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Sample records for prenatal ultrasonography revealed

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita using ultrasonography

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    Guguloth, Ashwitha [Dept. of Radiology, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore (India); Aswani, Yashant; Anandpara, Karan Manoj [Dept. of Radiology, Seth G S Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2016-01-15

    Congenital hypophosphatasia is a rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Antenatal determinants of Epub ahead of print lethality include small thoracic circumference with pulmonary hypoplasia and severe micromelia. These features were present in the fetus of a 25-year-old female who came for an anomaly scan in her second trimester of pregnancy. Additional findings of generalized demineralization and osteochondral spurs led to the diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita. The pregnancy was terminated, and the findings were confirmed on autopsy. Common differential diagnoses with clues to diagnose the above mentioned condition have been discussed here. Early and accurate detection of this medical condition is important as no treatment has been established for this condition. Therefore, antenatal ultrasonography helps in diagnosing and decision making with respect to the current pregnancy and lays the foundation for the genetic counseling of the couple.

  2. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

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    Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Yu Jin; Song, Mi Jin; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kyung Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence.

  3. Reasons for disclosure of gender to pregnant women during prenatal ultrasonography

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    Shukar-ud-din S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Shukar-ud-din,1 Fareeha Ubaid,2 Erum Shahani,1 Farah Saleh21Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II, Dow University Hospital, Karachi; 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sindh Government Hospital, Korangi, Karachi, PakistanBackground: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of women who want to know fetal gender on antenatal ultrasonography and the reasons behind this.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out between March 10, 2012 and September 10, 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals (Dow University Hospital, Ojha Campus, and Lady Dufferin Hospital in Karachi. In total, 223 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and gave their consent were included in the study. Information was collected on a predesigned questionnaire.Results: Of the 223 pregnant women, 109 (49.1% were younger than 25 years. The majority (216, 96.9% were Muslim, 164 (73.4% were educated to different levels, 121 (54.3% spoke Urdu, and 66 (29.6% were primigravidas. Thirty-four (15.2% women had a preference for a male child, 24 (10.8% had a female preference, and 165 (74% had no preference. Seventy (31.4% women were interested to know the fetal gender. The association between education and gender preference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.004 and also that between age and gender preference (P = 0.05, but no relationship was found between gender preference and gender of previous babies (P = 0.317 for males and P = 0.451 for females. Association of ethnicity was also not statistically significant (P = 0.102.Conclusion: This study revealed that 31.4% of women were interested in disclosure of gender on prenatal ultrasonography and only15.2% women had a preference for a male child.Keywords: gender determination, prenatal ultrasonography, Pakistan

  4. Prenatal 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography diagnosis and autoptic findings of isolated ectopia cordis.

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    Bianca, S; Bartoloni, G; Auditore, S; Reale, A; Tetto, C; Ingegnosi, C; Pirruccello, B; Ettore, G

    2006-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital malformation, commonly associated with intracardiac anomalies. It is due to a defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. We report prenatal 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D ultrasonography diagnosis and postnatal autoptic findings of an isolated ectopia cordis with tricuspid atresia. Ectopia cordis prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. 3D ultrasonography may add more detailed visualization of the heart anomaly even if the 2D ultrasonography alone permits the prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrical management should include a careful search for associated anomalies, especially cardiac, and the assessment of fetal karyotype. As this is considered a sporadic anomaly, the recurrence risk is low and no genetic origin is known.

  5. A Case of Fetal Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Diagnosed Prenatally by Ultrasonography in the Third Trimester

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    Lee, Mi Bum; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Han Sung; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Almost all reported incidences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborns result as a complication of rupture of the amniotic membranes or the delivery of the baby, but infection via the placenta and amniotic membranes is rare. Ventriculomegaly was detected at 36 weeks of gestation by prenatal ultrasonography, and an emergency cesarean section was then performed at 36 weeks of gestation. We report a case of herpes simplex encephalitis detected at 36 weeks of gestation by prenatal ultrasonography, which was confirmed by a postnatal serologic test and CSF test with a brief review of literature

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography

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    Edward Araujo Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is a genetic syndrome characterized by macroglossia, omphalocele, fetal gigantism and neonatal hypoglycemia. The authors report a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome diagnosed in a 32-year-old primigravida in whom two-dimensional ultrasonography revealed the presence of abdominal wall cyst, macroglossia and polycystic kidneys. Three-dimensional ultrasonography in rendering mode was of great importance to confirm the previous two-dimensional ultrasonography findings.

  7. [Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. A randomized study of 3000 patients].

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    García Roig, F; Hicks Gomez, J J

    1991-11-01

    From January through December, 1990 at Hospital de Ginecoobstetricia Tlatelolco, 3,000 pregnant women were subjected to ultrasonography at random using a real time, B mode apparatus with a 3.5 MHz lineal transducer. Fetal malformation were diagnosed, some of which would have passed undetected in the labor room with consequent delay of treatment and false raise of perinatal morbidity and mortality rates.

  8. Complications arising in twin pregnancy: findings of prenatal ultrasonography

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    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Hak Jong; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyung Sang; Cho, Byung Jae; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal gestations are high-risk pregnancies involving higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and are subject to unique complications including twin oligohydramnios- polyhydramnios sequence, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twins, conjoined twins, co-twin demise, and heterotopic pregnancies. The purpose of this study is to describe the prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of these complications.

  9. Prenatal ultrasonography of trisomy 18 with radial aplasia: A case report

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    Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) is the second most common chromosomal anomaly of the autosomal trisomy. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is extremely important because of the complex malformations and lethal prognosis. Prenatal sonographic findings at 17 weeks of gestation showing radial aplasia with upper limb contracture, omphalocele, and suspicious esophageal atresia suggested the diagnosis and led to amniocentesis. Karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 (47 XX, +18, and characteristic autopsy findings were identified. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 with a review of literatures.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Treacher-Collins Syndrome Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonography and Differential Diagnosis with Other Acrofacial Dysostosis Syndromes

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    Daniela Cardoso Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS is a rare dominant autosomal anomaly resulting from malformation or disruption of the development of the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by micrognathia, malar hypoplasia, and malformations of the eyes and ears. The prenatal diagnosis using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS is characterized by identification of facial malformations together with polyhydramnios. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS has the capacity to spatially display these facial malformations, thus making it easy for the parents to understand them. We present a case of TCS diagnosed in the 33rd week using 3DUS, with postnatal confirmation using cranial computed tomography and anatomopathological analysis.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of treacher-collins syndrome using three-dimensional ultrasonography and differential diagnosis with other acrofacial dysostosis syndromes.

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    Pereira, Daniela Cardoso; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Drummond, Carolina Leite; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare dominant autosomal anomaly resulting from malformation or disruption of the development of the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by micrognathia, malar hypoplasia, and malformations of the eyes and ears. The prenatal diagnosis using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) is characterized by identification of facial malformations together with polyhydramnios. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) has the capacity to spatially display these facial malformations, thus making it easy for the parents to understand them. We present a case of TCS diagnosed in the 33rd week using 3DUS, with postnatal confirmation using cranial computed tomography and anatomopathological analysis.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with ring chromosomal 15 by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography.

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    Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Regina Silva Herbest, Sandra; Tedesco, Giselle Darahem; Drummond, Carolina Leite; Bussamra, Luiz Claudio Silva; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Ruano, Rodrigo; Ruano, Simone Hernandez; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2014-01-01

    We report on a prenatal diagnosis of ring chromosome 15 in a fetus with left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). A 31-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, was referred because of increased nuchal translucency at gestational age of 13 weeks. Comprehensive fetal ultrasound examination was performed at 19 weeks revealing an early onset IUGR, left CDH with liver herniation, and hypoplastic nasal bone. Three-dimensional ultrasound (rendering mode) showed low set ears and depressed nasal bridge. Amniocentesis was performed with a result of a 46,XX,r(15) fetus after a cytogenetic study. A 1,430 g infant (less than third percentile) was born at 36 weeks. The infant presented with respiratory failure and died at 2 h of life. Postnatal karyotype from the umbilical cord confirmed the diagnosis of 15-ring chromosome. We described the main prenatal 2D- and 3D-ultrasound findings associated with ring chromosome 15. The interest in reporting the present case is that CDH can be associated with the diagnosis of 15-ring chromosome because the critical location of the normal diaphragm development is at chromosome 15q26.1-q26.2.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of Pena-Shokeir syndrome phenotype by ultrasonography and MR imaging

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    Senocak, Efsun Urger; Oguz, Kader Karli; Akata, Deniz [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Haliloglu, Goknur [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Kandemir, Omer [Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Woman' s Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Pena-Shokeir syndrome phenotype is characterized by neurogenic arthrogryposis, facial anomalies, polyhydramnios and lung hypoplasia. Prenatal US is crucial in showing Pena-Shokeir syndrome phenotype in addition to demonstrating reduced fetal movements or akinesia as an underlying aetiological factor as early as the 14th week of gestation. Several reports of prenatal diagnosis of Pena-Shokeir syndrome phenotype by US have been published. In this report, MRI findings providing prenatal diagnosis are presented. (orig.)

  14. Prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal follow-up of a case of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome

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    Hsing-Fen Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Rare syndromes like MKS may need early comprehensive evaluations and consultations. Although prenatal diagnosis might be impossible for MKS, prenatal awareness by fetal ultrasound is very helpful to assist early management and maternal transfer. The final diagnosis and appropriate management of MKS requires the collaboration of obstetricians, geneticists, pediatricians, and ophthalmologists as soon as abnormal signs are detected in utero.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of ectopia cordis at 10 weeks of gestation using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography.

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    Liang, R I; Huang, S E; Chang, F M

    1997-08-01

    We report here the earliest prenatal diagnosis to date of a case of ectopia cordis using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound at 10 weeks of gestation. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound clearly revealed a thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis and an omphalocele. Histopathological examination confirmed the prenatal ultrasonic findings. In addition to an ectopia cordis, a supraumbilical hepato-omphalocele, absence of a pericardium and an anterior diaphragmatic defect were seen, although there was a normal sternum. These pathological findings, suggested that our case was a variant of pentalogy of Cantrell.

  16. Acardiac Twin Presented as a Lower Extremity:Case Report with Serial Prenatal Ultrasonography

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    Yi, Boem Ha; Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyeon Sook; Lee, Kwon Hae; Kim, Tae Hee [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    An acardiac twin is one of the very rare anomalies that occurs in monochorionic twins and the incidence of this is about one out of 35,000 births. We present the serial prenatal ultrasound findings, along with the postnatal histologic correlation, of an acardiac twin that manifested as a single lower extremity

  17. Diagnostic value of prenatal ultrasonography in detection the fetal eye abnormalities%产前超声检测胎儿眼部异常的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄苑铭; 饶金; 黄冬平; 陈燕; 马小燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of prenatal ultrasonography in detection the fetal eye abnormalities. Methods Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in 3400 fetuses, 20 cases of fetal eye abnormalities were found. The fetal eye abnormalities were classified according to the sonographic characteristics and autopsy results. Results Among the 20 cases of fetal eye abnormalities, 2 microph thalmia, 6 ocular hypotelorism and cyclopia all combined with holoprosencephaly, 5 anophthalmos( including 2 bilateral anophthalmos and 3 unilateral anophthalmia ), 1 persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, 6 ocular hypertelorism ( including 4 cases concomitant multiple abnormalities, 1 case of minor anomaly and 1 case of median cleft face syndrome ). Fifteen cases were determined after termination of pregnancy and 5 cases missed following up. Conclusion Ultrasonography can directly display the fetal eye structures, and play an important role in detecting and diagnosing for type of fetal eye abnormalities.%目的 探讨产前超声诊断胎儿眼部结构畸形的应用价值.方法 应用二维超声对3400例胎儿眼部进行检查,结合声像图特征及引产后尸解结果对眼部异常病例进行分类诊断.结果 3400例胎儿中检出眼部结构异常20例,其中小眼畸形2例,眼距过窄及独眼6例(均合并全前脑),无眼畸形5例(双侧无眼2例,单侧无眼3例),原始玻璃体残留组织增生症(PHPV)1 例,眼距过宽6例(4例合并多发畸形,1例合并微小畸形,1例为正中面裂综合征);经引产后证实产前超声诊断眼部异常正确15例,5例失随访.结论 超声能直观显示胎儿眼部结构,在胎儿眼部畸形的检出及分类诊断方面有重要作用.

  18. 规范产前超声检查诊断胎儿肢体畸形的价值%The Value of Standardized Prenatal Ultrasonography in Diagnosis of Fetal Limb Deformities

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    宋凤菊; 孙小平; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the value of standardized prenatal ultrasonography in diagnosis of fetal limb deformities. Materials and Methods During the period of August 2008 to August 2010, Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to screen 41 800 pregnant women at our hospital according to the ultrasound screening criteria of our hospital. Screening was classified into four groups: 13 to 17 weeks, 18 to 24 weeks,25 to 32 weeks,and 33 weeks to full-term. Groups of 18 to 24 weeks and 25 to 32 weeks were regarded as important groups of a routine fetal limb physical examination. Systematic continuous sequence approach( SCSA) with ultrasonography was used to observe the following features of fetal limbs including morphology, structure, posture and movement. Results Fetal limb abnormality was detected in 53 cases. There were nine kinds of fetal limb malformation revealed including 5 cases of radial deficiency, 1 case of forearm absence, 11 cases of short limbs deformity, 5 cases of hand absence, 6 cases of limb posture abnormalities, 10 cases of talipes varus, 2 cases of different length of bilateral femur, 1 case of leg absence, and 12 cases of multiple fingers (toes). Twenty-one cases complicated with other malformations. All cases of this group were confirmed by post-natal. Conclusions Standardized prenatal ultrasonography examination is an important imaging diagnostic method to detect fetal limb deformities. It is also an important part of quality control system of fetal ultrasonography screening.%目的:探讨规范产前超声检查诊断胎儿肢体畸形的价值.材料和方法:应用彩色多普勒超声仪对2008-08~2010-08保定市妇幼保健院行产前检查的41 800例孕妇按照该院胎儿超声筛查规范进行检查.筛查分四个阶段:11~14周、18~24周﹑25~32周和33~足月,将其中的18~24周﹑25~32周作为常规检查肢体的两个重要时期.使用连续顺序追踪超声法(SCSA)检测胎儿四肢,观察胎儿肢体的形态﹑

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of isolate fetal cleft palate by two-dimensional ultrasonography%单纯腭裂的产前二维超声诊断

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    张忠路; 王聪; 安霞; 王少春; 陈东风; 崔雪梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discussion the value of palate standard section in prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of isolate cleft palate,and summarize the two-dimensional ultrasound characteristics of isolate cleft palate.Methods Two-dimensional ultrasound was performed in 1 8 073 fetuses during 1 8 to 40 gestational weeks of pregnancy.Fetal palate structure were scanned through the oral cleft,the cheek,the neck part,and the standard sagittal section,transverse section and coronal section were obtained to diagnosis cleft palate. The results were compared with labour or postpartum findings.Results In 1 8 073 cases,20 cases of isolate cleft palate,1 9 cases were diagnosed as fetal isolate cleft palate by prenatal ultrasonography,of which 1 8 cases were correctly diagnosed,1 case was misdiagnosed,1 case was missed diagnosed.The sensitivity, specificity,accuracy of prenatal ultrasound detection were 95%,100%,95%,respectively.The ultrasonic characteristics of isolate cleft palate:lack of crack were located in the midline,soft cleft palate was shown as the midline of soft palate interrupted,short of crack was“><”、“‖”、“/\\”形,硬腭裂表现为硬腭正中回声中断,缺裂呈倒“U”形或倒“V”形。结论腭的标准切面在单纯腭裂的产前超声诊断中具有较高的应用价值,可评估裂隙形态、长度、宽度、走向、累及范围等。

  20. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

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    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  1. 13-三体综合征胎儿产前超声表现分析%Prenatal ultrasonography of fetuses with trisomy 13 syndrome

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    姜纬; 邓学东; 王挺; 梁青; 梁泓; 周景玲; 陆冰; 王珍琦

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨13-三体综合征胎儿产前超声表现特征及其临床意义.方法 对2008年至2011年产前在我院经染色体检查诊断为13-三体综合征的12例胎儿的超声声像图特征进行总结分析.结果 12例13-三体综合征胎儿中1例孕65 d时超声检查无胎心搏动,其余11例产前超声检查时发现均有1种以上结构畸形,其中心脏结构异常6例,颜面部畸形6例,前脑无裂畸形4例,单脐动脉2例,Dandy-Walker畸形、脐膨出、脐带囊肿、双肾积水、颈部淋巴水囊瘤、多指畸形、足内翻、多囊性肾发育不良、胸腹腔积液、肠管回声增强、侧脑室增宽,颈项透明层增厚各1例;其中前脑无裂畸形和与之相关的颜面部畸形具有其特征性.结论 胎儿13-三体综合征有其特征性超声表现,产前超声检查是协助临床早期发现胎儿13-三体综合征的一种可靠、有效的方法,具有重要临床意义.%Objective To assess the characteristics and the value of prenatal ultrasonography of fetuse with trisomy 13 syndrome. Methods The ultrasonic manifestations of 12 fetuses with trisomy 13 syndrome from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all cases , 1 case was found without pulsation when 65 -day gestation. The other 11 cases were all found more than one structure malformation by prenatal ultrasound examination. Six were found with heart abnormalities , 6 were found with craniofacial malformations. Four with holoprosencephaly. Two with Single Umbilical Artery. Dandy-Walker malformation , omphalocele , umbilical cord cyst, bilateral hydronephrosis , cystic hygroma, polydactyly , strephenopodia , multicystic dysplastic kidney , pleural effusions and ascites , echogenic bowel, lateral ventriculomegaly , thicken NT in one case respectively. Holoprosencephaly and its related malformations in facial area were characteristic findings. Conclusions There were characteristic ultrasonic manifestations in fetuse with trisomy 13

  2. Prenatal prediction of neonatal survival in cases diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia using abdomen-to-thorax ratio determined by ultrasonography.

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    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jun, Jong Kwan; Lee, JoonHo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of abdomen-to-thorax ratio (ATR) measured by antenatal ultrasonography for predicting neonatal survival of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We identified 75 fetuses who were prenatally diagnosed with CDH and delivered in Seoul National University Hospital from 1998 to 2012, retrospectively. Of these, 40 cases who met the following criteria were included: (i) singleton pregnancy; (ii) a case that had available ultrasonographic images; and (iii) a neonate in whom follow-up until discharge from the hospital was available. ATR was measured as follows: each anteroposterior distance (APD) in the abdominal and thoracic cavity was measured in the same midsagittal plane with the fetal neutral position. A thoracic APD was measured from the back to the distal end of the sternum and an abdominal APD from the back to the most protruding abdominal surface. ATR is the ratio of the abdominal APD versus the thoracic APD. Survival rates were 57.5%. There were significant differences in ATR, lung-head ratio (LHR), observed/expected-LHR, quantitative lung index and intrathoracic liver between survivors and non-survivors. Regression analysis demonstrated that only ATR and intrathoracic position of the liver were independent predictors of survival. ATR by multivariate analysis had the most influence on survival rate (P = 0.002). The area under the receiver-operator curve for prediction of survival from ATR was 0.770 (P = 0.004). The diagnostic cut-off value for ATR was 0.96. Because ATR is effective to predict neonatal survival in CDH fetuses and is easy to measure, it can be used as another powerful parameter for managing CDH fetuses. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Analysis on the current situation of human resource for prenatal ultrasonography in hospitals at different levels in China%我国医院产前超声的人力资源现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江; 袁秀琴; 朱军; 李小洪

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解我国各级医院产前超声的人力资源现状.方法:采用自填式调查表调查全国780所国家级出生缺陷监测医院中从事产前超声的专业医务人员,并按东中西部和医院等级进行统计分析.结果:各级医院专业人员平均年龄和工作年限无统计学差异.学历在一级医院中,东中西部均以大专为主,分别为55.95%、57.14%和44.03%,二、三级医院超声人员学历以本科为主.专业人员职称构成在不同级别医院差异显著.在一级医院中,中级职称产前超声人员2007-2009年参加培训的比例,西部仅为32.73%,显著低于东部(56.26%)和中部(53.85%),二、三级医院中,东部各级职称人员培训比例均高于中西部.结论:我国产前超声人员年龄和工作年限分布较为合理,但学历、职称构成和培训比例欠合理,应进一步优化产前超声从业人员的学历和职称构成,并加大对初级职称人员的培训力度.%Objective; To understand the current situation of human resource for prenatal ultrasonography in hospitals at different levels in China. Methods: A self - finished questionnaire was used to survey the professional medical personnel who were occupied in prenatal ultrasonography in 780 national birth defects monitoring hospitals in China, a statistical analysis was conducted according to different re-gions and hospital degrees. Results; There was no significant difference in the average age and years of work among the professional medical personnel from hospitals at different levels. In the grade - one hospitals, 55. 95% , 57. 14% and 44.03% of the professional medical personnel ineastern region, central region, and western region had college degree; among the grade - two and grade - three hospitals, most of the professional medical personnel had university degree. There was significant difference in the proportion of professional title among the professional medical personnel from hospitals at

  4. 血清学结合超声检查在非整倍体产前筛查中的应用%Application of serologic examination combined with ultrasonography in prenatal screening of aneuploidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清明; 周瑾; 刘伟; 王瑞; 杨柳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application values of serologic examination combined with ultrasonography in prenatal screening of fetal aneuploidy. Methods: Maternal serologic triple examination ( AFP, Free β - hCG and uE3 ) during the second trimester of pregnancy combined with fetal systematical ultrasonography was used for prenatal screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy among 1 831 pregnant women of 16 ~ 25 gestational weeks, the pregnant women with high risk of prenatal screening received chromosomal karyotype analysis of amniotic cells. Results: Among 1 831 pregnant women, 107 high risk cases were screened out, including 98 high risk cases of serologic screening, 9 cases with abnormal fetuses detected by ultrasonography, 2 cases diagnosed as Down's syndrome and 2 cases diagnosed as trisomy 18 definitely by chromosomal analysis of amniotic cells. Conclusion: The prenatal screening programme of serologic triple examination during the second trimester of pregnancy combined with fetal systematical ultrasonography can expand the coverage extent of screening objects, reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis, increase the detection rate of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy effectively, which is a simple, minimally invasive and effective prenatal screening protocol.%目的:探讨血清学结合超声在胎儿非整倍体产前筛查中的应用价值.方法:采用孕中期孕母血清学三联(AFP、Freeβ-hCG、uE3)检测结介胎儿系统超声检查,对1 831例孕16~25周孕妇进行胎儿非整倍体染色体病产前筛查,对筛查高风险孕妇,进行羊水细胞染色体核型分析.结果:1 831例孕妇中筛查出高危孕妇107例,其中血清学筛查高危孕妇98例,超声检查胎儿异常9例,经羊水细胞染色体分析产前诊断确诊唐氏综合征2例、18-三体综合征2例.结论:孕中期血清三联筛查结合胎儿系统超声检查的产前筛查方案,可扩大筛查目标的涵盖范围,减少漏诊及误诊;有效提高胎儿非整

  5. Prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome%产前彩色多普勒超声诊断梅干腹综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彩云; 罗红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨产前彩色多普勒超声诊断胎儿梅于腹综合征( PBS)的价值,方法分析我院产前彩色多普勒超声检出的11胎疑似PBS胎儿的声像图特征,并与产后外观或病理结果对比,验证超声检查的准确性.结果 11胎均见腹腔内巨大囊性占位,周边可探及脐血流信号(提示为巨膀胱);6胎泌尿系畸形;3胎腹壁菲簿;6胎羊水过少;4胎合并其他异常;2胎胎死宫内.9胎引产(7胎为PBS,1胎为后尿道瓣膜症,1胎为尿道闭锁);2胎出生(1胎为PBS,1胎为单纯腹腔囊肿).产前彩色多普勒超声对PBS的检出率为0.17‰(8/47 624),准确率为72.73%(8/11).结论 腹横径/膀胱直径、腹壁厚度作为诊断标准可提高产前诊断PBS准确率,产前彩色多普勒超声早期诊断胎儿PBS具有较高的临床诊断价值.%Objective To explore the value of prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of prune-belly syndrome (PBS). Methods The characteristics of ultrasonogram of 11 fetuses suspected PBS were analyzed and compared with postnatal appearance or pathological findings. Results Eleven fetuses had large intraperitoneal cyst, umbilical blood flow signal surrounding (hint for the megacystis) were explored. Six fetuses had urinary malformations, while 3 had abdominal wall meager. Oligohydramnios was noticed in 6 fetuses. Four fetuses had other abnormalities. Intrauterine fetal death occurred in 2 cases. Induced labour was performed in 9 cases, 7 of them were confirmed as PBS, 1 as posterior ure-thral valve. 1 as urethral atresia. One fetus with PBS and 1 with simple abdominal cyst were born. The detection rate of PBS with prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography was 0. 17%o (8/47 624), the diagnostic accuracy was 72. 73% (8/11). Conclusion Taking the abdominal/bladder diameter and abdominal wall thickness as diagnostic criteria can improve the diagnostic accuracy of PBS in prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography. Which has high clinic value in PBS.

  6. Pelvic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, M B; Valley, V T; Mateer, J R

    1997-11-01

    Pelvic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for the emergency physician in the evaluation of the wide spectrum of pelvic complaints presenting to the emergency department. The goal of this article is to outline pelvic problems that can be readily identified by the emergency physician using pelvic sonography early in the patient's evaluation. A special emphasis is placed on the sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  7. 产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎妊娠的临床价值%Value of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 吴瑛; 王慧芳; 谭喜平; 甘晗靖; 林琪; 焦阳; 熊奕; 姜燕; 张辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance. Methods Two hundred and seventy cases of diamniotic twins were included. Both postnatal outcomes and prenatal amniotic fluid discordant variations were analyzed,and the incidences of amniotic fluid discordance were compared between the monochorionic-diamniotic(MCDA)and dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) gruop. Results Twenty four cases of twins with amniotic fluid discordance were found in the study. The incidence of amniotic fluid discordance in MCDA group was much higher than that in DCDA group (28.9% vs 5.6%, P <0. 001 ) ,and 24 cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) were diagnosed in the former group and none were found in the latter group. Downward tendency of amniotic fluid discordance was shown in non-TTTS cases of MCDA group. Compared with TTTS cases, the postnatal outcomes of non-TTTS cases with amniotic fluid discordance were much better in MCDA group ( P <0.001 ). Conclusions TTTS and MCDA twins with amniotic fluid discordance may overlap each other in the early stage. Serial surveillances of ultrasonography are necessary for prenatal differentiating twin pregnancies complicated by amniotic fluid discordance,and providing strong support to clinical treament.%目的 探讨产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎的临床价值.方法 分析270例双羊膜囊双胎中单绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(monochorionic-diamniotic twin,MCDA)与双绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(dichorionicdiamniotic twin,DCDA)羊水量不均衡的发生率,妊娠过程中羊水量变化趋势及与妊娠结局的关系.结果 共45例双胎间羊水量不均衡,MCDA组37例,其中24例为双胎输血综合征(twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome,TTTS);DCDA组8例,无TTTS发生.MCDA组羊水量不均衡的发生率明显高于DCDA组(P<0.001).MCDA组中羊水量不均衡的非TTTS双胎,羊水量的差异随孕周增加呈减少趋势,且

  8. 18-三体综合征胎儿产前超声表现分析%Prenatal ultrasonography associated with fetuses of trisomy 18 syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 于华; 荆春丽; 冯丽云; 王彦

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the sonographic appearances of fetuses with trisomy 18 syndrome and the clinical significance. Methods: The ultrasound findings of 20 cases of trisomy 18 confirmed by amniocentesis or cordocentesis were evaluated.Results: All of the 20 cases had at least 2 parts of sonographicanomalies. Fetal cardiac anomalies were the most common ifndings which accounted for 75%among all the cases. The less abnormal sonographic findings included choroid plexus cysts, short limbs measurement or abnormal gestures, polyhydramnios, The other abnormal sonographic ifndings included fetal growth restriction, singleumbilical artery, fetal head in the shape of strawberry, omphalocele, esophageal atresia,absence of the corpus callosum,Dandy—Walker syndrome,ventriculomegaly,abnormal systolic/diastolic ratio(S/D)of umbilical artery,umbilical cord cyst,diaphragmatichernia.Conclusion:The evaluation of prenatal ultrasound screening is effective for the Prenatal diagnosis fetus with trisomy 18.%目的:探讨18-三体综合症胎儿的产前超声表现及超声检查临床价值。方法:回顾性分析20例经羊膜腔穿刺或脐血穿刺染色体核型检查确诊为18-三体综合征胎儿的超声表现。结果:确诊的20例18-三体综合征胎儿均有两个及以上异常超声表现,常见超声表现主要为心脏畸形15例(75%),其次是脉络丛囊肿,四肢骨骼或姿势异常,羊水多,还可见到胎儿生长受限,单脐动脉,草莓头,脐膨出,食道闭锁,胼胝体缺失、Dandy-Walker畸形、侧脑室扩张、脐动脉血流S/D升高、脐带囊肿1例、膈疝等。结论:产前超声筛查对18-三体综合征胎儿的产前检出具有重要意义。

  9. 18-三体综合征胎儿产前超声表现分析%Analysis the Prenatal Ultrasonography Manifestation of Trisomy 18 Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the sonographic appearances of fetuses with trisomy 18 syndromeand the clinical significance.MethodsThe ultrasound ifndings of 24 cases of trisomy 18 conifrmedby amniocentesis or cordocentesis were evaluated.Results 24 cases had at least 2 parts ofsonographicanomalie, fetal cardiac anomalies were the most common among all the cases, the less abnormal sonographic findings included choroid plexus cysts, short limbsmeasurement or abnormal gestures, polyhydramnios,the other abnormal sonographic findings included fetalgrowth restriction, singleumbilical artery, fetal head in the shape of strawberry, omphalocele, esophagealatresia, absence of the corpus callosum. Dandy—Walker syndrome, ventriculomegaly,abnormal systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) of umbilical artery,umbilical cord cyst, diaphragmatichernia. ConclusionThe evaluationof prenatal ultrasound screening is effective for the prenatal diagnosis fetus with trisomy 18 conifrmed.%目的探讨18-三体综合症胎儿的产前超声表现及超声检查临床价值。方法回顾性分析24例经羊膜腔穿刺或脐血穿刺染色体核型检查确诊为18-三体综合征胎儿的超声表现。结果确诊的24例18-三体综合征胎儿均有两个及以上异常超声表现,常见超声表现主要为心脏畸形,其次是脉络丛囊肿,四肢骨骼或姿势异常,羊水多,还可见到胎儿生长受限,单脐动脉,草莓头,脐膨出,食道闭锁,胼胝体缺失、Dandy-Walker畸形、侧脑室扩张、脐动脉血流S/D升高、脐带囊肿1例、膈疝等。结论产前超声筛查对18-三体综合征胎儿的产前检出具有重要意义。

  10. Application of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in the Prenatal Screening of Non-High Risk Fetus%彩色多普勒超声在非高危胎儿产前心脏筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究彩色多普勒超声在非高危胎儿产前心脏筛查中的应用价值,通过胎儿产前心脏筛查以降低先天性心脏病患儿的出生率及死亡率。方法选取我院2013年12月~2015年12月收治的2352例处于孕20~24周的非高危胎儿作为实验组,同时选取同期341例高危胎儿作为对照组。这2693例均实施彩色多普勒超声检查,并对所有胎儿进行随访并随访至明确诊断,比较两组胎儿心脏畸形发生率以及非高危胎儿的畸形敏感性、特异性。结果实验组非高危胎儿心脏畸形的发生率低于对照组高危胎儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。非高危胎儿产前经彩色多普勒超声检查,其心脏畸形筛查的准确率为92.44%。四腔心和左、右室流出道切面筛查胎儿心脏崎形的特异性、敏感性分别为91.32%、99.9%。结论彩色多普勒超声在非高危胎儿产前心脏筛查中的应用价值较高,其诊断的特异度以及敏感度均较高。%Objective To explore the application value of color Doppler ultrasonography in the prenatal screening of non high risk fetus, birth rate and death rate in children with congenital heart disease by screening of fetal heart.Methods In our hospital from December 2013 to December 2015, 2 352 cases of non high risk fetus in 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy were selected as experimental group, at the same time, 341 high-risk fetuses were selected as control group at the same time. All the 2 693 cases were examined by color Doppler ultrasound, and all the fetuses were followed up for deifnite diagnosis, the incidence rate of fetal heart rate and the abnormal sensitivity and specificity of the non - high risk fetus were compared between the two groups.ResultsIn the experimental group, the incidence rate of non high risk fetal heart malformation was lower than that of the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). The rate of screening for non

  11. 彩色多普勒超声产前诊断胎儿前腹壁畸形%Prenatal diagnosis of fetal anterior abdominal wall defects with color Doppler ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新美; 吴春燕; 陈雷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声(CDU)在产前诊断胎儿前腹壁畸形(AAWDs)中的价值.方法 回顾性分析21胎经引产或随访证实的胎儿AAWDs声像图特征.结果 21胎AAWDs中,8胎为腹裂,10胎为脐膨出,3胎为体蒂异常.CDU确诊19胎,误诊2胎,诊断准确率90.48%.结论 CDU通过辨认胎儿脐带与AAWDs的关系,能较准确地显示AAWDs的病理特征,在胎儿AAWDs的诊断与鉴别诊断中起重要作用.%Objective To investigate the value of color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) in diagnosis of prenatal fetal anterior abdominal wall defects (AAWDs).Methods The sonographic features of 21 fetuses with AAWDs confirmed with induced labor or follow-up were analyzed retrospectively.Results There were 21 AAWDs fetuses, included 8 gastroschisis, 10 omphalocele and 3 body stalk anomaly.Nineteen in 21 fetuses were diagnosed with CDU, while 2 were misdiagnosed.The ultrasonographic diagnostic accuracy was 90.48%.Conclusion CDU can identify the relationship between the defects and the umbilical cord, and thus accurately demonstrate the pathologic features of AAWDs, playing an important role in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AAWDs.

