in the

  14. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Effects of psycho-educational training and stimulant medication on visual perceptual skills in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone S Papavasiliou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antigone S Papavasiliou, Irene Nikaina, Ioanna Rizou, Stratos AlexandrouDepartment of Neurology, Pendeli Children’s Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is treated with stimulants and psycho-educational remedial programs despite limited literature support for the latter. This study aimed to examine changes in a “Test of Visual Perceptual Skills” (TVPS that has not been previously reported in children with ADHD enrolled in such a program.Methods: Sixteen children, 7–11 years old, with ADHD were involved in occupational therapy and special education geared towards attention training. Six months later methylphenidate 1 mg/kg/day was prescribed. It was not taken by eight children because of family choice. The TVPS was given twice, upon diagnosis, and 8 months post-intervention. The groups were compared by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA with medication as a between groups factor and test-retest scores as within factor.Results: All children demonstrated increases in total scores in the second measurement. Medicated children scored higher but ANOVA showed a nonsignificant F for the two groups, medicated and unmedicated (F = 0.0031, p = 0.9563, indicating a non-differential effect of the two levels of treatment. It revealed a significant F for the pre- and post-treatment total TVPS scores (F = 30.91, p < 0.0001 indicating a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment tests. The interaction between pre-post treatment and level of treatment (medicated–unmedicated was nonsignificant (F = 2.20, p = 0.1604.Conclusion: TVPS scores improved in all children following intervention. Medicated children did better, but differences were nonsignificant.Keywords: ADHD, stimulants, psycho-educational therapy, TVPS

  16. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C.; Horcher, Ernst; Schöpf, Veronika; Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  17. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  18. Effect of kinesthetic illusion induced by visual stimulation on muscular output function after short-term immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Toru; Kaneko, Fuminari; Hayami, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    Kinesthetic illusions by visual stimulation (KiNVIS) enhances corticomotor excitability and activates motor association areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KiNVIS induction on muscular output function after short-term immobilization. Thirty subjects were assigned to 3 groups: an immobilization group, with the left hand immobilized for 12h (immobilization period); an illusion group, with the left hand immobilized and additionally subjected to KiNVIS of the immobilized part during the immobilization period; and a control group with no manipulation. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), fluctuation of force (force fluctuation) during a force modulation task, and twitch force were measured both before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the immobilization period. Data were analyzed by performing two-way (TIME×GROUP) repeated measures ANOVA. The MVC decreased in the immobilization group only (pre-test; 37.8±6.1N, post-test; 32.8±6.9N, p<0.0005) after the immobilization period. The force fluctuation increased only in the immobilization group (pre-test; 2.19±0.54%, post-test; 2.78±0.87%, p=0.007) after the immobilization period. These results demonstrate that induction of KiNVIS prevents negative effect on MVC and force fluctuation after 12h of immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Categorization of Human and Ape Faces in 9-Month-Old Infants Revealed by Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Hoehl, Stefanie; Pauen, Sabina; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-10-02

    This study investigates categorization of human and ape faces in 9-month-olds using a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) paradigm while measuring EEG. Categorization responses are elicited only if infants discriminate between different categories and generalize across exemplars within each category. In study 1, human or ape faces were presented as standard and deviant stimuli in upright and inverted trials. Upright ape faces presented among humans elicited strong categorization responses, whereas responses for upright human faces and for inverted ape faces were smaller. Deviant inverted human faces did not elicit categorization. Data were best explained by a model with main effects of species and orientation. However, variance of low-level image characteristics was higher for the ape than the human category. Variance was matched to replicate this finding in an independent sample (study 2). Both human and ape faces elicited categorization in upright and inverted conditions, but upright ape faces elicited the strongest responses. Again, data were best explained by a model of two main effects. These experiments demonstrate that 9-month-olds rapidly categorize faces, and unfamiliar faces presented among human faces elicit increased categorization responses. This likely reflects habituation for the familiar standard category, and stronger release for the unfamiliar category deviants.

  20. Noninvasive MRI measurement of the absolute cerebral blood volume-cerebral blood flow relationship during visual stimulation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Qiu, Maolin; Constable, R Todd

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) underlies blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI signal. This study investigates the potential for improved characterization of the CBV-CBF relationship in humans, and examines sex effects as well as spatial variations in the CBV-CBF relationship. Healthy subjects were imaged noninvasively at rest and during visual stimulation, constituting the first MRI measurement of the absolute CBV-CBF relationship in humans with complete coverage of the functional areas of interest. CBV and CBF estimates were consistent with the literature, and their relationship varied both spatially and with sex. In a region of interest with stimulus-induced activation in CBV and CBF at a significance level of the P < 0.05, a power function fit resulted in CBV = 2.1 CBF(0.32) across all subjects, CBV = 0.8 CBF(0.51) in females and CBV = 4.4 CBF(0.15) in males. Exponents decreased in both sexes as ROIs were expanded to include less significantly activated regions. Consideration for potential sex-related differences, as well as regional variations under a range of physiological states, may reconcile some of the variation across literature and advance our understanding of the underlying cerebrovascular physiology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Empathy, Pain and Attention: Cues that Predict Pain Stimulation to the Partner and the Self Capture Visual Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingdan Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy motivates helping and cooperative behaviors and plays an important role in social interactions and personal communication. The present research examined the hypothesis that a state of empathy guides attention towards stimuli significant to others in a similar way as to stimuli relevant to the self. Sixteen couples in romantic partnerships were examined in a pain-related empathy paradigm including an anticipation phase and a stimulation phase. Abstract visual symbols (i.e., arrows and flashes signaled the delivery of a Pain or Nopain stimulus to the partner or the self while dense sensor event-related potentials (ERPs were simultaneously recorded from both persons. During the anticipation phase, stimuli predicting Pain compared to Nopain stimuli to the partner elicited a larger early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP, which were similar in topography and latency to the EPN and LPP modulations elicited by stimuli signaling pain for the self. Noteworthy, using abstract cue symbols to cue Pain and Nopain stimuli suggests that these effects are not driven by perceptual features. The findings demonstrate that symbolic stimuli relevant for the partner capture attention, which implies a state of empathy to the pain of the partner. From a broader perspective, states of empathy appear to regulate attention processing according to the perceived needs and goals of the partner.

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention.

  3. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  4. Desempenho funcional de crianças com deficiência visual, atendidas no Departamento de Estimulação Visual da Fundação Altino Ventura Functional outcome of visually handicapped children cared for at the Department of Visual Stimulation - "Fundação Altino Ventura"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Malta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil funcional de crianças portadoras de deficiência visual. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 27 crianças. Dezessete com acuidade visual normal (que freqüentavam a Escola Municipal Alto do Maracanã, em Recife, e dez portadoras de deficiência visual (que recebiam estimulação visual no Departamento de Estimulação Visual da Fundação Altino Ventura, Recife. Foi utilizado o teste funcional padrão PEDI. RESULTADOS: As crianças portadoras de deficiência visual apresentaram desempenho significantemente inferior nas áreas de autocuidado e mobilidade que as crianças do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A deficiência visual traz conseqüências limitantes para o desempenho de atividades de autocuidado, locomoção, compreensão, comunicação e tarefas domésticas, na faixa etária estudada.PURPOSE: To analyze the functional outcome of visually handicapped children. METHODS: Twenty-seven children were evaluated using the standard functional PEDI test. Seventeen who attended school at "Escola Municipal Alto do Maracanã", Recife - Pernambuco, Brazil, had normal visual acuity and the other ten had visual handicap, and were cared for at Stimulation Visual Department - "Fundação Altino Ventura", in the same city. RESULTS: The children who had visual handicap showed significantly worse performance in self-care and mobility than normal children. CONCLUSION: Visual handicap may have limited the performance regarding self-care, mobility, understanding, communication, home works, in the studied group.

  5. Inside ‘Inside view’ : reflections on stimulating debate and engagement through a multimedia live theatre production on the dilemmas and issues of pre-natal screening policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lewando Hundt, Gillian; Bryanston, Claudette; Lowe, Pam; Cross, Saul; Sandall, Jane; Spencer, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of applied theatre in engaging both lay and professional publics with debate on health policy and practice is an emergent field. This paper discusses the development, production performance and discussion of ‘Inside View’.\\ud \\ud Objectives The objectives were to produce applied theatre from research findings of a completed study on genetic prenatal screening, exploring the dilemmas for women and health professionals of prenatal genetic screening, and to engage audiences i...

  6. Improving motor performance without training: the effect of combining mirror visual feedback with transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rein, Erik; Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Sehm, Bernhard; Steele, Christopher J; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Mirror visual feedback (MVF) during motor training has been shown to improve motor performance of the untrained hand. Here we thought to determine if MVF-induced performance improvements of the left hand can be augmented by upregulating plasticity in right primary motor cortex (M1) by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) while subjects trained with the right hand. Participants performed a ball-rotation task with either their left (untrained) or right (trained) hand on two consecutive days (days 1 and 2). During training with the right hand, MVF was provided concurrent with two tDCS conditions: group 1 received a-tDCS over right M1 (n = 10), whereas group 2 received sham tDCS (s-tDCS, n = 10). On day 2, performance was reevaluated under the same experimental conditions compared with day 1 but without tDCS. While baseline performance of the left hand (day 1) was not different between groups, a-tDCS exhibited stronger MVF-induced performance improvements compared with s-tDCS. Similar results were observed for day 2 (without tDCS application). A control experiment (n = 8) with a-tDCS over right M1 as outlined above but without MVF revealed that left hand improvement was significantly less pronounced than that induced by combined a-tDCS and MVF. Based on these results, we provide novel evidence that upregulating activity in the untrained M1 by means of a-tDCS is capable of augmenting MVF-induced performance improvements in young normal volunteers. Our findings suggest that concurrent MVF and tDCS might have synergistic and additive effects on motor performance of the untrained hand, a result of relevance for clinical approaches in neurorehabilitation and/or exercise science. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    López, Jaime Octavio; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  8. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Preconception Care and Prenatal Care What is preconception care? Preconception care is the ... improve the health of your child. What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care a woman ...

  9. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  10. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P.; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated...

  11. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Nam Gil [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  12. Comparison of Brain Activation Images Associated with Sexual Arousal Induced by Visual Stimulation and SP6 Acupuncture: fMRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Nam Gil; Han, Jae Bok; Jang, Seong Joo

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed not only to compare the brain activation regions associated with sexual arousal induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture, but also to evaluate its differential neuro-anatomical mechanism in healthy women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla (T). A total of 21 healthy right-handed female volunteers (mean age 22 years, range 19 to 32) underwent fMRI on a 3T MR scanner. The stimulation paradigm for sexual arousal consisted of two alternating periods of rest and activation. It began with a 1-minute rest period, 3 minutes of stimulation with either of an erotic video film or SP6 acupuncture, followed by 1-minute rest. In addition, a comparative study on the brain activation patterns between an acupoint and a shampoint nearby GB37 was performed. The fMRI data were obtained from 20 slices parallel to the AC-PC line on an axial plane, giving a total of 2,000 images. The mean activation maps were constructed and analyzed by using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) software. As comparison with the shampoint, the acupoint showed 5 times and 2 times higher activities in the neocortex and limbic system, respectively. Note that brain activation in response to stimulation with the shampoint was not observed in the regions including the HTHL in the diencephalon, GLO and AMYG in the basal ganglia, and SMG in the parietal lobe. In the comparative study of visual stimulation vs. SP6 acupuncture, the mean activation ratio of stimulus was not significantly different to each other in both the neocortex and the limbic system (p < 0.05). The mean activities induced by both stimuli were not significantly different in the neocortex, whereas the acupunctural stimulation showed higher activity in the limbic system (p < 0.05). This study compared the differential brain activation patterns and the neural mechanisms for sexual arousal, which were induced by visual stimulation and SP6 acupuncture by using 3T fMRI. These findings

  13. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... In chickens, postnatal short-term exposure to rhythmic musical stimuli ..... Exposure to music has long been associated with enhance cognitive abilities in ... memory performance in the T-maze task (Chaudhury et al. 2010, Sanyal et al. .... children with ADHD and nondisabled children. J. Learn. Disabil.

  14. Visual spatial attention enhances the amplitude of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimulation in an eccentricity-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, David W.; Fortenbaugh, Francesca C.; Robertson, Lynn C.; Silver, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous visual spatial attention improves perception and enhances neural responses to visual stimuli at attended locations. Although many aspects of visual processing differ significantly between central and peripheral vision, little is known regarding the neural substrates of the eccentricity dependence of spatial attention effects. We measured amplitudes of positive and negative fMRI responses to visual stimuli as a function of eccentricity in a large number of topographically-organized cortical areas. Responses to each stimulus were obtained when the stimulus was attended and when spatial attention was directed to a stimulus in the opposite visual hemifield. Attending to the stimulus increased both positive and negative response amplitudes in all cortical areas we studied: V1, V2, V3, hV4, VO1, LO1, LO2, V3A/B, IPS0, TO1, and TO2. However, the eccentricity dependence of these effects differed considerably across cortical areas. In early visual, ventral, and lateral occipital cortex, attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater for central compared to peripheral eccentricities. The opposite pattern was observed in dorsal stream areas IPS0 and putative MT homolog TO1, where attentional enhancement of positive responses was greater in the periphery. Both the magnitude and the eccentricity dependence of attentional modulation of negative fMRI responses closely mirrored that of positive responses across cortical areas. PMID:23562388

  15. The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornas-Biela Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal, psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional. This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

  16. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Brugger, Peter C.; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  17. iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Children Who Are Visually Impaired, Including Those with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…

  18. Effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation on the balance and prevention of falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. Methods A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group (n = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d or the intervention group (n = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d. The training was provided 15 days a month for 3 months by physical therapists. Medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale, the Barthel Index, the Falls Efficacy scale-International were assessed at baseline and after the 3-month intervention. A fall diary was kept by each participant during the 6-month follow-up. Results On comparing the two groups, the intervention group showed significantly decreased (p < 0.01 medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed. There was significantly higher improvement in the Berg Balance Scale (p < 0.05, the Barthel Index (p < 0.05 and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p < 0.05, along with significantly lesser number of injurious fallers (p < 0.05, number of fallers (p < 0.05, and fall rates (p < 0.05 during the 6-month follow-up in the intervention group. Conclusion This study showed that the visual feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation improved balance and prevented falls in older adults.

  19. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  20. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    Full Text Available The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function.

  1. Summation in autoshaping is affected by the similarity of the visual stimuli to the stimulation they replace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M; Redhead, Edward S; George, David N

    2002-04-01

    Pigeons received autoshaping with 2 stimuli, A and B, presented in adjacent regions on a television screen. Conditioning with each stimulus was therefore accompanied by stimulation that was displaced from the screen whenever the other stimulus was presented. Test trials with AB revealed stronger responding if this displaced stimulation was similar to, rather than different from, A and B. For a further experiment the training just described included trials with A and B accompanied by an additional, similar, stimulus. Responding during test trials with AB was stronger if the additional trials signaled the presence rather than the absence of food. The results are explained with a configural theory of conditioning.

  2. Improvement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and contrast sensitivity (UCCS with perceptual learning and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS in individuals with mild myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eCamilleri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning has been shown to produce an improvement of visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS both in subjects with amblyopia and refractive defects such as myopia or presbyopia. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has proven to be efficacious in accelerating neural plasticity and boosting perceptual learning in healthy participants. In this study we investigated whether a short behavioural training regime using a contrast detection task combined with online tRNS was as effective in improving visual functions in participants with mild myopia compared to a two-month behavioural training regime without tRNS (Camilleri et al., 2014. After two weeks of perceptual training in combination with tRNS, participants showed an improvement of 0.15 LogMAR in uncorrected VA (UCVA that was comparable with that obtained after eight weeks of training with no tRNS, and an improvement in uncorrected CS (UCCS at various spatial frequencies (whereas no UCCS improvement was seen after eight weeks of training with no tRNS. On the other hand, a control group that trained for two weeks without stimulation did not show any significant UCVA or UCCS improvement. These results suggest that the combination of behavioural and neuromodulatory techniques can be fast and efficacious in improving sight in individuals with mild myopia.