  12. Research on the Relationship between Single Umbilical Artery and Fetal Malformation Diagnosed by Prenatal Color Doppler Ultrasonography%产前彩超诊断单脐动脉与胎儿发育异常的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文海; 王业珠; 王倩楠; 王叶颖; 张兰英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨产前彩超在检测胎儿脐带血管数目,预测胎儿发育异常几率和妊娠结局中的应用。方法收集2005年3月~2013年12月在本院行产前彩超检查的病例,检测其胎儿脐带血管数目,分析单脐动脉合并畸形的类型、与染色体异常的相关性以及妊娠结局。结果超声诊断单脐动脉72例,其中左侧缺失44例,右侧缺失28例。单纯单脐动脉无合并其他畸形53例,合并其他畸形19例。其中13例行染色体检查,发现染色体异常4例,包括18-三体综合征2例、13-三体综合征1例、21-三体综合征各1例,均合并其他畸形。结论大部分单纯单脐动脉胎儿妊娠结局良好;合并其他畸形的单脐动脉胎儿染色体异常发生率高。术前彩超在检测胎儿脐带血管数目,预测胎儿发育异常中具有重要临床价值。%Objective To evaluate the application of prenatal color Doppler ultrasound in detecting single umbilical artery (SUA) so as to predict the rate of fetal congenital malformation and pregnancy outcomes. Methods Cases that underwent prenatal color ultrasound from March 2005 to December 2013 were selected. The number of umbilical cords was examined to analyze types of SUA-associated abnormalities, the relationship between SUA and chromosome anomalies, and pregnancy outcomes. Re-sults SUA was diagnosed in 72 cases. The left umbilical artery was absent in 44 cases;the right umbilical artery was absent in 28 cases. SUA as an isolated finding occurred in 53 fetuses;19 cases had associated malformations. Chromosomal defects were diagnosed in 8 of 13 cases that had accepted karyotype examination, including two cases of trisomy 18, one case of trisomy 13, one case of trisomy 21. Con-clusion Most cases of fetuses with isolated SUA showed good pregnancy outcome. Chromosomal abnormalities happened more frequently in SUA accompanied with other anomalies. Prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography was of important

  13. [Lowe syndrome revealed by prenatal diagnosis of congenital cataract with brain abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zéphir, P; Decramer, S; Sartor, A; Vayssière, C

    2014-05-01

    Congenital cataract is a rare disease whose incidence is estimated to 0.5% of birth in France. A study of the literature shows that congenital cataract is idiopathic in 50% of cases, hereditary forms representing 25% of cases. Other causes of congenital cataract are represented by viral embryofoetopathies acquired during pregnancy, metabolic disorders and chromosomal aberrations within the scope of malformative syndromes. The authors report the case of a neonatal diagnosis of Lowe syndrome suspected by the discovery of bilateral cataract initially isolated. The morphological exploration was completed by secondary brain abnormalities (periventricular lesions). The etiological prenatal exploration was negative. Lowe syndrome is a rare cause of antenatal cataract, which so far only one case has been reported.

  14. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  15. Adult-onset obesity reveals prenatal programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male sheep nutrient restricted during late gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Rhodes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity invokes a range of metabolic disturbances, but the transition from a poor to excessive nutritional environment may exacerbate adult metabolic dysfunction. The current study investigated global maternal nutrient restriction during early or late gestation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring when lean and obese. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pregnant sheep received adequate (1.0M; CE, n = 6 or energy restricted (0.7M diet during early (1-65 days; LEE, n = 6 or late (65-128 days; LEL, n = 7 gestation (term approximately 147 days. Subsequent offspring remained on pasture until 1.5 years when all received glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT & ITT and body composition determination by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. All animals were then exposed to an obesogenic environment for 6-7 months and all protocols repeated. Prenatal dietary treatment had no effect on birth weight or on metabolic endpoints when animals were 'lean' (1.5 years. Obesity revealed generalised metabolic 'inflexibility' and insulin resistance; characterised by blunted excursions of plasma NEFA and increased insulin(AUC (from 133 to 341 [s.e.d. 26] ng.ml(-1.120 mins during a GTT, respectively. For LEL vs. CE, the peak in plasma insulin when obese was greater (7.8 vs. 4.7 [s.e.d. 1.1] ng.ml(-1 and was exacerbated by offspring sex (i.e. 9.8 vs. 4.4 [s.e.d. 1.16] ng.ml(-1; LEL male vs. CE male, respectively. Acquisition of obesity also significantly influenced the plasma lipid and protein profile to suggest, overall, greater net lipogenesis and reduced protein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates generalised metabolic dysfunction with adult-onset obesity which also exacerbates and 'reveals' programming of glucose-insulin sensitivity in male offspring prenatally exposed to maternal undernutrition during late gestation. Taken together, the data suggest that metabolic function appears little compromised in young

  16. 产前超声诊断轻度胎儿脑室扩张的临床意义%Clinical Significance of Mild Fetal Ventriculomegaly by Prenatal Ultrasonography Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢爱兰; 赵雅萍; 叶祎; 王玉环; 金慧佩; 黄品同

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声诊断轻度胎儿脑室扩张的临床意义.方法 2006年1月~2009年12月于笔者医院行常规产前检查的单胎孕妇,自妊娠20周开始,由专门B超医师仔细测量胎儿侧脑室后角宽度,共18200例,发现胎儿侧脑室增宽≥10mm且≤15mm的孕妇为研究对象,共172例,每2~4周动态观察胎儿侧脑室宽度的变化及其他异常情况,并对新生儿出生后进行随访.结果 轻度胎儿脑室扩张发生率为0.095%(172/18200),以妊娠28~32周最多见,占34.3%(59/172),合并结构畸形24例(13.95%).单纯性轻度脑室扩张宫内缩小为49.6%(69/139),稳定36.7%(51/139),进展13.7%(19/139),胎儿出生后神经行为发育异常5.4%(6/111).脑室扩张(12~15mm)组合并畸形率,脑室扩张进展率及出生后神经行为发育异常发生率明显高于脑室扩张(10.0~11.9mm)组(分别为20.6%vs10.0%,29.8%vs6.5%,12.1%vs2.6%),两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 胎儿轻度脑室扩张于孕28~32周最易发现,常合并结构畸形,孕期应根据孕周进行定期随访和系统超声检查;脑室扩张≥12mm,且宫内有进展者提示预后不良,应引起高度重视.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of mild fetal ventriculomegaly by prenatal ultrasonography examination. Methods Prenatal ultrasonography examination was performed on 18200 singleton pregnancy women from 20 weeks gestation. 172 women with mild fetal ventriculomegaly (transverse diameter of the atrium of the lateral ventricle measuring between 10 and 15mm) were enrolled in this study. The changes of ventriculomegaly and the associated intracranial and extracranial anomalies were observed regularly every 2 or 4 weeks until delivery. The infants were also followed up. Results The incidence of mild fetal ventriculomegaly was 0. 093% (172/18200). Most of them were found between 28 - 32 weeks ( 59 cases, 34. 3%). 24 were associated with structural

  17. he application and analysis of diagnosis about fetus’ central nervous system malformations from prenatal Color Doppler Ultrasonography%产前彩色多普勒超声对胎儿中枢神经系统畸形的诊断运用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡胜利

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究并分析产前彩色多普勒超声对胎儿中枢神经系统畸形的诊断运用价值。方法:回顾性分析自2011年5月~2012年5月在我院进行彩色多普勒超声检查的怀有中枢系统畸胎的孕妇100名,将其作为临床研究对象。根据孕期将其分为观察组和对照组,每组50例,观察组孕妇孕期17~27周,对照组孕妇孕期27~38周。对其进行超声检查同时记录下检测结果。结果:彩超检测结果显示,观察组孕妇畸胎检出率为94.00%,明显高于对照组;观察组操作复杂率为10.00%,而对照组为36.00%,观察组明显低于对照组,p<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论:产前彩色多普勒超声检测可以准确的对产前胎儿进行诊断,为胎儿畸形的产前诊断提供了可靠的技术支持,且孕期17~27周最适合检测。%to explore and analyze the value of diagnosis about fetus’ central nervous system malformations from prenatal Color Doppler Ultrasonography.Method:100 cases of pregnant women who were check out conceiving fetus with central nervous system malformations after an examination by prenatal color Doppler ultrasonography in our hospital during May, 2011 and May, 2012 are retrospectively analyzed. They were chose as the clinical research subjects. According to the pregnancy, they were divided equaly and randomly into observation group whose pregnant women had a pregnancy about 17~27 weeks and contrast group whose pregnant women had a pregnancy about 27~38 weeks. Making a ultrasonography of the two groups and record the examination result.Result:theexamination result of Color Doppler Ultrasonography indicates that the detectable rate of teratomas of pregnant women in observation group was 94.00%. It is obviously higher than contrast group. Complex operation rate about 10.00% in observation group is obviously lower than complex operation rate about 36.00% in contrast group (P<0.05). The result has a

  18. 血清学筛查与胎儿超声检查在18、13三体综合征产前诊断中的临床应用%Clinical applications of serological screening and fetal ultrasonography for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁学清; 韦丽萍; 唐娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the values of serological screening and fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13. Methods:A total of 780 pregnant women received serological screening and fetal ultrasonography, the samples of amnion fluid were obtained by amniocentesis, the cell culture and chromosomal karyotype analysis were conducted for prenatal diagnosis. Results; Among 780 fetuses, 6 fetuses were found with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, the incidence was 0.77% , including 3 fetuses with trisomy 18 and 3 fetuses with trisomy 13. Three fetuses with trisomy 18 were found with high risk of serological screening and abnormal ultrasonic structure; and the other three fetuses were found with abnormal ultrasonic structure and low risk of serological screening. Conclusion: Serological screening of pregnant women combined with fetal ultrasonography is an effective method to detect trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 before delivery.%目的:评价利用孕妇血清学筛查与胎儿超声检查在18、13三体综合征胎儿产前诊断的价值.方法:对780例孕妇进行孕妇血清学筛查与胎儿超声检查,羊膜腔穿刺取羊水进行细胞培养染色体核型分析进行产前诊断.结果:780例胎儿中共发现6例18、13三体综合征,发生率为0.77%.其中3例18三体综合征,3例13三体综合征.3例18三体综合征血清学筛查高风险和超声结构异常,其余3例超声检查发现结构异常但血清学筛查为低风险.结论:孕妇血清筛查结合胎儿超声检查是产前检出18、13三体综合征胎儿的有效检查方法.

  19. Chromosomal microarray versus karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapner, Ronald J; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C; Eng, Christine M; Zachary, Julia M; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N; Thom, Elizabeth A; Beaudet, Arthur L; Ledbetter, David H; Shaffer, Lisa G; Jackson, Laird

    2012-12-06

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down's syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.).

  20. Fetal akinesia and associated abnormalities on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Höftberger, Romana; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Graham, John M; Rimoin, David L; Prayer, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    In view of the increasing role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal akinesia and associated abnormalities on MRI. This retrospective study included six fetuses with akinesia and associated abnormalities, depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious prenatal US. The whole fetus was assessed for musculoskeletal abnormalities and associated pathological conditions elsewhere. Fetal outcome data were compared with prenatal imaging. US and MRI findings were also compared. Akinesia resulting in arthrogryposis was seen in 6/6 fetuses, with abnormal musculature in 5/6 fetuses. Associated brain abnormalities were found in 2/6 fetuses; facial abnormalities in 3/6; lung hypoplasia in 3/6; and polyhydramnios in 2/6. There were 5/6 pregnancies that were terminated and one individual died neonatally. MRI and brain autopsy were concordant in 4/6 cases. MRI and body autopsy were concordant in 1/6 cases and in 5/6 cases, autopsy revealed additional abnormalities. In addition to US, MRI correctly identified central nervous system findings in four cases and lung hypoplasia in three cases. Our MRI results demonstrate fetal akinesia and associated abnormalities, which may have an impact on perinatal management, as an adjunct to prenatal US. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 产前超声检查对胎儿眼部异常的检测价值%Detective value of prenatal ultrasonography for the fetal eye abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑磊; 温佳敏; 张福燕

    2015-01-01

    胎儿眼部先天性异常是一类罕见的疾病,产前较难诊断.产前超声检查被认为具有检查方便、无创伤、重复性好等优点.通过产前超声检查可发现胎儿眼部的先天异常,如先天性白内障、先天性无眼球或小眼球、永存原始玻璃体增生症等.超声检查可直观地显示不同孕周胎儿的眼部结构,具有提示和诊断先天性眼部异常的临床价值.%Fetal eye abnormalities are a type of rare diseases,which are always difficult to diagnose.Prenatal ultrasound has many advantages,such as convenient,non-invasive and good repeatability.In recent years,many specialists have reported some fetal eye abnormalities detected by prenatal ultrasound,such as congenital cataract,anophthalmia or microphthalmia,persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.Prenatal ultrasound can visually display the ocular structure of fetus in different gestational age,showing clinical value for diagnosis of fetal eye abnormalities.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of a de novo 9p terminal chromosomal deletion in a fetus with major congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Chien; Chen, Chih-Ping; Hwang, Kwei-Shuai; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Lai, Yu-Ju; Tien, Chau-Yang; Su, Her-Young

    2014-12-01

    We describe a prenatal ultrasonography diagnosis of omphalocele and symbrachydactyly in a fetus and review the literature on prenatal diagnosis of 9p terminal chromosomal deletions. A 31-year-old woman (gravida 3, para 1) was referred for genetic counseling because a fetal omphalocele had been detected. Prenatal ultrasonography at 17+ weeks of gestational age revealed a singleton female fetus with biometry equivalent to 18 weeks with an omphalocele. In addition, symbrachydactyly was also noted in the right arm; the wrist bones as well as the metacarpals were missing. A chromosomal study was arranged for a congenital anomaly involving omphalocele. We obtained Giemsa-banded chromosomes from fetal tissue cells, and an abnormal male karyotype with a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 9 at band 9p13 was noted. After delivery, the fetus showed omphalocele, symbrachydactyly, trigonocephaly, sex reversal, a long philtrum, low-set ears, telecanthus, and a frontal prominence. Prenatal diagnosis of abnormal ultrasound findings with omphalocele and symbrachydactyly should include the differential diagnosis of a chromosome 9p deletion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 产前超声筛查胎儿先天性心脏病的临床价值分析%Analysis on clinical value of prenatal ultrasonography in screening of fetal congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱胜; 刘武岩; 曹晔

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胎儿超声心动图(FECG)产前筛查胎儿先天性心脏病(CHD)的临床应用价值.方法 采用四腔心、左室流出道、右室流出道、三血管切面四切面法,对6 500例孕20 ~41周孕妇进行产前FECG筛查,以引产后尸解或产后新生儿ECG作为对照标准.结果 6 500例胎儿中,检出胎儿心脏异常69例,包括复杂性先天心脏病部分合并心外畸形39例.结论 四切面检查方法简便可靠,是显示胎儿心脏结构及产前筛查胎儿CHD的重要影像诊断方法.%Objective To analyze the clinical application value of fetal echocardiography ( FECC) in screening of fetal congenital heart disease ( CHD). Methods Prenatal fetal echocardiography screening were performed in 6500 pregnant women ( at 20 ~ 41 weeks of gestation) by four chamber view, left ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular outflow tract and three vessels methods. The result of fetus autopsy from induced abortion or neonatal echocardiography was the control criterion. Results In all 6500 fetus, 69 cases of cardiac abnormalities were confirmed by screening, including 39 cases of complex congenital heart diseases, partial cases combined with extracardiac abnormality. Conclusion The four chamber view is a simple and effective method to detect the fetal cardiac structure which has important imaging diagnostic value for prenatal fetal congenital heart disease screening.

  5. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  6. Ultrasonography in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Jesper; Nielsen, Klaus; Primdahl, Stine C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) protocol is considered beneficial in emergent evaluation of trauma patients with blunt or penetrating injury and has become integrated into the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol. No guidelines exist as to the use...... of ultrasonography in trauma in Denmark. We aimed to determine the current use of ultrasonography for assessing trauma patients in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional investigation of ultrasonography usage in trauma care. The first phase consisted of an Internet-based investigation....... Twenty-one (95.5%) of the guidelines included and recommended FAST as part of trauma assessment. The recommended person to perform the examination was the radiologist in n = 11 (50.0%), the surgeon in n = 6 (27.3%), the anesthesiologist in n = 1 (4.5%), and unspecified in n = 3 (13.6%) facilities. FAST...

  7. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  8. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound are hig...

  9. 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用分析%Aanalysis of prenatal ultrasonography in screening for fetal trisomy 21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 荆春丽; 王彦; 冯丽云; 顾颜

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中的应用价值.方法 2009年1月至2014年6月在大连市妇幼保健院被确诊为21-三体综合征的胎儿共77例,其中55例行超声筛查,分析其超声表现与21-三体综合征的关系.结果 55例接受产前超声筛查的21-三体综合征病例中,10例进行了孕早期超声筛查,8例(80%)发现异常;45例进行了孕中晚期超声筛查,37例(82.2%)发现超声异常.孕早期常见的异常为NT增厚(80%)、鼻骨缺失(40%)和静脉导管α波倒置(30%).孕中晚期常见的软指标异常为鼻骨缺失或发育不良(40.0%)、颈后皮肤皱褶增厚(26.7%)、肱骨或股骨短(17.8%)等;胎儿结构畸形主要为心血管畸形(33.3%)和十二指肠闭锁(13.3%)等.此外,21-三体综合征胎儿中晚期超声还可表现为羊水多(17.8%)和脐动脉血流异常(8.9%).结论 超声在21-三体综合征产前筛查中具有重要作用.%Objective:To investigate the clinical value of ultrasound in screening for fetal trisomy 21.Methods:From Jan.2009 to Jun.2014,77 fetuses was diagnosed as trisomy 21 in the Dalian Matemal and Child Health Hospital.In all cases,55 cases underwent prenatal ultrasound screening.The relationship between trisomy 21 and ultrasonic manifestations was analyzed.Results:In the 55 cases,10 cases were screened in early pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 8 feruses (80%),including thickened nuehal translucency (80%),nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),reverse of a-wave of ductus venosus (30%) and so on.45 cases were screened in middle and late pregnancy.Sonographic anomalies were detected in 37 feruses (82.2%).The most common ultrasound markers were nasal bone hypoplasia (40%),thickened nuchal fold (26.7%) and short femurs and humerus (17.8%),the common structural malformations include cardiac defects (33.3%) and digestive system (13.3%).Furthermore,much amniotic fluid (17.8%) and abnormal umbilical artery

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume by ultrasonography%羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的超声诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 杨萌; 张一休; 朱庆莉; 陈彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声检查对于羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的诊断价值和临床意义.方法 于孕中晚期对羊水量正常胎儿中发现的单侧或双侧肾超声表现异常(包括大小、回声、形态异常,出现囊肿等)病例进行系统二维超声检查、孕期及生后随访观察、病理学检查等,并进行总结分析.仅有肾盂增宽的胎儿不包括在本组研究中.结果 发现羊水量正常但单侧或双侧肾发育不良的胎儿11例.其中单侧多囊性肾发育不良5例,4例不合并其他异常,1例合并同侧手缺如;单侧肾缺如2例,其中1例不合并其他畸形,另1例合并多发畸形包括脑积水、骶尾部脊柱裂、同侧桡骨缺失及单脐动脉,符合VACTERL综合征;盆腔.肾1例,马蹄肾1例,生后超声证实;常染色体显性遗传多囊肾1例,胎儿一侧肾可见多发囊肿,合并心脏横纹肌瘤,孕妇为双侧多囊肾;双侧肾发育不良1例,产前超声表现为双侧肾回声增强.结论 单侧多囊性肾发育不良是羊水量正常时产前超声最常检出的胎儿肾发育不良性疾病.根据产前超声表现并结合家族史,能在大多数胎儿肾发育不良病例中进行病因学诊断并帮助判断预后.%Objective To determine the diagnostic value and clinical significance of sonographically detected fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume. Methods At the 2nd or 3rd trimester of gestation,the fetuses with unilateral or bilateral renal anomalies (ahnormal size,echo,shape or cyst of the kidney) and normal amniotic fluid volume received systemic ultrasound examination,autopsy or follow-up until after birth. The fetus with only dilated renal pelvis was not included. Results Eleven fetuses of dysplastic renal anomalies with normal amniotic fluid volume were identified by prenatal ultrasound. Among the five fetuses affected by unilateral multicystic kidney dysplasia (MCKD),the renal anomaly was isolated in four fetuses,and the

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  12. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  13. Application of prenatal ultrasonography in screening of fetuses with congenital heart defects during the second and third trimester of pregnancy%产前超声检查在中晚期先天性心脏畸形胎儿筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋田; 周如海; 袁瑞; 吴猛

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the application value of color Doppler ultrasonography in screening of fetal congenital heart defects. Methods; 51 fetuses who were confirmed with congenital heart defects after induced abortion or delivery were analyzed retrospectively. All the pregnant women received routine ultrasonography before delivery once or twice, then they were followed up until one week before normal delivery or induced abortion; Philips IU22 color Doppler ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus was used to observe the cardiac conditions from 4CV, AR-SAV, VOTV, 3VV and 3VVT views. Results; Among 51 fetuses, 13 fetuses were found with atrial septal defect, 10 fetuses were found with ventricular septal defect, 7 fetuses were found with tetralogy of Fallot, 5 fetuses were found with endocardia] cushion defect, 4 fetuses were found with single atrium or single ventricle, 4 fetuses were found with right ventricular dysplasia, 3 fetuses were found with left ventricular dysplasia, 2 fetuses were found with transposition of great arteries, 2 fetuses were found with Ebstein, 1 fetus were found with cardiac tumor. 46 fetuses were screened out by ultrasonography, the diagnostic coincidence rate was 90. 19%. The diagnostic coincidence rates of 4CV + VOTV, 4CV + 3VV and 4CV + 3VVT views for fetal congenital heart defects were significantly higher than that of simple 4CV view (P<0. 05) . The diagnostic coincidence rates of 4CV +3VV and 4CV +3VVT views for fetal congenital heart defects were significantly higher than those of the other three views (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; The detection rate of prenatal ultrasonography is high for congenital heart defects, the clinical application value of ultrasonography is very high, reasonable views can improve the detection rate.%目的:探讨彩色多普勒超声检查在胎儿先天性心脏畸形中的应用价值.方法:回顾性分析经引产或产后证实先天性心脏畸形的胎儿51例.所有孕妇产前经1~2次常规超声检查,

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  16. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  17. [Carotid duplex ultrasonography for neurosurgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-12-01

    Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) is one of the most well-known imaging methods for arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. For neurosurgeons, it is very important for the details of carotid plaque to be thoroughly investigated by CDU. Symptomatic carotid plaque is very fragile and easily changes morphologically, and so requires frequent CDU examination. Furthermore, after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), restenosis is evaluated with CDU. CDU facilitates not only morphological imaging in the B mode, but also allows a flow study with color Doppler and duplex imaging. So, CDU can help assess the presence of proximal and intracranial artery lesions in spite of only having a cervical view, and the patency of the extracranial artery to intracranial artery bypass is revealed with CDU, which shows a rich velocity and low pulsatility index (PI) in duplex imaging. For the examiner, it is necessary to ponder on what duplex imaging means in examinations, and to summarize all imaging finding.

  18. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-04-01

    Adherent placenta is a life-threatening condition in pregnancy, and is often complicated by placenta previa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine prenatal imaging findings that predict the presence of adherent placenta in pregnancies with placenta previa. The study included 58 consecutive pregnant women with placenta previa who underwent both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging prenatally. Ultrasonographic findings of anterior placental location, grade 2 or higher placental lacunae (PL≥G2), loss of retroplacental hypoechoic clear zone (LCZ) and the presence of turbulent blood flow in the arteries were evaluated, in addition to MRI findings. Forty-three women underwent cesarean section alone; 15 women with adherent placenta underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy with pathological examination. To determine imaging findings that predict adherent placenta, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anterior placental location, PL≥G2, LCZ, and MRI were associated with the presence of adherent placenta. Multivariate analyses revealed that LCZ (pplacenta in women with placenta previa. This prospective study demonstrated for the first time that US findings, especially LCZ, might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for adherent placenta among pregnant women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasonography of Neonatal Cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Jung Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography (US) is as an important tool for differentiation of obstructive and non-obstructive causes of jaundice in infants and children. Beyond two weeks of age, extrahepatic biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis are the two most common causes of persistent neonatal jaundice: differentiation of extrahepatic biliary atresia, which requires early surgical intervention, is very important. Meticulous analysis should focus on size and configuration of the gallbladder and anatomical changes of the portahepatis. In order to narrow the differential diagnosis, combined approaches using hepatic scintigraphy, MR cholangiography, and, at times, percutaneous liver biopsy are necessary. US is useful for demonstrating choledochal cyst, bile plug syndrome, and spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of meconium ileus and meconium peritonitis: Indications for cystic fibrosis testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More recently, the regions of increased abdominal echogenicity such as echogenic bowel, meconium ileus and meconium peritonitis have been associated with an increased prevalence of a variety of unfavourable outcomes including chromosomal abnormalities, cytomegalovirus infection, intestinal obstruction, anorectal malformations and cystic fibrosis. Earlier prenatal examinations of these severe autosomal recessive diseases had been suggested only to families with history of cystic fibrosis. Recently, systemic examination has been introduced by ultrasound with bowel hyperechogenicity where the fetus is the index case for genetic disease. Risk for cystic fibrosis with this ultrasonography findings ranges from 0-33%. Outline of Cases. Two patients are presented, aged 24 and 29 years, both primigravide. The first one had ultrasonography finding of meconium peritonitis revealed at the 37th week of gestation and the other meconium ileus revealed on ultrasonography at the 29th week of gestation. Both patients had prenatal testing of foetal blood obtained by cordocenthesis, both had normal kariotype and were negative for cytomegalovirus infection. Parental DNA testing for the 2nd patient showed that parents were not carriers for the 29 most frequent mutations. Both neonates had intestinal obstruction, underwent surgery and early postoperative course was normal. Hystopathological finding suggested a possibility of cystic fibrosis for the 1st patient, but parents did not want to be tested and for the 2nd one congenital bowel stenosis as a cause of intestinal obstruction. Conclusion. Ultrasonographic echogenic bowel is an indication for invasive procedures for foetal blood testing for chromosomal abnormalities, congenital infections and parental testing for cystic fibrosis. Only if parental heterozygosity is proven foetus should be tested.

  1. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  2. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  3. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  4. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  5. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  6. Artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Scalcione, Luke R; Gimber, Lana H; Lorenz, Eileen J; Witte, Russell S

    2014-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) has been increasingly utilized in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal trauma and diseases with results comparable with MR imaging. US has an advantage over other cross-sectional modalities in many circumstances due to its superior spatial resolution and ability to allow dynamic assessment. When performing musculoskeletal US, the examiner has to be knowledgeable in the complex anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and US imaging technique. Additionally, he or she must be familiar with several common imaging artifacts in musculoskeletal US that may be mistaken for pathology, as well as several artifacts that frequently accompany pathologic conditions. These artifacts may occur with both B-mode gray-scale and Doppler imaging. In this article, we discuss common artifacts seen in musculoskeletal US and techniques to avoid or minimize these artifacts during clinical US examinations.

  7. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, E.-L.H. [Kandang Kerbau Women and Children' s Hospital, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging (Singapore); Strouse, P.J. [C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chhem, R.K. [National Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging (Singapore)

    2002-02-01

    With the development of high-resolution ultrasound transducers, the role of ultrasonography (US) in evaluating the musculoskeletal system has increased. It is now possible to obtain detailed images of bones and soft-tissue structures that were previously unattainable. The advantages of US, when compared with other imaging modalities, are many. It is less expensive than magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). It does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation, so US examinations can be repeated without harm to the patient. Furthermore, US is performed in real-time, making it possible to assess the musculoskeletal system dynamically, in multiple planes and with contralateral comparison. In experienced hands, US is a quick, noninvasive and cost-effective way to assess the musculoskeletal system in children. It is used to evaluate soft-tissue masses, joint swelling, infections, lesions involving the chest and abdominal walls, bones, muscles and clubfoot deformity and to locate any foreign bodies. (author)

  8. Ultrasonography of the scrotum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Jung, Kyung Hee; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Chang, Jae Chun [Yeung Nam University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    Although many diagnostic methods have been clinically used in scrotal pathology, but almost all diagnostic modalities are inadequate in visualization of variable scrotal diseases in anatomic detail. And non-invasive means of evaluating the anatomic image of scrotal content was needed than superficial location of the scrotums make them ideally suited for sonographic examination and improvement in resolution of diagnostic ultrasound permits in depth evaluation of scrotal anatomy and pathology. Authors experienced 48 cases of scrotal diseases confirmed by surgery, needle aspiration and follow up studies from August, 1984 to July, 1986. The results are follows: 1. Ultrasonic examination of scrotum is safe, non-invasive and useful especially in emergency. 2. It is possible to differentiate intratesticular from extratesticular lesions, and cystic from solid mass. 3. Ultrasonography is useful in confirmation of absence or presence of complications in epididymitis. 4. In case of trauma, ultrasonography is valuable to evaluate the degree of injury. 5. Useful in follow up study. 6. Disadvantage: i) Difficult in differentiating between intratesticular local lesion, such as focal orchitis, infarction, hematoma, abscess or focal tumor. ii) Less sensitive than radionuclide study in distinction of torsion from complicated epididymitis. 7. I) Epidiymitis shows enlargement and decrease in echogenicity of epididymitis, thickening of scrotal wall, with no abnormality of, or minimal change of testitis. ii) Tumor show normal in epdidymitis and/or in scrotal wall but testicle is shown lobulated, ill defined margin and heterogenous echogenicity. iii) Torsion shows identical ultrasonic findings as in tumor and epididymitis but the margin of testicle is smooth and ill-defined.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  10. Transthoracic Ultrasonography for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morné Johan Vorster

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transthoracic ultrasonography (US has become an essential tool for respiratory, emergency, and critical care physicians. It can be performed with basic equipment and by personnel with minimum training as a modality for the evaluation of a wide range of thoracic pathologies. Its advantages include immediate application at the point of care, low cost, and lack of radiation. The main indications for transthoracic US are the qualitative and quantitative assessment of pleural effusions, pleural thickening, diaphragmatic pathology, as well as chest wall and pleural tumors. Transthoracic US is also useful in visualizing pulmonary pathologies that abut the pleura, such as pneumonic consolidation and interstitial syndromes, including pulmonary edema. Transthoracic US is more sensitive than the traditional chest radiograph in the detection of pneumothoraces, and it is useful in diagnosing skeletal abnormalities such as rib fractures. It is the ideal tool to guide transthoracic procedures, including thoracocentesis and pleural biopsy. Moreover, transthoracic US-guided procedures can be performed by a single clinician with no sedation and minimal monitoring. Transthoracic US-guided fine needle aspiration and/or cutting needle biopsy of extrathoracic lymph nodes and lesions arising from the chest wall, pleura, peripheral lung, and mediastinum are safe to perform and have a high yield in the of hands of experienced clinicians. Transthoracic US can also potentially guide the aspiration and biopsy of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, consolidations, and lung abscesses. Moreover, transthoracic US may be used in the detection of pulmonary embolism

  11. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  12. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  13. Hemimegalencephaly misdiagnosed as a congenital brain tumor by fetal cerebral ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaki, Shigeru; Endo, Masaya; Seki, Kazuo; Yokota, Shumpei

    2004-04-01

    To describe a case of hemimegalencephaly misdiagnosed prenatally. We presented a neonate with hemimegalencephaly, who was thought to have a congenital brain tumor by fetal cerebral ultrasonography. Postnatal MRI findings showed hemimegalencephaly characterized by mild enlargement of the affected hemisphere with a predominantly abnormal signal in the frontal lobe. The appearance of an echogenic round-shaped mass may have resulted from predominant hypermyelination and/or dysplastic neural/glial tissue in the frontal white matter. In prenatal diagnosis with fetal cerebral ultrasonography, it is difficult to distinguish between congenital brain tumor and hemimegalencephaly in which enlargement of the hemisphere is mild and the affected area of the brain is localized or predominantly in part of a cerebral hemisphere. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. General principles of carotid Doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Carotid Doppler ultrasonography is a popular tool for evaluating atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. Its two-dimensional gray scale can be used for measuring the intima-media thickness, which is very good biomarker for atherosclerosis and can aid in plaque characterization. The plaque morphology is related to the risk of stroke. The ulceration of plaque is also known as one of the strong predictors of future embolic event risk. Color Doppler ultrasonography and pulse Doppler ultrasonography have been used for detecting carotid artery stenosis. Doppler ultrasonography has unique physical properties. The operator should be familiar with the physics and other parameters of Doppler ultrasonography to perform optimal Doppler ultrasonography studies.

  15. Transvaginal ultrasonography of rectal endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne Gisselmann; Seyer-Hansen, Mikkel; Forman, Axel

    Objectives: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the interobserver variation of transvaginal ultrasonographic measurements of endometriosis infiltrating the rectosigmoid wall. Methods: Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed independently by two observers. Observer 1 had several years...... of experience in ultrasonography while observer 2 was a medical student with no prior experience in ultrasonography or endometriosis. In 24 patient length, width and depth of endometriosis infiltrating the rectosigmoid bowel was measured. The differences between the observers were analysed by Bland and Altman...... for a relatively short period gives comparable scanning results between the two observers. It seems that transvaginal ultrasound could be used as a diagnostic tool for rectal endometriosis in most departments. However, the irregular morphology of the lesions makes the measurements very complex, and a strict...

  16. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonography evaluations of placenta previa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Seo; Yim, Neung Jae; Oh, Eun Ock [Korea General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Soung [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become one of the most useful tools in the practice of obstetrics. It has been of particular utility in the placental localization. We analyzed 34 patients of placenta previa scanned by ultrasound. The results were as follows; 1. The age of patient ranged from 22 to 39 years, showing the highest incidence in 26 to 30 years. 2. The accuracy of correct localization was 70.6%. 3. Among 13 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as total placenta previa, 2 cases were partial placental previa and 1 was low-lying placenta at the time of delivery. 4. Among 9 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as partial placenta previa, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was low-lying placenta and 1 case was upper segment placenta. 5. Among 10 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as low-lying placenta, 2 cases were partial placenta previa. 6. Among 2 cases diagnosed by ultrasound as upper segment placenta, 1 case was total placenta previa and 1 case was partial placenta previa. 7. Among 9 cases done serial ultrasound, 3 cases revealed that the placenta migrates toward fundus in the course of pregnancy. Therefore, the placental scanning should be repeated in the last month before term to decide the mode of delivery. Conclusively, ultrasonography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of placenta localization because it provides speedy and repeatable way without any known risk to both mother and fetus itself. Careful performance and accurate interpretation should be needed for more correct placental localization.

  18. Prenatal exposure of mice to the human liver carcinogen Aflatoxin B1 reveals a critical window of susceptibility to genetic change

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that critical windows of susceptibility to genotoxins exist and that genetic damage in utero may be a trigger for later life cancers. Data supporting this critical window hypothesis are remarkably few. This study provides a quantitative bridge between DNA damage by the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during prenatal development and the risk of later life genetic disease. AFB1 was given to pregnant C57BL/6J mice, carrying F1 gestation day 14 (GD14) embryos of the B...

  19. Difficulties with Prenatal Diagnosis of the Walker-Warburg Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, A.S.C.; Lee, S.L.; Tan, A.S.A.; Chan, D.K.L.; Chan, L.L. [Singapore General Hospital (Singapore). Depts. of Diagnostic Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology and Neonatology

    2005-10-01

    We describe a postnatally diagnosed case of Walker-Warburg syndrome - a form of congenital muscular dystrophy with lissencephaly and eye abnormalities. We reviewed the literature to highlight its clinico-radiological diagnostic features and discuss the difficulties encountered with prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases with no positive family history. An increased awareness of this rare but lethal condition, and a high index of suspicion during routine antenatal ultrasound, could prompt further advanced fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, and aid in timely prenatal diagnosis, management, and counseling. Brain/brainstem, congenital, magnetic resonance imaging, obstetrics, pediatrics, ultrasound.

  20. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  1. Ultrasonography of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in the spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report three rare cases of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation(SANT) in the spleen.We compared the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance.The conventional sonographic examinations exhibited solitary lesions without common respects,while contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) revealed nodular appearance mimicking its pathologic characteristics.It suggests that CEUS can provide morphologic information for diagnosing SANT.

  2. Thyroid ultrasonography in congenital isolated thyroid stimulating hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, M.; Tatsumi, K; Amino, N

    1995-01-01

    The effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency on thyroid development was examined using ultrasonography in a child with congenital isolated TSH deficiency. Ultrasound revealed the thyroid gland was one sixth normal volume, suggesting that TSH plays an important part in thyroid growth, but not a critical role in differentiation.

  3. Ultrasonography of the Rotator Cuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yong Cheol [Samsung Medica Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    The ultrasonography (US) is an important modality in evaluating shoulder disease. It is accurate in diagnosing the various shoulder diseases including tendinosis, calcific tendinitis, and subacromial bursitis as well as rotator cuff tears. This article presents a pictorial review of US anatomy of the shoulder, the technical aspects of shoulder US, major types of shoulder pathology, and interventional procedure under US guidance

  4. The Value of ultrasonography in pregnancy a severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis%怀孕中期应用彩超检测120例 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶菀华; 徐婉芳; 林洋洋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and study the value of the mid-pregnancy ultrasound detected a line of severe thalassemia fetal middle cerebral artery in prenatal diagnosis.Methods Since January 2012 to September 2014 in our hospital as a result of both spouses thalassemia line villus sampling or amniocentesis diagnostic examination of 240 cases of pregnant women,fetuses of pregnant women test group were confirmed by villus sampling inspection or amniocentesis is a confirmed diagnosis of thalassemia,a control group of pregnant women do not carry a fetus thalassemia gene,the fetus is normal.Research object villus sampling or amniocentesis to check whether they carry a diagnosis of fetal thalassemia gene;at the same time ultrasonography to measure the fetal middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity.Results The experimental group,a moderate to severe thalassemia 59 cases (49.17%),10 cases of thalassemia a moderate groups (8.33%),a mild thalassemia 51 cases (42.50%);120 cases in the control group (100.00%)no a thalassemia. A test group with moderate to severe thalassemia MCA -PSV was significantly higher,with statistical significance as well as with other types of control group,the difference between the experimental group,(P <0.05).Conclusion In mid-pregnancy ultrasound examina-tion performed fetal middle cerebral artery,the diagnosis of a severe thalassemia has a high diagnostic value,and the detection method is fast,safe,reliable,economical and practical.%目的:分析并研究怀孕中期行彩超检测 a 型重度地中海贫血胎儿大脑中动脉在产前诊断中的价值。方法:选取夫妻双方为 a 型地中海贫血行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断的孕妇240例,每组120例。试验组孕妇的胎儿均经绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿刺术诊断确诊为 a 型地中海贫血;对照组孕妇的胎儿不携带 a 型地中海贫血基因,胎儿正常。对研究对象进行绒毛采样检查或羊膜腔穿

  5. Detection of rib fractures in minor chest injuries: a comparison between ultrasonography and radiography performed on the same day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Soo; Back, Chang Hee; Lee, Kyung Rae; Shin, Yun Hack; Whang, Yeong Seop; Jeong, Ku Young [Yeosu Baek Hospital, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Soo Hyun [NamWon Medical Center, NamWon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Cheol Mog [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    We wished to compare the ability of ultrasonography and radiography performed on the same day to detect rib fractures in minor chest injuries. Two hundred and fifteen patients with minor chest injuries were selected. Radiography and ultrasonography were performed on the same day with these patients. Chest wall pain was the only presenting symptom. Two radiologists performed ultrasonography. Fractures were identified by a disruption of the anterior margin of the rib and costal cartilage. The incidence and location of fractures and complications revealed by radiography and ultrasonography were compared. Radiographs revealed the presence of 70 rib fractures in 50 (23%) of 215 patients and ultrasonography revealed the presence of 203 rib fractures in 133 (62%) of 215 patients. Ultrasonography uniquely identified 133 rib fractures in 83 patients. Ultrasonography identified a 2.9 fold increase in the number of fractures in a 2.6 fold number of subjects as compared to radiography. Of the 203 sonographically detected fractures, 201 were located in the rib, one was located at the costochondral junction, and one in the costal cartilage. There were no complications seen by either radiography or ultrasonography. Ultrasonography reveals more fractures than those that may be overlooked on radiography for minor chest injuries.

  6. Ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children: A preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-An Zhu; Bing Hu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in predicting and screening liver cirrhosis in children.METHODS: Twenty-eight children with liver cirrhosis of various etiologies were examined by routine ultrasonography.A percutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound was also performed on each patient, and the results of liver biopsy and ultrasonography were compared.RESULTS: When compared with the biopsy results,ultrasonography in combination of clinical and laboratory findings gave accurate diagnoses of children liver cirrhosis.Although ultrasound imaging of children with liver cirrhosis revealed abnormal characteristics, these images were not specific to this disease, thus reinforcing the necessity of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis.CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is reliable in the diagnosis of children liver cirrhosis, and its usefulness should be stressed in the screening and follow-up of high-risk pediatric patients.

  7. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  8. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian;

    2011-01-01

    agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion. In the future, these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion, to assess...

  12. Ultrasonography in traumatic rupture of Schilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Se Dong; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    Ultrasonography was performed prospectively in 16 patients with suspected rupture of Achilles tendon from March to October 1992 to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography. Ultrasonography examinations were done according to standard techniques, and then dynamic evaluations were performed during passive plantar flexion of the ankle. We reviewed 10 confirmed cases of ruptured tendons, among which 9 cases were confirmed by operation,and one by ultrasonography and MRI. ultrasonic results were compared with the findings at physical examination and surgery. The normal thickness of the Achilles tendons in healthy sides on ultrasonography ranged from 3 to 5mm.The ruptured tendons were 6-10mm thick at 1-2cm superior to the upper margin of Os Calcis. Rupture sites on ultrasonography were exactly predicted in 7 among the 9 operative cases. In on non-operative case, the rupture site on ultrasonography corresponded to that seen on MRI. Tendon bucking on dynamic ultrasonography was positive in all 4 complete ruptures. In 2 of the 6 partial ruptures which were near complete tears, tendon buckling was also observed. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture, the differentiation between total and partial rupture, and in determining the rupture site. We consider ultrasonography of tendon as an important diagnostic toot that may guide the treatment plan in the traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Ultrasound Findings of Cloacal Anomaly: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Teresa Moreira Rios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloacal malformation is an extremely rare fetal pathological condition that presents as a variety of defects. It predominantly affects females, with prevalence of 1 in 50,000 births. Prenatal ultrasonography on a 20-year-old caucasian woman (G4P1A2 at 33 weeks of pregnancy showed the fetus having a large cystic mass in the lower abdomen with a single septum, bilateral hydronephrosis, ambiguous genitalia, and a single umbilical artery. The pregnancy developed accentuated oligohydramnios, and presence of a fetal brain-sparing effect was diagnosed using arterial Doppler velocimetry. The newborn showed abdominal distension, ambiguous genitalia, and rectal atresia, with a single perineal opening. Pelvic ultrasound done on the first day after delivery revealed the presence of a large retrovesical septated cystic mass of dense content in the fetal abdomen, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Hysterotomy was performed, and 70 mL of dense liquid was drained through an abdominal colostomy. The infant died on the 27th day of life as a result of infectious complications. Prenatal diagnosing of female urogenital anomalies is usually difficult because of their rarity, different types of manifestation, and lack of characteristic ultrasound signs. Presence of a septated cyst with dense content in the fetal abdomen confirms the finding of hydrometrocolpos, thus raising clinical suspicion of a cloacal anomaly.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of abnormal umbilical cord insertion: a rare case of furcate insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yumoto, Yasuo; Kato, Kiyoko

    2017-04-01

    Furcate insertion (FI) is an extremely rare abnormality of umbilical cord insertion. One of the complications associated with FI is hemorrhage from the umbilical vein at the site of FI of the umbilical cord, which can cause sudden intrauterine fetal death. Because of its rarity, no prenatal diagnosis of FI has been reported. A 31-year-old woman at 34 weeks' gestation was referred to us for suspected abnormal cord insertion. Ultrasonography showed normal fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume, with no fetal anomalies. Although the umbilical cord contained three vessels inserted at the center of the placenta, the umbilical vessels separated from the cord substance before their insertion to the placenta. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with FI. During labor at 37 weeks' gestation, fetal heart rate was normal and a healthy neonate was delivered. At macroscopic examination, the umbilical cord was inserted in the middle of the placenta, and the placental parenchymal tissue just under the cord insertion was deficient and had been changed to white, elastic hard tissue. Pathological examination of the white tissue revealed fibrin deposition and focal infarction. Although FI is a very rare condition, prenatal diagnosis can be achieved through detailed color Doppler ultrasound studies. Therefore, taking precautions and keeping in mind the poor fetal outcome associated with FI are preferred.

  15. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparative study of ultrasonography versus magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of abnormally adherent low lying placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis is a key factor in optimizing the counseling, treatment and outcome of patients with placental adhesive disorder. Any women with placenta previa and previous uterine surgery should undergo careful imaging to assess the presence of placental adhesive disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging appears better diagnostic aid as compared to ultrasonography in diagnosing placental adhesive disorder. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1428-1432

  17. Ultrasonography"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utero 7. Also many prospective parents see ultrasound scan as a means of learning about their future child's ... Zion Building, Kayode Obembe Crescent, Olode,. P.O. Box 29259 Sec. ..... 9-11 Midmat Publications Ibadan. 2000. 14. Sheperd MT ...

  18. International guidelines for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Lorentzen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    The intent of this review is to discuss and comment on common clinical scenarios in which contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) may play a decisive role and to illustrate important points with typical cases. With the advent of CEUS, the scope of indications for ultrasonography has been...

  19. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  20. Prenatal Ultrasound Diagnosis of Congenital Talipes Equinovarus in Bogota (Colombia) Between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Pablo; Nossa, Sergio; Huérfano, Elina; Betancur, Germán; Guzmán, Yuli; Castellanos, Cristal; Morcuende, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is one of the most common congenital abnormalities(1,2). Early diagnosis by means of ultrasonography allows an opportune intervention and improves the deformity's correction prognosis. To describe patients diagnosed with CTEV by means of prenatal sonographies between 2003 and 2012 in Bogotá (Colombia) at both the Institute de Ortopedia Infantil Roosevelt (IOIR) and one of the authors' private office. A descriptive, retrospective study on the focus population was made. The equality of the data of the quantitative variables in distance measure was analysed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. For the variables "prenatal diagnoses" and "days from the start of the treatment" the Mann-Whitney U test was used. Finally, an analysis was made by means of the SPSS Statistics software package, version 18.0. 178 patients met the selection criteria. 34.3% of the patients had a prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography (n=61). Regarding the number of prenatal ultrasounds performed, there were statistically significant differences between the patients with a CTEV prenatal diagnoses and those whose diagnoses came after birth, being higher in the first group (p<0.001). The number of days before the treatment started once the pre or postnatal diagnosis was done was also a subject of study. Significant differences were found in the treatment start between patients with a prenatal diagnosis (mean of 9.9 days) and those diagnosed after birth (mean of 30 days) (p<0.001). prenatal diagnosis by foetal ultrasonography contributes to an early detection of musculoskeletal abnormalities such as CTEV and promotes an early intervention of the patient.

  1. The natural history of prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Tippi C; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Johnson, Mark P; Schnaufer, Louise; Flake, Alan W; Hedrick, Holly L; Howell, Lori J; Adzick, N Scott

    2002-03-01

    Accurate prenatal diagnosis of complex anatomic connections and associated anomalies has only been possible recently with the use of ultrasonography, echocardiography, and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess the impact of improved antenatal diagnosis in the management and outcome of conjoined twins, the authors reviewed their experience with 14 cases. A retrospective review of prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins referred to our institution from 1996 to present was conducted. In 14 sets of conjoined twins, there were 10 thoracoomphalopagus, 2 dicephalus tribrachius dipus, 1 ischiopagus, and 1 ischioomphalopagus. The earliest age at diagnosis was 9 weeks' gestation (range, 9 to 29; mean, 20). Prenatal imaging with ultrasonography, echocardiography, and ultrafast fetal MRI accurately defined the shared anatomy in all cases. Associated anomalies included cardiac malformations (11 of 14), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (4 of 14), abdominal wall defects (2 of 14), and imperforate anus (2 of 14). Three sets of twins underwent therapeutic abortion, 1 set of twins died in utero, and 10 were delivered via cesarean section at a mean gestational age of 34 weeks. There were 5 individual survivors in the series after separation (18%). In one case, in which a twin with a normal heart perfused the cotwin with a rudimentary heart, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure (EXIT) was utilized because of concern that the normal twin would suffer immediate cardiac decompensation at birth. This EXIT-to-separation strategy allowed prompt control of the airway and circulation before clamping the umbilical cord and optimized control over a potentially emergent situation, leading to survival of the normal cotwin. In 2 sets of twins in which each twin had a normal heart, tissue expanders were inserted before separation. Advances in prenatal diagnosis allow detailed, accurate evaluations of conjoined twins. Careful prenatal studies may uncover cases in which emergent

  2. Focused bedside ultrasonography by clinicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingsø, Jens; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonography (US) performed by clinicians might shorten workout time and diminish the workload of simple diagnostic procedures for physicians specialized in US. The purpose of this follow-up study was to evaluate the effect of an introductory course in US on participants' clinical...... on clinical behaviour was sent to 162 participants. RESULTS: The response rate was 64% (103). Forty-eight (47%) participants changed their clinical approach, 45 (44%) their workout programme and 25 (24%) the pattern of referral. Eleven (10%) sent in the required pathological findings for final authorization....... Thirty-four (33%) participants did not carry out US after the course; 19 did not have access to US apparatus, 7 claimed that they lacked the time, 6 lacked supervision and 1 participant cited insufficiency of the course. Clinical approach was changed by 48 (47%), acute workout by 45 (44%) and pattern...

  3. [The role of intraoperative ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yoko; Okayama, Yukinari; Matsuo, Shuji

    2008-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasonography (US) is able to visualize the inside of the viscera in real time, and is also both noninvasive and simple to perform without influence of the bone or alimentary canal gas disturbing the propagation of the ultrasound. US has recently been widely used for neurosurgery or abdominal surgery, 1) to check the position and size of the tumor, which can not be directly visualized, and to evaluate the relationship between the tumor and blood vessel or tissue, 2) to search for lesions not detected before surgery, 3) to search for residual tumor, 4) to carry out ultrasound-guided biopsy or puncture. For effective intraoperative US, thorough knowledge of the US instrument and the local anatomy is necessary. The medical technologists who routinely perform US are qualified to assist with intraoperative US.

  4. Fetal polycystic renal disease: prenatal sonographic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Park, Yong Hyun; Cha, Sun Hee; Kay, Jung Woong; Cho, Joo Yeon; Cha, Kwang Yul; Cha, Kyung Sub [Cha Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Je G. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Polycystic renal disease are congenital disorders, most of which are fatal in the postnatal period. A series of ten cases of polycystic renal disease diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography is presented. Diagnostic criteria of ultrasonography for cystic renal disease are; 1. enlarge kidney (4 cases) 2. echogenic density of kidney (3 cases) 3. 0.4 - 0.9cm sized multiple cysts within the renal cortex (3 cases) 4. decreased amount of amniotic fluid (4 cases) 5. hydronephrosis (4 cases) 6. distended bladder (2 cases) 7. absence of bladder (2 cases) Eight of ten cases were confirmed by autopsy. Seven cases had other associated congenital anomalies, i.e. pulmonary hypoplasia (5), hepatic fibrosis (3), congenital heart disease (3), tracheoesophageal fistula with imperforate anus (1), caudal regression syndrome (1), Meckel-Gruber syndrome (1) and ambiguous genitalia (2). Additional cytogenetic study of the fetus and the careful family history taking followed by prenatal diagnosis of cystic renal disease. Precise prenatal diagnosis may allow patients the option of elective abortion or may prevent unnecessary obstetric intervention.

  5. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guihua; Zou, Dazhong; Cai, Haiyun; Liu, Yajun

    2016-06-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease with an increasing prevalence in past decades. Its diagnosisis mostly based on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is a useful and essential tool to make this diagnosis based on the characteristics of the disease. In the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is an effective method to distinguish Hashimoto's thyroiditis from other thyroid disorders. One exciting and recent advance is that non-invasive ultrasound-based methods have supplemented fine-needle aspiration to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis under more complex conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent advantages of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  6. RNA microarray analysis in prenatal mouse cochlea reveals novel IGF-I target genes: implication of MEF2 and FOXM1 transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Sanchez-Calderon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I provides pivotal cell survival and differentiation signals during inner ear development throughout evolution. Homozygous mutations of human IGF1 cause syndromic sensorineural deafness, decreased intrauterine and postnatal growth rates, and mental retardation. In the mouse, deficits in IGF-I result in profound hearing loss associated with reduced survival, differentiation and maturation of auditory neurons. Nevertheless, little is known about the molecular basis of IGF-I activity in hearing and deafness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combination of quantitative RT-PCR, subcellular fractionation and Western blotting, along with in situ hybridization studies show IGF-I and its high affinity receptor to be strongly expressed in the embryonic and postnatal mouse cochlea. The expression of both proteins decreases after birth and in the cochlea of E18.5 embryonic Igf1(-/- null mice, the balance of the main IGF related signalling pathways is altered, with lower activation of Akt and ERK1/2 and stronger activation of p38 kinase. By comparing the Igf1(-/- and Igf1(+/+ transcriptomes in E18.5 mouse cochleae using RNA microchips and validating their results, we demonstrate the up-regulation of the FoxM1 transcription factor and the misexpression of the neural progenitor transcription factors Six6 and Mash1 associated with the loss of IGF-I. Parallel, in silico promoter analysis of the genes modulated in conjunction with the loss of IGF-I revealed the possible involvement of MEF2 in cochlear development. E18.5 Igf1(+/+ mouse auditory ganglion neurons showed intense MEF2A and MEF2D nuclear staining and MEF2A was also evident in the organ of Corti. At P15, MEF2A and MEF2D expression were shown in neurons and sensory cells. In the absence of IGF-I, nuclear levels of MEF2 were diminished, indicating less transcriptional MEF2 activity. By contrast, there was an increase in the nuclear accumulation of FoxM1 and a

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung: contribution of MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilea, Bogdana; Garel, Catherine; Sebag, Guy [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Paediatric Imaging, Paris (France); Delezoide, Anne-Lise [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Developmental Biology, Paris (France); Vuillard, Edith; Oury, Jean-Francois [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paris (France); Azancot, Annabelle [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Fetal Cardiology, Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    Horseshoe lung is a very rare pulmonary anomaly that is characterized by an isthmus of lung parenchyma bridging the right and left lungs and extending through the mediastinum. We report on the prenatal diagnosis of such a malformation in a 33-week-gestation fetus. The diagnosis was initially suspected on antenatal ultrasonography performed at 33 weeks and confirmed by fetal MRI and subsequent pathological examination after termination of pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of antenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung. (orig.)

  8. Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Pinto, Fabio; Faggian, Angela; Rubini, Giuseppe; Caranci, Ferdinando; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Brunese, Luca

    2013-07-15

    To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one's own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities.

  9. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nischita K Reddy; Ana Maria Ioncic(a); Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann; Manoop S Bhutani

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest,to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures.We review the mechanisms of action of first,second and third generation contrast agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract.Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy,assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal,gastric and gall bladder cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices.In addition,contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions.The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies.The sensitivity of power Doppler sonography to depict tumor neovascularization can be increased by contrast agents.Contrast-enhanced harmonic imaging is a useful aid in identifying the tumor vasculature and studying pancreatic microperfusion.In the future,these techniques could potentially be used to quantify tumor perfusion,to assess and monitor the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents,to assist targeted drug delivery and allow molecular imaging.

  10. Fatal tumors: prenatal ultrasonographic findings and clinical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The incidence of fetal tumors has been increased due to generalization of prenatal evaluation and improvement of imaging techniques. The early detection of a fetal tumor and understanding of its imaging features are very important for fetal, maternal, and neonatal care. Ultrasonography is usually used for the detection and differential diagnosis of fetal tumors, and magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used as a complementary study. Many fetal tumors have different clinical and imaging features compared with pediatric tumors. Although several fetal tumors may mimic other common anomalies, some specific imaging features may carry early accurate diagnosis of fetal tumors, which may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitate immediate postnatal treatment.

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis and Pathology of Laryngeal Atresia in Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piya Chaemsaithong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition. Therefore, prenatal diagnosis is important. The obstruction can be due to laryngeal/tracheal atresia or external compression. While a differential diagnosis with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM type III may be difficult, it is still possible with ultrasonography. In this study, we report a case of bilateral echogenic lungs with hydrops fetalis. After the prenatal diagnosis of laryngeal atresia, the couple opted to have an elective termination of pregnancy performed at 20 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis was confirmed by a complete pathological examination.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst using magnetic resonance imaging: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex Mun-Ching Wong; Yun-Chung Cheung; Yu-Hung Liu; Koon-Kwan Ng; Siu-Cheung Chan; Shu-Hang Ng

    2005-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are congenital anomalies of the biliary ducts, characterized by cystic dilatation of the ducts.Prenatal diagnosis of this anomaly using ultrasonography (US) has been well documented. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently become an important complement to US in prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. We herein report a patient in whom at 24 wk' gestation US suggested a right upper quadrant abdominal cyst and in whom at 26 wk' gestation MRI more clearly delineated the cyst and its surrounding structures and suggested a choledochal cyst, which was confirmed at postnatal surgery and histopathology.

  13. Prenatal psychosocial risk assessment using event history calendars with Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Lori, Jody R; Martyn, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical acceptability and perceptions of use of a prenatal event history calendar (EHC) for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment in Black pregnant women. A qualitative descriptive study focused on interviews and prenatal EHCs completed by Black pregnant women. Inner city hospital prenatal care clinic in Southeastern Michigan. Thirty 18-35 year old pregnant Black women receiving prenatal care at the participating clinic. Women completed the prenatal EHCs and their perceptions of its use were obtained through face to face interviews. The constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) revealed themes from participants' descriptions about use of a prenatal EHC for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment. Three main themes emerged describing how the prenatal EHC enhanced communication. The prenatal EHC provided "an opening" for disclosure, "an understanding with you," and a way for providers to "know you, your life, and future plans." The participants' completed prenatal EHCs included information regarding their pre-pregnancies, trimester histories, and future plans. These completed prenatal EHCs showed patterns of change in life events and behaviors that included worries, stressors, and risk behaviors. The participants perceived the prenatal EHC as an easy to use tool that should be used to improve communication with health care providers. The prenatal EHC allows the patient and provider to "start on the same page" and provides an additional avenue for discussion of sensitive psychosocial issues with Black pregnant women. As a clinical tool, the prenatal EHC facilitated patient-provider communication for pregnant women often marked by health disparities. The prenatal EHC is a clinically acceptable tool to assess for psychosocial risk factors of Black women in a prenatal clinical setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Clinical outcome and follow-up of prenatal hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Safaei Asl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is probably the most common congenital abnormality detected prenatally by ultrasonography This study was performed to determine the cause and outcome of prenatal hydronephrosis in our hospital. A total of 45 infants, with 57 prenatally hydronephrotic renal units, were enrolled into this study. For the purpose of this study, the degree of hydronephrosis was defined as mild, moderate or severe. Postnatal ultrasonography was performed as soon as possible in those with bilateral hyronephrosis and 3-7 days after birth in those with unilateral hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrogram was performed in 6-8 weeks time. In the absence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, Diethylenetriamene penta acetate scan was performed to exclude obstructive uropathy. There were 29 males and 16 females (male:female ratio 1.8:1, and unilateral and bilateral hydronephrosis were seen in 33 (73% and 12 (27% of the cases, res-pectively. Hydronephrosis was caused by ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO in 20 (44.5%, VUR in 10 (22.2%, ureterovesical junction obstruction in four (8.9 %, posteriorurethral valves in four (8.9 %, UPJO with VUR in two (4.4% and non-VUR non-obstructive in one (2.2%. During follow-up, 16 patients (35.5% required operative intervention while seven (15.5% improved spontaneously. Fetal hydronephrosis needs close follow-up during both ante-natal and postnatal periods. In this study, the most common cause for hydronephrosis were UPJO and VUR. Also seen in this study is the noteworthy point that mild fetal hydronephrosis is relatively benign and does not require surgical intervention in most cases and surgery should be performed only if there is renal function compromise. Prenatal consultation with a pediatric nephrologist and urologist is useful in decreasing parental anxiety and facilitating postnatal management.

  15. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  16. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  17. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Anencephaly: pitfalls in pregnancy outcome and relevance of the prenatal exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, V I; Beghim, M; Tica, Irina; Zaher, M; Beghim, Esra

    2009-01-01

    Anencephaly is an embryological malformation of the central nervous system, invariable lethal, characterized by the absence of the brain and cranial vault and by other defects of the cranial structures. It has no cure but it can be detected during the pregnancy with ultrasonography. We present a rare case of a 15-year-old primipara, with no prenatal care, who delivered at 37 weeks an anencephalous female newborn. Ultrasonography avoided the confusion with a breach presentation, which, in conjunction with the prematurity, premature rupture of membranes and the young maternal age would have favored the cesarean section. The rarity of the case is increased by the singularity of the malformation. The importance of the prenatal care and genetic workup are stressed out in this embryologic pathology.

  19. A Prenatally Ascertained De Novo Terminal Deletion of Chromosomal Bands 1q43q44 Associated with Multiple Congenital Abnormalities in a Female Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sismani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal deletions in the long arm of chromosome 1 result in a postnatally recognizable disorder described as 1q43q44 deletion syndrome. The size of the deletions and the resulting phenotype varies among patients. However, some features are common among patients as the chromosomal regions included in the deletions. In the present case, ultrasonography at 22 weeks of gestation revealed choroid plexus cysts (CPCs and a single umbilical artery (SUA and therefore amniocentesis was performed. Chromosomal analysis revealed a possible terminal deletion in 1q and high resolution array CGH confirmed the terminal 1q43q44 deletion and estimated the size to be approximately 8 Mb. Following termination of pregnancy, performance of fetopsy allowed further clinical characterization. We report here a prenatal case with the smallest pure terminal 1q43q44 deletion, that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized. In addition, to our knowledge this is the first prenatal case reported with 1q13q44 terminal deletion and Pierre-Robin sequence (PRS. Our findings combined with review data from the literature show the complexity of the genetic basis of the associated syndrome.

  20. Morgagni hernia with massive pericardial effusion diagnosed in the second trimester: prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haino, Kazufumi; Serikawa, Takehiro; Itsukaichi, Mina; Numata, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Takakuwa, Koichi; Sakakibara, Seiichi; Hirayama, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is an extremely rare form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Only 6 cases of this condition have been reported in the English literature, as diagnosed prenatally. The prognosis of the disease is determined by the severity of the pulmonary hypoplasia and associated anomalies. Here we report a case of Morgagni hernia with massive pericardial effusion diagnosed by ultrasonography and MRI during the second trimester, enabling planning of appropriate treatment in the pre- and perinatal periods.

  1. Critical care ultrasonography in acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Philippe; Repessé, Xavier; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Maury, Eric

    2016-08-15

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a leading indication for performing critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) which, in these patients, combines critical care echocardiography (CCE) and chest ultrasonography. CCE is ideally suited to guide the diagnostic work-up in patients presenting with ARF since it allows the assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary artery pressure, and the identification of a potential underlying cardiopathy. In addition, CCE precisely depicts the consequences of pulmonary vascular lesions on right ventricular function and helps in adjusting the ventilator settings in patients sustaining moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Similarly, CCE helps in identifying patients at high risk of ventilator weaning failure, depicts the mechanisms of weaning pulmonary edema in those patients who fail a spontaneous breathing trial, and guides tailored therapeutic strategy. In all these clinical settings, CCE provides unparalleled information on both the efficacy and tolerance of therapeutic changes. Chest ultrasonography provides further insights into pleural and lung abnormalities associated with ARF, irrespective of its origin. It also allows the assessment of the effects of treatment on lung aeration or pleural effusions. The major limitation of lung ultrasonography is that it is currently based on a qualitative approach in the absence of standardized quantification parameters. CCE combined with chest ultrasonography rapidly provides highly relevant information in patients sustaining ARF. A pragmatic strategy based on the serial use of CCUS for the management of patients presenting with ARF of various origins is detailed in the present manuscript.