  3. Effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation on the balance and prevention of falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Liang, Yan-Yi; Chen, Shu-Yan; Sheng, Jing; Ma, Shao-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group ( n  = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d) or the intervention group ( n  = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d). The training was provided 15 days a month for 3 months by physical therapists. Medial-lateral and anterior-posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale, the Barthel Index, the Falls Efficacy scale-International were assessed at baseline and after the 3-month intervention. A fall diary was kept by each participant during the 6-month follow-up. On comparing the two groups, the intervention group showed significantly decreased ( p  Falls Efficacy Scale-International ( p  fall rates ( p  falls in older adults.

  4. Improvement in visual target detections and reaction time by auditory stimulation; Shikaku shigeki ga shikaku mokuhyo no kenshutsu to hanno jikan ni oyobosu kaizen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitobe, K.; Akiyama, T.; Yoshimura, N. [Akita University, Akita (Japan); Takahashi, M. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a traffic environment that can reduce traffic accidents of elder walker. We focused on the relationship between traffic accidents and elder person`s spatial attention. In this paper, an adolescent subject`s and an elder subject`s pointing movement to a visual target was measured in three conditions. Condition 1: Only target was presented. Condition 2: Auditory stimulation was added at a location the same distance from the center as that of the targets but in the opposite direction. Condition 3: Auditory stimulation was added at the same location as the target. The targets were placed in extra working space with the distance of 1.5 meter from a subject to the targets. In adolescent subjects, results showed that in Condition 3, latency was shorter and the error rate of pointing movements was lower than in the other conditions. In elder subjects, results showed that in all Conditions, ignore ratio to peripheral targets is higher than adolescent subjects. Nevertheless, in condition 3, ignore ratio was lower than in the other conditions. These results suggest that, it is possible to draw elder walker`s spatial attention and to control spatial attention by auditory stimulation. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Stimulation of the Lateral Geniculate, Superior Colliculus, or Visual Cortex is Sufficient for Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.; Freeman, John H.

    2009-01-01

    The role of the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning is well established. Less work has been done to identify the necessary conditioned stimulus (CS) pathways that project sensory information to the cerebellum. A possible visual CS pathway has been hypothesized that consists of parallel inputs to the pontine nuclei from the lateral geniculate…

  6. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... too. By Mayo Clinic Staff The goal of prenatal care is to ensure that you and your baby ...

  7. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's position. By Mayo Clinic Staff Prenatal care is an important part of a healthy pregnancy, ...

  8. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  9. Activation of the mouse primary visual cortex by medial prefrontal subregion stimulation is not mediated by cholinergic basalo-cortical projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Nam eNguyen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC exerts top-down control of primary visual cortex (V1 activity. As there is no direct neuronal projection from mPFC to V1, this functional connection may use an indirect route, i.e., via basalo-cortical cholinergic projections. The cholinergic projections to V1 originate from neurons in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB, which receive neuronal projections from the ventral part of the mPFC, composed of prelimbic (PrL and infralimbic cortices (IL. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether electrical stimulation of mice mPFC subregions activate 1 V1 neurons and 2 HDB cholinergic neurons, suggesting that the HDB serves as a relay point in the mPFC-V1 interaction. Neuronal activation was quantified using c-Fos immunocytochemistry or thallium autometallography for each V1 layer using automated particle analysis tools and optical density measurement. Stimulation of IL and PrL induced significantly higher c-Fos expression or thallium labelling in layers II/III and V of V1 in the stimulated hemisphere only. A HDB cholinergic neuron-specific lesion by saporin administration reduced IL-induced c-Fos expression in layers II/III of V1 but not in layer V. However, there was no c-Fos expression or thallium labelling in the HDB neurons, suggesting that this area was not activated by IL stimulation. Stimulation of another mPFC subarea, the anterior cingulate cortex (AC, which is involved in attention and receives input from V1, activated neither V1 nor HDB. The present results indicate that IL and PrL, but not AC, stimulation activates V1 with the minor involvement of the HDB cholinergic projections. These results suggest a functional link between the ventral mPFC and V1, but this function is only marginally supported by HDB cholinergic neurons and may involve other brain regions.

  10. Visualization of the internal globus pallidus: sequence and orientation for deep brain stimulation using a standard installation protocol at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölte, Ingo S; Gerigk, Lars; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Groden, Christoph; Kerl, Hans U

    2012-03-01

    Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) has shown remarkable therapeutic benefits for treatment-resistant neurological disorders including dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD). The success of the DBS is critically dependent on the reliable visualization of the GPi. The aim of the study was to evaluate promising 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods for pre-stereotactic visualization of the GPi using a standard installation protocol. MRI at 3.0 T of nine healthy individuals and of one patient with PD was acquired (FLAIR, T1-MPRAGE, T2-SPACE, T2*-FLASH2D, susceptibility-weighted imaging mapping (SWI)). Image quality and visualization of the GPi for each sequence were assessed by two neuroradiologists independently using a 6-point scale. Axial, coronal, and sagittal planes of the T2*-FLASH2D images were compared. Inter-rater reliability, contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the GPi were determined. For illustration, axial T2*-FLASH2D images were fused with a section schema of the Schaltenbrand-Wahren stereotactic atlas. The GPi was best and reliably visualized in axial and to a lesser degree on coronal T2*-FLASH2D images. No major artifacts in the GPi were observed in any of the sequences. SWI offered a significantly higher CNR for the GPi compared to standard T2-weighted imaging using the standard parameters. The fusion of the axial T2*-FLASH2D images and the atlas projected the GPi clearly in the boundaries of the section schema. Using a standard installation protocol at 3.0 T T2*-FLASH2D imaging (particularly axial view) provides optimal and reliable delineation of the GPi.

  11. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Balzarotti

    Full Text Available The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  12. Effects of Unilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Left Prefrontal Cortex on Processing and Memory of Emotional Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzarotti, Stefania; Colombo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is generally thought to be involved in affect and emotional processing; however, the specific contribution of each hemisphere continues to be debated. In the present study, we employed unilateral tDCS to test the unique contribution of left DLPFC in the encoding and retrieval of emotional stimuli in healthy subjects. Forty-two right handed undergraduate students received either anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation of left DLPFC while viewing neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. After completing a filler task, participants were asked to remember as many pictures as possible. Results showed that participants were able to remember a larger amount of emotional (both pleasant and unpleasant) pictures than of neutral ones, regardless of the type of tDCS condition. Participants who received anodal stimulation recalled a significantly higher number of pleasant images than participants in the sham and cathodal conditions, while no differences emerged in the recall of neutral and unpleasant pictures. We conclude that our results provide some support to the role of left prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of pleasant stimuli.

  13. A novel approach for automatic visualization and activation detection of evoked potentials induced by epidural spinal cord stimulation in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Samineh; Angeli, Claudia A; Keynton, Robert S; El-Baz, Ayman; Harkema, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary movements and the standing of spinal cord injured patients have been facilitated using lumbosacral spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES). Identifying the appropriate stimulation parameters (intensity, frequency and anode/cathode assignment) is an arduous task and requires extensive mapping of the spinal cord using evoked potentials. Effective visualization and detection of muscle evoked potentials induced by scES from the recorded electromyography (EMG) signals is critical to identify the optimal configurations and the effects of specific scES parameters on muscle activation. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel approach to automatically detect the occurrence of evoked potentials, quantify the attributes of the signal and visualize the effects across a high number of scES parameters. This new method is designed to automate the current process for performing this task, which has been accomplished manually by data analysts through observation of raw EMG signals, a process that is laborious and time-consuming as well as prone to human errors. The proposed method provides a fast and accurate five-step algorithms framework for activation detection and visualization of the results including: conversion of the EMG signal into its 2-D representation by overlaying the located signal building blocks; de-noising the 2-D image by applying the Generalized Gaussian Markov Random Field technique; detection of the occurrence of evoked potentials using a statistically optimal decision method through the comparison of the probability density functions of each segment to the background noise utilizing log-likelihood ratio; feature extraction of detected motor units such as peak-to-peak amplitude, latency, integrated EMG and Min-max time intervals; and finally visualization of the outputs as Colormap images. In comparing the automatic method vs. manual detection on 700 EMG signals from five individuals, the new approach decreased the processing time from several

  14. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  15. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  16. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  17. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  18. Effects of visual illusion and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury: A randomised controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkul, Çağla; Kılınç, Muhammed; Yıldırım, Sibel Aksu; Topçuoğlu, Elif Yalçın; Akyüz, Müfit

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a common consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI). No therapeutic drugs or drug groups are proven to be superior for neuropathic pain and treatments only aim to convert pain from dull to tolerable levels and not to remove it. This study was planned to compare the effect of visual illusion (VI) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on pain intensity, pain quality and functional capacity in SCI patients with neuropathic pain. Twenty-four patients were included and randomly categorized into two groups. In the first group (n= 12), visual illusion was applied for first two weeks, 1 week wash out period and then TENS was applied for 2 weeks. In second group (n= 12), TENS was applied firstly, 1 week wash out and then %visual illusion VI were applied. Pain severity, pain quality, and functional capacity were assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS), the neuropathic pain scale (NPS), and the brief pain inventory (BPI), respectively. A pre-post-treatment and cross over design was used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group analyses. Mann-Whitney U tests were used for analyses that compared different groups. It was observed that pain intensity decrease immediately after both applications (VI: p= 0.07, TENS: p= 0.08). After TENS application for 2 weeks, it was observed that significant decrease in most (p= 0.04) and less (p= 0.02) pain intensity; while there was no significant decrease in pain intensity after 2 weeks for VI (p> 0.05). When findings of NPS were analyzed, hot (p= 0.047), sharp (p= 0.02), unpleasant (p= 0.03) and deep items (p= 0.047) decreased after VI application. When the results of BPI were detected, they were observed that the negative effect of pain on moving ability (p= 0.04) after visual illusion application and the negative effect of pain on mood (p= 0.03), relationships with others (p= 0.04) and sleep (p= 0.04) after TENS application decreased significantly. TENS and VI therapies can be successfully

  19. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety during the Process of ... and intensity of pain based on visual analogue scale and McGill scales. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software ...

  20. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  1. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  2. "The Child's World": a creative and visual trigger to stimulate student enquiry in a problem based learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carol; Lambert, Veronica; Conlon, Joy; Harrington, Tracey

    2008-11-01

    -based learning. In: Barrett, T. Mac Labhrainn, I., Fallon, H., (Eds.), Handbook of Enquiry and Problem-based Learning: Irish Case Studies and International Perspectives. AISHE & CELT, NUI Galway. ]. This paper outlines the planning, implementation and evaluation of a "trigger" developed for a first year undergraduate nursing module. To meet specific module learning outcomes and to stimulate student inquiry through the learning strategy of PBL, a bright and colourful collage, was constructed. This tool was then evaluated using focus group interviews. Students' perspectives centered round a core theme, 'finding a focus and taking control'. Four categories were identified illustrating students progress from 'initial confusion' to engaging with the 'trigger diversity' before confidently 'exploring their own line of inquiry', thus leading to the 'stimulation of their learning'. Consistent with previous research, we also suggest it is customary for students to experience an initial period of ambiguity as they switch from teacher led to student centered learning [Biley, F., 1999. Creating tension: under graduate students nurses' response to a problem-based learning curriculum. Nurse Education Today 19 (7), 586-589]. One challenge in developing "triggers" is that the process is primarily controlled by lecturers. We suggest that a possible way forward would be to also engage students in the development of "triggers".

  3. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: a neuropsychologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual-spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies.

  4. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  5. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental Enrichment And ... Prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) has been proven to positively affect but ... Conclusion: The negative-positive prenatal effect could contribute to altered ...

  7. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will discuss the importance of proper nutrition and prenatal vitamins. Your first prenatal visit is a good time to discuss exercise, sex during pregnancy and other lifestyle issues. You might also discuss your work environment and the use of medications during pregnancy. If ...

  8. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  9. Effect of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhavsky, B Ya; Lebedko, O A; Belolubskaya, D S

    2008-08-01

    The effects of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate were studied in the rat brain. Exposure of pregnant rats to lead nitrate during activation of free radical oxidation reduced activity of NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenases in cortical neurons of their 40-day-old progeny, reduced the number of neurons in a visual field, increased the number of pathologically modified neurons, and stimulated rat motor activity in an elevated plus-maze. Two intraperitoneal injections of histochrome in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before and after lead citrate challenge attenuated the manifestations of oxidative stress and prevented the changes in some morphological and histochemical parameters of the brain, developing under the effect of lead exposure.

  10. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  11. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  12. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  13. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  14. Prenatal androgen excess programs metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaonan; Dai, Xiaonan; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Nannan; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2013-04-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the early pathophysiological mechanisms of PCOS remain unclear. Clinical, experimental, and genetic evidence supports an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of maternal environment in the pathogenesis of PCOS. To determine whether prenatal androgen exposure induced PCOS-related metabolic derangements during pubertal development, we administrated 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in pregnant rats and observed their female offspring from postnatal 4 to 8 weeks. The prenatally androgenized (PNA) rats exhibited more numerous total follicles, cystic follicles, and atretic follicles than the controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin levels, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance were elevated in the PNA rats at the age of 5-8 weeks. Following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, glucose and insulin levels did not differ between two groups; however, the PNA rats showed significantly higher 30- and 60-min glucose levels than the controls after insulin stimulation during 5-8 weeks. In addition, prenatal DHT treatment significantly decreased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT in the skeletal muscles of 6-week-old PNA rats. The abundance of IR substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 was decreased in the skeletal muscles and liver after stimulation with insulin in the PNA group, whereas phosphorylation of insulin-signaling proteins was unaltered in the adipose tissue. These findings validate the contribution of prenatal androgen excess to metabolic derangements in pubertal female rats, and the impaired insulin signaling through IRS and AKT may result in the peripheral insulin resistance during pubertal development.

  15. Neuron analysis of visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The receptive fields of single cells in the visual system of cat and squirrel monkey were studied investigating the vestibular input affecting the cells, and the cell's responses during visual discrimination learning process. The receptive field characteristics of the rabbit visual system, its normal development, its abnormal development following visual deprivation, and on the structural and functional re-organization of the visual system following neo-natal and prenatal surgery were also studied. The results of each individual part of each investigation are detailed.

  16. Developmental Programming: Prenatal Testosterone Excess and Insulin Signaling Disruptions in Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome often manifest insulin resistance. Using a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotype, we explored the contribution of androgen and insulin in programming and maintaining disruptions in insulin signaling in metabolic tissues. Phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, GSK3beta, mTOR, and p70S6K was examined in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of control and prenatal testosterone (T)-, prenatal T plus androgen antagonist (flutamide)-, and prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer (rosiglitazone)-treated fetuses as well as 2-yr-old females. Insulin-stimulated phospho (p)-AKT was evaluated in control and prenatal T-, prenatal T plus postnatal flutamide-, and prenatal T plus postnatal rosiglitazone-treated females at 3 yr of age. GLUT4 expression was evaluated in the muscle at all time points. Prenatal T treatment increased mTOR, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3beta levels in the fetal liver with both androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer preventing the mTOR increase. Both interventions had partial effect in preventing the increase in p-GSK3beta. In the fetal muscle, prenatal T excess decreased p-GSK3beta and GLUT4. The decrease in muscle p-GSK3beta was partially prevented by insulin sensitizer cotreatment. Both interventions partially prevented the decrease in GLUT4. Prenatal T treatment had no effect on basal expression of any of the markers in 2-yr-old females. At 3 yr of age, prenatal T treatment prevented the insulin-stimulated increase in p-AKT in liver and muscle, but not in adipose tissue, and neither postnatal intervention restored p-AKT response to insulin stimulation. Our findings provide evidence that prenatal T excess changes insulin sensitivity in a tissue- and development-specific manner and that both androgens and insulin may be involved in the programming of these metabolic disruptions. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. Prenatal care in your second trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000557.htm Prenatal care in your second trimester To use the sharing ... Gregory KD, Ramos DE, Jauniaux ERM. Preconception and prenatal care. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ...