  2. Role of Ultrasonography in Acute Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yu, Pil Mun; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Seung Cheul; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Un [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    Authors analyzed the distribution of diseases and compared ultrasonographic conclusions with confirmed diagnoses of emergency abdominal ultrasonographies in acute abdominal conditions. We evaluated the role of emergency abdominal ultrasonography especially in the decision of emergency operation. In one hundred and forty five patients, emergent abdominal ultrasonography was performed within on admission. We compared the sonographic conclusion with postoperative pathology and analyzed the diagnoses of medically treated diseases. Twenty-eight patients underwent surgery and 117 patients were treated conservatively. Among the surgically treated patients, 19 patients (70.4%) were correctly diagnosed by preoperative ultrasonography.These included acute appendicitis (N = 8), acute cholecystitis (n = 7), ovarian cyst torsion (n = 2), and liver abscess (n = 1). Correct preoperative diagnosis was not made in 9 patients, including acute appendicitis (n = 4), peritonitis due to bowel perforation (n = 2), ectopic pregnancy (n = 1), colonic diverticulitis (n = 1) and pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 1). Clinical follow up was possible in 50 patients among the non-operative patient group, and the clinical diagnoses were chronic liver disease (n = 14), acute pyelonephritis (n = 10), and biliary stone (n = 10). Emergent ultrasonography plays an important role in acute abdominal conditions by supporting the differential diagnosis of medical and surgical disease

  3. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Two- and Three-dimensional Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Lesion Level in Fetuses with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requeijo, Márcio José Rosa; Bunduki, Victor; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Lopes, Marco Antonio Borges; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the precision of both two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography in determining vertebral lesion level (the first open vertebra) in patients with spina bifida. This was a prospective longitudinal study comprising of fetuses with open spina bifida who were treated in the fetal medicine division of the department of obstetrics of Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo between 2004 and 2013. Vertebral lesion level was established by using both two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography in 50 fetuses (two examiners in each method). The lesion level in the neonatal period was established by radiological assessment of the spine. All pregnancies were followed in our hospital prenatally, and delivery was scheduled to allow immediate postnatal surgical correction. Two-dimensional sonography precisely estimated the spina bifida level in 53% of the cases. The estimate error was within one vertebra in 80% of the cases, in up to two vertebrae in 89%, and in up to three vertebrae in 100%, showing a good interobserver agreement. Three-dimensional ultrasonography precisely estimated the lesion level in 50% of the cases. The estimate error was within one vertebra in 82% of the cases, in up to two vertebrae in 90%, and in up to three vertebrae in 100%, also showing good interobserver agreement. Whenever an estimate error was observed, both two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography scans tended to underestimate the true lesion level (55.3% and 62% of the cases, respectively). No relevant difference in diagnostic performance was observed between the two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography. The use of three-dimensional ultrasonography showed no additional benefit in diagnosing the lesion level in the fetuses with spina bifida. Errors in both methods showed a tendency to underestimate lesion level. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  5. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Anna L.; Scotegagna, Eduardo; Nowitaki, Kristina M.; Kim, Young M. [Dept. of UMass Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions.

  6. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.

  7. Diabetic Nephropathy : Evaluation with Doppler Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To compare Doppler ultrasonography with laboratory tests in evaluation of diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-five patients (mean age = 60, M : F = 26 : 29) with diabetes mellitus underwent renal Doppler ultrasonography. Resistive indices were compared with degree of proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance rate. Eighteen patients who showed no proteinuria or microscopic proteinuria had a mean resistive index (RI) of 0.72 (SD, 0.05), 16 patients with macroscopic proteinuria without nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.82 (SD, 0.13), and 21 patients with nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.90 (SD, 0.12). Renal RI correlated highly with serum creatinine level (r = 0.62) and creatinine clearance rate (r = -0.43). Renal Doppler ultrasonography provides a useful indication of renal function in diabetic nephropathy but cannot offer an advantage over conventional laboratory test

  8. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Kühn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions.

  9. Color Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Turan-Vural

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of amblyopic patients in comparison with non-amblyopic fellow eyes, using color Doppler ultrasonography(CDU. METHODS: Thirty-six eyes of 18 pediatric patients were included in the study(20 amblyopic, 16 normal. All eyes underwent color Doppler ultrasonography examination of ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary artery. RESULTS: The only differences between the two groups with regard to color Doppler ultrasonography parameters was the significantly lower peak systolic velocity(32.70±11.60 vs 55.01±11.68, P=0.001and end-diastolic velocity(6.83±1.91 vs 13.99±4.15, P=0.001for ophthalmic artery in amblyopic eyes.CONCLUSION: Our study showed amblyopic eyes may present a decrease in retrobulbar blood flow velocity.

  10. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography in evaluation and management of acute abdominal conditions in the paediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aims of this study have been elaborated below: (1 to enumerate the common causes of acute abdominal emergencies by ultrasonography in paediatric patients; (2 to establish the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography in evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in children and to illustrate the associated ultrasonographic findings; (3 and, to discuss the role of ultrasonography in guiding the mode of intervention in these cases. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of ultrasonographic examination in 146 paediatric patients presenting with acute onset abdominal pain at the emergency/paediatric outpatient department section of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College & Hospital, Aligarh, between June 2006 and December 2007, using 3.75 MHz and 8 MHz transducers of the ADARA (Siemens machine. Results : Common causes of acute abdominal emergencies in pediatric patients as noted on ultrasonography included nonspecific pain (28%, abdominal abscess (21%, acute appendicitis (7% and intussusception (7%. Ultrasonography was diagnostic in 45.2% cases and supportive in 12.3% of the cases. As for as the final outcome, ultrasonography prevented surgery in almost 20% cases and laparotomy was avoided in 7% of the patients as ultrasound guided interventions in the form of abscess aspiration were carried out. Conclusion: Ultrasonography evaluation of children with acute abdominal pain, helps in making significant changes in the management plan of the patients, and also reveals various clinically unsuspected diseases.

  11. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  13. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  14. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  15. Diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Park Giyoung; Kwon Dongrak; Park Junghyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional ultrasonography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed to obtain information about the severity of the disease,location of the injury,and differential diagnosis.The aim of this research was to investigate the diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy.Methods A single experienced physiatrist performed greyscale ultrasonography and sonoelastography in 28 patients (9 men,19 women; mean age,48.5 years; age range,36-67 years) with unilateral symptoms of lateral elbow tendinopathy; the asymptomatic elbows were used as controls.Greyscale images were described as normal,tendinosis,partialthickness tear,and full-thickness tear.Sonoelastographic images of the common extensor tendon were analyzed qualitatively (scoring of the elastic spectrum) and quantitatively (based on a color histogram).Results Both the imaging methods had high sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy for diagnosing lateral elbow tendinopathy.Considering the clinical diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy,sonoelastography showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (96.4%) than ultrasonography (89.5%,P <0.01).Quantitative analysis showed objective interpretation of the sonoelastographic images that revealed greater intensity of green and blue pixels in symptomatic elbows (P <0.01).Conclusion Sonoelastography increases diagnostic confidence in tennis elbow pathology over greyscale ultrasonography alone and may be an additional powerful diagnostic tool in cases of lateral elbow tendinopathy with inconclusive greyscale ultrasonographic findings.

  16. Diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Giyoung; Kwon, Dongrak; Park, Junghyun

    2014-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed to obtain information about the severity of the disease, location of the injury, and differential diagnosis. The aim of this research was to investigate the diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy. A single experienced physiatrist performed greyscale ultrasonography and sonoelastography in 28 patients (9 men, 19 women; mean age, 48.5 years; age range, 36-67 years) with unilateral symptoms of lateral elbow tendinopathy; the asymptomatic elbows were used as controls. Greyscale images were described as normal, tendinosis, partial-thickness tear, and full-thickness tear. Sonoelastographic images of the common extensor tendon were analyzed qualitatively (scoring of the elastic spectrum) and quantitatively (based on a color histogram). Both the imaging methods had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing lateral elbow tendinopathy. Considering the clinical diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy, sonoelastography showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (96.4%) than ultrasonography (89.5%, P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis showed objective interpretation of the sonoelastographic images that revealed greater intensity of green and blue pixels in symptomatic elbows (P < 0.01). Sonoelastography increases diagnostic confidence in tennis elbow pathology over greyscale ultrasonography alone and may be an additional powerful diagnostic tool in cases of lateral elbow tendinopathy with inconclusive greyscale ultrasonographic findings.

  17. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  18. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rübenthaler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries.

  19. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenthaler, Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian; Clevert, Dirk Andre [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Munich (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries.

  20. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  1. Transabdominal Ultrasonography of the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kralik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of double balloon enteroscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT, and MRI enterography is transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS underestimated method for evaluation of small bowel pathology. As often initial imagine method in abdominal complaints, nowadays has TUS much better diagnostic potential than two decades ago. High-resolution ultrasound probes with harmonic imaging significantly improve resolution of bowel wall in real time, with possibility to asses bowel peristalsis. Color flow doppler enables evaluation of intramural bowel vascularisation, pulse wave doppler helps to quantificate flow in coeliac and superior mesenteric arteries. Small intestine contrast ultrasonography with oral contrast fluid, as well as contrast enhanced ultrasonography with intravenous microbubble contrast also improves small bowel imaging. We present a review of small intestine pathology that should be detected during ultrasound examinations, discuss technical requirements, advantages and limitations of TUS, typical ultrasound signs of Crohn's disease, ileus, celiac disease, intussusception, infectious enteritis, tumours, ischemic and haemorrhagic conditions of small bowel. In the hands of experienced investigator, despite some significant limitations(obesity, meteorism, is transabdominal ultrasonography reliable, noninvasive and inexpensive alternative method to computerised tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in small bowel examination.

  2. Effectiveness of a Critical Care Ultrasonography Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Yonatan Y; Littauer, Ross; Narasimhan, Mangala; Mayo, Paul H; Koenig, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Widespread use of critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) for the management of patients in the ICU requires an effective training program. The effectiveness of national and regional CCUS training courses is not known. This study describes a national-level, simulation-based, 3-day CCUS training program and evaluates its effectiveness. Five consecutive CCUS courses, with a total of 363 people, were studied. The 3-day CCUS training program consisted of didactic lectures, ultrasonography interpretation sessions, and hands-on modules with live models. Thoracic, vascular, and abdominal ultrasonography were taught in addition to goal-directed echocardiography. Learners rotated between hands-on training and interpretation sessions. The teacher-to-learner ratio was 1:3 during hands-on training. Interpretation sessions were composed of interactive small groups that reviewed normal and abnormal ultrasonography images. Learners completed a video-based examination before and after completion of the courses. Hands-on image acquisition skills were tested at the completion of the course. Average scores on the pretest and posttest were 57% and 90%, respectively (P training. This 3-day course is an effective method to train large groups of critical care clinicians in the skills requisite for CCUS (image acquisition and image interpretation). Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Phlegmasia alba dolens diagnosed with Doppler ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, C; Lorentzen, T; Christensen, E; Pedersen, E B

    1996-11-11

    Differential diagnostic problems may occur in a patient with a cold, pale and swollen leg. Especially when the peripheral blood pressure is reduced, it is particularly difficult to distinguish cases caused by venous thrombosis from those caused by arterial embolism. Colour-Doppler ultra-sonography might be helpful for establishing the correct diagnosis. A case history is presented.

  4. Emergency surgeon-performed hepatobiliary ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, M R; Aherne, N J; Coffey, C; Power, C P; Kirwan, W O; Redmond, H P

    2002-11-01

    Acute hepatobiliary pathology is a common general surgical emergency referral. Diagnosis requires imaging of the biliary tree by ultrasonography. The accuracy and impact of surgeon-performed ultrasonography (SUS) on the diagnosis of emergent hepatobiliary pathology was examined. A prospective study, over a 6-month period, enrolled all patients with symptoms or signs of acute hepatobiliary pathology. Patients provided informed consent and underwent both SUS and standard radiology-performed ultrasonography (RUS). SUS was performed using a 2-5-MHz broadband portable ultrasound probe by two surgeons trained in ultrasonography, and RUS using a 2-5-MHz fixed unit. SUS results were correlated with those of RUS and pathological diagnoses. Fifty-three consecutive patients underwent 106 ultrasonographic investigations. SUS agreed with RUS in 50 (94.3 per cent) of 53 patients. SUS accurately detected cholelithiasis in all but two cases and no patient was inaccurately diagnosed as having cholelithiasis at SUS (95.2 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity). As an overall complementary diagnostic tool SUS provided the correct diagnosis in 96.2 per cent of patients. Time to scan was significantly shorter following SUS (3.1 versus 12.0 h, P < 0.05). SUS provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis of emergency hepatobiliary pathology and may contribute to the emergency management of hepatobiliary disease.

  5. Emergency surgeon-performed hepatobiliary ultrasonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Acute hepatobiliary pathology is a common general surgical emergency referral. Diagnosis requires imaging of the biliary tree by ultrasonography. The accuracy and impact of surgeon-performed ultrasonography (SUS) on the diagnosis of emergent hepatobiliary pathology was examined. METHODS: A prospective study, over a 6-month period, enrolled all patients with symptoms or signs of acute hepatobiliary pathology. Patients provided informed consent and underwent both SUS and standard radiology-performed ultrasonography (RUS). SUS was performed using a 2-5-MHz broadband portable ultrasound probe by two surgeons trained in ultrasonography, and RUS using a 2-5-MHz fixed unit. SUS results were correlated with those of RUS and pathological diagnoses. RESULTS: Fifty-three consecutive patients underwent 106 ultrasonographic investigations. SUS agreed with RUS in 50 (94.3 per cent) of 53 patients. SUS accurately detected cholelithiasis in all but two cases and no patient was inaccurately diagnosed as having cholelithiasis at SUS (95.2 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity). As an overall complementary diagnostic tool SUS provided the correct diagnosis in 96.2 per cent of patients. Time to scan was significantly shorter following SUS (3.1 versus 12.0 h, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: SUS provides a rapid and accurate diagnosis of emergency hepatobiliary pathology and may contribute to the emergency management of hepatobiliary disease.

  6. Evaluation of clinical breast examination and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeonu PO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,1 Osaheni Lucky Lawani,1 Vincent Chidi Enemuo,2 Uzoma MaryRose Agwu1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria Background: Breast cancer in pregnancy accounts for 2%–3% of all breast cancers. The increased vascularity and lymphatic drainage from the breast during pregnancy potentiate the metastatic spread of the cancer to the regional lymph nodes. However, the increased breast density in pregnancy makes it difficult to detect breast lesions early.Aim: To evaluate and compare the detection rate of breast lesions using clinical breast examination (CBE and breast ultrasonography among pregnant women. Methodology: A cross-sectional comparative study involving antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, was conducted between March 3, 2014, and December 31, 2014. CBE and breast ultrasonography were done in the participants at booking and repeated at 6 weeks postpartum. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology were done in women with suspicious breast lesions on CBE or breast ultrasonography or both. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at the 95% confidence level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software version 17.0. Test of significance was done using chi-square test. A P-value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 320 pregnant women participated in the study. Of these, 267 (83.4% were aware of breast cancer. Although more lesions were detected with breast ultrasonography than by CBE, there was no statistically significant difference between them (25 versus 17; P=0.26.The histology of the lesions revealed 21 benign lesions and 4 normal breast tissues. The sensitivity of breast ultrasonography was 95.2%, while that of CBE was 66.7%. The specificity, positive predictive

  7. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  8. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  9. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  10. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  11. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  12. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1995-01-01

    of the findings by the surgeon. The presence of metastases was further assessed by ultrasonography three months postoperatively, as well as additional surgery and liver biopsy in some of the patients. RESULTS: The sensitivity of intraoperative ultrasonography (62/64) was significantly superior to that of surgical...... exploration (54/64) and that of preoperative ultrasonography (45/64). The lowest sensitivity was presented by liver enzymes. Bilobar metastases were detected in 42 of 46 patients by intraoperative ultrasonography but in only 33 patients by the surgeon. Intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrated the highest...

  13. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Cocaine and trisomy 8 associated with prenatal diagnosis of corpus callosum agenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, E; Caeymaex, L; Aboura, A; Vial, M; De Laveaucoupet, J; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2005-12-01

    We report the case of a newborn presenting an agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) discovered in the prenatal period and initially related to cocaine exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a trisomy 8 mosaicism. The putative role of prenatal cocaine exposure and mosaicism for chromosome 8 in ACC are discussed. This report emphasizes the specific analysis of chromosome 8 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a complement to routine cytogenetic analysis for prenatal diagnosis of ACC.

  15. Hidronefrosis prenatal en doble sistema excretor Prenatal hydronephrosis in double excretory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    hydronephrosis were studied. The maternofetal ultrasound showed a double excretory system. To this end, all the newborns and infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis and double excretory system diagnosed before or after birth were followed up by evolutive renal ultrasonography, micturition urethrocystography, static or dynamic scintigraphy and, in some cases, by excretory urogram. Double excretory system was found in 7 of the 182 patients (3.8 % with abnormalities of the urinary tract diagnosed before birth. Diagnosis was prenatal in just one of the fetuses (31 weeks of pregnancy. Hydronephrotic dilatation was mild in two fetuses and severe in five. Hydronephrosis had different causes. Upper polar nephrectomy was performed in those cases of ureteral ectopy and obstructed upper ureter, reimplantation in one ureterocele, whereas in another it was confirmed the spontaneous rupture by endoscopy. The rest of the patients were symptomatically treated. The hydronephrosis detected before birth by maternofetal ultrasonography may be associated with a double excretory system. Hydronephrotic dilatation associated with a double excretory system may have different causes, and it is necessary to study carefully and systematically these children and to treat them adequately, since each of them may need a different conduct.

  16. Brain ultrasonography in the premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrac, Corinne; Couture, Alain; Saguintaah, Magali; Baud, Catherine

    2006-07-01

    Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal brain US in the extremely preterm infant are reported. Cerebral haemorrhage and its different patterns (intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular hemorrhagic infarction) are described. The value of Doppler techniques is emphasized, e.g. demonstration of coloured signal within the aqueduct of Sylvius, visualization of patency of the terminal veins, demonstration of Doppler spectrum fluctuations, recognition of low blood flow, and the detection of vasodilatation. The sonographic diagnosis of periventricular leucomalacia and its difficulties are documented. Some uncommon brain lesions of the premature infant are illustrated, e.g. gangliothalamic ischaemic damage, cortical necrosis, focal infarcts, etc. The importance of repeating the US examinations until near term is highlighted.

  17. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans.

  18. Endoscopic ultrasonography findings in autoimmune pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Buscarini; Claudio De Angelis; Stefania De Lisi; Paolo Giorgio Arcidiacono; Maria Chiara Petrone; Arnaldo Fuini; Rita Conigliaro; Guido Manfredi; Raffaele Manta; Dario Reggio

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool for pancreatic masses and chronic pancreatitis. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the worldwide medical community in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a form of chronic pancreatitis caused by an autoimmune process. This paper reviews the current available literature about the endoscopic ultrasonographic findings of AIP and the role of this imaging technique in the management of this protean disease.

  19. Ultrasonography of the hip and lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  1. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal diagnostic evaluation of fetal ventricular dilatation by MRI; A report of eight cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Ichiro; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Iwata, Tatsuo; Ando, Takashi; Yamada, Hiromu (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-10-01

    Recent advances in MRI have contributed to the antenatal confirmatory diagnosis of fetal anomalies, especially in the fetal brain and central nervous system. In this study, eight infants with fetal ventricular dilatation, suggested by prenatal ultrasonography, were evaluated with confirmatory diagnosis by MRI (SIGNA; General Electric Company, 1.5 tesla). These anomalies were demonstrated at 19 to 36 weeks by ultrasonography. One of the eight died in utero at 22 weeks of gestation, another one day after birth (33 weeks of gestation). Two were delivered by Cesarean section. It has been proved that clear and effective images can be obtained by mother's walking without sedative drugs. Fetal MRI gave clear images not only in fetal horizontal section, but also in sagittal section, which is usually difficult to obtain by ultrasonography. Confirmatory diagnosis of eight cases were obtained by MRI. Fetal MRI can provide an effective prenatal diagnosis, especially in cases of fetal brain anomaly, even when compared with postnatal CT findings. (author).

  3. Ultrasonography estimates of fetal growth in fetuses affected by trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Sarah N; Saller, Devereux N; Catov, Janet M; Canavan, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    To construct growth curves specific for fetuses with trisomy 21 (T21) and to compare them with the reference-based standard. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of ultrasonography examinations from women with singleton pregnancies with a confirmed diagnosis of T21 who sought care at an academic tertiary-care center in the USA between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Growth curves were constructed using linear regression and compared with the Hadlock standard. The study included 425 ultrasonography examinations from 235 women. The head circumference and femur length were smaller than the reference standards at all gestational ages (head circumference: P=0.017; femur length: P<0.001). The abdominal circumference was larger than the reference standard from 29weeks onward (P<0.001). The biparietal diameter was smaller in the second trimester and in the late third trimester (P<0.001). The overall estimated fetal weight was not different from the reference standard. The T21-specific growth curves indicate anthropometric differences between T21 fetuses and the general population. Once validated, such individual growth curves could allow for more accurate prenatal assessment and management of fetuses affected by T21. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  5. Ultrasonography for non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-dong; CHEN Hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ultrasonography in non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures in children.Methods: Nine children aged 2-9 years with non-displaced or mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures were examined by high-resolution ultrasonography.The fracture line through the joint surface was visualized by ultrasonography in 6 case,in which closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed on 3 patients and other 3 patients did not receive the treatment because of patients' or their parents'refusal.In the remaining 3 children,ultrasonography did not reveal the cartilaginous trochle involvement at the joint surface and conservative treatment was adopted.Results: The average follow-up period was 8 months.The sonographic findings were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging in one child who received conservative treatment and another child who received percutaneous pinning.The elbow function and fractttre healing were good in cases received closed reduction and percutaneous pinning.Among the three cases who refused to receive closed reduction and internal f'txation,re-displacement occurred in 1 case and delayed union in 1 case.All three cases receiving conservative treatment had good results both in elbow function and fracture healing.Conclusion: High-resolution ultrasonography enable to reveal non-displaced and mini-displaced humeral lateral condyle fractures as well as to ascertain whether the cartilaginous trochlea humeri was involved.For these cases,arthrography or magnetic resonance imaging is unnecessary.

  6. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  7. The value of fetal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of diaphragmatic hernias; O valor da ultra-sonografia e da ressonancia magnetica fetal na avaliacao das hernias diafragmaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amim, Bruno [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia]. E-mail: brunoamim@gmail.com; Werner Junior, Heron; Daltron, Pedro Augusto; Antunes, Erika; Fazecas, Tatiana; Rodrigues, Leise; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, Fernando [Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    To demonstrate the relevance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the prenatal characterization and prognostic evaluation in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Materials And Methods: Fourteen pregnant women (mean gestational age = 28.7 weeks) who had undergone ultrasonography for suspicion of fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia were assessed by means of magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5 tesla equipment, following the standard protocol. Two radiologists evaluated the images and the findings were defined by consensus. Results: Twelve fetuses had left diaphragmatic hernia and two, right diaphragmatic hernia. Ultrasonography showed the fetal liver inside the thorax of five fetuses (three with left diaphragmatic hernia, and two with right diaphragmatic hernia) and magnetic resonance imaging in eight fetuses (six with left diaphragmatic hernia, and two with right diaphragmatic hernia). Stomach and small bowel loop herniation was observed in all of the fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (n = 12) at both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. Eight fetuses (seven with left diaphragmatic hernia and one with right diaphragmatic hernia) survived after surgical treatment. Conclusion: Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are complementary imaging methods in the evaluation of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Magnetic resonance imaging is a helpful diagnostic method complementary to ultrasonography for evaluation of the fetal liver positioning, considering its relevance as a prognostic factor in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. (author)

  8. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  9. Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-01-01

    Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch.

  10. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  11. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  12. Ultrasonography of the eye and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudea, Sorin M

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is, quite often, the first imaging modality used in eye and orbit assessment. The indications of ophthalmic US cover a wide range of disease where direct clinical assessment is impossible or of little value. Doppler US enhances the ability to assess blood flow in the main arteries and veins. In order to take full advantage of all the possibilities US has to offer the examiner thorough knowledge of the examination technique and normal US anatomy of the eye and orbit is required. This paper reviews the basics of the examination technique and ultrasound anatomy of the eye and orbit.

  13. APPLICATION OF LAPAROSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ADNEXAL OPERATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical value on application of laparoscopic ultrasonography (Lap US) in the adnexal operation. Methods:Eleven patients including 7 cases of tubal pregnancy, 3 cases of teratoma of ovary and 1 case of endometrial cyst of ovary were examined by LapUS, then operated with laparoscopy.Results:The results showed that the modality presented is a big progress over the traditional operative management for adnexal diseas. Conclusions:It is a good approach for micro-surgery in the adnexal operation by laparoscopy.

  14. Ultrasonography in the management of the airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it is described how to use ultrasonography (US) for real-time imaging of the airway from the mouth, over pharynx, larynx, and trachea to the peripheral alveoli, and how to use this in airway management. US has several advantages for imaging of the airway - it is safe, quick...... or the esophagus by placing the ultrasound probe transversely on the neck at the level of the suprasternal notch during intubation, thus confirming intubation without the need for ventilation or circulation. US can be applied before anesthesia induction and diagnose several conditions that affect airway management...

  15. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth. The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Kastberg Petersen, K.; Topp, S.W.

    1988-10-01

    Two patients are presented, both of whom were admitted to hospital because of abdominal pains. In both patients, ultrasonography showed gallstones in the lower abdomen and in the small bowel loops were found to be dilated. In both cases it was possible to diagnose the gallstone ileus by ultrasonography and to mark the abdomen as a guide to the surgeon.

  18. The Place of Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Rib Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bakılan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray in detecting rib fractures in patients with minor blunt chest trauma and chest pain. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography findings of 32 patients with minor blunt chest trauma showing no evidence of a rib fracture on anteroposterior chest x-rays, were documented. Presence of cortical discontinuities, acoustic shadows, reverberation artifacts, and hematoma by ultrasonography was proposed as the diagnostic criteria for detecting the rib fracture. Results: Rib fracture was detected in 20 patients (62.5% according to ultrasonography results. A mildly displaced fracture was detected in 7 patients (35%, hematoma was detected in 3 patients (15% and multiple fractures (in 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th ribs were detected in 1 patient (5%. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray, in detecting rib fractures.

  19. Intraoperative ultrasonography in detection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to compare diagnostic accuracies of measuring liver enzymes, preoperative ultrasonography, surgical examination, and intraoperative ultrasonography for detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. METHODS: Blind, prospective comparisons of diagnostic...... examinations mentioned above were performed in 295 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer. An experienced ultrasonologist performed the preoperative examinations, and results were unknown to the other experienced ultrasonologist who performed the intraoperative examinations. The latter, also was unaware...... exploration (54/64) and that of preoperative ultrasonography (45/64). The lowest sensitivity was presented by liver enzymes. Bilobar metastases were detected in 42 of 46 patients by intraoperative ultrasonography but in only 33 patients by the surgeon. Intraoperative ultrasonography demonstrated the highest...

  20. Focal changes of the spleen in one case of Gaucher disease - assessed by ultrasonography, CT, MRI and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.; Charania, B.; Scheel, B.; Kolmannskog, F.; Jacobsen, M. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    Focal lesions of the spleen in one case of Gaucher disease are demonstrated by ultrasonography, CT, MRI and angiography. The sonographic and angiographic features differ from the findings presented in previous reports. The Gaucher manifestations in the spleen as demonstrated by CT, do not seem to have been reported previously. An earlier report on the MR findings in the liver and spleen in this disease did not disclose any focal abnormalities. In this case, ultrasonography and MRI revealed a targetlike configuration of the focal lesions. An attempt is made to analyze the more complex patterns disclosed by MRI against the background of the manifestations by the other imaging modalities and previous reports. (orig.).

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal hemivertebra at 20 weeks’ gestation with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Varras

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Michail Varras1, Christodoulos Akrivis21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, “Elena Venizelou” General Maternity Hospital, Athens; 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, “G Chatzikosta” General State Hospital, Ioannina, GreeceAbstract: Hemivertebra is a rare congenital spinal malformation, where only one side of the vertebral body develops, resulting in deformation of the spine, such as scoliosis, lordosis, or kyphosis. We present the ultrasonographic features of a fetus with hemivertebra at 20 weeks’ gestation confirmed by post mortem radiography and pathological examination. The prenatal literature on this disorder is also reviewed. Useful background information is provided for both clinicians and other health professionals who are not familiar with this condition.Keywords: hemivertebra, congenital scoliosis, prenatal diagnosis, ultrasonography

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of the acute meconium peritonitis secondary to ileum volvulus perforation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Uğur; Karasahin, Kazım Emre; Ozturk, Mustafa; Atabek, Cüneyt; Demirbağ, Suzi; Ergün, Ali

    2015-02-01

    This is an unusual case in comparison to other sonographically described prenatal cases due to very early diagnosis and surgical intervention following prompt delivery. A 40-year-old pregnant, ultrasonography showed presence of cystic structure in the fetal abdomen that was consistent with intestinal dilatation. At 32 weeks' of gestation, repeat ultrasound showed collapse of the bowel dilatation along with the presence of hyperechogenic fluid in the fetal abdominal cavity. Cesarean section was performed. The clinical utility of this report is the recognition that meconium peritonitis (MP) may be diagnosed in the acute phase with typical ultrasound features, and should be considered in the differential diagnoses of cases presented with reduced fetal movements. Although it appears that morbidity and mortality in MP cases depend upon gestational age, this case report may help to manage similar cases for defining the appropriate delivery time and treatment modality after prenatal identification of the problem.

  3. Introital ultrasonography in female urinary incontinence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Keon Seok; Choo, Myung Soo [Ulsan Univ. Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of introital ultrasonography in the assessment of female urinary incontinence. Introital ultrasonography was performed in fifteen with stress urinary incontinence(mean age 50) and six patients without symptoms of incontinence(mean age 37). Using a sagittal section of the anterior pelvis in the plane of the symphysis pubis the posterior urethrovesical angle, the pubourethral distance and the pubo-yregrak abgle were measured at rest and during stress(Valsalva's maneuver state). The student T-test and the ANOVA test were used in statistical analysis. The posterior urethrovesical angles of the controls were 125.3 deg ({+-}10.9) at rest and 125.7 deg ({+-}7.6) during stress. In the patients, the corresponding angles were 135.3 deg ({+-}11.3) and 139.6 deg({+-}10.8). The posterior urethrovesical angles increased 0.3 deg ({+-}4.7) in the controls and 5.6 deg ({+-}4.0) in the patients(p=0.018). In the controls, the pubo-urethral distances were 21.8 mm({+-}5.8) at rest and 18.2 mm({+-}7.1) during stress, while in the patients these distances were 18.4 mm({+-}3.9) and 12.6 mm({+-}4.4). The pubo-urethral distance decreased 3.5 mm ({+-}1.5) in the controls and 5.8 mm ({+-}2.3) in the patients(p=0.039). In the patients with mild incontinence(Grade I), the posterior urethrovesical angles increased 3.4 deg ({+-}2.8) : 132.3 deg ({+-}12.5) at rest and 135.6 deg (12.8) during stress. In the patients with moderate incontinence(Grade II), the angles increased 8.1 deg({+-}3.8) : 136.0 deg({+-}6.5) at rest and 144.1 deg({+-}5.9) during stress. The change of the posterior urethrovesical angle was related to the grade of urinary incontinence in the patients(p<0.05). There was no statistical significancy in the pubo-urethral angle (p=0.315). Introital ultrasonography may be useful for assessment of stress urinary incontinence.

  4. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations in 500 pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leschot, N.J.; Treffers, P.E.; Verjaal, M.; Weduwen, J.J. der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The organization, techniques used and diagnostic findings of 500 prenatal diagnoses are reported in detail. In 15 cases the pregnancy was terminated because of abnormal laboratory findings. Follow-up of the remaining pregnancies revealed a perinatal mortality of 1.7%, and the risk of an abortion ind

  6. Shoulder Ultrasonography: Performance and Common Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US of the shoulder is the most commonly requested examination in musculoskeletal US diagnosis. Sports injuries and degenerative and inflammatory processes are the main sources of shoulder pain and functional limitations. Because of its availability, low cost, dynamic examination process, absence of radiation exposure, and ease of patient compliance, US is the preferred mode for shoulder imaging over other, more sophisticated, and expensive methods. Operator dependence is the main disadvantage of US examinations. Use of high range equipment with high resolution transducers, adhering to a strict examination protocol, good knowledge of normal anatomy and pathological processes and an awareness of common pitfalls are essential for the optimal performance and interpretation of shoulder US. This article addresses examination techniques, the normal sonographic appearance of tendons, bursae and joints, and the main pathological conditions found in shoulder ultrasonography.