  18. Prenatal care in your third trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000558.htm Prenatal care in your third trimester To use the sharing ... Gregory KD, Ramos DE, Jauniaux ERM. Preconception and prenatal care. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ...

  19. Prenatal exposure to anticonvulsants and psychosexual development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; vd Poll, N.; Koppe, J. G.; Boer, K.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital and phenytoin alters steroid hormone levels which consequently leads to disturbed sexual differentiation. In this study, possible sequelae of prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants on gender development in

  20. Prenatal Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Start Here Prenatal Tests (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Prenatal Tests (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish ...

  1. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  2. Early cannabinoid exposure influences neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice: I. Prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalterio, S; Steger, R; Mayfield, D; Bartke, A

    1984-01-01

    Maternal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent in marihuana, or to the non-psychoactive cannabinol (CBN) or cannabidiol (CBD) alters endocrine functions and concentrations of brain biogenic amines in their male offspring. Prenatal CBN exposure on day 18 of gestation resulted in decreased plasma FSH levels, testicular testosterone (T) concentrations, and seminal vesicles weights, but increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) post-castration in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to THC significantly enhanced the responsiveness of the testes to intratesticular LH injection in vivo and tended to increase human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T production by decapsulated testes in vitro. In the CBN-exposed mice, hCG-stimulated T production was enhanced, while CBD exposure had no effect. Prenatal THC exposure altered the negative feedback effects of exogenous gonadal steroids in castrated adults, with lower plasma T and FSH levels after 20 micrograms T than in castrated controls. In contrast, CBD-exposed mice had higher levels of LH in plasma post-castration. In CBN-exposed adults, two weeks post-castration the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in hypothalamus and remaining brain were reduced, while levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, were elevated compared to that in castrated OIL-controls. Prenatal CBD-exposure also reduced NE and elevated 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not affect DA levels post-castration. Concentrations of brain biogenic amines were not influenced by prenatal THC exposure in the present study. A single prenatal exposure to psychoactive or non-psychoactive components of marihuana results in long term alterations in the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Changes in the concentrations of brain biogenic amines may be related to these effects of prenatal cannabinoids on endocrine function in adult male mice.

  3. Prenatal and childhood exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and child cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maria H; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Bellinger, David C; Webster, Thomas F; White, Roberta F; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2018-06-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but epidemiological evidence on neurodevelopmental effects of PFAS exposure is inconsistent. We examined associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS exposure with performance on assessments of cognition in children. We included mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a longitudinal Boston-area birth cohort enrolled during 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of eight PFASs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), in plasma collected from women during pregnancy (median 9.7 weeks gestation) and from children at a visit in mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). In early childhood (median age 3.2 years) we administered standardized assessments of visual motor skills and vocabulary comprehension, and in mid-childhood we assessed visual motor skills, visual memory, and verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Using multivariable regression, we estimated associations of prenatal and childhood PFAS plasma concentrations with children's cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for relevant covariates including breastfeeding, maternal intelligence, parental education, and household income. Samples sizes ranged from 631 to 971, depending on analysis. Prenatal PFAS concentrations were associated with both better and worse cognitive performance; children with top quartile prenatal concentrations of some PFASs had better visual motor abilities in early childhood and non-verbal IQ and visual memory in mid-childhood, while children with upper quartile prenatal PFOA and PFOS had lower mid-childhood visual-motor scores. In cross-sectional analyses of mid-childhood PFAS concentrations and cognitive assessments, visual-motor scores on the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) (standardized mean = 100, standard deviation = 15) were lower among children with higher PFHxS (fourth quartile (Q4) vs. Q1: -5.0, 95

  4. Prenatal Care: New Hampshire Residents - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mires, Maynard H.; Sirc, Charles E.

    Data from 1976 New Hampshire birth certificates were used to examine the correlations between the degree (month of pregnancy that prenatal care began) and intensity (number of prenatal visits) of prenatal care and low infant birth weight, illegitimacy, maternal age, maternal education, and complications of pregnancy. The rate of low birth weight…

  5. Congenital lung malformations: correlation between prenatal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Congenital lung malformations are a common finding during prenatal ultrasonography (US). Investigations were completed by means of prenatal MRI and postnatal computed tomographic (CT) scan. The purpose of this study was to compare these prenatal findings with postnatal findings and pathological findings after ...

  6. Pertumbuhan Prenatal dalam Kandungan Kambing Melalui Superovulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW 20.4-44.2 kg, age 2.5-7 years were used to study the efficacy of increasing secretion of endogenous hormones of pregnancy by superovulation of does to stimulate of growth prenatal in uterus. The does were injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG, 0 IU/kg BW [grouped into nonsuperovulation-NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [grouped into Superovulation-SO]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected to stimulate superovulation. After sponge removal, five experimental does were mixed with one buck for natural mating. Superovulation prior to mating increased number of corpora lutea, mean of maternal serum estradiol concentration, progesterone concentration, litter size, average birth weight and average milk yield, by 112, 67, 42, 27, 32, and 35%, respectively. Those were correlated with the increase of uterine, corpora lutea, and individual birth weight.

  7. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke, drink, or take drugs, and whether you exercise regularly. Ask about your stress level. Perform prenatal blood tests to do the ... increased risk of health problems during pregnancy? Will stress during pregnancy affect my ... minerals linked to problem with ovulation Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance ...

  9. Effective visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue by means of baseline 99mTc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    Baseline 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy was compared with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in seven patients with suppressed thyroid tissue due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN). In all patients the suppressed thyroid tissue was visualized by means of both baseline 99mTc-MIBI and post-TSH 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy, and in some cases the former technique provided better visualization. In one patient presenting a "warm" nodule T3-suppression did not affect the nodular/extranodular uptake ratio of 99mTc-MIBI, whereas the 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ratio increased significantly. This leads us to hypothesize that the thyroid uptake of 99mTc-MIBI is not related to TSH control, but rather to other mechanisms such as the blood flow. Since exogenous TSH is no longer available, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy can be successfully used in the place of repeated 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in the assessment of AFTN.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital ranula: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytül Çorbacıoğlu Esmer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital ranula is a mucous retention cyst which originates from the base of the oral cavity and is caused by sublingual or submandibular canal atresia or canalization defect. As with the other tumors in the oral cavity it may cause upper airway obstruction and hypoxia immediately after delivery. In the following stages of life, apart from the respiratory problems it may cause speach, chewing and swallowing disorders. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital sublingual ranula is very rare, and it presents as an avascular and anechoic cystic mass displacing the tongue upwards on fetal ultrasonography. Polyhydramnios can develop due to the obstruction and stomach may not be visualized. The differential diagnosis includes lymphatic malformations, epulis, epignatus, tyroglossal canal cyst and hemangioma. In this paper, we present a case of ranula which was diagnosed during prenatal ultrasonographic examination. The detailed fetal ultrasound scan performed at the 31th week of gestation revealed a non-septated anechoic cyst in the oral cavity measuring 20 x 17 x 15 mm. The cyst had well-defined regular borders with no solid component. Doppler ultrasonograhy did not show any vascularization within the cyst. After the delivery at the 38th week of gestation, a sublingual cystic mass with regular borders measuring 1.5 x1.5 cm was detected in the mouth of the neonate. Entubation was not required due to the absence of respiratory distress. In order to prevent difficutlies in feeding, the cystic mass was aspirated just after the delivery. A diagnosis of sublingual ranula was made based on the localization and the mucoid consistency of the cyst.

  11. Prenatal drug exposure: infant and toddler outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, Emmalee S; Morrow, Connie E; Mansoor, Elana; Accornero, Veronica H

    2010-04-01

    This manuscript provides an overview of the current scientific literature on the impact of maternal drug use, specifically opioids and cocaine, during pregnancy on the acute and long-term outcomes of infants and toddlers from birth through age 3 years. Emphasis with regard to opioids is placed on heroin and opioid substitutes used to treat opioid addiction, including methadone, which has long been regarded as the standard of care in pregnancy, and buprenorphine, which is increasingly being investigated and prescribed as an alternative to methadone. Controlled studies comparing methadone at high and low doses, as well as those comparing methadone with buprenorphine, are highlighted and the diagnosis and management of neonatal abstinence syndrome is discussed. Over the past two decades, attention of the scientific and lay communities has also been focused on the potential adverse effects of cocaine and crack cocaine, especially during the height of the cocaine epidemic in the United States. Herein, the findings are summarized from prospective studies comparing cocaine-exposed with non-cocaine-exposed infants and toddlers with respect to anthropometric growth, infant neurobehavior, visual and auditory function, and cognitive, motor, and language development. The potentially stigmatizing label of the so-called "crack baby" preceded the evidence now accumulating from well-designed prospective investigations that have revealed less severe sequelae in the majority of prenatally exposed infants than originally anticipated. In contrast to opioids, which may produce neonatal abstinence syndrome and infant neurobehavioral deficits, prenatal cocaine exposure appears to be associated with what has been described as statistically significant but subtle decrements in neurobehavioral, cognitive, and language function, especially when viewed in the context of other exposures and the caregiving environment which may mediate or moderate the effects. Whether these early findings may

  12. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  13. Prenatal molecular diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in a large cohort of Israeli families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmann, Ada; Bejarano-Achache, Idit; Eli, Dalia; Maftsir, Genia; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Blumenfeld, Anat

    2009-10-01

    To present our accumulated data on prenatal molecular diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in a large cohort of Israeli albino families. Albinism consists of variable phenotypes, but only families with predicted severely handicapped albino offspring, who declared their wish to terminate a pregnancy of such a fetus, are eligible for prenatal testing. Prenatal testing is not offered otherwise. Following detailed genetic investigation and counseling, molecular prenatal testing was performed using the combination of mutation screening, direct sequencing, and haplotype analysis. A total of 55 prenatal tests were performed in 37 families; in 26 families the propositus was the child, and in 11, a parent or a close relative. In 32 families tyrosinase (TYR) mutations were diagnosed. In 5 families a P gene mutation was detected. Twelve albino fetuses were diagnosed. Following further genetic counseling, all couples elected to terminate the pregnancy. Three additional pregnancies were terminated for other reasons. Families with increased risk for an albino child with severe visual handicap, seek premarital and prenatal genetic counseling and testing, for the prevention of affected offspring. Our combined methods of molecular genetic testing enable a nationwide approach for prevention of albinism. The same paradigm can be applied to other populations affected with albinism.

  14. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  15. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özyüncü

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias are a group of diseases with a wide spectrum related to bone and cartilage. Some forms are lethal whereas some forms have milder clinical progression. Prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias may be possible especially when there is an index case in the family. Ultrasonography plays the central role in prenatal diagnosis and most common sonographic features are angulation of long bones, bending of femur or bowing signin the long bones. We present a case whose follow up for fetal short extremities ended with termination of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis is hard and depend especially on the fetal x-ray. Final diagnosis was lethal type osteogenesis imperfecta.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  18. Radioimmunoassays in prenatal genetic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, J.; Janouskova, M.; Fingerova, H.; Krikal, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)

  19. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and reproductive hormones in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, L A; Troisi, R; Hatch, E E; Titus, L J; Rothman, K J; Harlow, B L

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women in the mid-1900s, is a potent endocrine disruptor. Prenatal DES exposure has been associated with reproductive disorders in women, but little is known about its effects on endogenous hormones. We assessed the association between prenatal DES exposure and reproductive hormones among participants from the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles (HSMC), a longitudinal study of premenopausal women aged 36-45 years from Massachusetts (1995-1999). Prenatal DES exposure was reported at baseline (43 DES exposed and 782 unexposed). Early follicular-phase concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured at baseline and every 6 months during 36 months of follow-up. Inhibin B concentrations were measured through 18 months. We used multivariable logistic and repeated-measures linear regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and percent differences in mean hormone values (β), respectively, comparing DES exposed with unexposed women, adjusted for potential confounders. DES-exposed women had lower mean concentrations of estradiol (pg/ml) (β=-15.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -26.5%, -3.2%) and inhibin B (pg/ml) (β=-20.3%, CI: -35.1%, -2.3%), and higher mean concentrations of FSH (IU/I) (β=12.2%, CI: -1.5%, 27.9%) and LH (IU/I) (β=10.4%, CI: -7.2%, 31.3%), than unexposed women. ORs for the association of DES with maximum FSH>10 IU/I and minimum inhibin B<45 pg/ml--indicators of low ovarian reserve--were 1.90 (CI: 0.86, 4.22) and 4.00 (CI: 0.88-18.1), respectively. Prenatal DES exposure was associated with variation in concentrations of FSH, estradiol and inhibin B among women of late reproductive age.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of boomerang dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Marja W; Den Hollander, Nicolette S; De Krijger, Ronald R; Bonifé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Nikkels, Peter G; Willems, Patrick J

    2003-10-01

    Boomerang dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type 1 and Piepkorn dysplasia are bone dysplasias with an overlapping clinical spectrum characterized by deficient formation and ossification of specific elements of the skeleton. Typical symptoms include micromelia with diminished ossification, and a characteristic bowed and boomerang-like aspect of the long tubular bones. We report here a new case of boomerang dysplasia, which was detected prenatally in the 16th week of gestation by ultrasound. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans; Barth, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Barth, Richard A. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal and Postnatal Management of Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin K.; Palmer, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of pregnant women in the U.S. undergo prenatal ultrasonography and approximately 0.5% of these examinations will detect fetal malformations. Up to one-half of these abnormalities include the genitourinary system and the most common urological finding is hydronephrosis. Some conditions associated with prenatal hydronephrosis portend a poor prognosis, while others can follow a fairly benign course. This review focuses on the definition and prenatal assessment of hydronephrosis, fetal intervention, and postnatal management. PMID:19618087

  4. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Romero, Luskenia del; Blanco Figueredo, Nadia; Rodriguez Dominguez, Zulay

    2014-01-01

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

  5. [Recent advances in prenatal diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaire, O; Holzgreve, W; Miny, P; Hösli, I; Hahn, S; Tercanli, S

    2006-11-01

    During the last years, technical improvements have increased the possibilities in prenatal ultrasound. During the eighties and nineties, fetal malformations were increasingly detected and specified. Since a few years, the measurement of the fetal nuchal translucency between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation has been implemented to calculate the individual risk, in combination with most recent biochemical markers. Today, the sonographic measurement of the nuchal translucency is regarded as a valuable screening tool for chromosomal anomalies in prenatal medicine. Beside standardized examinations, a profound information and counseling of the pregnant women should be emphasized. With the improvement of the specific maternal risk calculation, using the sonographic measurement of the nuchal translucency, the biochemical markers and the maternal age, unnecessary invasive examinations may be prevented and their overall number can significantly be reduced. The same trend is seen in the whole field of prenatal medicine, illustrated by the detection of the fetal rhesus D status from the maternal blood and the use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of fetal anemia.

  6. Prenatal imaging of amniotic band sequence: utility and role of fetal MRI as an adjunct to prenatal US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, Jeremy; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Bitters, Constance; Merrow, Arnold C.; Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteau, Isabelle; Kupers, Ron; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain responses in eight congenitally blind and nine sighted volunteers who had been trained to use the tongue display unit (TDU), a sensory substitution device which converts visual information into electrotactile pulses delivered to the tongue, to resolve a tactile motion...... discrimination task. Stimuli consisted of either static dots, dots moving coherently or dots moving in random directions. Both groups learned the task at the same rate and activated the hMT+ complex during tactile motion discrimination, although at different anatomical locations. Furthermore, the congenitally...