  7. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun Ah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect; flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect; gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect; and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists.

  8. [Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) for the internist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J-B; Wyplosz, B; Girard, P; Validire, P; Escaut, L; Caliandro, R

    2016-11-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) is a recent mini-invasive technique allowing transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal lymph nodes as well as peribronchial lesions. EBUS was initially developed for lung cancer mediastinal staging. Over the years, indications for EBUS have been progressively extended to the scope of inflammatory disorders, mediastinal lymphomas, and infectious diseases. Particularly in immunosuppressed patients, including HIV-infected patients, EBUS allows the diagnosis of several diseases that involve the mediastinum, avoiding invasive surgical explorations such as mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy. This review aims at discussing the technical aspects, and specifies indications, results, and limits of EBUS for the internist. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seun Ah; Kim, Baek Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Na [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hee [Incheon Baek Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists.

  10. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in hepatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Julien; Paquin, Sarto; Sahai, Anand V; Pomier-Layrargues, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is used to evaluate patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The technique is useful for the diagnosis of esogastric varices in selected cases of portal hypertension, and to evaluate the pathogenic role and prognostic value of the collateral circulation in patients with this condition. When coupled with the Doppler technique, EUS can be used to guide injection sclerotherapy and to verify the obliteration of varices (particularly fundal varices) after endoscopic treatment. Hemodynamic changes induced in the collateral circulation by vasoactive drugs can also be measured with Doppler-EUS. Fine-needle aspiration under EUS guidance is useful in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and perihepatic adenopathy, and in the evaluation of biliary tract diseases. New indications can be developed in the future after adequate experimental validation. PMID:22059170

  11. Usefulness of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Hepatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bissonnette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS is used to evaluate patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The technique is useful for the diagnosis of esogastric varices in selected cases of portal hypertension, and to evaluate the pathogenic role and prognostic value of the collateral circulation in patients with this condition. When coupled with the Doppler technique, EUS can be used to guide injection sclerotherapy and to verify the obliteration of varices (particularly fundal varices after endoscopic treatment. Hemodynamic changes induced in the collateral circulation by vasoactive drugs can also be measured with Doppler-EUS. Fine-needle aspiration under EUS guidance is useful in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and perihepatic adenopathy, and in the evaluation of biliary tract diseases. New indications can be developed in the future after adequate experimental validation.

  12. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  13. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  14. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  15. Abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Strandberg, C; Pærregaard, Anders;

    1997-01-01

    We report on our experience with routine abdominal ultrasonography in 120 children (aged 3-15 years) with recurrent abdominal pain, in order to determine the diagnostic value of this investigation. Eight children (7%) revealed sonographic abnormalities: gallbladder stone (n = 2), splenomegaly (n...... = 1) and urogenital abnormalities (n = 5). The recurrent abdominal pain could be explained by these findings in only two (may be three) cases. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasonography in unselected children with recurrent abdominal pain is low. However, the direct visualization...... of the abdominal structures as being normal may be helpful to the parents and the child in their understanding and acceptance of the benign nature of recurrent abdominal pain....

  16. Ultrasonography of the healing process during a 3-month follow-up after a splenic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Rafailidis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a 14-year-old boy with a grade III splenic injury due to a bicycle accident, who was treated conservatively. The boy’s medical history included splenomegaly due to thalassemia. The splenic lesion was initially investigated with computed tomography (CT and then, was followed by ultrasonography for 3 months. CT revealed a large intraparenchymal hematoma which appeared hyperechoic on ultrasonography. During follow-up, the hematoma developed a more complex echogenicity and became gradually hypoechoic. The hematoma increased in size during the first week but then, started decreasing until it eventually resolved completely. The patient had an uneventful full recovery. In this report, we discuss the ultrasonographic changes of the hematoma throughout the healing process.

  17. Radiology of Cleft Lip and Palate: Imaging for the Prenatal Period and throughout Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Zachary R; Peacock, Zachary S; Cohen, Harris L; Choudhri, Asim F

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in prenatal imaging have made possible the in utero diagnosis of cleft lip and palate and associated deformities. Postnatal diagnosis of cleft lip is made clinically, but imaging still plays a role in detection of associated abnormalities, surgical treatment planning, and screening for or surveillance of secondary deformities. This article describes the clinical entities of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) and isolated cleft palate and documents their prenatal and postnatal appearances at radiography, ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and computed tomography (CT). Imaging protocols and findings for prenatal screening, detection of associated anomalies, and evaluation of secondary deformities throughout life are described and illustrated. CLP and isolated cleft palate are distinct entities with shared radiologic appearances. Prenatal US and MR imaging can depict clefting of the lip or palate and associated anomalies. While two- and three-dimensional US often can depict cleft lip, visualization of cleft palate is more difficult, and repeat US or fetal MR imaging should be performed if cleft palate is suspected. Postnatal imaging can assist in identifying associated abnormalities and dentofacial deformities. Dentofacial sequelae of cleft lip and palate include missing and supernumerary teeth, oronasal fistulas, velopharyngeal insufficiency, hearing loss, maxillary growth restriction, and airway abnormalities. Secondary deformities can often be found incidentally at imaging performed for other purposes, but detection is necessary because they may have considerable implications for the patient.

  18. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: contrast of prenatal and postnatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, M; Peakman, D; Robinson, A; Henry, G

    1988-03-01

    The process of prenatal diagnosis is unique in that the diagnosis and prognosis are made without seeing the patient. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism presents a special problem in this regard. The phenotype of 45,X/46,XY postnatally diagnosed children (pediatric group) was compared to that of 6 fetuses who were diagnosed from 7,000 amniocenteses (prenatal group). These amniocenteses were performed primarily because of an increased risk of chromosome abnormality. The pediatric group (age birth-18 yr) were all phenotypically abnormal, although none were mentally retarded. Seven patients presented with ambiguous genitalia, while 2 had primary amenorrhea. Sexual assignment was changed in 2. Abnormalities included rudimentary phallus, urogenital sinus, hypospadias, undescended testes, and short stature. All 9 patients required at least one surgical procedure. In contrast, the prenatally diagnosed fetuses (ages 3 months to 3 1/2 yr) were all phenotypically normal males. Four were noted to have male genitalia on ultrasonography. Thus, the phenotype of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in prenatally diagnosed fetuses can be markedly different from that of individuals diagnosed postnatally. This must be considered when counseling patients.

  19. Expectations and satisfaction of pregnant women: unveiling prenatal care in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel Cardelli

    Full Text Available Objective.To analyze the perception of primiparous women about prenatal care in Basic Health Units in a municipality in southern Brazil. Methods. This is a qualitative research from the perspective of Social Representation Theory, from the following question: How has been the pre-natal care for you? Eighteen pregnant women were interviewed. Results. The analysis resulted in three categories: Expectation representation about prenatal care; Rescuing the care offered in prenatal consultation; Unveiling the (dis satisfaction with prenatal consultation. The prenatal care was apprehended as an essential moment for safe pregnancy, although centered on the doctor's figure and guarantee access to early laboratory and imaging tests. On the other hand, dissatisfaction was revealed from the reception at the entrance to the health unit to the consultations access, although some statements suggest timely satisfaction. Conclusion. Prenatal care did not meet the specific expectations of the study group and unveiled that the nurse did not supply it, as a member of the multidisciplinary team. The organization of the nursing work process in primary care, related to prenatal care, needs to be revisited to promote the effectiveness of its actions.

  20. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  1. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic method in addition to mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, H.; Roer, E.

    1988-05-01

    By using ultrasonography in addition to mammography, experienced diagnosticians essentially enhance the safety of their diagnosis of mammary gland diseases. The same applies to gynecomastia, the condition after plastic surgery, and mastitis.

  2. Detection of Visceral adiposity by Ultrasonography and its relation to insulin resistance in HCV patients

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    Mostafa K.Mohamed1,Gamal Esmat2 , Mohamed Said2 , Mohamed Abdel-

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Ultrasonography is a simple non-invasive method for detection of visceral fat, which is directly, correlated with insulin resistance (IR as well as development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aim: To assess the validity of detection of visceral adipose tissue area with Ultrasonography and its correlation with IR in HCV patients Materials & Method: The study participants were subcategorized into two groups, Group (I: included 867 healthy subjects with negative (HCV RNA as a control group. Group (II: included 277 patients with chronic HCV as a study group. The 2 groups were subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, Anthropometric study,ultrasonographic examination and laboratory investigations including liver functions, viral markers, and qualitative PCR for HCV RNA ,lipid profile & glucose profile . Results: This study revealed that ultrasonography is a simple, non-invasive, safe method in detection of visceral adiposity, which is correlated significantly with IR in chronic HCV patients

  3. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

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    Devender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group. The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p0.05 in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity were found significantly increased (p<0.05 in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead, internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  4. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  5. Aberrant cervical thymus mimicking thyroid on ultrasonography: A case report

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    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Bong Soo; Park, Ji Kang; Choi, Jae Hyuck [Jeju National Univ. Hospital/Jeju National Univ. School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Aberrant cervical thymus is rarely reported in adults. We report a case of solid aberrant cervical thymus in a 27 year old female, which was found incidentally on ultrasonography for the evaluation of the thyroid cancer. On ultrasonography, the lesion was found between the left thyroid and common carotid artery without any remarkable interface echo, and had similar echogenicity to the thyroid. The lesion extended to the upper pole of the left thyroid.

  6. Adult colocolic intussusception diagnosed by ultrasonography: a case report

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    Benazzouz Moustapha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intussusception is highly uncommon in adults and accounts for only 5% of all reported cases. It is more commonly secondary to an identifiable bowel lesion in 90% of cases, whereas 10% have no discernable cause. Diagnosis is difficult due to non-specific symptoms of the disease. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of the condition. Sonography and computed tomography are the most commonly used imaging techniques. In adults, intussusception usually requires treatment by surgical resection of the affected bowel. Case presentation A 35-year-old Moroccan woman presented with a five-month history of intermittent abdominal pain and one episode of bleeding from the rectum. At physical examination an abdominal mass was noted. Abdominal sonography revealed a 6.3 × 8.5 cm midline mass in her upper abdomen that was tender. In transverse section, the mass had the multiple concentric rings of hypoechoic and echogenic layers associated with the sonographic appearance of intussusception. In longitudinal section, the mass had the sonographic aspect of multiple parallel lines, giving the so-called "sandwich appearance". A corresponding contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan also demonstrated the intussusception. Surgery confirmed a colocolic intussusception with a large, firm, indurated mass as the lead point. A right hemicolectomy was undertaken because of concern about possible malignancy. The resected ascending colon was then opened up, to find a protruding tumor of the ascending colon that was acting as the lead point. It measured 7.6 × 6.9 × 2.4 cm. Pathology diagnosed an infiltrating, differentiated adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon invading through the muscularis propria. No lymphovascular invasion was seen. Our patient has recovered well. Conclusion Intussusception is relatively rare in the adult population, and this, along with the vague clinical features, makes diagnosis difficult

  7. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Endoscopic Ultrasonography for Pancreatic Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS for histological differentiation of pancreatic tumors. Methods. CE-EUS was performed for consecutive patients having a pancreatic solid lesion, and tumors were classified into three vascular patterns (hypervascular, isovascular, and hypovascular at two time phases (early-phase and late-phase. Correlation between vascular patterns and histopathology of resected pancreatic cancer (PC tissues was ascertained. Results. The final diagnoses of 147 examined tumors were PC (n=109, inflammatory mass (n=11, autoimmune pancreatitis (n=9, neuroendocrine tumor (n=8, and others (n=10. In late-phase images, 104 of 109 PCs had the hypovascular pattern, for a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 71%, respectively. Of 28 resected PCs, 10 had isovascular, and 18 hypovascular, patterns on the early-phase image. Early-phase isovascular PCs were more likely to be differentiated than were early-phase hypovascular PCs (6 well and 4 moderately differentiated versus 3 well, 14 moderately, and 1 poorly differentiated, P=0.028. Immunostaining revealed that hypovascular areas of early-phase images reflected heterogeneous tumor cells with fibrous tissue, necrosis, and few vessels. Conclusion. CE-EUS could be useful for distinguishing PC from other solid pancreatic lesions and for histological differentiation of PCs.

  9. Levovist ultrasonography imaging in intracystic hemorrhage of simple liver cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki Akiyama; Kensuke Kubota; Michio Ueda; Kuniya Tanaka; Shinji Togo; Norio Ueno; Hiroshi Shimada; Atsushi Nakajima; Masahiko Inamori; Satoru Saito; Hirokazu Takahashi; Masato Yoneda; Koji Fujita; Toshio Fujisawa; Yasunobu Abe; Hiroyuki Kirikoshi

    2008-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between intracystic hemorrhage and cystadenocarcinoma of the liver is often difficult even with the use of various imaging modalities.A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of right upper quadrant pain.Ultrasonography (US) demonstrated a heterogeneous echogenic cyst measuring 11 cm × 8 cm in size in S2 of the liver,indicated intracystic hemorrhage of simple liver cyst or cystadenocarcinoma,but the differential diagnosis was considerably difficult.Levovist (Schering,Berlin,Germany) US revealed no enhancement of the intracystic structures,suggesting a clot in the case of intracystic hemorrhage.An operation was performed and the resected lesion showed a solitary benign liver cyst,measuring 5.5 cm × 4.7 cm × 8.5 cm containing a large blood clot.The patient had an uneventful recovery after the surgery.Levovist US may play an important role in discrimination between intracystic hemorrhage of simple hepatic cysts and cystadenocarcinoma of the liver.

  10. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

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    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  11. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and ultrasonography scores in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Han; Yang, Shu-Ping; Shen, Hao-Lin; Lin, Li-Qing; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Rui-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic value of ultrasonography scores (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. 39 patients with RA were included and the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, wrist, elbow and knee joints of them were examined by high frequency ultrasound. The severe joints and the related indexes (synovial thickness, synovial blood flow, joint effusion and bone erosion) were exposed. Then scores (0~3) were obtained and the sum was calculated. For 12 patients of the 39, 2.4 ml SonoVue was intravenously injected with observation of synovial enhancing. ROIs time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained and the parameters including area under curve (AUC), peak intensity (PI) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed. For 39 patients, the relationships among each parameters, ultrasonography scores, DAS28 scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP) were analyzed. The US were significantly correlated with DAS28 Scores (r=0.823, PrAUC=0.832, rPI=0.809, PrAUC=0.907, rPI=0.851, rUS=0.836, PrAUC=0.855, rPI=0.854, rUS=0.692, P<0.01. US was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) in diagnosis of RA activity, while CEUS was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP). In diagnosis of RA, US may be better than DAS28 Scores, while CEUS better than US. Both of them were useful for evaluation of RA activity.

  12. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyewon; Jee, Sungju; Park, Soo Ho; Ahn, Seung-Chan; Im, Juneho; Sohn, Min Kyun

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all pquantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US.

  13. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreticobiliary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Ken; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Miyata, Takeshi; Minaga, Kosuke; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Kudo, Masatoshii [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  14. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  15. New endoscopic ultrasonography techniques for pancreaticobiliary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kamata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

  16. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  17. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  18. Prenatal Diagnosis of EEC Syndrome with "Lobster Claw" Anomaly by 3D Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Livia T; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Caetano, Ana C R; Nardozza, Luciano M; Moron, Antonio F; Martins, Marília G

    2012-01-01

    THE EEC SYNDROME IS A GENETIC ANOMALY CHARACTERIZED BY THE TRIAD: ectodermal dysplasia (development of anomalies of the structures derived from the embryonic ectodermal layer), ectrodactyly (extremities, hands and feet malformations) and cleft lip and/or palate; these malformations can be seen together or in isolation. The prenatal diagnosis can be made by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) that identifies the facial and/or limb anomalies, most characteristic being the "lobster-claw" hands. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) provides a better analysis of the malformations than the 2DUS. A 25-year-old primigravida, had her first transvaginal ultrasonography that showed an unique fetus with crow-rump length of 47 mm with poorly defined hands and feet,. She was suspected of having sporadic form of EEC syndrome. The 2DUS performed at 19 weeks confirmed the EEC syndrome, showing a fetus with lobster-claw hands (absence of the 2(nd) and 3(rd) fingers), left foot with the absence of the 3rd toe and the right foot with syndactyly, and presence of cleft lip/palate. The 3DUS defined the anomalies much better than 2DUS including the lobster-claw hands.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  1. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  2. Granulomatous Prostatitis: Gray-scale Transrectal Ultrasonography and Color Doppler Ultrasonography Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Eui Jong [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We report here three cases of granulomatous prostatitis. All cases were confirmed by a transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided core biopsy of the prostate. Two cases received intravesical BCG therapy for a bladder tumor, and one case had no known predisposing condition. Gray-scale TRUS showed low echoic nodules in the outer gland in all cases. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) showed several dot-like blood flows within the low echoic nodules in two cases and several dot-like blood flows and short linear blood flows within the low echoic nodules in one case. Gray-scale TRUS findings of granulomatous prostatitis are similar to findings of prostate cancer. On CDUS, several dot-like blood flows or short linear blood flows were noted within the low echoic nodules in patients with granulomatous prostatitis. If low echoic nodules with dot-like or short linear blood flows are noted in patients with genitourinary tract tuberculosis or previous BCG therapy, granulomatous prostatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis. However, a prostatic biopsy is required for a final diagnosis

  3. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A comparison of indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Chris G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA], using each of the indices; and, to assess whether or not, and to what extent, gestational age modifies this association. Methods We conducted a population-based study of women having a hospital-based singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 80,989. Data sources consisted of a linked mother-baby database and a physician claims file maintained by Manitoba Health. Rates of inadequate prenatal care were calculated using two indices, the R-GINDEX and the APNCU. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Stratified analysis was then used to determine whether the association between inadequate prenatal care and LBW or SGA differed by gestational age. Results Rates of inadequate/no prenatal care ranged from 8.3% using APNCU to 8.9% using R-GINDEX. The association between inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth and LBW varied depending on the index used, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. In contrast, both indices revealed the same strength of association of inadequate prenatal care with SGA (AOR 1.4. Both indices demonstrated heterogeneity (non-uniformity across gestational age strata, indicating the presence of effect modification by gestational age. Conclusion Selection of a prenatal care utilization index requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings and limitations. The two indices compared in this study revealed different patterns of utilization of prenatal care

  4. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Green, Chris G; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA]), using each of the indices; and, to assess whether or not, and to what extent, gestational age modifies this association. We conducted a population-based study of women having a hospital-based singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 80,989). Data sources consisted of a linked mother-baby database and a physician claims file maintained by Manitoba Health. Rates of inadequate prenatal care were calculated using two indices, the R-GINDEX and the APNCU. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Stratified analysis was then used to determine whether the association between inadequate prenatal care and LBW or SGA differed by gestational age. Rates of inadequate/no prenatal care ranged from 8.3% using APNCU to 8.9% using R-GINDEX. The association between inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth and LBW varied depending on the index used, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. In contrast, both indices revealed the same strength of association of inadequate prenatal care with SGA (AOR 1.4). Both indices demonstrated heterogeneity (non-uniformity) across gestational age strata, indicating the presence of effect modification by gestational age. Selection of a prenatal care utilization index requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings and limitations. The two indices compared in this study revealed different patterns of utilization of prenatal care, and should not be used interchangeably. Use of these indices to

  5. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to diagnose complicated acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrini, Elisabetta; Pecorelli, Anna; Pettinari, Irene; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Stefanini, Federico; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation are severe complications of acute cholecystitis, which have a challenging preoperative diagnosis. Early identification allows better surgical management. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (ceCT) is the current diagnostic gold standard. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation, but data from the literature concerning efficacy are sparse. The aim of the study was to evaluate CEUS findings in pathologically proven complicated cholecystitis (gangrenous, perforated gallbladder, pericholecystic abscess). A total of 8 patients submitted to preoperative CEUS, and with subsequent proven acute complicated cholecystitis at surgical inspection and pathological analysis, were retrospectively identified. The final diagnosis was gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis (n. 2), phlegmonous/ulcerative changes plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 2), perforated plus pericholecystic abscess (n. 3), or perforated plus pericholecystic biliary collection (n. 1). Conventional US findings revealed irregularly thickened gallbladder walls in all 8 patients, with vaguely defined walls in 7 patients, four of whom also had striated wall thickening. CEUS revealed irregular enhancing gallbladder walls in all patients. A distinct wall defect was seen in six patients, confirmed as gangrenous/phlegmonous cholecystitis at pathology in all six, and in four as perforation at macroscopic surgical inspection. CEUS is a non-invasive easily repeatable technique that can be performed at the bedside, and is able to accurately diagnose complicated/perforated cholecystitis. Despite the limited sample size in the present case series, CEUS appears as a promising tool for the management of patients with the clinical possibility of having an acute complicated cholecystitis.

  6. An analysis of 1018 cases of ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Im, Chung Gie; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Ultrasound is an especially helpful diagnostic tool in assessing various diseases in various organs as well as differentiating cystic masses from solid ones, with ease safety, reproducibility, and high accuracy. Authors analyzed total 1018 cases of ultrasonography that were studied in last seven months from March. 15. 1979 to October. 31. 1979, at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Among the 1018 cases, 421 cases were male and 597 cases of female. The age distribution was from several months to 83 years, and 88% of all cases were in 20 to 69 years of age. 2. Sites of scanning; Liver, G.B. and biliary systems 376, thyroid 185, kidney 192, pelvis 121, abdomen 70, pancreas 48, eyeball 14, and other 12. 3. Hepatobiliary system 376; Normal 174, hepatomegaly 12, hepatoma 7, metastases 6, abscess 6, cirrhosis 2, hepatic cyst 1, hemangioma 1, agenesis of left lobe 1. 4. G.B. stones 106, cholecystitis 35, biliary tree dilatation 13, enlarged G.B. 7, C.B.D. stone 5, cystic duct stone 4, C.B.D. cancer 6, G.B. cancer 1, choledochal cyst 1, non-visualized G.B. 8. 5. Thyroid, 185; Nodule 147 -- solid 56, cystic 70, complex 21, Diffuse enlargement 29, normal scan 7, unidentified 2. 6. Pancreas, 48; Normal 17, pancreastitis 4, pancreatic cancer 22, pseudocyst 4, unidentified 1. 7. Abdomen 77 (excluding liver, G.B. and pancreas); Normal scan 31, solid tumor 14 - lymphoma group 12, mesenchyma origin 2, multiple lymph node enlargement 13, aortic aneurysm 4, retroperitoneal mass 2, subphrenic abscess 2, abdominal wall abscess 2, unknown solid mass 4, not contributory 4. 8. Kidney, 194, Normal scan 44, size and markings for biopsy 75, hydronephrosis 21, renal cyst 8, polycystic disease 8, solid renal tumor 10, renal stone 7, agenesis or hypoplasia 2, contracted kidney, both 7, enlarge kidney due to lymphoma and compensatory hyperplasia 5, renal tbc 2, perirenal abscess 1, perirenal hematoma 1, movable kidney 1, bladder tumor

  7. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Methods Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Results Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US. PMID:28119835

  8. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi B Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP class, thyromental distance (TMD and sternomental distance (SMD were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid, anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E to the  distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value.

  9. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Preethi B; Punetha, Pankaj; Chalam, Kolli S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL) grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP) class, thyromental distance (TMD) and sternomental distance (SMD) were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid), anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC) and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E) to the distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC) were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value. PMID:27942053

  10. Imaging in chronic achilles tendinopathy: a comparison of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings in 27 histologically verified cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastroem, M. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Gentz, C.F. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Nilsson, P. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Rausing, A. [Department of Pathology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Sjoeberg, S. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden); Westlin, N. [Department of Orthopaedics, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Objective. To compare information gained by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic achilles tendinopathy with regard to the nature and severity of the lesion. Design. Imaging of both achilles tendons with ultrasonography and MRI was performed prior to unilateral surgery. Operative findings and histological biopsies together served as a reference. Patients. Twenty-seven patients (22 men, 5 women; mean age 44 years; 21 athletes) suffering from chronic achilles tendinopathy participated in the study. Eighteen patients had unilateral and 9 had bilateral symptoms. Results and conclusions. Surgical findings included 4 partial ruptures, 21 degenerative lesions and 2 macroscopically normal cases. Microscopy revealed tendinosis (degeneration) in all tendon biopsies, including cases with a partial rupture, but only slight changes in the paratendinous tissues (paratenon). Ultrasonography was positive in 21 of 26 and MRI in 26 of 27 cases. Severe intratendinous abnormalities and a sagittal tendon diameter >10 mm suggested a partial rupture. In tendons with a false negative result histopathological changes were mild and a tendency towards a better clinical outcome was noted in the sonographic cases. Assessment of the paratenon was unreliable with both methods. Ultrasonography and MRI give similar information and may have their greatest potential as prognostic instruments. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  14. Assessment of hemodynamic disturbances in aphasic patients by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendefunda, L

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a study of Doppler cerebrovascular ultrasonography carried out in 38 aphasie patients (forms ranging from transient speech disturbances to severe, persistent disturbances of motor, sensory or mixed aphasia) after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. In these cases, the clinical symptoms were dominated by speech impairment and neurological deficits (mainly pyramidal), of low intensity or transient. The angiographic study revealed stenotic or occlusive disturbances at various levels of the cerebral arterial trunks. The prevalence of some clinical aspects of aphasia correlated with Doppler velocimetric images is discussed and the use of transcranial Doppler method in idiopathic aphasia, possible consequence of a transient ischemic attack, is suggested.

  15. Ultrasonography of the testis: correlation with radiotracer perfusion. [/sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, M.A.; Handler, S.J.; Pritchard, J.H.

    1978-06-01

    Ultrasonic study of testicular disease and paratesticular masses was carried out in 20 cases. In eight of these comparison was made with pertechnetate perfusion studies performed concurrently. Testicular torsion was well revealed by both techniques. Acute orchitis, in the early stages, was shown more clearly by radiotracer, unless there was associated epididymal swelling or hydrocele. Chronic complications of inflammation, particularly abscess formation, were seen best by ultrasonography. Paratesticular masses could be studied only by ultrasound. These included both solid and cystic masses due to chronic epididymitis.

  16. Evaluation of gallbladder volume and contraction index with three-dimensional ultrasonography in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Vahideh; Molazem, Mohammad; Jamshidi, Shahram; Vali, Yasamin; Hanifeh, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography has been shown to be an accurate and appropriate tool for measurement of gallbladder volume in humans. Therefore, we applied this novel technique for the first time to study fasting and postprandial gallbladder volume in 10 healthy dogs and compared the results with those of 2-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography. Fasting gallbladder volumes determined by 3D ultrasonography were significantly higher than corresponding volumes determined by 2D ultrasonography (Pcompared with the fasting state using 3D ultrasonography (Pdogs in this study. It is suggested that 3D ultrasonography can be used to accurately estimate gallbladder volume and contractility.

  17. Tumor disease and associated congenital abnormalities on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Horcher, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Bettelheim, Dieter; Amann, Gabriele; Nemec, Ursula; Rotmensch, Siegfried; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Fetal tumors can have a devastating effect on the fetus, and may occur in association with congenital malformations. In view of the increasing role of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prenatal ultrasonography (US), we sought to demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with regard to congenital abnormalities, on MRI. This retrospective study included 18 fetuses with tumors depicted on fetal MRI after suspicious US findings. An MRI standard protocol was used to diagnose tumors judged as benign or malignant. All organ systems were assessed for tumor-related complications and other congenital malformations. Available US results and histopathology were compared with MRI. There were 13/18 (72.2%) benign and 5/18 (27.8%) malignant tumors diagnosed: a cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in 1/18, head-neck teratomas in 4/18; ventricular rhabdomyomas in 4/18; a cardiac teratoma in 1/18; a hepatoblastoma in 1/18; neuroblastomas in 2/18; a cystic hemorrhagic adrenal hyperplasia in 1/18; a pelvic leiomyoma in 1/18; sacrococcygeal teratomas in 3/18. Tumor-related complications were present in 13/18 (72.2%) cases; other congenital abnormalities in 3/18 (16.7%). MRI diagnosis and histology were concordant in 8/11 (72.7%) cases. In 6/12 (50%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were concordant, and, in 6/12 (50%) cases, additional MRI findings changed the US diagnosis. Our MRI results demonstrate the visualization of fetal tumors, with frequently encountered tumor-related complications, and other exceptional congenital abnormalities, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Compared to prenatal US, MRI may add important findings in certain cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of IgG4-negative autoimmune pancreatitis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Min; Zou, Duo-Wu; Wang, Yin; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Yang, Hua; Jin, Zhen-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare disorder frequently manifesting as a mass-like lesion that may lead to obstructive jaundice. We report here a case of pancreatic obstruction with painless jaundice, and elevation of CA 19-9 without elevation of serum IgG4. Contrast enhanced ultrasonography (CE US) revealed the possibility of AIP, and the final pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:22586534

  19. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  20. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions.

  1. [Ultrasonography-guided procedures of the doctor on call].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, Tiina E

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrasonography in guiding minor procedures reduces the possibility of procedural complications. Fluid is easy to identify, enabling the utilization of ultrasonography even with a lesser experience. In skilled hands, drainage of ascitic fluid, pleurocentesis and insertion of a suprapubic catheter are safe procedures. Careful planning of the procedure in advance will contribute to safety. Before undertaking the procedure, one should confirm the patient's coagulation status and appropriate interruption of possible antithrombotic medication. The injection site is chosen on anatomical grounds, avoiding any blood vessels. The ultrasound view is adjusted optimally so that the route of injection can be seen as clearly as possible on the screen.

  2. Ultrasonography of hydronephrosis in the newborn: A practical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Widespread use of fetal ultrasonography is accompanied by more frequent detection of antenatal hydronephrosis. Therefore, sonographic evaluation of neonates with a history of antenatal hydronephrosis is becoming more widespread. As an initial postnatal non-invasive imaging modality, ultrasonography is used to screen for persistence of hydronephrosis, determine the level and severity of obstruction, and contribute to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide a practical overview of the sonographic evaluation of neonatal hydronephrosis and to describe the sonographic findings of conditions associated with hydronephrosis in the newborn.

  3. Role of transrectal ultrasonography in evaluating the cause of azoospermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassa, N.A.; Keesara, S. [Univ. of Southern California, Dept. of Radiology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2001-08-01

    To assess the role of transrectal ultrasonography in the investigation of azoospermia, a significant cause of infertility. Over a 2-year period, 35 patients with azoospermia underwent an infertility workup, which included transrectal ultrasonography. Sonograms of 10 of the 35 patients were normal; 8 patients had enlarged seminal vesicles containing cysts, 6 had ejaculatory duct dilation, 5 had seminal vesicle calcification, 3 had seminal vesicle atrophy-hypoplasia and 3 patients had midline prostatic cysts. Transrectal sonography is a useful modality to evaluate seminal duct abnormalities, some of which may cause azoospermia. (author)

  4. Traumatic Lumbar Hernia Diagnosed by Ultrasonography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Lae; Yim, Yoon Myung; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Choi, Chung Hwan; Lee, Ju Kang [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Traumatic lumbar hernia describes the extrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal contents through a defect in the posterolateral abdominal wall caused by a trauma. This is a rare entity and usually diagnosed by computed tomography. A 64-year-old male received an injury on his cervical spinal cord after an accident in which he fell down. He complained of a mass on his left posterolateral back area. We diagnosed the mass as a traumatic lumbar hernia by ultrasonography and confirmed it by computed tomography. We conclude that the ultrasonography can be a useful diagnostic tool for traumatic lumbar hernia

  5. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients with minor blunt chest trauma and suspected rib fractures presenting in Imam Reza Hospital located in Mashhad-Iran, between April 2013 and October 2013 were assessed by USG and radiography. The radiography was performed in a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection and oblique rib view centered over the area of trauma. The time duration spent in taking USG and radiography were recorded. The prevalence and location of fractures revealed by USG and radiography were compared. Sixty-one suspected patients were assessed. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1 (43 men and 18 women) with a mean ± SD age of (44.3 ± 19.7) years. There were totally 59 rib fractures in 38 (62.3%) patients based on radiography and USG, while 23 (37.7%) patients had no diagnostic evidence of rib lesions. USG revealed 58 rib fractures in 33 (54.1%) of 61 suspected patients and radiographs revealed 32 rib fractures in 20 (32.8%) of 61 patients. A total of 58 (98.3%) rib fractures were detected by USG, whereas oblique rib view and PA chest radiography showed 27 (45.8%) and 24 (40.7%) rib fractures, respectively. The average duration of USG was (12 ± 3) min (range 7-17 min), whereas the duration of radiography was (27 ± 6) min (range 15-37 min). The kappa coefficient showed a low level of agreement between both USG and PA chest radiography (kappa coefficient = 0.28), and between USG and oblique rib view (kappa coefficient = 0.32). USG discloses more fractures than radiography in

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Kiiski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the first prenatal diagnosis of 17p13.1p13.3 duplication. 17p13.3 duplication has recently been defined as a new distinctive syndrome with several diagnosed patients. In the current case prenatal chromosome analysis (G-banding performed on cultured amniocytes revealed additional material in chromosome 19p. This was further defined as a chromosome 17p13.1p13.3 duplication by FISH and genomic microarray analysis (GMA. In addition Prenatal BACs-on-Beads (PN_BoBs assay was performed, which detected the duplication clearly. This enables rapid prenatal diagnosis of the duplication for this family in the future.