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.; Kovanen, P.T.; Goldstein, J.L.; Eeckels, R.; Vandenberghe, K.; Van Den Berghe, H.; Fryns, J.P.; Cassiman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Cultured amniotic-fluid cells from a fetus at risk for homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (F.H.) almost completely lacked cell-surface receptors for plasma low-density lipoprotein (L.D.L.), as evidenced by direct measurement of binding, uptake, and degradation of 125 I-L.D.L. Functional consequences of L.D.L. binding to the receptor - i.e., suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and stimulation of cholesterol esterification - were proportionately reduced when compared with results in cultured amniotic cells from two control fetuses. On the basis of these findings, homozygous F.H. was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated at the 20th week. The diagnosis of homozygous F.H. was confirmed by a serum-cholesterol of the aborted fetus of 279 mg/dl, a value 9 times the mean of four control fetuses of similar gestational age. More than 80% of the serum-cholesterol of the affected fetus was contained within L.D.L. Prenatal diagnosis of homozygous F.H. now seems practical; moreover, the finding of a raised serum-L.D.L. in the affected fetus indicates that the L.D.L. receptor is normally functional as early as the 20th week of fetal life. (author)

  10. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  11. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis Of Tay-Sachs Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özyüncü

    2010-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Tay-Sachs disease can be diagnosed prenatally by measuring hexosaminidase enzyme activity in fetal tissue samples with an acceptable complication rate. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to families who have affected siblings with Tay-Sachs disease.

  13. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  14. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  15. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Paul, Malgorzata; Prusa, Andrea; Buffolano, Wilma; Malm, Gunilla; Salt, Alison; Freeman, Katherine; Petersen, Eskild; Gilbert, Ruth E

    2010-10-12

    The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD) of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%). 23/293 (8%) fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71). This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15) after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75) at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95). The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%). The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cortina-Borja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known.Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%. 23/293 (8% fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71. This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15 after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75 at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95. The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%.The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  19. Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.M.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author) [es

  20. Role of sound stimulation in reprogramming brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Nag, Tapas C; Jain, Suman; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-09-01

    Sensory stimulation has a critical role to play in the development of an individual. Environmental factors tend to modify the inputs received by the sensory pathway. The developing brain is most vulnerable to these alterations and interacts with the environment to modify its neural circuitry. In addition to other sensory stimuli, auditory stimulation can also act as external stimuli to provide enrichment during the perinatal period. There is evidence that suggests that enriched environment in the form of auditory stimulation can play a substantial role in modulating plasticity during the prenatal period. This review focuses on the emerging role of prenatal auditory stimulation in the development of higher brain functions such as learning and memory in birds and mammals. The molecular mechanisms of various changes in the hippocampus following sound stimulation to effect neurogenesis, learning and memory are described. Sound stimulation can also modify neural connectivity in the early postnatal life to enhance higher cognitive function or even repair the secondary damages in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine in detail the possible ameliorating effects of prenatal sound stimulation in existing animal models of various psychiatric disorders, such as autism.

  1. FocusStack and StimServer: a new open source MATLAB toolchain for visual stimulation and analysis of two-photon calcium neuronal imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Dylan R; Kampa, Björn M

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal responses is an increasingly accessible technology for probing population responses in cortex at single cell resolution, and with reasonable and improving temporal resolution. However, analysis of two-photon data is usually performed using ad-hoc solutions. To date, no publicly available software exists for straightforward analysis of stimulus-triggered two-photon imaging experiments. In addition, the increasing data rates of two-photon acquisition systems imply increasing cost of computing hardware required for in-memory analysis. Here we present a Matlab toolbox, FocusStack, for simple and efficient analysis of two-photon calcium imaging stacks on consumer-level hardware, with minimal memory footprint. We also present a Matlab toolbox, StimServer, for generation and sequencing of visual stimuli, designed to be triggered over a network link from a two-photon acquisition system. FocusStack is compatible out of the box with several existing two-photon acquisition systems, and is simple to adapt to arbitrary binary file formats. Analysis tools such as stack alignment for movement correction, automated cell detection and peri-stimulus time histograms are already provided, and further tools can be easily incorporated. Both packages are available as publicly-accessible source-code repositories.

  2. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  3. Opportunities and challenges in prenatal diagnosis : towards personalized fetal genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the efficacy and utilization of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis in the Netherlands and the increasing options for prenatal genetic diagnosis in general. In chapter 1 background information on prenatal screening and diagnosis in pregnancies conceived through

  4. Monocular Visual Deprivation Suppresses Excitability in Adult Human Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Astrid Rosenstand; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... of visual deprivation has a substantial impact on experience-dependent plasticity of the human visual cortex.......The adult visual cortex maintains a substantial potential for plasticity in response to a change in visual input. For instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that binocular deprivation (BD) increases the cortical excitability for inducing phosphenes with TMS. Here, we...... employed TMS to trace plastic changes in adult visual cortex before, during, and after 48 h of monocular deprivation (MD) of the right dominant eye. In healthy adult volunteers, MD-induced changes in visual cortex excitability were probed with paired-pulse TMS applied to the left and right occipital cortex...

  5. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jeong Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days, the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days, the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days. In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days, the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB and the posterior cranial base (PCB was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  6. Prenatal treatment prevents learning deficit in Down syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Horowitz, Kari; Roberson, Robin; Abebe, Daniel; Toso, Laura; Caballero, Madeline; Spong, Catherine Y

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Active fragments of neurotrophic factors release by astrocyte under the stimulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide, NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and SALLRSIPA (SAL) respectively, have shown therapeutic potential for developmental delay and learning deficits. Previous work demonstrated that NAP+SAL prevent developmental delay and glial deficit in Ts65Dn that is a well-characterized mouse model for Down syndrome. The objective of this study is to evaluate if prenatal treatment with these peptides prevents the learning deficit in the Ts65Dn mice. Pregnant Ts65Dn female and control pregnant females were randomly treated (intraperitoneal injection) on pregnancy days 8 through 12 with saline (placebo) or peptides (NAP 20 µg +SAL 20 µg) daily. Learning was assessed in the offspring (8-10 months) using the Morris Watermaze, which measures the latency to find the hidden platform (decrease in latency denotes learning). The investigators were blinded to the prenatal treatment and genotype. Pups were genotyped as trisomic (Down syndrome) or euploid (control) after completion of all tests. two-way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons, PDown syndrome-placebo; n = 11) did not demonstrate learning over the five day period. DS mice that were prenatally exposed to peptides (Down syndrome-peptides; n = 10) learned significantly better than Down syndrome-placebo (ptreatment with the neuroprotective peptides (NAP+SAL) prevented learning deficits in a Down syndrome model. These findings highlight a possibility for the prevention of sequelae in Down syndrome and suggest a potential pregnancy intervention that may improve outcome.

  7. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  8. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  9. Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    González Salvat, Rosa María; González Labrador, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal ...

  10. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  11. prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of discordant occipital encephalocele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    PRENATAL ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF DISCORDANT OCCIPITAL. ENCEPHALOCELE IN MULTIPLE PREGNANCY - A CASE REPORT. *O.U Ogbeide (MBBS, FMCR), *EJ IKUBOR (MBBS). *Department of Radiology University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr Ogbeide Osesogie ...

  12. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica

    to the child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing...... longitudinal research projects. The poster includes a description of the development of the PCEQ questionnaire, the theoretical background, as well as preliminary data on future mothers and fathers from the WARM study....

  13. Can economics be applied to prenatal screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Phin

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the economics of prenatal screening as seen from a medical point of view. The difficulties and controversies over the economic analysis are examined with specific reference to screening for Down syndrome. The aims and principles of prenatal screening are set out and discussed before reviewing the attempts that have been made to assess the costs and benefits of screening for Down syndrome. The major problem identified is the measurement and valuation of benefits. This...

  14. The role of color and power Doppler ultrasound in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Suchet, I

    2004-11-01

    Sirenomelia is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by a variety of anomalies involving the lower limbs, severe oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, anorectal atresia and aberrant fetal vasculature. The prenatal diagnosis and differentiation from isolated bilateral renal agenesis is severely limited by the accompanying oligohydramnios that hinders visualization of fetal anatomy. We present three prospectively assessed cases of sirenomelia, two of which had bilateral renal agenesis, and all of which had a single umbilical artery derived from the aberrant vasculature that accompanies the syndrome.

  15. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  16. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  17. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mi Jin

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 ± 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  18. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  19. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  20. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  1. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  2. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  3. The prenatal roots of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  4. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  5. Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M. Jr.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. Results: There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head–neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Conclusion: Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases.

  6. Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head-neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  8. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  9. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Eye-Pressing by Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, James E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The nature of eye-pressing as a visual stimulation mannerism in children with severely impaired eyesight is examined, and a possible physiological explanation (that self-stimulation occurs when the demand of the brain for meaningful visual information is not met) is offered. (CL)

  11. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  12. Effect of Prenatal Protein Malnutrition on Long-Term Potentiation and BDNF Protein Expression in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex after Neocortical and Hippocampal Tetanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55–60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  13. Effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on long-term potentiation and BDNF protein expression in the rat entorhinal cortex after neocortical and hippocampal tetanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandro; Burgos, Héctor; Mondaca, Mauricio; Barra, Rafael; Núñez, Héctor; Pérez, Hernán; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Olivares, Ricardo; Valladares, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP) of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC) in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55-60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  14. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-07

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes.

  15. The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired. Conclusion: Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. Keywords: Accuracy, gender determination, prenatal gender, prenatal sex, sex ...

  16. Empowering Women's Prenatal Communication: Does Literacy Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roter, Debra L; Erby, Lori H; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Larson, Susan; Bennett, Ian M; Cole, Katie Washington; Guan, Yue; Molloy, Matthew; Bienstock, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an interactive computer program developed to empower prenatal communication among women with restricted literacy skills. A total of 83 women seeing 17 clinicians were randomized to a computer-based communication activation intervention (Healthy Babies Healthy Moms [HBHM]) or prenatal education (Baby Basics [BB]) prior to their prenatal visit. Visit communication was coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, and postvisit satisfaction was reported. Participants were on average 24 years of age and 25 weeks pregnant; 80% were African American. Two thirds scored ≤8th grade on a literacy screener. Women with literacy deficits were more verbally active, disclosed more medical and psychosocial/lifestyle information, and were rated as more dominant by coders in the HBHM group relative to their counterparts in the BB group (all ps literacy in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p literacy deficits. Satisfaction, however, tended to be lower for these women.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeng Cho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia (CPEH is a rare condition. CPEH can cause important clinical problems such as gastric volvulus, hematemesis, vomiting, failure to thrive, and respiratory distress, it requires early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In this paper, we describe a case of CPEH that was suspected in a prenatal ultrasound. Postnatal upper gastrointestinal contrast series confirmed a CPEH with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. An emergency operation was performed. The stomach was reduced, the hiatal defect was repaired by crural approximation, and a Nissen fundoplication was done. The prenatal diagnosis of CPEH is unusual, but prenatal detection is important because it allows planned neonatal surgery before the onset of complications and reduces long-term morbidity. Keywords: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia, Antenatal diagnosis, Gastric volvulus

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  19. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  20. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  1. Prenatal intestinal volvulus: look for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikh, Taieb; Mottet, Nicolas; Cabrol, Christelle; Chaussy, Yann

    2016-12-21

    Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus. 1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  4. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V.; Kleinveld, Johanna H.; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R. M.; Holtkamp, Kim C. A.; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L.; Lachmeijer, Augusta M. A.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The

  5. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  6. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Prenatal management of isolated IUGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senat, M-V; Tsatsaris, V

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of different antenatal tools for the monitoring of fetuses with isolated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To define the prenatal management of IUGR and indications for delivery before and after 32 weeks of gestation. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane databases were searched using the keywords "IUGR", "fetal growth restriction", "cardiotocography", "amniotic fluid", "ultrasound assessment", "biophysical profile", "Doppler ultrasonography", "randomized trial", "meta-analysis". These terms were also combined together. Fetal monitoring of isolated IUGR should be based on the combined use of fetal heart rate (FHR) and ultrasound Doppler. The use of computerized FHR, with short-term variability (STV) measurement allows longitudinal monitoring and provides objective values upon which to decide very premature delivery (LE3). The use of umbilical Doppler is associated with a decrease in perinatal morbidity, especially in IUGR (LE1). It should be the first-line mean for the monitoring of SGA and IUGR fetuses (LE1). The additional use of cerebral Doppler is associated with a better predictive value for a poor perinatal outcome than the umbilical Doppler alone (LE3). Therefore, cerebral Doppler should be used in fetuses with IUGR, whether the umbilical Doppler is normal or not. As morbidity and mortality is increased in IUGR with pathological ductus venosus, the use of this Doppler should be considered in the monitoring of IUGR at before 32 weeks (professional consensus). Routine hospitalization is not mandatory for the monitoring of fetuses with IUGR/SGA. However, tertiary referral is advisable in cases of severe IUGR at between 26 to 32 weeks (professional consensus). The decision for delivery cannot be standardized and should be based on the combined analysis of gestational age, fetal heart rate analysis and Doppler study (professional consensus). Monitoring of fetuses with IUGR and decision for delivery should be based on the combined

  8. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-10-01

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  9. Visual computing scientific visualization and imaging systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and ot...

  10. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  11. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier

  12. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  13. Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  15. Ultrasound demonstration of prenatal renal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.; Jequier, S.

    1989-01-01

    This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  17. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poses no physical risks for you or your baby. While prenatal cell-free DNA screening might cause anxiety, it might help you avoid the need for more invasive tests, treatment or monitoring during your pregnancy. Keep in mind, however, that ...

  18. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  19. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood

  20. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  1. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  2. Temporal Sequence of Visuo-Auditory Interaction in Multiple Areas of the Guinea Pig Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masataka; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction. PMID:23029483

  3. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  5. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Chanprapaph, Pharuhas

    2002-02-01

    A healthy 27-year-old pregnant woman underwent sonographic examination because her uterine size was large for 20 weeks' menstrual age. Sonograms showed short fetal limbs with hitchhiker thumbs and toes, thoracic scoliosis, clubbed feet, and polyhydramnios. The ossification of all bony structures appeared normal, and there was no evidence of fractures. On the basis of these sonographic findings, we diagnosed skeletal dysplasia and short-limbed dwarfism, most likely diastrophic dwarfism. We counseled the parents, and the pregnancy was continued. At 37 weeks menstrual age, the patient vaginally delivered a male infant that weighed 2,560 g. The infant survived with respiratory support during his first few days of life. Postnatal physical and radiologic examinations confirmed the prenatal diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism. Sonography is the modality of choice for prenatal detection of diastrophic dwarfism. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care. © 2016. All rights reserved.

  7. What does magnetic resonance imaging add to the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of facial clefts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailáth-Pokorny, M; Worda, C; Krampl-Bettelheim, E; Watzinger, F; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound is the modality of choice for prenatal detection of cleft lip and palate. Because its accuracy in detecting facial clefts, especially isolated clefts of the secondary palate, can be limited, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as an additional method for assessing the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of fetal MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of facial clefts. Thirty-four pregnant women with a mean gestational age of 26 (range, 19-34) weeks underwent in utero MRI, after ultrasound examination had identified either a facial cleft (n = 29) or another suspected malformation (micrognathia (n = 1), cardiac defect (n = 1), brain anomaly (n = 2) or diaphragmatic hernia (n = 1)). The facial cleft was classified postnatally and the diagnoses were compared with the previous ultrasound findings. There were 11 (32.4%) cases with cleft of the primary palate alone, 20 (58.8%) clefts of the primary and secondary palate and three (8.8%) isolated clefts of the secondary palate. In all cases the primary and secondary palate were visualized successfully with MRI. Ultrasound imaging could not detect five (14.7%) facial clefts and misclassified 15 (44.1%) facial clefts. The MRI classification correlated with the postnatal/postmortem diagnosis. In our hands MRI allows detailed prenatal evaluation of the primary and secondary palate. By demonstrating involvement of the palate, MRI provides better detection and classification of facial clefts than does ultrasound alone. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.

  9. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    as well.The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Improving knowledge scores and reducing decisional conflict can be obtained by group counselling...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  10. Prenatal investments, breastfeeding, and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Kolka, Shawna

    2014-10-01

    Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. These investments include seeking prenatal care, taking prenatal vitamins, and breastfeeding. In this paper, we investigate a potential determinant of mothers' investments that has been largely overlooked by previous research-birth order. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Child and Young Adult Survey, which provides detailed information on pre- and post-natal behaviors of women from the NLSY79. These women were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979, and form a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Our sample includes births to these women between 1973 and 2010 (10,328 births to 3755 mothers). We use fixed effects regression models to estimate within-mother differences in pre- and post-natal behaviors across births. We find that mothers are 6.6 percent less likely to take prenatal vitamins in a fourth or higher-order birth than in a first and are 10.6 percent less likely to receive early prenatal care. Remarkably, mothers are 15.4 percent less likely to breastfeed a second-born child than a first, and are 20.9 percent less likely to breastfeed a fourth or higher-order child. These results are not explained by changing attitudes toward investments over time. These findings suggest that providers may want to increase efforts to encourage these behaviors at women with higher parity. The results also identify a potential mechanism for the emergence of differences in health and other outcomes across birth orders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Math for visualization, visualizing math

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    I present an overview of our work in visualization, and reflect on the role of mathematics therein. First, mathematics can be used as a tool to produce visualizations, which is illustrated with examples from information visualization, flow visualization, and cartography. Second, mathematics itself

  12. Visual art and visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual art and visual perception ‘Visual art’ has become a minor cul-de-sac orthogonal to THE ART of the museum directors and billionaire collectors. THE ART is conceptual, instead of visual. Among its cherished items are the tins of artist’s shit (Piero Manzoni, 1961, Merda d’Artista) “worth their

  13. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  14. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  15. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  17. Group Prenatal Care: A Financial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Rebecca A; Phillips, Lindsay E; O'Dell, Lisa; Husseini, Racha El; Carpino, Sarah; Hartman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated improved perinatal outcomes for group prenatal care (GPC) when compared to traditional prenatal care. Benefits of GPC include lower rates of prematurity and low birth weight, fewer cesarean deliveries, improved breastfeeding outcomes and improved maternal satisfaction with care. However, the outpatient financial costs of running a GPC program are not well established. This study involved the creation of a financial model that forecasted costs and revenues for prenatal care groups with various numbers of participants based on numerous variables, including patient population, payor mix, patient show rates, staffing mix, supply usage and overhead costs. The model was developed for use in an urban underserved practice. Adjusted revenue per pregnancy in this model was found to be $989.93 for traditional care and $1080.69 for GPC. Cost neutrality for GPC was achieved when each group enrolled an average of 10.652 women with an enriched staffing model or 4.801 women when groups were staffed by a single nurse and single clinician. Mathematical cost-benefit modeling in an urban underserved practice demonstrated that GPC can be not only financially sustainable but possibly a net income generator for the outpatient clinic. Use of this model could offer maternity care practices an important tool for demonstrating the financial practicality of GPC.

  18. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 731: Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Individual prenatal care is intended to prevent poor perinatal outcomes and provide education to women throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period through a series of one-on-one encounters between a woman and her obstetrician or other obstetric care provider. Concerns regarding increasing health care costs, health care provider availability, dissatisfaction with wait times, and the minimal opportunity for education and support associated with the individual care model have given rise to interest in alternative models of prenatal care. One alternative model, group prenatal care, may be beneficial or preferred for some practice settings and patient populations, although individual prenatal care remains standard practice. Group prenatal care models are designed to improve patient education and include opportunities for social support while maintaining the risk screening and physical assessment of individual prenatal care. Bringing patients with similar needs together for health care encounters increases the time available for the educational component of the encounter, improves efficiency, and reduces repetition. Evidence suggests patients have better prenatal knowledge, feel more ready for labor and delivery, are more satisfied with care in prenatal care groups, and initiate breastfeeding more often. There is no evidence that suggests that group prenatal care causes harm. Individual and group care models warrant additional study with a goal of demonstrating differences in outcomes and identifying populations that benefit most from specific care models.

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 731 Summary: Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Individual prenatal care is intended to prevent poor perinatal outcomes and provide education to women throughout pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period through a series of one-on-one encounters between a woman and her obstetrician or other obstetric care provider. Concerns regarding increasing health care costs, health care provider availability, dissatisfaction with wait times, and the minimal opportunity for education and support associated with the individual care model have given rise to interest in alternative models of prenatal care. One alternative model, group prenatal care, may be beneficial or preferred for some practice settings and patient populations, although individual prenatal care remains standard practice. Group prenatal care models are designed to improve patient education and include opportunities for social support while maintaining the risk screening and physical assessment of individual prenatal care. Bringing patients with similar needs together for health care encounters increases the time available for the educational component of the encounter, improves efficiency, and reduces repetition. Evidence suggests patients have better prenatal knowledge, feel more ready for labor and delivery, are more satisfied with care in prenatal care groups, and initiate breastfeeding more often. There is no evidence that suggests that group prenatal care causes harm. Individual and group care models warrant additional study with a goal of demonstrating differences in outcomes and identifying populations that benefit most from specific care models.

  20. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests....... Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision.      Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent....

  1. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  2. The CCH Vision Stimulation Program for Infants with Low Vision: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguire, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)

  3. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  4. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying temporal modulation of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M.C. de

    2015-01-01

    However confident we feel about the way we perceive the visual world around us, there is not a one-to-one relation between visual stimulation and visual perception. Our eyes register reflections of the visual environment and our brain has the difficult task of constructing ‘reality’ from this

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Burse, Virlyn W.

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  7. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  8. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your visual field. How the Test is Performed Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  9. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = −1.714 (−3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (−0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

  11. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  12. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  13. Current approaches on non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal genomics, transcriptomics, personalized fetal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Günel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in molecular genetics improved our knowledge on fetal genome and physiology. Novel scientific innovations in prenatal diagnosis have accelerated in the last decade changing our vision immensely. Data obtained from fetal genomic studies brought new insights to fetal medicine and by the advances in fetal DNA and RNA sequencing technology novel treatment strategies has evolved. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis found ground in genetics and the results are widely studied in scientific arena. When Lo and colleges proved fetal genetic material can be extracted from maternal plasma and fetal DNA can be isolated from maternal serum, the gate to many exciting discoveries was open. Microarray technology and advances in sequencing helped fetal diagnosis as well as other areas of medicine. Today it is a very crucial prerequisite for physicians practicing prenatal diagnosis to have a profound knowledge in genetics. Prevailing practical use and application of fetal genomic tests in maternal and fetal medicine mandates obstetricians to update their knowledge in genetics. The purpose of this review is to assist physicians to understand and update their knowledge in fetal genetic testing from maternal blood, individualized prenatal counseling and advancements on the subject by sharing our experiences as İstanbul University Fetal Nucleic Acid Research Group.

  14. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  15. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  16. Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sanyal

    Full Text Available Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

  17. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  18. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  19. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  20. Nonuse of Prenatal Care: Implications for Social Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie C.

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 44 women who did not obtain prenatal care. Identified four categories of reasons for nonuse: women's lifestyles differed from mainstream; stressful events took priority over prenatal care; women attempted to receive care but were discouraged, turned away, or given poor information by service delivery system personnel; and women did not…

  1. Prenatal Care for Pregnant Adolescents in a Public High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marjorie; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of pregnant adolescents were studied using a retrospective analysis of obstetrical summary to demonstrate the relationship of the availability of a comprehensive, program of prenatal care in a public school setting to the achievement of early and continuous prenatal care, and to the minimizing of obstetrical complications. (JMF)

  2. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  3. Association of Group Prenatal Care With Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.

  4. HIVThe influence of HIV status on prenatal genetic diagnosis choices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIVThe influence of HIV status on prenatal genetic diagnosis choices. JS Bee, M Glass, JGR Kromberg. Abstract. Background. At-risk women of advanced maternal age (AMA) can choose to have second-trimester invasive testing for a prenatal genetic diagnosis on the fetus. Being HIV-positive can complicate the ...

  5. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    terphase cells. Patients and Methods: Prenatal diagnosis was performed on 40 high risk ... Prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy among a sample of Egyptian high risk pregnancies ..... of medical genetics. 9th ed.: Churchill. Livingstone; 1995. p. 23-45. Edwards and Beard: FISH studies of. 2. pre-implantation embryos and PGD.

  7. Factors Affecting Prenatal Care Utilization in East Wollega Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of prenatal care and skilled birth attendant in East Wollega zone. Prenatal care and skilled birth attendant are crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn and help the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, ...

  8. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  10. Review of chorionic Villus sampling in prenatal diagnosis | Oloyede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasive prenatal diagnosis continues to be gold standard in pregnancies at increased risk of congenital abnormalities with chorionic villus sampling being one of the principal methods of prenatal diagnosis. Although not widely available in most developing countries, chorionic villus sampling is the procedure of choice for ...

  11. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  12. Psychological impact of prenatal diagnosis and post procedure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal diagnosis is associated with psychological challenges, which may affect the response of women before, during or after the procedure, as well as their decision on the future of an affected pregnancy. This prospective study was to evaluate the psychological impact of prenatal diagnosis, factors that may be ...

  13. Increased reproductive success of women after prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, Rebecca C.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine is associated with an increased risk of chronic degenerative disease. We now investigate whether prenatal famine exposure affected reproductive success. METHODS: We assessed reproductive success (number of children, number of twins, age at delivery,

  14. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by ...

  15. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  16. Incorporating breastfeeding education into prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Adrienne; Faucher, Mary Ann; Spencer, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal breastfeeding education increases breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration. Current research regarding antenatal breastfeeding education suggests that recurrent, individual, and technology-based education programs are effective in providing women with evidence-based breastfeeding information and guidance. This project was implemented at an obstetrical practice in the northeast United States. Pregnant women between 32 weeks of gestation and birth, receiving care from certified nurse-midwives, were the targeted population. Three breastfeeding modules were created and offered to women at the 32-, 34-, and 36-week prenatal visit via computer tablets. Women answered questionnaires at the end of each module, serving as a measure for participation and content learning. Women also completed a questionnaire at the 6-week postpartum visit to assess summative perceptions. Twenty-three women participated, and 21 women completed questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum. All women answered the content questions at the end of the modules correctly. Sixty-seven percent reported prior breastfeeding experience, 95% initiated breastfeeding, 86% were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum, and 71% of the women planned to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Sixty-seven percent reported the modules promoted or affirmed their decision to breastfeed, whereas 5% would have preferred group-based education. Providers documented breastfeeding education 52% of the time. The results of this project indicate that women successfully learned breastfeeding content via the tablet methodology. The results confirm that prenatal breastfeeding education, in the office setting, is well accepted by women. In order to assess the impact of the program on breastfeeding success, further study is needed.

  17. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  18. Prenatal diagnostic decision-making in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, Stacey L; Demarco, Kristin; Shulman, Lee P

    2005-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prenatal decision-making of pregnant adolescents identified at increased risk for identifiable fetal genetic abnormalities. A retrospective review of records of gravid women 19 years old or younger undergoing genetic counseling from 2001-2003 (inclusive) was undertaken. Hospital-based academic center. Thirty-seven women were identified; four cases did not meet inclusion criteria. None. Decision to undergo or forgo invasive prenatal testing. Of the 33 women included in this study, the average age was 17.6 years (range: 15-19). Eighteen were Latinas, eight were African-Americans, and seven were Caucasians. Sixteen women had positive maternal serum screening outcomes; nine women sought counseling because of personal/family histories of genetic abnormalities, seven sought counseling after fetal structural anomalies were detected by ultrasound, and one woman sought counseling because she and her partner were positive for Mendelian disorder screening (sickle cell disease). Sixteen of the women (48.5%) chose to undergo invasive testing (15 amniocenteses, one chorionic villus sampling) whereas 17 (51.5%) chose to forgo invasive testing. Adolescents offered invasive prenatal diagnosis will chose to undergo or forgo such testing based on diagnostic and personal criteria as do adult women. Nonetheless, unique adolescent issues may make the process by which information is obtained and communicated during counseling to be different from counseling provided to adults. The development of new genetic screening and diagnostic protocols has and will increase the number of pregnant adolescent women who will be offered genetic counseling during their pregnancies. Such an increase in numbers will place considerably more pressure on an already taxed genetic counseling system; accordingly, new counseling paradigms will need to be developed to provide service to an expanded patient population seeking information for an increasing number of genetic issues.

  19. Brain fibronectin expression in prenatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.; McCoy, L.S.; Bale, T.L.; Stiegler, G.L.; Sikov, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Activation of gene transcription by radiation has been recently demonstrated in vivo. However, little is known on the specificity of these alterations on gene transcription. Prenatal irradiation is a known teratogen that affects the developing mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Altered neuronal migration has been suggested as a mechanism for abnormal development of prenatally irradiated brains. Fibronectin (FN), an extracellular glycoprotein, is essential for neural crest cell migration and neural cell growth. In addition, elevated levels of FN have been found in the extracellular matrix of irradiated lung. To test whether brain FN is affected by radiation, either FN level in insoluble matrix fraction or expression of FN mRNA was examined pre- and postnatally after irradiation. Mice (CD1), at 13 d of gestation (DG), served either as controls or were irradiated with 14 DG, 17 DG, or 5,6, or 14 d postnatal. Brain and liver were collected from offspring and analyzed for either total FN protein levels or relative mRNAs for FN and tubulin. Results of prenatal irradiation on reduction of postnatal brain weight relative to whole are comparable to that reported by others. Insoluble matrix fraction (IMF) per gram of brain, liver, lung, and heart weight was not significantly different either between control and irradiated groups or between postnatal stages, suggesting that radiation did not affect the IMF. However, total amounts of FN in brain IMF at 17 DG were significantly different (p < .02) between normal (1.66 ± 0.80 μg) and irradiated brains (0.58 ± 0.22 μg). FN mRNA was detectable at 13, 14, and 17 DG, but was not detectable at 6 and 14 d postnatal, indicating that FN mRNA is developmentally regulated. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadzadeh, Ali; Tahmasebi, Morteza; Gharibvand, Mohammad Momen

    2009-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S). Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or nonobstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males) newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm), moderate (10-14.9 mm) and severe (> 15 mm) hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO). Twenty two cases (32.8%) had mild, 20 (29.9%) had moderate, and 25 (37.3%) had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydronephrosis were VUR (40.2%), UPJO (32.8%), posterior urethral valves (PUVs) (13.4 %), and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %). The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2%) infants. Totally, 33 (49.2%) patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe) subsequently developed complications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4%) patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydronephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment. (author)

  2. Visual Literacy and Visual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, John A.

    It is proposed that visual literacy be defined as the ability to understand (read) and use (write) images and to think and learn in terms of images. This definition includes three basic principles: (1) visuals are a language and thus analogous to verbal language; (2) a visually literate person should be able to understand (read) images and use…

  3. Visual Literacy and Visual Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Paul

    Familiarity with specific images or sets of images plays a role in a culture's visual heritage. Two questions can be asked about this type of visual literacy: Is this a type of knowledge that is worth building into the formal educational curriculum of our schools? What are the educational implications of visual literacy? There is a three-part…

  4. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  6. Prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromi; Koresawa, Mitsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    We studied congenital hydrocephalus in 14 patients who were diagnosed prenatally. As a result, we obtained the following insights concerning the prenatal diagnosis by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. Accurate diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus was impossible prenatally by two-dimensional ultrasonography or computed tomography alone in some patients. MRI was useful for accurate prenatal diagnosis. Problem of MRI in prenatal diagnosis included deterioration of the image by fetal movements and safety concern over the fetus. The cause of hydrocephalus, complicated anomaly, cerebral cortical thickness, and gestational age must be considered in the perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. There appeared to be a chance of recovery to a certain extent from thinning of cerebral cortex by decompression in a patient in whom dilation of cerebral ventricles progressed rapidly. (author)

  7. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  8. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  9. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection in prenatal diagnosis? The different views of users and providers of prenatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Bilardo, C. M.; Oepkes, D.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in prenatal diagnosis raise the question which test strategy should be implemented. However, preferences of women and caregivers are underexposed. This study investigates what kind of prenatal test pregnant women and caregivers prefer and if differences between the groups exist, using

  10. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Ogura, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ayumi; Hayashi, Sakurako; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

  11. Genomic futures of prenatal screening: ethical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W J; Page-Christiaens, G C M L; de Wert, G M W R

    2016-05-01

    The practice of prenatal screening is undergoing important changes as a result of the introduction of genomic testing technologies at different stages of the screening trajectory. It is expected that eventually it will become possible to routinely obtain a comprehensive 'genome scan' of all fetuses. Although this will still take several years, there are clear continuities between present developments and this future scenario. As this review shows, behind the still limited scope of screening for common aneuploidies, a rapid widening of the range of conditions tested for is already taking shape at the invasive testing stage. But the continuities are not just technical; they are also ethical. If screening for Down's syndrome is a matter of providing autonomous reproductive choice, then why would providing the choice to have a full fetal genome scan be something entirely different? There is a clear need for a sustainable normative framework that will have to answer three challenges: the indeterminateness of the autonomy paradigm, the need to acknowledge the future child as an interested stakeholder, and the prospect of broad-scope genomic prenatal screening with a double purpose: autonomy and prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child.