  7. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.

  8. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  10. Reliable and Valid Assessment of Point-of-care Ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Olsen, Beth Härstedt

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the reliability and validity of the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale for point-of-care ultrasonography (POC US) performance. BACKGROUND: POC US is increasingly used by clinicians and is an essential part of the management of acute surgical c...

  11. High resolution ultrasonography in isolated soft tissue and intramuscular cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With the advent of high resolution ultrasonography and increased clinical awareness of the isolated soft tissue-intramuscular cysticercosis especially in endemic zone, a more conservative non-invasive approach can be applied both in diagnosis and treatment of these isolated cases of cysticercosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 42-46

  12. Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Nielsen, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    The wrist region is one of the most complex joints of the human body. It is prone to deformity and functional impairment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and is difficult to examine clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) with Doppler in diagnosis...

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thailand: experience from 100 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, S; Winichagoon, P; Thonglairoam, V; Siriboon, W; Siritanaratkul, N; Kanokpongsakdi, S; Vantanasiri, C

    1991-03-01

    In this review, we describe a simple strategy to detect the three severe thalassemic diseases commonly found in Thailand. Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis can be detected unambiguously by ultrasonography at 18-20 weeks of gestation or detected early in the first trimester by the gene amplification technique. Prenatal diagnosis for homozygous beta-thalassemia is better performed in the second trimester by in vitro protein synthesis. This is because the molecular defects of some beta-thalassemias are still unknown and homozygosity of the same mutation is low. In contrast, beta-thalassemia/Hb E is easily detected, in the first trimester, by direct visualization on electrophoresis or by dot blot analysis of enzymatically amplified DNA with a set of nonradioactively labeled oligonucleotide probes complementary to the most common mutations. We also found that the beta/gamma synthesis ratio in homozygous Hb E is similar to that of beta-thalassemia/Hb E and DNA analysis is the only method to distinguish these two conditions in the couple at risk of having either beta-thalassemia/Hb E or asymptomatic homozygous Hb E. In 100 pregnancies studied, the diagnoses were achieved in 96 pregnancies. Complications leading to fetal loss were found in 3 pregnancies: one woman developed amnionitis after fetal blood sampling; one had amniotic fluid leakage after the biopsy, and the third, carrying a normal fetus, aborted 10 days after fetal blood sampling with urinary tract infection and high fever. However, these figures are compatible with other reports and the risks are significantly lower than that of thalassemic disease the fetus is facing. One case of beta-thalassemia/Hb E was incorrectly diagnosed prenatally as being Hb E trait. In twenty-five pregnancies (25%) prenatally diagnosed to carry affected fetuses it was decided to have abortion. This study shows the feasibility of prenatal diagnosis for thalassemic diseases in Thailand which, in addition to screening and genetic counseling

  14. Assessing Ultrasonography as a Diagnostic Tool for Porcine Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W.; Santivaňez, Saul J.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz Maria; Benavides, Victor; Garcia, Hector H.; O’Neal, Seth E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Taenia solium inflicts substantial neurologic disease and economic losses on rural communities in many developing nations. “Ring-strategy” is a control intervention that targets treatment of humans and pigs among clusters of households (rings) that surround pigs heavily infected with cysticerci. These pigs are typically identified by examining the animal’s tongue for cysts. However, as prevalence decreases in intervened communities, more sensitive methods may be needed to identify these animals and to maintain control pressure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ultrasonography as an alternative method to detect pigs heavily infected with T. solium cysts. Methodology/Principal Findings We purchased 152 pigs representing all seropositive animals villagers were willing to sell from eight communities (pop. 2085) in Piura, Peru, where T. solium is endemic. Tongue and ultrasound examinations of the fore and hind-limbs were performed in these animals, followed by necropsy with fine dissection as gold standard to determine cyst burden. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography with tongue examination for their ability to detect heavy infection (≥ 100 viable cysts) in pigs. Compared to tongue examination, ultrasonography was more sensitive (100% vs. 91%) but less specific (90% vs. 98%), although these differences were not statistically significant. The greater sensitivity of ultrasound resulted in detection of one additional heavily infected pig compared to tongue examination (11/11 vs. 10/11), but resulted in more false positives (14/141 vs. 3/141) due to poor specificity. Conclusions/Significance Ultrasonography was highly sensitive in detecting heavily infected pigs and may identify more rings for screening or treatment compared to tongue examination. However, the high false positive rate using ultrasound would result in substantial unnecessary treatment. If specificity can be improved with greater operator experience

  15. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  16. A New Case of Prenatally Diagnosed Pentasomy X: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Maria Azzurra Pirollo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentasomy X is a rare chromosomal abnormality probably due to a nondisjunction during the meiosis. Only four cases prenatally diagnosed were described until now. Our case is the fifth one prenatally diagnosed at 20 weeks of gestational age in a 39-years-old woman. She underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis for her advanced maternal age without any other known risk factor. Amniocentesis performed at 17 weeks showed a female 49, XXXXX karyotype. The ultrasonographic examination revealed nonspecific signs of a mild early fetal growth retardation and no significant increased nuchal fold. The fetal autopsy and the X-ray excluded major malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is often difficult due to the lack of indicative ultrasonographic findings and the rarity of described cases. The influence of the mother’s age on the occurrence of penta-X syndrome has not been determined. Considering the lack of correlation between advanced maternal age and increased risk for pentasomy X, as well as the absence of typical echographic signs, evaluation of the inclusion of a noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT that expands clinical coverage to include the X and Y chromosomes in routine prenatal diagnosis should be considered as well as three-dimensional ultrasound to detect any helpful indicative prognostic signs.

  17. A New Case of Prenatally Diagnosed Pentasomy X: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirollo, Linda Maria Azzurra; Salehi, Leila Baghernajad; Sarta, Simona; Cassone, Marco; Capogna, Maria Vittoria; Piccione, Emilio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Pietropolli, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    Pentasomy X is a rare chromosomal abnormality probably due to a nondisjunction during the meiosis. Only four cases prenatally diagnosed were described until now. Our case is the fifth one prenatally diagnosed at 20 weeks of gestational age in a 39-years-old woman. She underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis for her advanced maternal age without any other known risk factor. Amniocentesis performed at 17 weeks showed a female 49, XXXXX karyotype. The ultrasonographic examination revealed nonspecific signs of a mild early fetal growth retardation and no significant increased nuchal fold. The fetal autopsy and the X-ray excluded major malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is often difficult due to the lack of indicative ultrasonographic findings and the rarity of described cases. The influence of the mother's age on the occurrence of penta-X syndrome has not been determined. Considering the lack of correlation between advanced maternal age and increased risk for pentasomy X, as well as the absence of typical echographic signs, evaluation of the inclusion of a noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) that expands clinical coverage to include the X and Y chromosomes in routine prenatal diagnosis should be considered as well as three-dimensional ultrasound to detect any helpful indicative prognostic signs. PMID:25699192

  18. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  20. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U;

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  1. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  2. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  3. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  4. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Fetal lung lesions diagnosis: the crucial role of ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Rosa; Palermo, Mariarosaria; Maiello, Monica; Esposito, Nunzia; Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Fetal lung lesions may cause significant effects of mass and may evolve into a non-immune hydrops and lead to the death of the fetus or the child. Treatment options for these severely affected infants are constantly evolving. The widespread use of ultrasound in prenatal diagnosis, in tertiary center like ours, allows us to identify the fetus, including lung lesions more ‘small. Prenatal diagnosis and possible therapeutic intervention in the immediate prenatal or postnatal period has significantly changed the quality of life and the survival of fetuses and infants, especially those who were completely asymptomatic at birth. Object of our interest is the pulmonary sequestration and congenital pulmonary malformation is the second in order of frequency, with an incidence between 0.15% and 6.4% of cases. PMID:22439045

  6. Utility of Ultrasonography in Assessing the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of ultrasonography (US for predicting and assessing the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT in insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT. Methods. A total of 42 patients with an established diagnosis of chronic IAT were examined by US before ESWT and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after ESWT. The thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA of the Achilles tendon, size of calcific plaques, tendon structure score, and neovascularization score were measured at each time point. Results. After therapy, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A scores increased significantly, and the size of calcific plaques decreased (P<0.05. Neovascularization scores increased at the 4th week and then decreased at the 12th week (P<0.05. The thickness, CSA, and structure of the Achilles tendon did not change. Variables observed by US at baseline were not associated with changes in VISA-A scores at follow-up. However, the changes in calcific plaque size and neovascularization scores were related to the improvement of VISA-A scores between pre- and posttherapy (P<0.01. Conclusion. Ultrasonography can reveal some changes in the insertion of the Achilles tendon after ESWT, but the outcome of ESWT in IAT cannot be predicted by the variables observed by US.

  7. Utility of Ultrasonography in Assessing the Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of ultrasonography (US) for predicting and assessing the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT). Methods. A total of 42 patients with an established diagnosis of chronic IAT were examined by US before ESWT and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after ESWT. The thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the Achilles tendon, size of calcific plaques, tendon structure score, and neovascularization score were measured at each time point. Results. After therapy, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) scores increased significantly, and the size of calcific plaques decreased (P < 0.05). Neovascularization scores increased at the 4th week and then decreased at the 12th week (P < 0.05). The thickness, CSA, and structure of the Achilles tendon did not change. Variables observed by US at baseline were not associated with changes in VISA-A scores at follow-up. However, the changes in calcific plaque size and neovascularization scores were related to the improvement of VISA-A scores between pre- and posttherapy (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Ultrasonography can reveal some changes in the insertion of the Achilles tendon after ESWT, but the outcome of ESWT in IAT cannot be predicted by the variables observed by US. PMID:28004000

  8. Scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of obstructive urinary calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gandolpho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-seven patients with unilateral obstructive calculi (12 males and 35 females were submitted to 99mTc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA or 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scans for assessment of renal function. The scans revealed unilateral functional deficit in 68 and 66% of the patients, respectively. A calculus size of 1.1 to 2.0 cm was significantly associated with deficit detected by DTPA, but duration of obstruction and calculus localization were not. After relief of the obstruction, the mean percent renal function of the affected kidney was found to be significantly increased from 25 ± 12% to 29 ± 12% in DTPA and from 21 ± 15% to 24 ± 12% in DMSA. Initial Doppler ultrasonography performed in 35 patients detected an increased resistive index in 10 (29%. In the remaining patients with a normal resistive index, ureteral urinary jet was observed, indicating partial obstruction. The high frequency of renal function impairment detected by DTPA and of tubulointerstitial damage detected by DMSA as well as the slight amelioration of unilateral renal function after relief of obstruction suggest that scintigraphy assessment may help evaluate the unilateral percentage of renal function and monitor renal function recovery when it occurs. The presence of a urinary jet detected by Doppler ultrasonography further indicates the severity of obstruction and the recovery prognosis.

  9. [Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, M; Binek, J

    2004-08-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is the most common anomaly of the aortic arch. We present the successful use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis of ARSA. A 65-year-old woman was admitted because of dyspnoea and inspiratory stridor. Bronchoscopy revealed a subglottic tracheal stenosis. To exclude an underlying malignancy, endoscopy was performed showing an oesophageal impression, which subsequently was identified as ARSA by EUS. Computed tomography excluded neoplasm and confirmed the diagnosis of ARSA. After laser resection of subglottic tissue the stridor resolved and could therefore not be attributed to the co-existence of ARSA. In most cases the ARSA crosses between the oesophagus and the spine from the descending aortic arch to the right and may seldom cause dysphagia due to oesophageal compression. Diagnosis is usually based upon computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, whereas angiography is only rarely needed. Endoscopic ultrasonography offers a convenient alternative diagnostic tool and can be performed even as a bedside examination. The diagnosis can be easily assessed in all patients referred for EUS of the upper gastrointestinal tract for any reason. Especially in patients undergoing invasive procedures in the upper thorax or neck, knowledge of an abnormal course of the great vessels is important. Arteria lusoria is often found by chance. EUS is a simple and excellent tool for assessing the diagnosis and usually does not require confirmation through other investigation methods.

  10. Contrast-Enhanced Harmonic Ultrasonography for the Assessment of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness: a Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunkai; Chen, Yaqing; Jiang, Jun [Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Ren; Zhou, Yongchang; Zhang, Huizhen [Sixth People' s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-02-15

    To determine whether contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography can be used to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography was performed in 103 patients suspected of prostate cancer before biopsy. Time intensity curves were reconstructed for systematic biopsy sites and sonographic abnormalities. The characteristics of the curves were described using hemodynamic indices including arrival time (AT), time-to-peak (TTP), and peak intensity (PI). The differences of hemodynamic indices between high-grade and low-grade cancer were analyzed and the correlations between the hemodynamic indices and biopsy Gleason score were studied. Prostate cancer was detected in 41 of 103 patients and there were significant differences in the hemodynamic indices between the biopsy sites of the non-malignant patients and prostate cancer lesions (p < 0.05). The prostate biopsies revealed 154 prostate cancer lesions, including 31 low-grade lesions and 123 high-grade lesions. The hemodynamic indices AT and TTP of highgrade tumors were significantly shorter than those of low-grade tumors (p = 0.001, 0.002). In addition, high-grade peripheral zone (PZ) tumors had higher PI than low-grade PZ tumors (p = 0.009). The PZ prostate cancer Gleason score correlated with PI, AT and TTP, with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.223, -0.335, and -0.351, respectively (p = 0.013, < 0.001 and < 0.001). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound measurements of hemodynamic indices correlate with the prostate cancer Gleason score.

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  12. INFECTIONS OF URIC SYSTEM OF NEWBORNS: PECULIARITIES OF URINE DYNAMICS IN LOWER URINARY TRACTS DURING PRE-NATAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Vasilevich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of revealing pre-natal urine dynamics preconditions ofdevelopment ofan infection ofurinary system atnewborns, feature urine dynamics functions of 101 fetus have been studied. Studying urine dynamics indicators of upper and lower urinary tracts of a fetus was carried out with the help of pre-natal ultrasonic cystometry process of filling and clearing the urinary bladder. It is established, that preconditions to development of urinary system infection in newborns are changes of urinary bladder capacity, frequency and speed of urination pre-natal developments.

  13. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  14. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  15. Neonatal Metabolomic Profiles Related to Prenatal Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jessica E; Bailey, Kathryn A; Olshan, Andrew F; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Douillet, Christelle; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Pathmasiri, Wimal; McRitchie, Susan; Sumner, Susan J; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-03

    Prenatal inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with health effects evident at birth and later in life. An understanding of the relationship between prenatal iAs exposure and alterations in the neonatal metabolome could reveal critical molecular modifications, potentially underpinning disease etiologies. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis was used to identify metabolites in neonate cord serum associated with prenatal iAs exposure in participants from the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort, in Gómez Palacio, Mexico. Through multivariable linear regression, ten cord serum metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total urinary iAs and/or iAs metabolites, measured as %iAs, %monomethylated arsenicals (MMAs), and %dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). A total of 17 metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total iAs and/or iAs metabolites in cord serum. These metabolites are indicative of changes in important biochemical pathways such as vitamin metabolism, the citric acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism. These data highlight that maternal biotransformation of iAs and neonatal levels of iAs and its metabolites are associated with differences in neonate cord metabolomic profiles. The results demonstrate the potential utility of metabolites as biomarkers/indicators of in utero environmental exposure.

  16. A case of iatrogenic pneumothorax in which chest tube placement could be avoided by intraoperative evaluation with transthoracic ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato I

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Izumi Sato, Hirotsugu Kanda, Megumi Kanao-Kanda, Atsushi Kurosawa, Takayuki Kunisawa Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: We report a case of iatrogenic pneumothorax in which chest tube placement was avoided by continuous intraoperative evaluation with transthoracic ultrasonography. A 53-year-old man had undergone a subsegmentectomy. While attempting to place a central venous catheter in the right internal jugular vein after the induction of anesthesia, we identified gas absorption during the puncture and suspected a pneumothorax. Chest X-ray revealed an ~5-mm collapse of the right lung apex. Tension pneumothorax was a concern during surgery because of the long-term positive pressure ventilation, but we decided to start the operation without preventative chest tube placement. During the operation, we regularly observed the midclavicular line of the second intercostal space using ultrasound. The operation was completed uneventfully. In this case, we effectively utilized ultrasound and avoided preventive chest tube placement and the associated complications. Transthoracic ultrasonography could be performed easily and continuously during surgery and was effective for evaluating the progression of an intraoperative pneumothorax. Keywords: transthoracic ultrasonography, iatrogenic pneumothorax, central venous catheterization

  17. New method for diagnosing cast compactness based on laser ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swornowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologically advanced materials, such as alloys of aluminum, nickel or titanium are currently used increasingly often in significantly loaded components utilized in the aviation industry, among others in the construction of jet turbine engine blades. The article presents a method for diagnosing the condition of the inside of cast blades with the use of laser ultrasonography. The inspection is based on finding hidden flaws with a size of between 10 and 30μm. Laser ultrasonography offers a number of improvements over the non-destructive methods used so far, e.g. the possibility to diagnose the cast on a selected depth, high signal-to-noise ratio and good sensitivity. The article includes a brief overview of non-destructive inspection methods used in foundry engineering and sample results of inspecting the inner structure of a turbo jet engine blade using the method described in the article.

  18. On use of ultrasonography in obstetrics and gynecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Kwang Suk; Lee, Yong Woo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-08-15

    Ultrasonography is playing an very important in diagnosis of normal pregnancy and the other diseases in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology. It is mainly used B-mode and Real time linear scan for pregnancy such as fetal movement during its early stage, fetal position, placenta location and biparietal diameter during its middle stage, and amniotic fluid and placenta previa during its late stage, as well as tumor accompanying pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been extensively used in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology for obtaining detailed images of soft tissues without hazard to the fetus and pregnant woman. In view of the need for its professionalism of high degree of skill, this treatise will introduce clinical instances and images obtained in the sonography room of the Seoul National University Hospital.

  19. Ultrasonography managed by internists: the stethoscope of 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, L M; García-Casasola, G

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonography in the hands of the internist can answer important clinical questions quickly at the point of patient care. This technique "enhances" the senses of the physicians and improves their ability to solve the problems of the patient. Point of care ultrasonography performed by clinicians has shown good accuracy in the diagnosis of diverse cardiac, abdominal and vascular pathologic conditions. It may also be useful for evaluation of thyroid, osteoarticular and soft tissue diseases. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound to guide invasive procedures (placement of venous catheters, thoracentesis, paracentesis) reduces the risk of complications. We present 5 cases to illustrate the usefulness of this technique in clinical practice: (i) peripartum cardiomyopathy; (ii) subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis; (iii) asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm; (iv) tendinitis of long head of biceps brachii and supraspinatus, and (v) spontaneous soleus muscle hematoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Transrectal ultrasonography of anorectal disease: advantages and disadvantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) has been widely accepted as a popular imaging modality for Epub ahead of print evaluating the lower rectum, anal sphincters, and pelvic floor in patients with various anorectal diseases. It provides excellent visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and of the anatomy of the anal canal. TRUS is an accurate tool for the staging of primary rectal cancer, especially for early stages. Although magnetic resonance imaging is a modality complementary to TRUS with advantages for evaluating the mesorectum, external sphincter, and deep pelvic inflammation, three-dimensional ultrasonography improves the detection and characterization of perianal fistulas and therefore plays a crucial role in optimal treatment planning. The operator should be familiar with the anatomy of the rectum and pelvic structures relevant to the preoperative evaluation of rectal cancer and other anal canal diseases, and should have technical proficiency in the use of TRUS combined with an awareness of its limitations compared to magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. [Ultrasonography in chronic inflammatory rheumatic and connective tissue disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, O; Le Goff, B

    2014-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonography is now widely used by almost all rheumatologists thanks to an improvement in the quality of ultrasound unit and probe and to the systematic teaching of this imaging technique to the rheumatology fellows. Applications have broadened from the study of degenerative and mechanical diseases to inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Ultrasound is more sensitive than clinical examination. Power Doppler allows the direct visualisation of inflammation within the tissues. Finally, it is a prognostic tool helping the physician in the management of the disease. This review will focus on the value and applications of ultrasonography in the 2 most frequent rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. We will also give some recent data on the usefulness of this imaging technique in the study of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with connective tissue disease.

  2. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  5. Is ultrasonography essential before surgery in eyes with advanced cataracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Amjad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. Aim: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. Setting: Tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. Results: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6% had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1% was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P=0.003 and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P=0.001 were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P=0.000, iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P=0.000, inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P=0.002, elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P=0.004, and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P=0.004 were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5% without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.

  6. Transcranial ultrasonography in healthy dogs: technique standardization and anatomic description

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra, T.c.f. [UNESP; C.F. Carvalho; Canola, J.C. [UNESP; A.C. Nepomuceno

    2014-01-01

    The study of the nervous system is increasing in Veterinary Medicine. Transcranial ultrasonography (TCUS) has the advantage of being a non-invasive and low cost method compared to computerized tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The temporal bone has been used as an acoustic window in TCUS in humans. This study aimed to correlate transcranial ultrasonographic images obtained through the temporal and occipital window with healthy dog's encephalic anatomy, and to standardize t...

  7. Portable ultrasonography in mass casualty incidents: The CAVEAT examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Howard, James M; Pryor, John P; David P. Bahner; Whitmill, Melissa L; Dean, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography used by practicing clinicians has been shown to be of utility in the evaluation of time-sensitive and critical illnesses in a range of environments, including pre-hospital triage, emergency department, and critical care settings. The increasing availability of light-weight, robust, user-friendly, and low-cost portable ultrasound equipment is particularly suited for use in the physically and temporally challenging environment of a multiple casualty incident (MCI). Currently est...

  8. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-01-01

    During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstandin...

  9. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. Method: The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014. It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Results: Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p = 0.03 and p = 0.042. In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases, long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor, while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%. As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD.

  10. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjkacem, Imen; Ayadi, Héla; Turki, Mariem; Yaich, Sourour; Khemekhem, Khaoula; Walha, Adel; Cherif, Leila; Moalla, Yousr; Ghribi, Farhat

    To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014). It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p=0.03 and p=0.042). In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases), long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor), while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%). As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others), as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocytes in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E K; Nazarov, S B; Tomilova, I K

    2011-07-01

    Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane were investigated in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal immobilization stress. The transient decrease of erythrocyte membranes stability was revealed in the control rats. The ability to erythrocyte transformation and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products are increased. It has been shown by an increase of percentage discocytes and lower lipid peroxidation level that the erythrocyte membrane of the rats after prenatal stress is more stable.

  12. Ultrasonography in acute diverticulitis - credit where credit is due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembcke, B

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing diverticulitis implies physical and laboratory examination, cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography [CT] or ultrasonography [US]), and a classification of the type of diverticular disease. This article illustrates the role of ultrasonography in view of the recently published Guidelines on diverticular disease of the Consensus Conference of the German Societies of Gastroenterology (DGVS) and Visceral Surgery (DGAV). The focus is to foster both sensitivity for pictorial analysis and improving practical accomplishments of US in diverticulitis. Based on the German classification of diverticular disease (CDD), characteristic features of each type of diverticulitis are presented and commented along with possible differential diagnoses. In the literature qualified US is equipotent to qualified CT. US is frequently effective for the diagnosis and unsurpassed resolution enables detailed imaging thereby allowing one to differentiate and stratify the relevant types of diverticular disease according to the new classification. This educational review is a guided tour through the different facettes of diverticulitis on ultrasonography thereby expanding and multiplying individual competence to more users. With expert performance, US is in the pole position for diagnosing diverticulitis, however, this does come with the price of responsibility and requires transfer of advanced standards and performance in the broad.

  13. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bonelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT, but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.

  14. Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice - in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.

  15. Prenatal Detection of Bladder Wall Involvement in Invasive Placentation with Sequential Two-dimensional and Adjunctive Three-dimensional Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Chou

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: 3D US may be a useful adjunctive tool in refining 2D ultrasonographic techniques to identify the extent and degree of placental invasion of the bladder. The advantages of 3D US are: (1 a multiplanar image display allows viewing of sections from sagittal, coronal and axial planes at the same time, thereby more accurately determining the location and extent of placental invasion; (2 the viewing planes of the spatial angioarchitecture network can be arbitrarily manipulated to better delineate the aberrant vessels protruding into the bladder; (3 3D reconstruction images can be clearly displayed by live 3D in a rotation mode for a better illustrative effect.

  16. Prenatal assessment of normal fetal pulmonary grey-scale and lung volume by three-dimensional ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively analyze the fetal lung echo and right lung volume in the third trimester by real-time three-dimensional ultrasound(3-D US)and evaluate the feasibility of fetal lung maturity.Methods A total of 732 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation underwent ultrasound examination.The 3-D US equipment with a 3.5-5 MHz transabdominal transducer was used for the fetal biometric measurement.The echogenicity ratio between fetal lung and liver was compared.The...

  17. Rare Complications with Monochorionic Twins: Ultrasonography and Pathology Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We reviewed the sonographic features of rare complications with monochorionic twins and we correlated these features with the pathologic findings. The complications, including the twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence, the twin embolization syndrome, the conjoined twins and umbilical cord entanglement. A better understanding of these complications can aid making an accurate prenatal diagnosis and predicting the fetal outcome

  18. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  19. Enriched environment upregulates growthassociated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu Zhang; Hua Zhang; Baoling Du; Zhiqiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we reported that prenatal restraint stress could induce cognitive deficits, which correlated with a change in expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the hippocampus.In this study, we investigated the effects of enriched environment on cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay results revealed that growth-associated protein 43 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated on postnatal day 15 in the prenatal restraint stress group. Growth-associated protein 43 expression was significantly lower in the prenatal restraint stress group compared with the negative control and prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment groups on postnatal days 30 and 50. Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive abilities were noticeably increased in rats from the prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment group on postnatal day 50. These results indicate that enriched environment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring by upregulating growth-associated protein 43 expression.

  20. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling.

  1. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  2. Finding of biliary fascioliasis by endoscopic ultrasonography in a patient with eosinophilic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Catherine; Lahmi, Farhad; Iranshahi, Majid; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

    2014-09-01

    Fascioliasis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Iran. It occurs mainly in sheep-rearing areas of temperate climates, but sporadic cases have been reported from many other parts of the world. The usual definitive host is the sheep. Humans are accidental hosts in the life cycle of Fasciola. Typical symptoms may be associated with fascioliasis, but in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long period of abdominal pain and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case with epigastric and upper quadrant abdominal pain for the last 6 months, with imaging suggesting liver abscess and normal biliary ducts. The patient had no eosinophilia with negative stool examinations, so she was initially treated with antibiotics for liver abscess. Her clinical condition as well as follow-up imagings showed appropriate response after antibiotic therapy. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography revealed Fasciola hepatica, which was then extracted with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

  3. Spontaneous pregnancy outcome after prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquier, M; Klein, A; Boltshauser, E

    2006-08-01

    Parents are usually told that many anencephalic offspring die in utero or soon after delivery, and many obstetricians offer elective termination of the pregnancy. Following the personal experience of the first author, a personal website was created with the intention of providing information and exchanging views with other parents confronted with a prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly. Data were collected from 211 pregnancies where the parents opted not to terminate pregnancy. These data revealed that polyhydramnios was a feature in 56 (26%) pregnancies, death in utero in 15 (7%) pregnancies, 72 (34%) babies were born prematurely (anencephaly is medically safe and should be considered as an option.

  4. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi;

    2014-01-01

    , but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all...... exposure appeared to contribute to neurotoxic effects, in particular in regard to visuospatial processing and memory. Thus, addition in the regression analysis of exposure information obtained at a different point in time was not informative and should be avoided. Further studies with better information...

  5. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi

    2014-01-01

    included mercury concentrations in maternal hair at parturition, cord blood, and child blood and hair at the age-7 clinical examination ( N= 923). In regression analyses, the child's current blood-mercury at age 7 ( N= 694) showed only weak associations with the neuropsychological test variables......, but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all...

  6. Prenatal Profile of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS): A Review of 53 Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dinah M.; Sherer, Ilana; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Byrne, Janice L.B.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Jackson, Laird G.; Krantz, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, cognitive impairment, external and internal structural malformations, and characteristic facial features. Currently, there are no definitive prenatal screening measures that lead to the diagnosis of CdLS. In this study, documented prenatal findings in CdLS syndrome were analyzed towards the development of a prenatal profile predictive of CdLS. We reviewed 53 cases of CdLS (29 previously reported and 24 unreported) in which prenatal observations/findings were available. The review of these cases revealed a pattern of sonographic findings, including obvious associated structural defects, growth restriction, as well as a more subtle, but strikingly characteristic, facial profile, suggestive of a recognizable prenatal ultrasonographic profile for CdLS. In addition the maternal serum marker, PAPP-A, may be reduced and fetal nuchal translucency may be increased in some pregnancies when measured at an appropriate gestational age. In conclusion, CdLS can be prenatally diagnosed or readily ruled out in a family with a known mutation in a CdLS gene. The characteristic ultrasonographic profile may allow for prenatal diagnosis of CdLS in 1) subsequent pregnancies to a couple with a prior child with CdLS in whom a mutation has not been identified or 2) when there are unexplained pregnancy signs of fetal abnormality such as oligo- or polyhydramnios, a low maternal serum PAPP-A level and/or increased nuchal translucency, fetal growth retardation, or structural anomalies consistent with CdLS. PMID:22740382

  7. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  8. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  9. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paublo M,Mario; Bustos V.,Juan Carlos; Ramírez H,Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.

  10. Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

  11. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  12. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  14. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  15. Laparoscopic resection of prenatally detected intra-abdominal testicular teratoma: Report of a neonatal case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Yada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal detection of intra-abdominal testicular tumor is rare. In this paper, we discuss the early laparoscopic resection of prenatally detected testicular tumor of a neonate. At 33 weeks gestation, follow-up ultrasound showed the mass measuring 3 × 2 cm, on the fetal right lower quadrant. After full-term birth, we performed laparoscopic resection of the tumor, on day 14 of life. Histology of 4-cm right testicular tumor revealed immature teratoma. Postoperative course was favorable and no recurrence has occurred 3 years after operation. Prenatal diagnosis of the intra-abdominal testicular teratoma enabled the early tumor resection, and laparoscopic resection of the tumor is safe and feasible, even in a neonate.

  16. Social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryjosy Marculino Guerreiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at capturing the social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, guided by the Theory of Social Representations, developed in nine Family Health Centers, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from May to July, 2012. 31 women on postpartum were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and processed through ALCESTE software - 2010 version. The results observed in the lexical analysis of the interviews revealed the distribution of contents in four classes. Classes 4 and 1 dealing with prenatal care were explored in this study. Social representations of users about the prenatal are anchored in the protocol dimension and socio-educational dimension. The implantation and the maintenance of activities are necessary in order to share knowledge and interaction among the users

  17. Prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs development of the mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Munekazu; Gendai, Yuuya; Kagawa, Nao; Nagao, Tetsuji

    2016-09-30

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is currently the most commonly used phthalate for the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates including DEHP have been labeled as potential endocrine disruptors. The effect on the development of the neocortex, however, is unknown. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal DEHP exposure at 1 and 100mg/kg/day or 100 and 500mg/kg/day in fetal and newborn mice, we performed a detailed histologic analysis of the developing dorsal telencephalon and neocortex. The observation of fetuses exposed to DEHP revealed reductions of proliferation and neurogenesis (1 and 100mg/kg) and an increase in cell death (500mg/kg). In addition, the newborns prenatally exposed to DEHP showed an abnormal neuronal distribution and a decrease in neurons. These findings suggest that prenatal DEHP exposure induces neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with the neural stem cell niche and corticogenesis.

  18. Ultrasonography survey and thyroid cancer in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Peter; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Ulanovsky, Alexander [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Thyroid cancer is one of the major health concerns after the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). Currently, ultrasonography surveys are being performed for persons residing in the Fukushima Prefecture at the time of the accident with an age of up to 18 years. Here, the expected thyroid cancer prevalence in the Fukushima Prefecture is assessed based on an ultrasonography survey of Ukrainians, who were exposed at an age of up to 18 years to {sup 131}I released during the Chernobyl NPS accident, and on differences in equipment and study protocol in the two surveys. Radiation risk of thyroid cancer incidence among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and preliminary estimates of thyroid dose due to the Fukushima accident were used for the prediction of baseline and radiation-related thyroid cancer risks. We estimate a prevalence of thyroid cancer of 0.027 % (95 % CI 0.010 %; 0.050 %) for the first screening campaign in the Fukushima Prefecture. Compared with the incidence rate in Japan in 2007, the ultrasonography survey is predicted to increase baseline thyroid cancer incidence by a factor of 7.4 (95 % CI 0.95; 17.3). Under the condition of continued screening, thyroid cancer during the first fifty years after the accident is predicted to be detected for about 2 % of the screened population. The prediction of radiation-related thyroid cancer in the most exposed fraction (a few ten thousand persons) of the screened population of the Fukushima Prefecture has a large uncertainty with the best estimates of the average risk of 0.1-0.3 %, depending on average dose. (orig.)