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  14. Prenatal MRI in correlation with ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Baleva, D.; Ivanova, D.; Popova, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Fetal MRI is an already established method in prenatal imaging, with complementary to US role. Most common considerations for fetal MRI are CNS anomalies and urogenital anomalies. Practically, the most frequent indication is ultrasonographically established ventriculomegaly. We introduce our experience in fetal MRI, presenting the distribution of pathological findings and our protocols. We have examined 33 fetuses for a 3-year period. Among these 13 cases were affected by CNS anomalies (neural tube defects, Dandy-Walker, cerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis of corpus callosum, aqueductal atresia, etc.), 11 fetuses are affected by urogenital anomalies (pieloureteral stenosis, VUR, renal agenesis, etc.), 5 with other pathology (congenital tumor, ovarian cysts, etc.) and 4 are normal fetuses. The findings in most interesting cases are reviewed; in some of them we present imaging-pathological correlation and/or follow up imaging. Main advantages of fetal MRI over US consist of acquiring objective and reproducible images, giving the opportunity of multiple expert-leveled reviews; exceptionally high detail concerning CNS-anatomy; additional confidence in excluding presence of concomitant anomalies; independence from calavarial ossification and maternal obesity. Ultrasound remains the main tool for prenatal imaging. MRI has similar sensitivity and higher specificity, thus serving as an arbitrage method and improving accuracy about outcome prognosis

  15. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  16. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Yau, Mabel; Barhan, Ariella; Zaidi, Mone; Lo, Y M Dennis; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    A major hallmark of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is genital ambiguity noted at birth in affected females, which leads to psychological and psychosexual issues in adult life. Attempts to correct genital ambiguity through surgical intervention have been partially successful. Fetal hyperandrogenemia and genital ambiguity have been shown to be preventable by prenatal administration of low-dose dexamethasone initiated before the 9th week of gestation. In 7 of 8 at-risk pregnancies, the unaffected fetus is unnecessarily exposed to dexamethasone for weeks until the diagnosis of classical CAH is ruled out by invasive procedures. This therapeutic dilemma calls for early prenatal diagnosis so that dexamethasone treatment can be directed to affected female fetuses only. We describe the utilization of cell-free fetal DNA in mothers carrying at-risk fetuses as early as 6 gestational weeks by targeted massively parallel sequencing of the genomic region including and flanking the CYP21A2 gene. Our highly personalized and innovative approach should permit the diagnosis of CAH before genital development begins, therefore restricting the purposeful administration of dexamethasone to mothers carrying affected females. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  19. [Are Visual Field Defects Reversible? - Visual Rehabilitation with Brains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, B A

    2017-02-01

    Visual field defects are considered irreversible because the retina and optic nerve do not regenerate. Nevertheless, there is some potential for recovery of the visual fields. This can be accomplished by the brain, which analyses and interprets visual information and is able to amplify residual signals through neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to change its own functional architecture by modulating synaptic efficacy. This is actually the neurobiological basis of normal learning. Plasticity is maintained throughout life and can be induced by repetitively stimulating (training) brain circuits. The question now arises as to how plasticity can be utilised to activate residual vision for the treatment of visual field loss. Just as in neurorehabilitation, visual field defects can be modulated by post-lesion plasticity to improve vision in glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy or optic neuropathy. Because almost all patients have some residual vision, the goal is to strengthen residual capacities by enhancing synaptic efficacy. New treatment paradigms have been tested in clinical studies, including vision restoration training and non-invasive alternating current stimulation. While vision training is a behavioural task to selectively stimulate "relative defects" with daily vision exercises for the duration of 6 months, treatment with alternating current stimulation (30 min. daily for 10 days) activates and synchronises the entire retina and brain. Though full restoration of vision is not possible, such treatments improve vision, both subjectively and objectively. This includes visual field enlargements, improved acuity and reaction time, improved orientation and vision related quality of life. About 70 % of the patients respond to the therapies and there are no serious adverse events. Physiological studies of the effect of alternating current stimulation using EEG and fMRI reveal massive local and global changes in the brain. These include

  20. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  1. Traffic Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picozzi, Matteo; Verdezoto, Nervo; Pouke, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a space-time visualization to provide city's decision-makers the ability to analyse and uncover important "city events" in an understandable manner for city planning activities. An interactive Web mashup visualization is presented that integrates several visualization...... techniques to give a rapid overview of traffic data. We illustrate our approach as a case study for traffic visualization systems, using datasets from the city of Oulu that can be extended to other city planning activities. We also report the feedback of real users (traffic management employees, traffic police...

  2. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  3. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  4. Childhood Maltreatment History, Posttraumatic Relational Sequelae, and Prenatal Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Design A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Setting Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. Participants This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Methods Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. Conclusion When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or have used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. PMID:23772546

  5. Consumerism in prenatal diagnosis: a challenge for ethical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, W.

    2000-01-01

    The ethical guidelines for prenatal diagnosis proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO), as well as by national regulations, only refer to paternity and gender of the fetus as unacceptable, disease-unrelated criteria for prenatal selection, as no other such parameters are at hand so far. This perspective is too narrow because research on complex genetic systems such as cognition and ageing is about to provide clinically applicable tests for genetic constituents of potentially desirable properties such as intelligence or longevity which could be misused as parameters for prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, there is an increasing number of prenatally testable genetic traits, such as heritable deafness, which are generally regarded as pathological but desired by some prospective parents and taken into account as parameters for pro-disability selection. To protect prenatal diagnosis from ethically unacceptable genetic consumerism, guidelines must be clarified as soon as possible and updated towards a worldwide restriction of prenatal genetic testing to immediately disease-determining traits. Key Words: Genetics • prenatal diagnosis • ethics • consumerism PMID:11129845

  6. Ethnicity, education attainment, media exposure, and prenatal care in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Korinek, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Prenatal care coverage in Vietnam has been improving, but ethnic minority women still lag behind in receiving adequate level and type of care. This paper examines ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization by comparing two groups of ethnic minority and majority women. We examine the roots of ethnic disparity in prenatal care utilization, focusing on how education and media exposure change health behaviours and lessen disparities. We rely on the 2002 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey to draw our sample, predictors and the three dimensions of prenatal care, including timing of onset, frequency of visits, and type of provider. Results from multinomial-, and binary-logistic regression provide evidence that ethnic minority women are less likely to obtain frequent prenatal care and seek care from professional providers than their majority counterparts. However, we find that ethnic minority women are more likely to obtain early care compared to ethnic majority women. Results for predicted probabilities suggest that education and media exposure positively influenced prenatal care behaviours with higher level of education and media exposure associating with accelerated probability of meeting prenatal care requirements. Our results imply the needs for expansion of media access and schools as well as positive health messages being broadcasted in culturally competent ways.

  7. Promises, pitfalls and practicalities of prenatal whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Sunayna; Wou, Karen; Vora, Neeta; Van der Veyver, Ignatia B; Wapner, Ronald; Chitty, Lyn S

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal genetic diagnosis provides information for pregnancy and perinatal decision-making and management. In several small series, prenatal whole exome sequencing (WES) approaches have identified genetic diagnoses when conventional tests (karyotype and microarray) were not diagnostic. Here, we review published prenatal WES studies and recent conference abstracts. Thirty-one studies were identified, with diagnostic rates in series of five or more fetuses varying between 6.2% and 80%. Differences in inclusion criteria and trio versus singleton approaches to sequencing largely account for the wide range of diagnostic rates. The data suggest that diagnostic yields will be greater in fetuses with multiple anomalies or in cases preselected following genetic review. Beyond its ability to improve diagnostic rates, we explore the potential of WES to improve understanding of prenatal presentations of genetic disorders and lethal fetal syndromes. We discuss prenatal phenotyping limitations, counselling challenges regarding variants of uncertain significance, incidental and secondary findings, and technical problems in WES. We review the practical, ethical, social and economic issues that must be considered before prenatal WES could become part of routine testing. Finally, we reflect upon the potential future of prenatal genetic diagnosis, including a move towards whole genome sequencing and non-invasive whole exome and whole genome testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  9. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimulation of functional vision in children with perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual stimulation on development of functional vision at early age of life. We initially assessed 30 children with perinatal brain damage up to 3 years of age, who were reffered to our pediatric low vision cabinet in "Little house" from child neurologists, ophthalmologists Type and degree of visual impairment was determined according to functional vision assessment of each child. On the bases of those assessments different kind of visual stimulations were carried out with children who have been identified to have a certain visual impairment. Through visual stimulation program some of the children were stimulated with light stimulus, some with different materials under the ultraviolet (UV) light, and some with bright color and high contrast materials. Children were also involved in program of early stimulation of overall sensory motor development. Goals and methods of therapy were determined individually, based on observation of child's possibilities and need. After one year of program, reassessment was done. Results for visual functions and functional vision were compared to evaluate the improvement of the vision development. These results have shown that there was significant improvement in functional vision, especially in visual attention and visual communication.

  11. Group Prenatal Care Attendance: Determinants and Relationship with Care Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Grilo, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B; Novick, Gina; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Group prenatal care results in improved birth outcomes in randomized controlled trials, and better attendance at group prenatal care visits is associated with stronger clinical effects. This paper's objectives are to identify determinants of group prenatal care attendance, and to examine the association between proportion of prenatal care received in a group context and satisfaction with care. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of pregnant adolescents (n = 547) receiving group prenatal care in New York City (2008-2012). Multivariable linear regression models were used to test associations between patient characteristics and percent of group care sessions attended, and between the proportion of prenatal care visits that occurred in a group context and care satisfaction. Results Sixty-seven groups were established. Group sizes ranged from 3 to 15 women (mean = 8.16, SD = 3.08); 87 % of groups enrolled at least five women. Women enrolled in group prenatal care supplemented group sessions with individual care visits. However, the percent of women who attended each group session was relatively consistent, ranging from 56 to 63 %. Being born outside of the United States was significantly associated with higher group session attendance rates [B(SE) = 11.46 (3.46), p = 0.001], and women who received a higher proportion of care in groups reported higher levels of care satisfaction [B(SE) = 0.11 (0.02), p prenatal care as possible in a group setting, as well as value-based reimbursement models and other incentives to encourage more widespread adoption of group prenatal care.

  12. Prenatal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Expectations versus Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedlove, S Marc

    2017-08-01

    In non-human vertebrate species, sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by androgens such as testosterone organizing the brains of males in a masculine fashion early in life, while the lower levels of androgen in developing females organize their brains in a feminine fashion. These principles may be relevant to the development of sexual orientation in humans, because retrospective markers of prenatal androgen exposure, namely digit ratios and otoacoustic emissions, indicate that lesbians, on average, were exposed to greater prenatal androgen than were straight women. Thus, the even greater levels of prenatal androgen exposure experienced by fetal males may explain why the vast majority of them grow up to be attracted to women. However, the same markers indicate no significant differences between gay and straight men in terms of average prenatal androgen exposure, so the variance in orientation in men cannot be accounted for by variance in prenatal androgen exposure, but may be due to variance in response to prenatal androgens. These data contradict several popular notions about human sexual orientation. Sexual orientation in women is said to be fluid, sometimes implying that only social influences in adulthood are at work, yet the data indicate prenatal influences matter as well. Gay men are widely perceived as under-masculinized, yet the data indicate they are exposed to as much prenatal androgen as straight men. There is growing sentiment to reject "binary" conceptions of human sexual orientations, to emphasize instead a spectrum of orientations. Yet the data indicate that human sexual orientation is sufficiently polarized that groups of lesbians, on average, show evidence of greater prenatal androgen exposure than groups of straight women, while groups of gay men have, on average, a greater proportion of brothers among their older siblings than do straight men.

  13. Prenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI: the comparative value of each modality in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugash, Denise; Brugger, Peter C; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    Fetal MRI is used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to ultrasound (US) in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the relative value of both prenatal US and MRI in evaluating fetal and extra-fetal structures for a variety of clinical indications. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are addressed. In summary, MRI has advantages in demonstrating pathology of the brain, lungs, complex syndromes, and conditions associated with reduction of amniotic fluid. At present, US is the imaging method of choice during the first trimester, and in the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities, as well as for screening. In some conditions, such as late gestational age, increased maternal body mass index, skeletal dysplasia, and metabolic disease, neither imaging method may provide sufficient diagnostic information.

  14. Prenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI: The comparative value of each modality in prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugash, Denise; Brugger, Peter C.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Fetal MRI is used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to ultrasound (US) in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the relative value of both prenatal US and MRI in evaluating fetal and extra-fetal structures for a variety of clinical indications. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are addressed. In summary, MRI has advantages in demonstrating pathology of the brain, lungs, complex syndromes, and conditions associated with reduction of amniotic fluid. At present, US is the imaging method of choice during the first trimester, and in the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities, as well as for screening. In some conditions, such as late gestational age, increased maternal body mass index, skeletal dysplasia, and metabolic disease, neither imaging method may provide sufficient diagnostic information

  15. Prenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI: The comparative value of each modality in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugash, Denise [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: dpugash@cw.bc.ca; Brugger, Peter C. [Integrative Morphology Group, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bettelheim, Dieter [University Clinics of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Fetal MRI is used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to ultrasound (US) in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the relative value of both prenatal US and MRI in evaluating fetal and extra-fetal structures for a variety of clinical indications. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are addressed. In summary, MRI has advantages in demonstrating pathology of the brain, lungs, complex syndromes, and conditions associated with reduction of amniotic fluid. At present, US is the imaging method of choice during the first trimester, and in the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities, as well as for screening. In some conditions, such as late gestational age, increased maternal body mass index, skeletal dysplasia, and metabolic disease, neither imaging method may provide sufficient diagnostic information.