  19. The investigate of ultrasonography integration into anatomical curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenyuan; Wang Ying; Liu Xing; Liu Yaoguang; Teng Chenyi; Ma Yanwen; Wang Yu

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary teaching way, ultrasonography is considered an important teaching tools and methods to improving medical students’ skills and understanding the real time human anatomy . We success-fully integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching by using portable ultrasound and interactive panel discussion ses-sions. The integrated curriculum not only allows medical students to see the complexity real-time three-dimension-al human anatomy, but also can improve medical students’ interest in anatomy teaching. Integrated ultrasound into anatomy teaching established close ties between basic medical science and its clinical application, and overcome the phase difficulties of anatomical knowledge application from preclinical to clinical.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  1. Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasonography at a county hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Mortensen, M B; Durup, J

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-described examination method, there have been few reports concerning its clinical impact. The aim of this study was to describe EUS as it is performed at a county hospital, with an emphasis on the indications...... management strategy in 80 patients (24 %). CONCLUSIONS: EUS has a high level of accuracy and a substantial clinical impact when performed in an unselected population. The estimated numbers of investigations needed appear to justify setting up an EUS center at institutions with a catchment population of 350...

  2. Cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, K B; Sommer, W; Hahn, L;

    1988-01-01

    The diagnostic power of combined cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography was tested in 67 patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis; of these, 42 (63%) had acute cholecystitis. The predictive value of a positive scintigraphy (PVpos) was 95% and that of a negative (PVneg) was 91% (n = 67...... that in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis cholescintigraphy should be the first diagnostic procedure performed. If the scintigraphy is positive, additional ultrasonographic detection of gallstones makes the diagnosis almost certain. If one diagnostic modality is inconclusive, the other makes a fair...

  3. [Seeing the sounds--chest and lung ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Daniel J; Shemesh, Iftach

    2014-10-01

    Chest ultrasonography was considered hampered and deficient but it is now taking a prominent role as a bedside tool for the diagnosis of lung ailments. Technological development has made it accurate, fast and reliable to the extent that it is gradually replacing the traditional chest X-ray and sometimes also the computed tomography scan. In this article we review and display in a few images the diagnostic possibilities of the thoracic ultrasound examination in a diverse range of maladies such as pneumonia, pulmonary congestion, pleural effusion and other conditions.

  4. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  5. Recent advances in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Haba, Shin; Kawahata, Shuhei; Abe, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-08-28

    Interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) based on EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration has rapidly spread as a minimally invasive procedure. Especially in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, EUS-guided biliary intervention is reported to be useful as salvage therapy. EUS-guided biliary interventions are carried out using three techniques: EUS-guided bilioenteric anastomosis, EUS-guided rendezvous procedure, and EUS-guided antegrade treatment. Although interventional EUS is not yet a standardized procedure, there have been recent advances in this field that address various biliary diseases. Here, we summarize the indications, techniques, clinical results of previous studies, and future perspectives.

  6. Application of B-mode ultrasonography in the assessment of the dog penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payan-Carreira, Rita; Bessa, Ana Celeste M

    2008-06-01

    With the purpose to characterize the ultrasonographic features of the dog penis, 20 healthy dogs aged from 2 to 11 years old were used. Ultrasonography was performed using a 5-9MHz linear probe and a Philips HD3 scanner. Ultrasonograms were obtained at the penile body (pre- and post-scrotal sections) and at both the bulbus glandis and the pars longa glandis, with the dog placed in dorsal recumbency. The typical anatomy of the dog penis is easily demonstrated in ultrasonographic images, as revealed in this study. On ultrasonograms taken at the body level, the two corpora cavernosa showed a homogeneous, hypoechoic structure; ventrally, the corpus spongiosum appears as a slightly hyperechoic structure surrounding the urethra. In glans ultrasonograms, the most typical feature is the os penis, observed as a strong hyperechoic structure, whose acoustic shadow impairs the screening of adjacent tissues. Lining on its concavity, the corpus spongiosum is observed as a slightly hyperechoic tissue around the urethra. An ovoid, regularly hypoechoic tissue corresponding to the erectile tissue of the pars longa, surrounds these structures. The bulbus glandis is visualized as a regular hypoechoic structure with small anechoic areas, corresponding to sinusoidal spaces. The albuginea is evidenced as a well-defined, hyperechoic external layer. The preputial cavity appears as a thin anechoic layer surrounding the albuginea. The results of this study demonstrate that ultrasonographic assessment of the dog penis is easily performed and accurate enough for penile examination. Furthermore, ultrasonography of the dog penis can become an interesting diagnostic tool to explore in the canine practice, during breeding soundness evaluation and also whenever penile exposition is impossible to achieve.

  7. Imaging of the acute scrotum: is there a place for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moschouris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present and evaluate the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS in typical cases of acute painful scrotum. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients aged from 19 to 61 years old were included in the study. All patients underwent grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US of the scrotum, followed by imaging after i.v. administration of 2.4 mL of a second generation ultrasound contrast agent (microbubbles of sulphur hexafluoride. A dedicated, contrast-sensitive technique was used (Contrast Tissue Imaging - CnTI. The diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 6 cases while in the remaining 8 cases it was based on the combination of clinical, imaging and laboratory findings. Results: The final diagnosis was testicular torsion (n = 4, epididymitis (n = 2, one of the cases complicated by abscess, testicular abscess (n = 1, scrotal abscess (n = 1, testicular trauma of varying severity (n = 6. Five out of 19 cases were true negatives: neither clinical examination nor laboratory tests revealed any pathology. CEUS showed complete lack of enhancement in all cases of torsion, permitting a rapid and definitive diagnosis. In the cases of infection complicated by abscesses, CEUS delineated the lesions much better than the combination of B-mode/Color Doppler US. The severely traumatized testicles showed minimal, inhomogeneous or patchy enhancement, while cases of minor trauma showed no significant enhancement defects. Hematomas were presented as non-enhancing lesions. Conclusion: Generally, there was no advantage over Doppler US as has been previously shown. However, CEUS can be used supplementary to traditional Doppler US in the investigation of blunt testicular trauma especially when there is uncertainty in diagnosis after appropriate clinical and radiographic evaluations occurs. Further studies are required to clearly define the indications of this method.

  8. Imaging of the acute scrotum: is there a place for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschouris, H.; Stamatiou, K.; Lampropoulou, E.; Kalikis, D.; Matsaidonis, D. [General Hospital of Pireas Tzaneio, Pireas (Greece). Dept. of Radiology and Urology

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to present and evaluate the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in typical cases of acute painful scrotum. Materials and methods: nineteen patients aged from 19 to 61 years old were included in the study. All patients underwent grey-scale and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) of the scrotum, followed by imaging after i.v. administration of 2.4 mL of a second generation ultrasound contrast agent (microbubbles of sulphur hexafluoride). A dedicated, contrast-sensitive technique was used (Contrast Tissue Imaging - CnTI). The diagnosis was confirmed surgically in 6 cases while in the remaining 8 cases it was based on the combination of clinical, imaging and laboratory findings. Results: the final diagnosis was testicular torsion (n = 4), epididymitis (n = 2, one of the cases complicated by abscess), testicular abscess (n = 1), scrotal abscess (n = 1), testicular trauma of varying severity (n = 6). Five out of 19 cases were true negatives: neither clinical examination nor laboratory tests revealed any pathology. CEUS showed complete lack of enhancement in all cases of torsion, permitting a rapid and definitive diagnosis. In the cases of infection complicated by abscesses, CEUS delineated the lesions much better than the combination of B-mode/Color Doppler US. The severely traumatized testicles showed minimal, inhomogeneous or patchy enhancement, while cases of minor trauma showed no significant enhancement defects. Hematomas were presented as non-enhancing lesions. Conclusion: generally, there was no advantage over Doppler US as has been previously shown. However, CEUS can be used supplementary to traditional Doppler US in the investigation of blunt testicular trauma especially when there is uncertainty in diagnosis after appropriate clinical and radiographic evaluations occurs. Further studies are required to clearly define the indications of this method. (author)

  9. Comparison between 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography and conventional 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography in neonates: impact on reinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cho, Hyun Hae; Lee, So Mi; Park, Ji Eun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One

    2017-05-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate impact of 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (3DUS) on reinterpretation of cranial ultrasonography images in neonates in comparison with 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (2DUS). We retrospectively enrolled 50 consecutive young infants who simultaneously underwent both 2DUS and 3DUS scanning from February to March 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed both scans for overall image quality on a 5-point scale. Five features were evaluated in both scans: the presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), ventriculomegaly (VM), abnormality of periventricular echogenicity (PVE), and focal parenchymal lesions (FL). The concordance rate between the two scanning modes was calculated. The confidence level for each finding on a 3-point scale and the scanning time were compared between the two scanning modes. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Both scans demonstrated similar overall image quality in terms of reinterpretation (range of mean values, 3.81 to 4.02). GMH, IVH, VM, and FL showed perfect concordance, while PVE showed a concordance rate of 91.4% between the two modes by both reviewers. 3DUS was associated with a higher diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of GMH, IVH, and FL than 2DUS (P<0.05) for both reviewers. For PVE, 3DUS received a significantly higher confidence score than 2DUS from one of the reviewers. The mean scanning time for 2DUS and 3DUS was 92.75 seconds and 36 seconds, respectively. Interobserver agreement for qualitative scoring was moderate to substantial. In reinterpretation, 3DUS showed very high concordance with 2DUS and a similar image quality. 3DUS also increased diagnostic confidence for several image findings and significantly decreased scan time.

  10. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal...

  11. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  12. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  13. Ultrasonography in pediatric rheumatology in Latin America. Expanding the frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Roth, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    For the past two decades, musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSKUS) has developed exponentially and has become an essential tool in rheumatology practice. This development has been far more limited in pediatric rheumatology which is partially related to deficits in the evidence base. Many studies have shown that MSKUS is more sensitive than the clinical examination for detecting synovitis and enthesitis in adults. At the same time, there is a lack of studies demonstrating its validity, reliability, and reproducibility in pediatric rheumatology. In addition, clear definitions for the normal pediatric joint and enthesis as well as various findings in pathology associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) have only started to emerge. Most of this work is being done through the Outcome Measurement in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) ultrasound pediatric task force but the Pan American League of Associations for Rheumatology (PANLAR) US Pediatric Task Force is also working on validating MSKUS in children. In addition, several MSKUS courses for pediatric rheumatologists have been offered in Latin American countries; these will not only complement the scientific work pediatric-specific ultrasonography training, but also represents an essential component for the successful implementation of this technique into daily practice as well.

  14. Contrast-enhanced breast ultrasonography: imaging features with histopathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Zhu, Qing-Li; Sun, Qiang; Chang, Xiao-Yan

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify histopathologic correlates for the varied appearances of breast masses on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed in 104 patients (age range, 19-86 years) after administration of a sulfur hexafluoride microbubble contrast agent, and enhancement patterns were classified as no enhancement, peripheral enhancement, homogeneous enhancement, regional enhancement, and heterogeneous enhancement. All patients' histologic slides were reviewed and correlated with CEUS findings. In malignant masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to tumor cell cords or clusters in a variable amount of desmoplastic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to hypercellularity in the whole mass, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was predominant. Regional enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component. Peripheral enhancement corresponded to a DCIS component, hypercellularity or adenosis at the periphery, and low-degree cellularity, degeneration, fibrosis, or necrosis in the center. No enhancement was present in 1 case of low-grade DCIS. In benign masses, heterogeneous enhancement corresponded to loose cell proliferation in a more sclerotic stroma. Homogeneous enhancement corresponded to diffuse hypercellularity, an inflammatory cell infiltrate, or intraductal papilloma. Regional enhancement corresponded to focal hypercellularity or intraductal papilloma within a dilated duct. No enhancement corresponded to desmoplastic stroma. Peripheral enhancement was shown in 1 case of granulomatous mastitis with an inflammatory infiltrate at the periphery and necrosis in the center. Breast mass CEUS findings correlated with histologic features.

  15. Chronic cervical lymphadenopathy in children: Role of ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation of causes of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy in children. Materials and Methods: Children with palpable cervical lymph nodes were included. An ultrasonographic examination was performed to delineate multiple lymph nodes, irregular margins, tendency towards fusion, internal echos, the presence of strong echoes and echogenic thin layer. Results: The total number of patients was 120. Echogenic thin layer and strong internal echoes were specific for tuberculosis. Long axis to short axis (L/S ratio was more than 2 in most of the tubercular nodes (85.71%. Hilus was present in 50 (73.53% tubercular lymphadenitis, 12 (40% lymphoma and 10 (62.5% cases with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoechoic center was present in 60 (88.24% tubercular lymphadenitis cases followed by 62.5% metastatic and 60% malignant lymphoma cases. Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive tool for lymph nodal evaluation in children. It may be used to differentiate cervical lymphadenopathy with different etiologies in children. When correlated clinically, it may avoid biopsy in a patient.

  16. Chronic cervical lymphadenopathy in children: Role of ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv N.; Pandey, Jigyasa; Wakhlu, Ashish; Rawat, Jiledar; Singh, Tej Bali

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation of causes of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy in children. Materials and Methods: Children with palpable cervical lymph nodes were included. An ultrasonographic examination was performed to delineate multiple lymph nodes, irregular margins, tendency towards fusion, internal echos, the presence of strong echoes and echogenic thin layer. Results: The total number of patients was 120. Echogenic thin layer and strong internal echoes were specific for tuberculosis. Long axis to short axis (L/S) ratio was more than 2 in most of the tubercular nodes (85.71%). Hilus was present in 50 (73.53%) tubercular lymphadenitis, 12 (40%) lymphoma and 10 (62.5%) cases with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoechoic center was present in 60 (88.24%) tubercular lymphadenitis cases followed by 62.5% metastatic and 60% malignant lymphoma cases. Conclusions: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive tool for lymph nodal evaluation in children. It may be used to differentiate cervical lymphadenopathy with different etiologies in children. When correlated clinically, it may avoid biopsy in a patient. PMID:22529549

  17. [The role of ultrasonography exam in orbital-ocular tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocâlteu, Alina Mihaela; Ardeleanu, S; Checheriţă, I A

    2011-01-01

    Ophthalmology is one of the specialties that have particularly benefited from the contribution of ultrasonography exam as a method of investigation. Ultrasonography is very much essential for diagnostic to complement other clinical and laboratory investigations, providing images in real time. The basic principle of diagnostic ultrasound is to study and to interpret the changes they undergo when crossing ultrasonic waves diverse biological properties different sound, and such injuries can be traced in the dynamics or can be documented on photographic paper and thus can diagnose correct certain eye diseases. The indications for performing ultrasound consist in: measurement of distances and volumes, examine difficult or inaccessible case of opaque media; ophthalmoscopic view of a mass lesion, examine the orbit or optic nerve. The advantages of ultrasound for orbital-ocular tumors are represented by the fact that ultrasound is a noninvasive method, safe, well tolerated, less expensive that the advantage of determining the position and distance from structures ocular tumor. High frequency ultrasound provides excellent resolution of 0-1 to 0.01 mm, and serial scans allow tracking progress and measuring lesion diameters tumor while allowing monitoring and evaluation of stereotactic radiation treatments applied to small tumors. In conclusion ultrasound allows not only early diagnosis of eye tumors, but accurate assessment of the proposed therapy and of the evolution of detected mass lesions or tumors.

  18. Intraoperative ultrasonography of liver, bile ducts and pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes de Oliveira Cerri

    Full Text Available The use of intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS to evaluate liver, bile ducts and pancreatic disease, as compared to the results of preoperative ultrasonography and CT, is discussed. Forty-two patients who underwent abdominal surgery for suspected hepatobiliary and/or pancreatic disease were studied. The intraoperative study was carried out with a portable apparatus (Aloka 500, Japan, using 5.0 MHz and 7.5 MHz linear sterile transducers. The main indications for IOUS were the search for and/or evaluation of primary hepatic masses,hepatic abscesses or metastases, obstructive jaundice, or neuroendocrine tumors. In 15 cases (38.5 percent from the hepatobiliary group and in 7 cases (58.3 percent from the pancreatic group, a difference between preoperative and intraoperative findings was observed. The main difference was observed in relation to the number and size of hepatic and pancreatic lesions. The relationship between the lesions and the vascular structures was evaluated through IOUS. The method was also used to guide surgical procedures such as biopsies, the alcoholization of nodules, and the drainage of abscesses. IOUS plays an important role in detecting small hepatic and pancreatic nodules, in the assessment of anatomical relationships between the lesions and the vascular structures, and in the performance of interventionist procedures.

  19. The prenatal roots of music

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    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  20. The Comparison of Ultrasonography and Non Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Ureteral Calculi

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    İlhan Kılınç

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous urography, ultrasonography, and non-contrast spiral computed tomography have been used to diagnose ureteral calculi. We aimed to compare the accuracy of non-contrast spiral computed tomography with ultrasonography in the evaluation of patients with renal colic.Fourty-one patients with flank pain were examined with both computed tomography and ultrasonography over a period of 11 months. Findings of ultrasonography and computed tomography of 28 patients in whom üreteral stones were confirmed by standart methods were comparedUreteral calculi were diagnosed in 28 of 41 patients. Ureteral stones could be demonstrated in 18 patients by ultrasonography and in 27 patients by computed tomography. Ultrasonography showed 64.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis; computed tomography showed 96.4% and 100%, respectively. Spiral computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography in the demonstration of ureteral calculi in patients with renal colic. But because of higher cost and higher radiation dose, it should be reserved for symptomatic cases in whom ultrasonography is non-diagnostic.

  1. Ultrasonography-assisted arthroscopic proximal iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrauch, Patrick; Kermeci, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    We describe arthroscopic iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy assisted by intraoperative ultrasonography for accurate placement of arthroscopic portals and to ensure adequate decompression of the peritrochanteric space. We have found ultrasonography for endoscopic iliotibial band release a useful tool to assist with localizing the site and length of decompression.

  2. Clinical impact of the use of additional ultrasonography in diagnostic breast imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercauteren, L.D.; Kessels, A.G.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Koster, D.; Severens, J.L.; Engelshoven, JM van; Flobbe, K.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of adherence with evidence-based guidelines for the use of breast ultrasonography was determined in clinical practice of radiologists in six hospitals. Additional ultrasonography was performed in 2,272 (53%) of all 4,257 patients referred for mammography. High adherence rates (mean: 95%)

  3. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  4. Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Wonder if you need to take prenatal vitamins? Which brand is best? Or what ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-vitamins/art- ...

  5. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  6. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  7. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  8. A Case of Isolated Celiac Artery Dissection Accompanied by Splenic Infarction Detected by Ultrasonography in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Emori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male with a history of hypertension visited the emergency department (ED by ambulance complaining of sudden pain in the left side of his back. Ultrasonography (USG performed at ED revealed splenic infarction along with occlusion and dissection of the celiac and splenic arteries without abdominal artery dissection. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT revealed the same result. Consequently, spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection (SICAD was diagnosed. Because his blood pressure was high (159/70 mmHg, antihypertensive medicine was administered (nicardipine and carvedilol. After his blood reached optimal levels (130/80 mmHg, symptoms disappeared. Follow-up USG and contrast enhanced CT performed 8 days and 4 months after onset revealed amelioration of splenic infarction and improvement of the narrowed artery. Here, we report a case of SICAD with splenic infarction presenting with severe left-sided back pain and discuss the relevance of USG in an emergency setting.

  9. The accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder tumors in patients presenting with hematuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Papadoliopoulos, Ioannis; Dahanis, Stefanos; Zafiropoulos, Grigoris; Polizois, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonography has been proposed as the initial test for detection of bladder carcinomas in patients presenting with hematuria, but the accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of superficial bladder carcinoma has not been assessed. We prospectively evaluated 173 patients presenting to the outpatient department with painless hematuria by transabdominal ultrasound and cystoscopy. The tolerability of cystoscopy was also assessed. Of 148 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 39 with bladder carcinoma were identified by cystoscopy as having bladder carcinoma, while 34 were identified by ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the sensitivity (87.1%), specificity (98.1%), positive predictive value (94.4%) and negative predictive value (95.4%) were good but not as good as cystoscopy. While the tolerability of cystoscopy is relatively low, it is still superior to ultrasonography in the evaluation of the bladder as a possible source of hematuria. PMID:19318748

  10. Comparison analysis between conventional ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography of thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuzhen, Cong, E-mail: cinufzu@163.com [People' s Hospital of Guangdong Province, Department of Ultrasound, Guangdong (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of conventional ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodular diseases. Methods: 244 patients with 291 thyroid nodules were examined by ultrasonography and ultrasound elastography respectively; the examination results were compared against pathological findings to determine the effectiveness of these two examination methods. Results: The sensitivity and positive predictive value of conventional ultrasonography is higher than those of ultrasound elastography, but its specificity, accuracy, and negative predictive value is lower than those of the later. Conclusions: Ultrasound elastography is superior to conventional ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, ultrasonography is the basis of examination; only on this basis, an additional ultrasound elastography examination could greatly improve the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodular diseases.

  11. Improved Performance of Adjunctive Ultrasonography After Mammography Screening for Breast Cancer Among Chinese Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Henglei; Huang, Yubei; Song, Fengju; Dai, Hongji; Liu, Peifang; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Peishan; Han, Jiali; Hao, Xishan; Chen, Kexin

    2017-08-15

    Until now, no studies have investigated whether women other than those with dense breasts are suitable for adjunctive ultrasonography after negative mammography, and investigated whether all women with negative mammography are suitable for adjunctive ultrasonography. Based on the Multi-modality Independent Screening Trial in China, a total of 31,918 women aged 45 to 65 years underwent both ultrasonography and mammography. Physicians performed ultrasonography and mammography separately and were blinded to each other's findings until their interpretations had been recorded. For both ultrasonography and mammography, suspicious results and those highly suggestive of a malignancy were confirmed by pathologic examination, whereas other results were confirmed by 1-year follow-up after initial screening. Based on Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) assessments, 84 (84.8%) of 99 cancers were identified on mammography (detection rate, 2.6/1000), and 61 (61.6%) of 99 cancers were identified on ultrasonography (detection rate, 1.9/1000). Integrated mammography with ultrasonography identified 94 (95.0%) of 99 cancers, with an increment of 11.9% in cancer detection rate (from 2.6/1000 to 2.9/1000) (P BIRADS 3, adjunctive ultrasonography detected no cancers. All 10 additional cancers detected by adjunctive ultrasonography were from women with BIRADS 0 to 2, at a cost of 207 women with false positives. Additionally, dense breasts and benign breast disease were significantly associated with positive ultrasonography after BIRADS 0 to 2 (all P values BIRADS 0 to 2 but not BIRADS 3, especially for women with dense breasts or benign breast disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  13. Adult brain and behavioral pathological markers of prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Urs; Nyffeler, Myriel; Yee, Benjamin K; Knuesel, Irene; Feldon, Joram

    2008-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. This association appears to be critically dependent on the precise prenatal timing. However, the extent to which distinct adult psychopathological and neuropathological traits may be sensitive to the precise times of prenatal immune activation remains to be further characterized. Here, we evaluated in a mouse model of prenatal immune challenge by the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC), whether prenatal immune activation in early/middle and late gestation may influence the susceptibility to some of the critical cognitive, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia and autism. We revealed that PolyIC-induced prenatal immune challenge on gestation day (GD) 9 but not GD17 significantly impaired sensorimotor gating and reduced prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in adulthood, whereas prenatal immune activation specifically in late gestation impaired working memory, potentiated the locomotor reaction to the NMDA-receptor antagonist dizocilpine, and reduced hippocampal NMDA-receptor subunit 1 expression. On the other hand, potentiation of the locomotor reaction to the dopamine-receptor agonist amphetamine and reduction in Reelin- and Parvalbumin-expressing prefrontal neurons emerged independently of the precise times of prenatal immune challenge. Our findings thus highlight that prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice leads to distinct brain and behavioral pathological symptom clusters in adulthood. Further examination and evaluation of in utero immune challenge at different times of gestation may provide important new insight into the neuroimmunological and neuropathological mechanisms underlying the segregation of different symptom clusters in heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

  14. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Prenatal molecular diagnosis of beta-thalassemia: report on the first two cases in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaci, R; Coriu, D; Dan, L; Cherry, L; Gavrila, L; Barbarii, L; Dogaru, M; Vladareanu, F; Vladareanu, R; Peltecu, G; Colita, D

    2008-01-01

    Thalassaemia major is a classical example of a disease that can be prevented by prenatal diagnosis. In Romania there are currently 300 patients with thalassaemia major under the management of specialized institutions. Prenatal diagnoses of thalassemia have offered a new dimension to the prevention of this disease, but in order to implement prenatal diagnosis, knowledge of mutations and of their incidence is essential. Molecular testing using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) scanning and direct mutation detection with Amplificaton Refractory Mutation System-PCR (ARMS-PCR) and Restriction endonuclease Analysis of PCR fragments (PCR-RFLP) was performed by using amplified DNA from amniotic cells samples, while mutations in the parents were determined in advance. Using our experience in molecular diagnosis, we were able to perform the first prenatal diagnosis for two young couples at risk for thalassaemia major. Foetal samplings were collected by amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in the second trimester of the pregnancies. Maternal contamination of the foetal DNA was ruled out by STR genotyping. The prenatal diagnosis revealed affected foetuses with homozygous status of beta-thalassemia major. The IVSI-110 (G-A)/IVS II-745 (C-G) genotype in the first case foetus and ed 8 (-AA)/cd 8 (-AA) in the second case foetus were reported. The results of this study point to a successful future prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassnemia in Romania, using a rapid and accurate molecular method. Together with the implementation of proper preventive health measures and the education of parents regarding their carrier status, we are hoping that this method will be used as the common application approach to decrease the incidence of thalassacmia major.

  16. Distinct neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to sulpiride (SUL) and risperidone (RIS) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jing; Liu, Zhening; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Yihui; Xu, Lin; Lu, Xiao-Hong

    2008-02-15

    Antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is indicated when risk of drug exposure to the fetus is outweighed by the untreated psychosis in the mother. Although increased risk of congenital malformation has not been associated with most available antipsychotic drugs, there is a paucity of knowledge on the subtle neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal receptor blockade by these drugs. In the present study, antipsychotic drugs, sulpiride (SUL, a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and risperidone (RIS, a D2/5HT2 receptor antagonist) were administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from gestational day 6 to 18. Both RIS and SUL prenatal exposed rats had lower birth body weights compared to controls. RIS exposure had a significant main effect to retard body weight growth in male offspring until postnatal day (PND) 60. Importantly, water maze tests revealed that SUL prenatal exposure impaired visual cue response in visual task performance (stimulus-response, S-R memory), but not place response as reflected in hidden platform task (spatial memory acquisition and retention). In addition, prenatal SUL treatment reduced spontaneous activity as measured in open field. Both behavioral deficits suggest that SUL prenatal exposure may lead to subtle disruption of striatum development and related learning and motor systems. RIS exposure failed to elicit deficits in both water maze tasks and increased rearing in open field test. These results suggest prenatal exposure to SUL and RIS may produce lasting effects on growth, locomotion and memory in rat offspring. And the differences may exist in the effects of antipsychotic drugs which selectively block dopamine D2 receptors (SUL) as compared to second generation drugs (RIS) that potently antagonize serotonin and dopamine receptors.

  17. Yoga for prenatal depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong; Ni, Chenxu; Shen, Xiaoliang; Wu, Tengyun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2015-02-05

    Prenatal depression can negatively affect the physical and mental health of both mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of yoga as an intervention in the management of prenatal depression. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO from all retrieved articles describing such trials up to July 2014. Six RCTs were identified in the systematic search. The sample consisted of 375 pregnant women, most of whom were between 20 and 40 years of age. The diagnoses of depression were determined by their scores on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. When compared with comparison groups (e.g., standard prenatal care, standard antenatal exercises, social support, etc.), the level of depression statistically significantly reduced in yoga groups (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.94 to -0.25; p = 0.0007). One subgroup analysis revealed that both the levels of depressive symptoms in prenatally depressed women (SMD, -0.46; CI, -0.90 to -0.03; p = 0.04) and non-depressed women (SMD, -0.87; CI, -1.22 to -0.52; p control group. There were two kinds of yoga: the physical-exercise-based yoga and integrated yoga, which, besides physical exercises, included pranayama, meditation or deep relaxation. Therefore, the other subgroup analysis was conducted to estimate effects of the two kinds of yoga on prenatal depression. The results showed that the level of depression was significantly decreased in the integrated yoga group (SMD, -0.79; CI, -1.07 to -0.51; p Prenatal yoga intervention in pregnant women may be effective in partly reducing depressive symptoms.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S L; Liu, C M; Lee, J N

    1995-02-01

    Two cases of Meckel-Gruber syndrome are presented. In the first case, abdominal tumor and decreased amniotic fluid were initially suspected. In the second case, Omphalocele was diagnosed by local practitioners. Thorough obstetric sonographic studies revealed encephalocele, bilateral renal cystic dysplasia, polydactyly, microcephalus, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and oligohydramnios. Chromosomal analysis by percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS) was normal with 46,XY in Case 1 and 46,XX in Case 2. The prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by autopsy. The pathologic reports revealed type I polycystic kidney, bile duct proliferation, fibrosis of the portal area, encephalocele and polydactyly. It is interesting to note that the two cases came from two different families without any family history of inherited disease.

  19. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT ha...

  20. Video recording to improve the quality of prenatal genetic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E.; Gitsels, J.; Pereboom, M.; Martin, L.; Hutton, E.; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Counselling on prenatal testing has become an increasing part of obstetric care in the Netherlands. The majority of Dutch women (>70%) are counselled by midwives on prenatal testing (Wiegers and Hingstman, 2008). Prenatal screening on congenital abnormalities is not routinely done and pr

  1. Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Evaluation of the Postoperative Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafouri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Color Doppler ultrasonography (US is the imaging modality of choice in patients with penile diseases. Ultrasonography has a well-established role in evaluating erectile dysfunction as well as penile trauma, scarring, deformity, and tumors. The normal postoperative anatomy and the pathologic changes that can occur in cases of surgical complications can be successfully investigated with US. Gray Scale (B Mode and Color Doppler US clearly depicts the normal penile anatomy and postoperative changes. It is also effective in evaluating surgery-related complications and determining the causes of erectile dysfunction and other un-satisfactory long¬term results. Color Doppler US is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating patients who have undergone penile surgery. Here we aim to illustrate the gray-scale and color Doppler US appearance of normal penis, discuss the main penile surgical procedures, recognize the typical US features of the postopera-tive penis, and describe the US appearance of various postoperative complications. Patients & Methods: This article is the result of evaluating 42 patients referred to the radiology ward of Hashemi-Nejad Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences in the years 2002 to 2005 for ultrasonography of penis to assess the penis after different penile surgical procedures (urethral surgery, correction of penile mal-formations, prosthesis implantation, vascular surgery for impotence, surgical management of priapism, phallic reconstruction. The US apparatus was Esaote Technos MP, with linear multifrequency 5-8.5MHz. transducer. Results: A variety of early and late surgical complications could be identified, such as extraalbugineal patho-logic fluid collections and fibrosis. Moreover, Doppler US of the penile vessels and vascular anastomoses fol-lowing revascularization allowed direct evaluation of flow characteristics, shunt patency, and venous en-gorgement. Color Doppler US was also

  2. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  4. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of right aortic arch without significant intracardiac anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razon, Yaron; Berant, Michael; Fogelman, Rami; Amir, Gabriel; Birk, Einat

    2014-12-01

    compression of the trachea. RAA on fetal ultrasonography may indicate vascular and chromosomal abnormalities that may complicate postnatal management. When RAA is identified, fetal karyotype analysis (including the integrity of chromosome 22) is warranted. RAA may herald an occult DAA and may be a clue to a tight vascular ring. Hence, it seems essential to conduct a careful postnatal evaluation of fetuses with RAAs on prenatal ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of prenatal diagnostic indications of trisomy 18%18-三体的产前诊断指征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳; 许平; 范佳鸣; 张丽芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prenatal diagnostic indications of trisomy 18. Methods; The cases who received prenatal diagnosis in the hospital from 2004 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, then they were divided into different groups according to prenatal diagnostic indications; advanced age group (786 patients) , trisomy 18 high risk group (115 patients) , and abnormal ultrasonography group (90 patients) ; 15 cases with trisomy 18 screened out during the period and 2 cases with trisomy 18 found after birth were analyzed. Results; The detection rate of trisomy 18 in abnormal ultrasonography group was the highest (5. 56% ) , the detection rate of trisomy 18 in advanced age group was the lowest (0. 51% ) . Among 17 cases with trisomy 18, 14 cases were found with trisomy 18 of complete type, and 3 cases were found with trisomy 18 of translocation type. Conclusion; The most sensitive indication for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is still ultrasonography.%目的:对18-三体的产前诊断指征进行评估.方法:对2004 ~ 2008年间产前诊断病人进行回顾性分析,根据产前诊断指征进行分组,其中高龄组786例,18-三体高风险组115例,超声检测异常组90例,并对这期间产前诊断出的15例及出生的2例18-三体进行分析.结果:超声异常组18-三体检出率最高(5.56%),高龄组的检出率最低(0.51%).17例18-三体中完全型18-三体14例,3例易位型.结论:18-三体产前诊断最敏感的指征仍是超声检查.