  16. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  17. Comparing CenteringPregnancy® to standard prenatal care plus prenatal education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is significant evidence to support the importance of prenatal care in preventing adverse outcomes such as preterm birth and low infant birth weight. Previous studies have indicated that the benefits of prenatal care are not evenly distributed throughout the social strata. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that among particular populations, rates of preterm birth are unchanged or increasing. This suggests that an alternate care model is necessary, one that seeks to addresses some of the myriad of social factors that also contribute to adverse birth outcomes. In previous studies, the group prenatal care model CenteringPregnancy® had been shown to reduce adverse birth outcomes, but to date, no comparison had been made with a model that included prenatal education. This study sought to investigate whether any significant difference remained within the comparison groups when both models accounted for social factors. Methods This analysis was based on survey data collected from a prospective cohort of pregnant women through the All Our Babies Study in Calgary, Alberta. Results At baseline, there were significant differences between the comparison groups in their psychosocial health, with the women in the CenteringPregnancy® group scoring higher levels of depressive symptoms, stress and anxiety. At four months postpartum, the differences between the groups were no longer significant. Conclusions: These results suggest that CenteringPregnancy® can recruit and retain a demographically vulnerable group of women with a constellation of risk factors for poor pregnancy and birth outcomes, including poverty, language barriers and poor mental health. Post program, the rates of stress, anxiety and depression were similar to other women with more social and financial advantage. These findings suggest that CenteringPregnancy® may be a community based care strategy that contributes to improved mental health, knowledge, and behaviours to optimize outcomes

  18. The contribution of Prenatal Psychology to our understanding about prenatal dynamics and fetal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gouni, Olga; Sekulic, Slobodan; Topalidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Research in the prenatal human experience has very clearly shown that whatever mother experiences all her life until conception and even more impact fully during conception and pregnancy passes down to the child she is pregnant with. Modern Biology has shown that environmental information and the perception that governs this environment gets encoded in the cell consciousness. \\ud A simple thought or act can upset or stabilize the whole planet or... fetal existence. Subtle differences in the m...

  19. Alterations in immune responses in prenatally irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, J.B.; Benjamin, S.A.; Miller, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Immunologic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal (35 days gestation) irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing immune system. Each dog received 1.5 Gy 60 Co gamma irradiation or sham irradiation. Prenatally irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells, a T-dependent antigen, and a concurrent decrease in T-helper lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood at 3 to 4 months of age. Similarly, irradiated fetuses have been shown to have defects in epitheliostromal development of the thymus. It is suggested that the postnatal immunologic deficits may relate to the prenatal thymic injury

  20. Ultrasonographic features of prenatal testicular torsion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ağaçayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prenatal testicular torsion (PNTT is rarely observed,it is an important condition that can cause bilateralvanishing testis. Generally, PNTT cases observed asextravaginal torsion and treatment is emergency surgicalop-eration. In this article, 39 week presented a case diagnosedin the prenatal testicular torsion. PNTT diagnosiswas confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography and emergencysurgery was performed. Extravaginal left testiculartorsion gangrene and necrosis of the testis was observedin the operation. Left orchiectomy was performed andintrauter-ine ultrasonographic diagnosis was found to becorrect.Key words: Testicular torsion, prenatal diagnosis, features,ultrasonography

  1. Risk of impaired cognition after prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, M A; Mathiasen, R; Pagsberg, A K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs may affect the trajectories of brain development. In a register study, we investigated whether such exposure is associated with long-term impaired cognitive abilities. METHOD: Individuals born in Denmark in 1995-2008 were included. As proxies...... of a neurological/mental disorder after prenatal exposure to psychoanaleptics (primarily antidepressants) (OR: 1.86[1.24-2.78). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs affects proxy outcomes of cognitive disabilities at school age. Exposure to psycholeptics carries the largest risk. The role...

  2. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  3. Visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.K.; Horowitz, T.S.; Howe, P.; Pedersini, R.; Reijnen, E.; Pinto, Y.; Wolfe, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A typical visual scene we encounter in everyday life is complex and filled with a huge amount of perceptual information. The term, ‘visual attention’ describes a set of mechanisms that limit some processing to a subset of incoming stimuli. Attentional mechanisms shape what we see and what we can act

  4. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stinger, Amanda; DiGirolamo, Ann M.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Rivera, Juan A.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Stein, Aryeh D.; Wang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age. Design Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial. Settings Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants and Methods We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment. Interventions or Main Exposures 400 mg/day of algal DHA. Outcome Measures Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores. Results Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation. Conclusions Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360 PMID:26262896

  5. Visual Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Flensborg, Ingelise

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating the functi......The intrinsic breadth of various types of images creates new possibilities and challenges for visual education. The digital media have moved the boundaries between images and other kinds of modalities (e.g. writing, speech and sound) and have augmented the possibilities for integrating...... to emerge in the interlocutory space of a global visual repertoire and diverse local interpretations. The two perspectives represent challenges for future visual education which require visual competences, not only within the arts but also within the subjects of natural sciences, social sciences, languages...

  6. Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, A.M.; Jansen, C.; Smagt, M.J. van der; Nijboer, T.C.W.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2018-01-01

    In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection

  7. La actividad física y la estimulación prenatal en la etapa de gestación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Ibarra, Orlando

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved scientifically that prenatal stimulation promotes the development and maturation of the nervous system. While 75% of development is genetic, 25% depends on stimulation and experience. This research, which is non-experimental, transversal, descriptive and involves a field study. Thirty-five pregnant women in the Enrique Sotomayor Hospital in Guayaquil were interviewed along with seven obstetricians of the aforesaid hospital and the Hospital of the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS in Durán, the León Becerra Hospital in Milagro and the Health Center in the parish of Cone in the canton of Yaguachi, Ecuador. Fifteen gym instructors who are teaching Physical Culture in the area were also interviewed. The aim was to establish the pregnant woman’s level of knowledge and participation in prenatal exercise and professional ideas regarding the ideal way to work in the area of prenatal stimulation and the advantages or disadvantages of this activity. The results showed that 77.14% of pregnant women surveyed have never participated in these activities despite the fact that 51.42% were aware that they should always practice this type of exercise even when heavily pregnant.

  8. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  9. Prenatal hydronephrosis: postnatal evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2014-08-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention.

  10. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  11. Early prenatal diagnosis of ischiopagus conjoined twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Ergenoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are very rare and the incidence of them vary about 1/50,000 and 1/100,000. They are named according to the joint parts. Embryos are conjoined at the level of ischium in ischiopagus. A case of ischiopagus will be presented in this article. Case: A twenty-seven year old women who is 9-10 weeks pregnant with a history of 1 abortus applied to the Ege University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy but the embryos were attached at the pelvic region. 3D Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis of ischiopagus tetrapus. The patient's decision of termination of pregnancy is concluded at Perinatology Council of the clinic. Conclusion: Ischiopagus conjoined twins are very rare. Early prenatal diagnosis will prevent the maternal complications during the termination of the pregnancy.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, T.; Guerra, B.; Spezzacatena, P.; Varani, S.; Gabrielli, L.; Pradelli, P.; Rumpianesi, F.; Banzi, C.; Bovicelli, L.; Landini, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    We report here the results of a study on the prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The study was carried out by both PCR and virus isolation from amniotic fluid (AF) for 82 pregnant women at risk of transmitting CMV for the detection of (i) seroconversion to CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity during the first trimester of pregnancy, (ii) symptomatic CMV infection in the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy or intrauterine growth retardation detected by ultrasound or abnormal ultrasonographic findings suggestive of fetal infections, and (iii) seropositivity for CMV-specific IgM. For 50 women, fetal blood (FB) was also obtained and tests for antigenemia and PCR were performed. The results indicate that AF is better than FB for the prenatal diagnosis of CMV infection. PCR with AF has a sensitivity (SNS) of 100%, a specificity (SPE) of 83.3%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 40%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%; rapid virus isolation with the same material has an SNS of 50%, an SPE of 100%, a PPV of 100%, and an NPV of 94.7%. Fewer than 10% of the women positive for IgM by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) had a congenitally infected fetus or newborn infant. When EIA IgM positivity was confirmed by Western blotting (WB) and the WB profile was considered, the percent transmission detected among women with an “at-risk” profile was higher than that observed among IgM-positive women and was the same as that among women who seroconverted during the first trimester of pregnancy (transmission rates of 29 and 25%, respectively). PMID:9817869

  13. Developmental toxicity of prenatal exposure to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2006-01-01

    Organic solvents have become ubiquitous in our environment and are essential for industry. Many women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to solvents such as toluene in occupational settings (ie, long-term, low-concentration exposures) or through inhalant abuse (eg, episodic, binge exposures to high concentrations). The risk for teratogenic outcome is much less with low to moderate occupational solvent exposure compared with the greater potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes, developmental delays, and neurobehavioral problems in children born to women exposed to high concentrations of abused organic solvents such as toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylenes, and nitrous oxide. Yet the teratogenic effects of abuse patterns of exposure to toluene and other inhalants remain understudied. We briefly review how animal models can aid substantially in clarifying the developmental risk of exposure to solvents for adverse biobehavioral outcomes following abuse patterns of use and in the absence of associated health problems and co-drug abuse (eg, alcohol). Our studies also begin to establish the importance of dose (concentration) and critical perinatal periods of exposure to specific outcomes. The present results with our clinically relevant animal model of repeated, brief, high-concentration binge prenatal toluene exposure demonstrate the dose-dependent effect of toluene on prenatal development, early postnatal maturation, spontaneous exploration, and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The results imply that abuse patterns of toluene exposure may be more deleterious than typical occupational exposure on fetal development and suggest that animal models are effective in studying the mechanisms and risk factors of organic solvent teratogenicity.

  14. Impact of Combined Prenatal Ethanol and Prenatal Stress Exposures on Markers of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Miranda C.; Porch, Morgan W.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress can each cause long-lasting deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and disrupt learning and memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these perturbations following a learning event are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress exposure, either alone or in combination, on the cytosolic expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) protein and the synaptosomal expression o...

  15. Visual cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label “visual cognition” is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. PMID:21329719

  16. Visual cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Visual cognition, high-level vision, mid-level vision and top-down processing all refer to decision-based scene analyses that combine prior knowledge with retinal input to generate representations. The label "visual cognition" is little used at present, but research and experiments on mid- and high-level, inference-based vision have flourished, becoming in the 21st century a significant, if often understated part, of current vision research. How does visual cognition work? What are its moving parts? This paper reviews the origins and architecture of visual cognition and briefly describes some work in the areas of routines, attention, surfaces, objects, and events (motion, causality, and agency). Most vision scientists avoid being too explicit when presenting concepts about visual cognition, having learned that explicit models invite easy criticism. What we see in the literature is ample evidence for visual cognition, but few or only cautious attempts to detail how it might work. This is the great unfinished business of vision research: at some point we will be done with characterizing how the visual system measures the world and we will have to return to the question of how vision constructs models of objects, surfaces, scenes, and events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal enrichment affects prenatal hippocampal proliferation and open-field behaviors in female offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruoka, Takashi; Kodomari, Ikuko; Yamauchi, Rena; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji

    2009-04-17

    The maternal environment is thought to be important for fetal brain development. However, the effects of maternal environment are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether enrichment of the maternal environment can influence prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in mice. An enriched environment is a housing condition with several objects such as a running wheel, tube and ladder, which are thought to increase sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation in rodents compared with standard housing conditions. First, we measured the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of fetuses from pregnant dams housed in an enriched environment. Our results revealed that maternal enrichment influences cell proliferation in the hippocampus of female, but not male, fetuses. Second, we used the open-field test to investigate postnatal behaviors in the offspring of dams housed in the enriched environment during pregnancy. We found that maternal enrichment significantly affects the locomotor activity and time spent in the center of the open-field in female, but not male, offspring. These results indicate that maternal enrichment influences prenatal brain development and postnatal behaviors in female offspring.

  18. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  19.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

    by the health care system offering it. By prenatal examinations the pregnant women want to be giving the choice of future management should there be something wrong with their child. Conclusions:Participation in prenatal examinations is not based on a thorough knowledge of pros and contra of the screening tests......  Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...

  20. Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. Conclusion. Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ...

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  2. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of isolated arthrogryposis of feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, S; Shapiro, I; Lewinsky, R; Sharf, M

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of isolated arthrogryposis of the feet at the ankle joint was made by ultrasound and confirmed at birth. The criteria for ruling out joint contracture are absence of fixed limb deformity, and free fetal motion.

  3. Genotyping and prenatal diagnosis of a large spinocerebellar ataxia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... range of eye movements with horizontal nystagmus, dysdi- adochokinesia, and ... individuals; open symbols indicate normal individuals; grey sym- bols indicate .... prenatal diagnosis of a fetus at risk of MJD. In conclusion, we ...

  4. The Knowledge Base and Acceptability of Prenatal Diagnosis by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2014; 18(1): 127. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ... unskilled and self-employed positively influenced attitude towards prenatal diagnosis. .... exercise and volume of water intake per day, willingness ...

  5. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  6. Identity, difference and the ethical politics of prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainton, T

    2003-10-01

    This paper explores the role of identity in relation to the ethics of prenatal testing for conditions that cause intellectual disabilities. Specifically, it considers the question of identity and the moral status of the fetus. It argues that both the arguments in favour and opposed to prenatal testing mistakenly presuppose that there is no moral status attached to the fetus. That status is grounded in an identity-constituting characteristic, such as 'intellectual disability', which is brought about by the purpose of genetic testing, and the meaning of which is culturally constructed. This paper examines the implications this has for the debate around both prenatal testing and termination in general and considers the nature of the ethical politics which follows from this position with regard to prenatal testing related to intellectual disability.

  7. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  8. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Some behavioral aspects of adult rats irradiated prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekovishcheva, O.Yu.; Blagova, O.E.; Borovitskaya, A.E.; Evtushenko, V.I.; Khanson, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of prenatal irradiation on the behavior of rats. The experiments were performed on 42 eighteen month old rats of both sexes. Eight of the males and thirteen females had been irradiated prenatally. The results of this experiment indicated that in general, the activation of behavior, the appearance of aggression and the increase in chaos along with the presence of behavior poses were typical of the suppressed condition of the prenatal irradiated animal. Also, among prenatally irradiated animals, there was a greater degree of anxiety, a slow rate of adjustment to unfamiliar situations and unfriendly relationships between animals of the same sex. These results were compared with the results of behavioral experiments on irradiated adult rats

  10. Implementing non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy in a national healthcare system: global challenges and national solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; van El, Carla G; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij; Cornel, Martina C

    2017-09-19

    Since the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in 2011, mainly by commercial companies, a growing demand for NIPT from the public and healthcare professionals has been putting pressure on the healthcare systems of various countries. This study identifies the challenges of establishing a responsible implementation of NIPT for aneuploidy in prenatal healthcare, by looking at the Netherlands. A mixed methods approach involving 13 stakeholder interviews, document analysis and (participatory) observations of the Dutch NIPT Consortium meetings were used. The Diffusion of Innovation Theory and a Network of Actors model were used to interpret the findings. Implementation of NIPT was facilitated by several factors. The set-up of a national NIPT Consortium enabled discussion and collaboration between stakeholders. Moreover, it led to the plan to offer NIPT through a nationwide research setting (TRIDENT studies), which created a learning phase for careful implementation. The Dutch legal context was perceived as a delaying factor, but eventually gave room for the parties involved to organise themselves and their practices. This study shows that implementing advanced technologies with profound effects on prenatal care benefit from a learning phase that allows time to carefully evaluate the technical performance and women's experiences and to enable public debate. Such a coordinated learning phase, involving all stakeholders, will stimulate the process of responsible and sustainable implementation.

  11. Crossmodal influences on visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ladan; Kim, Robyn

    2010-09-01

    Vision is generally considered the dominant sensory modality; self-contained and independent of other senses. In this article, we will present recent results that contradict this view, and show that visual perception can be strongly altered by sound and touch, and such alterations can occur even at early stages of processing, as early as primary visual cortex. We will first review the behavioral evidence demonstrating modulation of visual perception by other modalities. As extreme examples of such modulations, we will describe two visual illusions induced by sound, and a visual illusion induced by touch. Next, we will discuss studies demonstrating modulation of activity in visual areas by stimulation of other modalities, and discuss possible pathways that could underpin such interactions. This will be followed by a discussion of how crossmodal interactions can affect visual learning and adaptation. We will review several studies showing crossmodal effects on visual learning. We will conclude with a discussion of computational principles governing these crossmodal interactions, and review several recent studies that demonstrate that these interactions are statistically optimal.

  12. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes effective approaches for enhancing maternal, infant, and family outcomes based on the scientific and systematic assessment of the content of prenatal care conducted by the Public Health Service's Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. The range of risks, both medical and psychosocial, that the prenatal care provider…

  13. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  14. Prenatal and Postpartum Care Disparities in a Large Medicaid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.

  15. Focus Groups to Reveal Parents' Needs for Prenatal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a useful qualitative research technique to obtain data from small groups about their opinions, attitudes, and/or feelings on a given subject. This particular technique has been used in Western Quebec in order to reveal the opinions, needs, and feelings of health professionals and future parents concerning prenatal education. As part of the region's priorities for 2002, all future parents in this part of the province were to be offered prenatal, government-paid, comm...

  16. Follow-up of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Lenz, K; Rabol, A

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous experience with prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis, we found that the primary indications for surgical intervention should be symptoms or functional impairment of the hydronephrotic kidney. Nonoperative management of neonates without symptoms and with normal function...... of the affected kidney was proposed. However, the strategy of treatment after prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis is still controversial. We studied 28 consecutive children with suspected unilateral pelviureteral junction obstruction and a normal contralateral kidney. The overall follow-up period varied between 2...

  17. Playfulness and prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie

    2014-08-01

    South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Alternative perspectives of quality of prenatal care in Chihuahua, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Camarena O; Christine von Glascoe

    2007-01-01

    Objective: this article describes the process and results of a research on the quality of prenatal care from the perspective of pregnant women who use the principal subsystems of the Mexican healthcare system in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Methodology: the field of cognitive anthropology was adopted using techniques that reveal the organization of concepts of quality in prenatal care based on pregnant women’s knowledge and experience, in terms of where they decided to seek care. Results: a...

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome: looking beyond craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorine, Anna S; Weida, Jennifer; Hines, Karrie A; Robinson, Barrett; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Weaver, David D

    2014-03-01

    Carpenter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, and brachydactyly. It occurs in approximately 1 birth per million. We present a patient with Carpenter syndrome (confirmed by molecular diagnosis) who has several unique and previously unreported manifestations including a large ovarian cyst and heterotaxy with malrotation of stomach, intestine, and liver. These findings were first noted by prenatal ultrasound and may assist in prenatally diagnosing additional cases of Carpenter syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  1. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  3. Nurses' Unique Opportunity to Promote Patient Engagement in Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess-Nugent, Phyllis

    2018-01-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of patient engagement in prenatal care. Engagement in health care has been widely discussed but vaguely defined. Patients benefit more from their health care when they are fully engaged in their care. Patient engagement in prenatal care is an important element of prenatal care utilization that has not been analyzed, standardized as a concept, or measured. Concept analysis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO databases, and the internet were searched for literature published in English with a focus on peer-reviewed journals from disciplines of business, allied health sciences, health administration, psychology, and nursing, focusing on the period of 2010-2015. Hybrid version of the Walker and Avant concept analysis method (2011). This concept analysis provides 4 defining attributes of patient engagement in prenatal care and a table of related empirical referents of engagement. These elements offer a foundation for further nursing scholarship toward measurement and evaluation of patient engagement in prenatal care. Patient engagement in prenatal care represents a human response to a health condition. Efforts to increase patient engagement in health care are best addressed by the nursing profession through continued research and intervention development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Facilitators of prenatal care access in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Myers, Carole R; Schorn, Mavis N

    2014-12-01

    There are many providers and models of prenatal care, some more effective than others. However, quantitative research alone cannot determine the reasons beneficial models of care improve health outcomes. Perspectives of women receiving care from effective clinics can provide valuable insight. We surveyed 29 women receiving care at a rural, Appalachian birth center in the United States with low rates of preterm birth. Semi-structured interviews and demographic questionnaires were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis of manifest content. Insurance was the most common facilitator of prenatal access. Beneficial characteristics of the provider and clinic included: personalized care, unrushed visits, varied appointment times, short waits, and choice in the type and location of care. There is a connection between compassionate and personalized care and positive birth outcomes. Women were willing to overcome barriers to access care that met their needs. To facilitate access to prenatal care and decrease health disparities, healthcare planners, and policy makers need to ensure all women can afford to access prenatal care and allow women a choice in their care provider. Clinic administrators should create a welcoming clinic environment with minimal wait time. Unrushed, woman-centered prenatal visits can increase access to and motivation for care and are easily integrated into prenatal care with minimal cost. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P care. Group prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  7. Visual cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  8. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  9. Visual search, visual streams, and visual architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M

    1991-10-01

    Most psychological, physiological, and computational models of early vision suggest that retinal information is divided into a parallel set of feature modules. The dominant theories of visual search assume that these modules form a "blackboard" architecture: a set of independent representations that communicate only through a central processor. A review of research shows that blackboard-based theories, such as feature-integration theory, cannot easily explain the existing data. The experimental evidence is more consistent with a "network" architecture, which stresses that: (1) feature modules are directly connected to one another, (2) features and their locations are represented together, (3) feature detection and integration are not distinct processing stages, and (4) no executive control process, such as focal attention, is needed to integrate features. Attention is not a spotlight that synthesizes objects from raw features. Instead, it is better to conceptualize attention as an aperture which masks irrelevant visual information.

  10. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway.

  12. Should prenatal hydronephrosis that resolves before birth be followed postnatally? Analysis and comparison to persistent prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Patrick L; Ferrara, Elizabeth; Storm, Douglas W

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal ultrasonography has greatly enhanced detection of congenital genitourinary abnormalities. However, although persistent prenatal hydronephrosis (PPH) is typically imaged and followed postnatally, it remains unclear if prenatal hydronephrosis that resolves in utero (RPH) should be similarly managed. We determined postnatal abnormalities associated with RPH and compared these to those associated with PPH. We performed a retrospective review of all consecutive patients evaluated for prenatal hydronephrosis over 24 months. Patients were followed prenatally with serial ultrasounds and postnatally with ultrasonography and a voiding cystourethrogram. Of the consecutive 165 patients enrolled in the study, 72 had RPH. The average prenatal anterior-posterior renal pelvis length was significantly longer in patients with PPH (5.5 mm) than in those with RPH (4.9 mm) (p = 0.01). Recurrent postnatal hydronephrosis occurred in 44% of patients with RPH, with eventual resolution in 34% of those affected. In comparison, 29% of PPH cases resolved postnatally. Mean time to resolution was statistically shorter for PPH (116 days) than for RPH (175 days) (p = 0.01). Seven PPH patients required surgery, while no RPH patients needed intervention (difference was statistically significant). A significant number of RPH children had postnatal hydronephrosis. Despite a slower resolution time, no children with RPH required intervention. Although RPH may recur postnatally, the significantly lower chance of intervention being required suggests that these children may not require postnatal imaging.

  13. Optimization of Visual Information Presentation for Visual Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research. This paper proposes two image processing strategies based on a salient object detection technique. The two processing strategies enable the prosthetic implants to focus on the object of interest and suppress the background clutter. Psychophysical experiments show that techniques such as foreground zooming with background clutter removal and foreground edge detection with background reduction have positive impacts on the task of object recognition in simulated prosthetic vision. By using edge detection and zooming technique, the two processing strategies significantly improve the recognition accuracy of objects. We can conclude that the visual prosthesis using our proposed strategy can assist the blind to improve their ability to recognize objects. The results will provide effective solutions for the further development of visual prosthesis.

  14. Optimization of Visual Information Presentation for Visual Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Visual prosthesis applying electrical stimulation to restore visual function for the blind has promising prospects. However, due to the low resolution, limited visual field, and the low dynamic range of the visual perception, huge loss of information occurred when presenting daily scenes. The ability of object recognition in real-life scenarios is severely restricted for prosthetic users. To overcome the limitations, optimizing the visual information in the simulated prosthetic vision has been the focus of research. This paper proposes two image processing strategies based on a salient object detection technique. The two processing strategies enable the prosthetic implants to focus on the object of interest and suppress the background clutter. Psychophysical experiments show that techniques such as foreground zooming with background clutter removal and foreground edge detection with background reduction have positive impacts on the task of object recognition in simulated prosthetic vision. By using edge detection and zooming technique, the two processing strategies significantly improve the recognition accuracy of objects. We can conclude that the visual prosthesis using our proposed strategy can assist the blind to improve their ability to recognize objects. The results will provide effective solutions for the further development of visual prosthesis. PMID:29731769

  15. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, Michala E.; Johansen, Maria V.; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    of septal fibrosis were significantly higher in the postnatal group compared to the prenatal group (P prenatally infected animals compared to the control...... group (P prenatal group showed higher levels of TGF-beta 1 in the liver compared with the postnatally infected group (P control group (P prenatally exposed pigs.......The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed...

  16. Disrupted Prenatal Maternal Cortisol, Maternal Obesity, and Childhood Wheeze. Insights into Prenatal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Wright, Robert O.; Fein, Rebecca; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Exploring prenatal factors influencing childhood wheeze may inform programming mechanisms. Objectives: We examined associations among prenatal maternal cortisol profiles, maternal obesity, and repeated wheeze up to age 2 years (n = 261). Methods: Salivary cortisol was collected five times per day over 3 days at 29.0 ± 4.9 weeks gestation. Mothers were categorized as obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) versus nonobese (body mass index cortisol metrics (level at each time point, morning rise, diurnal and afternoon slopes) and obesity on wheeze adjusting for covariates. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine associations between cortisol trajectories and wheezing. Interactions between maternal cortisol and obesity were considered. Measurements and Main Results: Mothers were primarily minority (56.5% Hispanic, 24.1% African American), 61% had less than or equal to 12 years of education, 34% were obese, and 8.4% of children had repeated wheeze. An interquartile range increase in mean log cortisol at bedtime (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–4.09) and maternal obesity (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–9.35) were independently associated with wheeze. Linear mixed models revealed an association between a flatter afternoon slope (slower decline in log cortisol per hour) and repeated wheeze in children of obese mothers (children with [−0.017 change] and without [−0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.009 for time × wheeze interaction]), but not in children of nonobese mothers (with [−0.050 change] and without [−0.061 change] wheeze [P = 0.51]). Conclusions: Maternal prenatal cortisol disruption and obesity were independently associated with children’s wheeze. Obese women with adverse cortisol profiles were most likely to have children with repeated wheeze. PMID:23590260

  17. Visualizing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; van Gils, A.; Hagenaars, G.; Donchyts, G.; Eisemann, E.; van Velzen, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    A compelling visualization is captivating, beautiful and narrative. Here we show how melding the skills of computer graphics, art, statistics, and environmental modeling can be used to generate innovative, attractive and very informative visualizations. We focus on the topic of visualizing forecasts and measurements of water (water level, waves, currents, density, and salinity). For the field of computer graphics and arts, water is an important topic because it occurs in many natural scenes. For environmental modeling and statistics, water is an important topic because the water is essential for transport, a healthy environment, fruitful agriculture, and a safe environment.The different disciplines take different approaches to visualizing water. In computer graphics, one focusses on creating water as realistic looking as possible. The focus on realistic perception (versus the focus on the physical balance pursued by environmental scientists) resulted in fascinating renderings, as seen in recent games and movies. Visualization techniques for statistical results have benefited from the advancement in design and journalism, resulting in enthralling infographics. The field of environmental modeling has absorbed advances in contemporary cartography as seen in the latest interactive data-driven maps. We systematically review the design emerging types of water visualizations. The examples that we analyze range from dynamically animated forecasts, interactive paintings, infographics, modern cartography to web-based photorealistic rendering. By characterizing the intended audience, the design choices, the scales (e.g. time, space), and the explorability we provide a set of guidelines and genres. The unique contributions of the different fields show how the innovations in the current state of the art of water visualization have benefited from inter-disciplinary collaborations.

  18. Seasonal influence on stimulated BAT activity in prospective trials: a retrospective analysis of BAT visualized on 18F-FDG PET-CTs and 123I-mIBG SPECT-CTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, Lonneke; Deelen, Jan W; Hoekstra, Joost B; Holleman, Frits; Verberne, Hein J

    2016-06-15

    Retrospective studies have shown that outdoor temperature influences the prevalence of detectable brown adipose tissue (BAT). Prospective studies use acute cold exposure to activate BAT. In prospective studies, BAT might be preconditioned in winter months leading to an increased BAT response to various stimuli. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether outdoor temperatures and other weather characteristics modulate the response of BAT to acute cold. To assess metabolic BAT activity and sympathetic outflow to BAT, 64 (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and 56 additional (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-mIBG) single-photon emission computed tomography-CT (SPECT-CT) scans, respectively, of subjects participating in previously executed trials were retrospectively included. BAT activity was measured in subjects after an overnight fast, following 2 h of cold exposure (∼17°C). The average daytime outdoor temperatures and other weather characteristics were obtained from the Dutch Royal Weather Institute. Forty-nine subjects were BAT positive. One week prior to the scan, outdoor temperature was significantly lower in the BAT-positive group compared with the BAT-negative group. Higher outdoor temperatures on preceding days resulted in lower stimulated metabolic BAT activity and volume (all P BAT. In conclusion, outdoor temperatures influence metabolic BAT activity and volume, but not sympathetic outflow to BAT, in subjects exposed to acute cold. To improve the consistency of the findings of future BAT studies in humans and to exclude bias introduced by outdoor temperatures, these studies should be planned in periods of similar outdoor temperatures. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  20. Aten-pre. Simulador de atención prenatal A simulator of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Breijo Madera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación del tipo innovación tecnológica en el Policlínico Universitario Pedro Borrás Astorga de Pinar del Río, de septiembre de 2005 a junio del 2006, decidiéndose confeccionar un software para mostrar rápidamente los principales parámetros de la consulta de Atención Prenatal, según el tiempo de gestación de la embarazada. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los estudiantes de Ciencias Médicas que asistieron en este período a la Biblioteca del Policlínico mencionado. La muestra fueron aquellos estudiantes (214 que utilizaron el simulador por algún motivo y decidieron voluntariamente responder la encuesta aplicada. En la realización de este medio se utilizó una microcomputadora Celerón a 600Mhz con el sistema operativo Windows XP y el Software Macro media Flash 5, utilizando el español como lenguaje y creando un simulador de consultas de Atención Prenatal (ATENPRE con secuencias multimedia, que a través de una serie de enlaces llevan al usuario a reconocer la consulta buscada. Dentro de los principales resultados se encuentra más de 90% de aceptabilidad, eficiencia y utilidad, llegando a la conclusión de que el software educativo (ATEN-PRE es una herramienta más a utilizar por los estudiantes de pregrado en la búsqueda activa de información.A research on technological innovation at "Pedro Borrás Astorga" Outpatient Clinic in Pinar del Río was carried out from September 2005 to July 2006, where a software to show the main parameters in the consult of Prenatal Care considering time of pregnancy was created. The sample was constituted by all the medical students attending the library of the outpatient clinic during the period mentioned. In the final sample, 214 students using the simulator by any reasons decided voluntarily to answer the survey applied .To create this teaching aid a Celeron (600Mhz microcomputer with Windows XP operative system and the Software Flash 5 Macromedia (in Spanish