  7. Ultrasonography as a non-invasive tool for detection of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obese Egyptian children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Koofy, Nehal [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Karaksy, Hanaa, E-mail: hanaakaraksy@yahoo.com [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Akel, Wafaa [Tropical Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Hennawy, Ahmad [Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2012-11-15

    Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.

  8. Value of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography as a supplementary tool in the differential diagnosis of fetal cleft lip and palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of sagittal color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) for the diagnosis of fetal cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). We performed targeted ultrasonography on 25 fetuses with CL and CP, taking coronal and axial images of the upper lip and maxillary alveolar arch in each case. The existence of defects in and malalignment of the alveolus on the axial image, hard palate defects on the midsagittal image, and flow-through defects on CDUS taken during fetal breathing or swallowing were assessed. We compared the ultrasonography findings with postnatal findings in all fetuses. Alveolar defects were detected in 16 out of 17 cases with CP and four out of eight cases with CL. Alveolar malalignment and hard palate defects were detected in 11 out of 17 cases and 14 out of 17 cases with CP, respectively, but not detected in any cases with CL. Communicating flow through the palate defect was detected in 11 out of 17 cases of CL with CP. The accuracy of detection in axial scans of an alveolar defect and malalignment was 80% and 76%, respectively. Accuracy of detection of in mid-sagittal images of hard palate defect and flow was 80% and 86%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of combined axial and sagittal images with sagittal CDUS was 92%. Sagittal CDUS of the fetal hard palate is a feasible method to directly reveal hard palate bony defects and flow through defects, which may have additional value in the differential diagnosis of fetal CL and CP.

  9. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  10. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  11. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  12. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  13. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Il [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ki [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS). Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  14. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography: advance and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ill Jang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS technology has undergone a great deal of progress along with the color and power Doppler imaging, three-dimensional imaging, electronic scanning, tissue harmonic imaging, and elastography, and one of the most important developments is the ability to acquire contrast-enhanced images. The blood flow in small vessels and the parenchymal microvasculature of the target lesion can be observed non-invasively by contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS. Through a hemodynamic analysis, CE-EUS permits the diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases and differential diagnoses between benign and malignant tumors. Recently, mechanical innovations and the development of contrast agents have increased the use of CE-EUS in the diagnostic field, as well as for the assessment of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. The advances in and the current status of CE-EUS are discussed in this review.

  15. Scrotal ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Kwon, H. J.; Jho, K. H.; Hwang, M. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Jang, J. C.; Park, B. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    The acute scrotum is a difficult clinical challenge because of numerous etiologies including inflammatory processes, testicular torsion, trauma, and complicated tumors. As the chances of salvaging testicular function are inversely proportional to the elapsed time between onset of torsion/rupture and surgical repair of testes, prompt and accurate diagnosis is imperative. The authors underwent scrotal ultrasonography in 35 patients with acute scrotum. Ultrasonographic findings in 18 patients with acute epididymitis were enlargement of the epididymes with decreased(N=13) or mixed(n=5) echogenicity. Three patients with acute stage(within 24 hours) of testicular torsion showed enlarged testes with homogeneous and slightly decreased echogenicity:the other three patients with late stage showed enlarged epididymes and testes with diffuse mixed echogenciity

  16. Cholangiocarcinoma in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography and Fascioliasis in Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic infection with Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The zoonoses are particularly endemic in sheep-raising countries and are also endemic in Iran. Typical symptoms that may be associated with fascioliasis can be divided by phases of the disease, including the acute or liver phase, the chronic or biliary phase, and ectopic or pharyngeal fascioliasis. Cholestatic symptoms may be absent, and in some cases diagnosis and treatment may be preceded by a long period of abdominal pain, eosinophilia and vague gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case with epigastric and upper quadrant abdominal pain for the last 4 years, with imaging suggesting cholangiocarcinoma. Considering a new concept of endoscopic ultrasonography, at last F. hepatica was extracted with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

  17. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, R.V.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Dondorp, W.J.; Pajkrt, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Holtkamp, K.C.A.; Karsten, M.; Vlietstra, A.L.; Lachmeijer, A.M.A.; Henneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherla

  18. A case of eosinophilic cholangitis: Imaging findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, cholangioscopy, and intraductal ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Matsumoto; Masahiko Sugitani; Kiyoshi Yokoyama; Kazuhiko Nakai; Toshiki Yamamoto; Takeshi Otani; Masahiro Ogawa; Naohide Tanaka; Ariyoshi Iwasaki; Yasuyuki Arakawa

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was referred to our institution due to epigastralgia. She presented with obstructive jaundice and eosinophilia. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed diffuse narrowing from the distal common bile duct to the bifurcation of the hepatic ducts. An endoscopic plastic biliary stent was inserted; the specimen obtained from the common bile duct wall revealed dense infiltration by eosinophils.Treatment was started with prednisolone 60 mg daily.The patient's biliary stenosis and eosinophilia gradually improved. Eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs or stomach is relatively common, but it is rare in the common bile dud. Most of the reported cases of eosinophilic cholangitis presented with eosinophilia; our patient's eosinophil count was over 1000/mm3. Since our patient had allergies to pollen and house dust, a relationship between the allergies and the eosinophilic cholangitis was suspected, but no cause was identified.

  19. B-scan ultrasonography following open globe repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, M T; Yiu, G; Hart, L; Andreoli, C M

    2014-04-01

    To examine the accuracy and predictive ability of B-scan ultrasonography in the post-repair assessment of an open globe injury. In all, 965 open globe injuries treated at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1 January 2000 and 1 June 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 427 ultrasound reports on 210 patients were analyzed. Ultrasound reports were examined for the following characteristics: vitreous hemorrhage, vitreous tag, retinal tear, RD (including subcategories total RD, partial RD, closed funnel RD, open funnel RD, and chronic RD), vitreous traction, vitreous debris, serous choroidal detachment, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, kissing choroidal detachment, dislocated crystalline lens, dislocated intraocular lens (IOL), disrupted crystalline lens, intraocular foreign body (IOFB), intraocular air, irregular posterior globe contour, disorganized posterior intraocular contents, posterior vitreous detachment, choroidal vs retinal detachment, vitreal membranes, and choroidal thickening. The main outcome measure was visual outcome at final follow-up. Among 427 B-scan reports, there were a total of 57 retinal detachments, 19 retinal tears, 18 vitreous traction, 59 serous choroidal detachments, 47 hemorrhagic choroidal detachments, and 10 kissing choroidal detachments. Of patients with multiple studies, 26% developed retinal detachments or retinal tears on subsequent scans. Ultrasound had 100% positive predictive value for diagnosing retinal detachment and IOFB. The diagnoses of retinal detachment, disorganized posterior contents, hemorrhagic choroidal detachment, kissing choroidal detachment, and irregular posterior contour were associated with worse visual acuity at final follow-up. Disorganized posterior contents correlated with particularly poor outcomes. B-scan ultrasonography is a proven, cost-effective imaging modality in the management of an open globe injury. This tool can offer both diagnostic and prognostic information, useful for both

  20. Trans-abdominal ultrasonography in diagnosis of achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-quan; CHEN Xiao-hua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of trans-abdominal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of achalasia. Methods: The subjects were divided into 3 groups, with 8 patients suffering from achalasia as the patient group, 10 normal individuals and 8 patients with cardiac carcinoma as controls. Real-time trans-abdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) was employed to investigate the lower esophagus and cardia of all subjects through water provocative test, and the sonographic findings were compared. After treated by administration of drugs, pneumatic balloon dilation or intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin, the 8 patients with achalasia were re-examined by TAUS for longitudinal comparison. Results: (1) The normal subjects had no dilation of cardia and lower esophagus before drinking water, but their cardias opened rapidly in accordance with the drinking action to allow water enter the stomach. (2) All the patients with achalasia were found to have dilation of lower esophagus before taking water. During a 10-min continuous TAUS scanning, 5 patients demonstrated absence of relaxation of cardias and no passage of water from the esophagus into the stomach.The other 3 showed slight and intermittent relaxation of cardias with water flow into the stomach. Thirty minutes after water provocative test all the 8 patients had water retardation within the lower esophagus. (3)The patients with cardiac carcinoma had an ultrasound feature of enlargement of cardiac ring and thickening of cardiac wall without dilation of lower esophagus before water provocative test. Water, while being taken,passed the cardia more slowly than in normal condition. Conclusion: TAUS is a readily accepted examination on patients because they need only to drink a little water. By demonstrating the size of cardia, thickness of cardiac wall and monitoring the water flow through the cardia, TAUS can quickly give reliable diagnostic clues to achalasia. TAUS also can be used for making assessment of therapeutic

  1. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  2. Prenatal centrifugation: A model for fetal programming of adult weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-08-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1-g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also cross- fostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P)12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  3. Application of 4- D ultrasonography in diagnosis of fetal lip- cleft%四维超声检查在胎儿唇裂诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴京玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the value of 4 - dimensional ultrasonographic imaging in the diognosis of fetal lip - cleft. Methods: 24 fetuses of lip - cleft separated into 18 ~ 28 week gestational age and 29-40 week gestational age, examined for 2 - dimensional and 4 - dimensional ultrasonography, analysised each rate of diagnosis. Results: The rate of diagnosis about 2 groups examined for 2 - dimensional ultrasonography was 100 percent, for 4 - dimensional ultrasonography was 75 percent and 83. 3 percent, no difference on statistics. 24 cases of lip - cleft and palate - cleft in 8 cases, 4 cases of missed diagnosis, the rate of diagnosis lip cleft and palate cleft was 50 percent. Conclusions: The skill of 4 - dimensional ultrasonography known as non - wound, repeated check, not Only to retain the 2 - dimensional ultrasound observation of the advantages of dynamic real - time, But also more vivid, visual display of fetal lip - cleft, Enriched prenatal screening examination method lip - cleft, prenatal and postnatal care on perinatal medicine is important to carry out the work.%目的 探讨四维超声成像在胎儿唇裂诊断中的应用价值.方法 24例唇裂胎儿分成孕18~28周及29~40周,分别进行二维及四维超声检查后对其诊断率进行比较分析.结果 二维超声对两组的唇裂诊断率均为100%,四维超声对两组的诊断率分别为75%和83.3%,统计学分析均无明显差异.24例中唇裂合并腭裂8例,漏诊4例,唇裂合并腭裂诊断率50%.结论 四维超声作为一项无创,反复多次检查的技术,既保留了二维超声动态实时观察的优点,又能更形象、直观的显示胎儿唇裂,丰富了产前胎儿唇裂畸形筛查的检查手段,对围产医学优生优育工作开展有重要意义.

  4. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring...

  5. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of placenta previa: comparison between transabdominal and transperineal ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Byun, Woo Mok; Hwang, Mi Soo; Chang, Jae Chun; Park, Bok Hwan; Cho, Kil Ho; Lee, Tae Hyeung [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    Sometimes, the diagnosis of placenta previa by transabdominal ultrasonography may be difficult, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy, because of obscuration of internal os of the cervix by overlying placenta as advancing pregnancy. In such situations, however, the transperineal ultrasonography may offer an additional view of internal os of the cervix without obscuration by overlying fetal parts or placenta. We evaluated forty pregnant women in whom placenta previa were suspected clinically, with both transabdominal and transperineal ultrasonography. The menstrual age at the time of ultrasonography, ranged from 27 to 36 weeks. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of each procedure with the final diagnosis at the time of delivery. Transabdominalul trasonography provided to correct diagnosis in 25 cases. In remaining 15 cases, the confident diagnosis could not be made because of poor visualization of internal os of the cervix. However, transperineal ultrasonography provided the correct diagnosis in all 40 cases. We conclude that the transperineal ultrasonography is relatively easy and convenient technique and valuable for detection of placenta previa, especially when the diagnosis of placenta previa is difficult by transabdominal ultrasonography

  6. Comparison between mammography and ultrasonography for palpable breast mass: focusing fibroadenoma and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Koh, Mi Kyung; Choi, Chul Soon; Chung, Soo Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Yoon, Dae Young; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and breast ultrasonography between fibroadenoma and palpable breast cancer and to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography as a primary diagnostic modality to differentiate between these two tumor types. In 36 cases of fibroadenoma and 35 of breast cancer, all palpable and pathologically-proven, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography was retros-pectively analysed. In fibroadenoma cases, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography was 53% and 80%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant(p=3D0.0162). In cases of breast cancer, the corresponding figures were 74% and 82%, respectively;the difference was not statistically signigicant(p-0.55). Overall, the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonog-raphy was 63% and 82%, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant(p=3D0.0164). The total diagnostic accuracy of both studies was 90%, and this was signigicantly different(p=3D0.044) from that of ultrasonography(82%). In patients who have clinically palpable breast masses, ultrasonography can be recommended as the primary diagnostic modality, though for other breast lesions, mammography is the recommended primary modality.=20.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Lung Ultrasonography for the Detection of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Chest X-ray is recommended for routine use in patients with suspected pneumonia, but its use in emergency settings is limited. In this study, the diagnostic performance of a new method for quantitative analysis of lung ultrasonography was compared with bedside chest X-ray and visual lung ultrasonography for detection of community-acquired pneumonia, using thoracic computed tomography as a gold standard. Methods. Thirty-two spontaneously breathing patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia, undergoing computed tomography examination, were consecutively enrolled. Each hemithorax was evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormalities by chest X-ray and quantitative or visual ultrasonography. Results. Quantitative ultrasonography showed higher sensitivity (93%, specificity (95%, and diagnostic accuracy (94% than chest X-ray (64%, 80%, and 69%, resp., visual ultrasonography (68%, 95%, and 77%, resp., or their combination (77%, 75%, and 77%, resp.. Conclusions. Quantitative lung ultrasonography was considerably more accurate than either chest X-ray or visual ultrasonography in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and it may represent a useful first-line approach for confirmation of clinical diagnosis in emergency settings.

  8. Feasibility of ultrasonography and MR arthrography during evaluation of rotator cuff injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jin Guang [Yanji Hospital, Jilin (China); Lee, Jong Min; Ryeom, Hun Kyu [School of Medicine Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of MR arthrography and ultrasonography in evaluating shoulder pain. The subject group consisted of all patients who visited our institute complaining of shoulder pain or instability form June 2002 to December 2004. There were a total of 92 patients with an mean age of 48. On the basis of arthroscopic results, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ultrasonography and MR arthrography were evaluated by comparing them with each other. In the diagnosis of separateness tendon tears, ultrasonography had sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 64%, respectively, whereas MR arthrography had sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 94%, respectively. Ultrasonography also had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of subscapularis tendon tears (100% and 90%). MR arthrography was appropriate for identifying glenoid labral abnormalities (sensitivity, 95% and specificity, 61%). Similar results from ultrasonography and MR arthrography were obtained in the diagnosis of subscapular tendon tears or full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff tendons (kappa value, 0.644 and 0.911). While evaluating rotator cuff abnormalities, ultrasonography was appropriate for screening, whereas MR arthrography was useful to confirm the results of the ultrasonography.

  9. Learning curve of office-based ultrasonography for rotator cuff tendons tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Jung-Man; Yoo, Tae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and MR arthrography (MRA) imaging in detecting of rotator cuff tears with arthroscopic finding used as the reference standard. The ultrasonography and MRA findings of 51 shoulders that underwent the arthroscopic surgery were prospectively analysed. Two orthopaedic doctors independently performed ultrasonography and interpreted the findings at the office. The tear size measured at ultrasonography and MRA was compared with the size measured at surgery using Pearson correlation coefficients (r). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and false-positive rate were calculated for a diagnosis of partial-and full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The kappa coefficient was calculated to verify the inter-observer agreement. The sensitivity of ultrasonography and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.5 and 72.7 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 80.0 and 100 %, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonograpy and MRA for detecting partial-thickness tears was 45.1 and 88.2 %, and that for full-thickness tears was 82.4 and 98 %, respectively. Tear size measured based on ultrasonography examination showed a poor correlation with the size measured at arthroscopic surgery (r = 0.21; p measurement. Inter-observer agreement on the interpretation was fair. These results highlight the importance of the correct technique and experience in operation of ultrasonography in shoulder joint. Diagnostic study, Level II.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Amniotic Band Syndrome in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy using 3D Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band syndrome is characterized by a build-up of bands and strings of fibrous tissue that adhere to the fetus and can compress parts of the fetus, thus causing malformations and even limb amputation while the fetus is still in the uterus. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable and their extent may range from a single abnormality, like a constriction ring, to multiple abnormalities. Such abnormalities are generally diagnosed at the end of the first or the beginning of the second trimester using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS in rendering mode allows spatial analysis of the fetus and amniotic band, thus enabling better comprehension of this pathological condition and better counseling for the parents. There has not previously been any evidence to show that 3DUS would be useful in cases of late diagnosis (third trimester of amniotic band syndrome. In the present case, a primigravid woman underwent her second obstetric ultrasound scan in the 34 th week, from which we observed two bands in contact with the right forearm, but with normal movement of this limb and its fingers. 3DUS made it possible to see the spatial relationship of these bands to the fetal body, thereby confirming their adherence to the limb. After the birth, the prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome without limb constriction was confirmed. A surgical procedure was carried out on the third day after birth to excise the bands, and the newborn was then discharged in a good general condition.

  11. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-06-03

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  12. [Diagnostic accuracy of the immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography in chemical injured eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua; Chen, Bing; Wang, Liqiang; Li, Zhaohui; Huang, Yifei

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography, a noninvasive preoperative diagnosis method, in observing the anterior segment in chemical injured eyes. It was a retrospective study. Sixty-three ocular chemical injury patients (63 eyes), who accepted the keratoplasty or the artificial cornea transplant in PLA General Hospital from May 2011 to May 2013, were included in this study. All the injured eyes were examined by ultrasound bio-microscopy (UBM) and immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography, respectively. The images were analyzed and the results were compared with the intraoperative findings. The observation of lens was the main parameter. All the 63 patients were examined with the UBM and the immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography before the surgery. The findings of the cornea, anterior chamber angle, iris from UBM were consistent with those from the immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography. As for the lens observation, in 32 eyes in which the lens were not detected by UBM, the lens were not detected in only 16 eyes, while 3 eyes with normal lens and 13 eyes with lens pacifications (1 eye with pyknotic lens) by immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography. In 17 eyes in which the lens were found normal by UBM, there were only 14 eyes with normal lens and the rest 3 eyes' lens were found intumescent by immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography. In 6 eyes in which lens were detected with suspicious by UBM, 2 eyes' lens were pyknotic and 4 eyes' lens were intumescent or clouded by immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography. The findings of immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography were highly consistent with the intraoperative findings. The lens could be observed accurately by immersion high-frequency B-scan ultrasonography in chemical injured eyes.

  13. Shoulder ultrasonography performed by orthopedic surgeons increases efficiency in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Chen, Poyu; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Yeung-Jen

    2017-04-20

    Rotator cuff tears are very common and their incidence increases with age. Shoulder ultrasonography has recently gained popularity in detecting rotator cuff tears because of its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, time-saving, and real-time nature of the procedure. Well-trained orthopedic surgeons may utilize shoulder ultrasonography to diagnose rotator cuff tears. The wait time of patients planned to have shoulder MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to rule in rotator cuff tears may decrease after orthopedic surgeon start doing shoulder ultrasonography as a screening tool for that. Patients with rotator cuff tears may be detected earlier by ultrasonography and have expedited surgical repair. The efficacy in determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from January 2007 to December 2012. They were divided into 2 groups: Ultrasound (-) group and the Ultrasound (+) group. Age, gender, wait time from outpatient department (OPD) visit to MRI exam, MRI exam to operation (OP), and OPD visit to OP, patient number for MRI exam, and number of patients who finally had rotator cuff repair within two groups were compared. The wait time of OPD visit to OP and MRI to OP in patients who received shoulder ultrasonography was significantly less than that in patients did not receive shoulder ultrasonography screening. Only 23.8% of the patients with a suspected rotator cuff injury undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair before ultrasonography was applied as a screening tool. The percentage increased to 53.6% after orthopedic surgeon started using ultrasonography as a screening tool for rotator cuff tears. Office-based shoulder ultrasound examination can reduce the wait time for a shoulder MRI. The efficacy of determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase after the introduction of shoulder ultrasonography.

  14. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  15. Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sept 2013-31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT According to the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder

  16. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  17. Prenatal screening for congenital malformations: diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care of the pregnancy in terms of antenatal care, and referral for birth as ... photographed and only represent a proportion of all the malformed ... KEY WORDS: foetal malformafion, newborn deaths, prenatal care, pregnancy terminafion. Figure 1. Case 1 ... multiple methods, including ultrasound, are combined to make a ...

  18. Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical lateralization, as indicated by mixed-handedness, has been related to diverse psychopathologies. Maternal prenatal stress has recently been associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In the present study, this relationship was investigated further in a prospective, methodologically

  19. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  20. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  1. Noninvasive prenatal detection of genetic defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, Jessica Maria Elisabeth van den

    2016-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnostics is mainly based on obtaining fetal DNA through invasive procedures such as chorionic villi sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. These procedures are associated with a small, but significant risk of fetal loss. The discovery of the presence of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in

  2. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  3. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  4. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood con

  5. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  6. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of 4p and 4q Subtelomeric Microdeletion in De Novo Ring Chromosome 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Akbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring chromosomes are unusual abnormalities that are observed in prenatal diagnosis. A 23-year-old patient (gravida 1, para 0 referred for amniocentesis due to abnormal maternal serum screening result in the 16th week of second pregnancy. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured amniyotic fluid cells revealed out ring chromosome 4. Both maternal and paternal karyotypes were normal. Terminal deletion was observed in both 4p and 4q arms of ring chromosome 4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. However deletion was not observed in the WHS critical region of both normal and ring chromosome 4 by an additional FISH study. These results were confirmed by means of array-CGH showing terminal deletions on 4p16.3 (130 kb and 4q35.2 (2.449 Mb. In the 21th week of pregnancy, no gross anomalia, except two weeks symmetric growth retardation, was present in the fetal ultrasonographic examination. According to our review of literature, this is the first prenatal case with 4p and 4q subtelomeric deletion of ring chromosome 4 without the involvement of WHS critical region. Our report describes the prenatal case with a ring chromosome 4 abnormality completely characterized by array-CGH which provided complementary data for genetic counseling of prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Gender dependent evaluation of autism like behavior in mice exposed to prenatal zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eGrabrucker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior.

  9. Gender Dependent Evaluation of Autism like Behavior in Mice Exposed to Prenatal Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabrucker, Stefanie; Boeckers, Tobias M; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has recently been linked to the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as environmental risk factor. With an estimated 17% of the world population being at risk of zinc deficiency, especially zinc deficiency during pregnancy might be a common occurrence, also in industrialized nations. On molecular level, zinc deficiency has been shown to affect a signaling pathway at glutamatergic synapses that has previously been identified through genetic mutations in ASD patients, the Neurexin-Neuroligin-Shank pathway, via altering zinc binding Shank family members. In particular, prenatal zinc deficient but not acute zinc deficient animals have been reported to display autism like behavior in some behavioral tests. However, a full behavioral analysis of a possible autism like behavior has been lacking so far. Here, we performed an extensive behavioral phenotyping of mice born from mothers with mild zinc deficiency during all trimesters of pregnancy. Prenatal zinc deficient animals were investigated as adults and gender differences were assessed. Our results show that prenatal zinc deficient mice display increased anxiety, deficits in nest building and various social interaction paradigm, as well as mild alterations in ultrasonic vocalizations. A gender specific analysis revealed only few sex specific differences. Taken together, given that similar behavioral abnormalities as reported here are frequently observed in ASD mouse models, we conclude that prenatal zinc deficient animals even without specific genetic susceptibility for ASD, already show some features of ASD like behavior.

  10. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  12. Application progress of prenatal ultrasound in twin-twin transfusion syndrome%产前超声检查在双胎输血综合征中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋瑜; 杨太珠

    2012-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TITS) is a potentially seriouscomplication of monochorionic twin pregnancies, with high incidence and poor prognosis. As the main means of prenatal examination, ultrasonography is useful for early detection, diagnosis and treatment of TITS and it can improves the quality of life of perinatal infante- This article reviews the application progress of prenatal ultrasound in TITS.%双胎输血综合症(TTTS)是单绒毛膜双胎的一种严重并发症,其发病率较高,预后较差.超声作为产前检查的主要手段,能够早期发现、诊断,并及时治疗,从而提高围产儿的生存质量,本文就产前超声检查在TTTS的应用进展做一综述.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of a de novo inversion of chromosome (2)(p21q11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstschläger, M; Mittermayer, C; Prusa, A R; Drahonsky, R; Repa, C; Deutinger, J; Bernaschek, G

    2003-08-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of "apparently balanced" chromosomal rearrangements, if not inherited from a parent, are problematic for genetic counsellors and families. Although the parents need to be informed about the increased risk of multiple congenital anomalies, the anomalies that the fetus is at risk can not be discussed unless a similar breakpoint and accompanying phenotype have been reported in the literature. In the reported case prenatal ultrasound examination revealed a massive hydrocephalus internus and IUGR. The karyotype of the fetus was inv(2)(p21q11) de novo. Postmortem examination revealed short palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, atypical nasiolabial configuration, microgenia, extended position of the fingers, atypical proximal inserted first toe, hydrocephalus internus, hypoplasia of the cerebellum and bulbi olfactorii, bilateral hypoplastic lungs, atrial septal defect II, small right ventricle, dysplasia of the pulmonary valve, hypoplastic pulmonary artery, right proximal ureterostenosis, hypoplastic gall bladder. This is the first description of a de novo inversion (2)(p21q11) in a fetus with multiple malformations.

  14. Prenatal ultrasound application in diagnosis and treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion syndrome%产前超声在双胎反向动脉灌注综合征诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭喜平; 王慧芳; 胡芷洋; 林琪; 冯程

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声在双胎反向动脉灌注(TRAP)综合征诊疗中的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析我院产前超声诊断的5例TRAP超声图像、临床资料及妊娠结局,总结TRAP声像学特点.结果 5例TRAP初次确诊孕周为13~28周,均于产后得到证实.彩色多普勒超声检查显示无心畸胎血液循环呈现反向动脉灌注的特点.5例中2例引产;1例流产;1例超声引导下接受无心畸胎减胎术,妊娠至37周分娩;1例在超声密切监测下妊娠至32~(+4)周分娩,新生儿结局良好.结论 产前超声检查对TRAP的早期诊断、预后判断、治疗方案和分娩时机的选择有重要应用价值.%Objective To investigate the value of prenatal ultrasound in diagnosis and treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion (TRAP) syndrome. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 5 TRAP cases, including ultrasound images, clinical data and pregnancy outcomes. The sonographic characteristics were summarized. Results Five TRAP cases were diagnosed during 13 to 28 weeks' gestation and confirmed after birth. Color Doppler unltrasonography revealed retrograde umbilical artery perfusion towards acardiac twin. Two of 5 cases ended up in induced abortion, 1 in spontaneous abortion, 1 was delivered at 37 weeks' gestation after ultrasound-guided feticide of the acardiac twin and 1 was monitored closely with ultrasound and delivered alive at 32~(+4) weeks' gestation. Conclusion Prenatal ultrasonography has great applicative value for TRAP syndrome in early diagnosis, choosing optimal treatment and prognosis assessment.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of an autosomal translocation with regular trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Yusuf; Deveci, M Salih; Koc, Altug; Kaya, Halide; Alanbay, Ibrahim; Coksuer, Hakan; Dede, Murat

    2013-06-01

    The coincidence of trisomy 21 and a structural rearrangement is very rare, and even it has not been reported as a prenatal diagnosis yet. In this article, we present an autosomal translocation carrier fetus with trisomy 21: 47,XX,+21, t(3;8)(p21;q24). Although the coincidence of reciprocal translocation and trisomy may be seen in reciprocal translocation carrier families, de novo cases are extremely rare. The presented case is diagnosed by amniocentesis, which was performed because of abnormal fetal ultrasonographic findings and increased trisomy 21 risk at maternal serum screening test. The postmortem pathologic examination of the fetus revealed that the findings of hypertelorism and right lung with two lobes are interesting novel findings of our cases associated with the breakpoints 3p21 and 8q24.

  16. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruyn, G A W

    2009-03-01

    To assess the intra and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) among rheumatologists in detecting destructive and inflammatory shoulder abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine the overall agreement between US and MRI.

  17. Comparison of Radiography and Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Diaphragmatic Hernia in Bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Athar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on 101 animals suffering from thoracoabdominal disorders; out of which twenty seven animals (twenty six buffaloes and one cow were diagnosed with diaphragmatic hernia based on clinical signs, radiography, ultrasonography, and left flank laparorumenotomy. Radiography alone confirmed diaphragmatic hernia in 18 cases (66.67% with a sac-like structure cranial to the diaphragm. In 15 animals the sac contained metallic densities while in three cases a sac-like structure with no metallic densities was present. Ultrasonography was helpful in confirming diaphragmatic hernia in 23 cases (85.18% and ultrasonographically reticular motility was evident at the level of 4th/5th intercostal space in all the animals. B+M mode ultrasonography was used for the first time for diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia in bovines and the results suggested that ultrasonography was a reliable diagnostic modality for diaphragmatic hernia in bovines.

  18. The clinical assessment of intraductal ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the clinical value of intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis with conventional imaging methods. Methods: IDUS was carried out in eighteen patients with pancreatic carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis

  19. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  20. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, G. A. W.; Naredo, E.; Moeller, I.; Moragues, C.; Garrido, J.; de Bock, G. H.; d'Agostino, M-A; Filippucci, E.; Iagnocco, A.; Backhaus, M.; Swen, W. A. A.; Balint, P.; Pineda, C.; Milutinovic, S.; Kane, D.; Kaeley, G.; Narvaez, F. J.; Wakefield, R. J.; Narvaez, J. A.; de Augustin, J.; Schmidt, W. A.; Moller, I.; Swen, N.; de Agustin, J.

    Objective: To assess the intra and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography ( US) among rheumatologists in detecting destructive and inflammatory shoulder abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) and to determine the overall agreement between US and MRI.

  1. Clinical study of scrotum scintigraphy in 49 patients with acute scrotal pain. A comparison with ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Zhibin; Luo Quanyong; Chen Libo; Zhu Jifang; Zhu Ruisen [Shanghai 6th People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2001-06-01

    The significance of scrotum scintigraphy in differentiating acute testicular torsion from acute orchiepididymitis was evaluated. In this report, 49 patients with acute scrotal pain were examined with radionuclide scrotum scintigraphy and ultrasonography in parallel for comparison. Of 37 patients with decreased radioactivity in the abnormal side scrotum, 35 were diagnosed with testicular torsion surgically and the other 2 were diagnosed with indirect inguinal hernia. Only 17 among the 35 patients were diagnosed by ultrasonography as having testicular torsion. The remaining 12 patients with increased radioactivity in the abnormal side of the scrotum were all diagnosed with orchiepididymitis through conservative treatment and clinical follow-up, but only 8 of the 12 were correctly and exactly diagnosed by ultrasonography. In the process of diagnosing acute scrotal pain, radionuclide scrotum scintigraphy has obvious advantage over ultrasonography. It also has the advantage of being simple, fast and accurate but without any detrimental effect on the human body. (author)

  2. Reliability of ultrasonography in detecting shoulder disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, G. A. W.; Naredo, E.; Moeller, I.; Moragues, C.; Garrido, J.; de Bock, G. H.; d'Agostino, M-A; Filippucci, E.; Iagnocco, A.; Backhaus, M.; Swen, W. A. A.; Balint, P.; Pineda, C.; Milutinovic, S.; Kane, D.; Kaeley, G.; Narvaez, F. J.; Wakefield, R. J.; Narvaez, J. A.; de Augustin, J.; Schmidt, W. A.; Moller, I.; Swen, N.; de Agustin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intra and interobserver reproducibility of musculoskeletal ultrasonography ( US) among rheumatologists in detecting destructive and inflammatory shoulder abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) and to determine the overall agreement between US and MRI. Meth

  3. Integrating trans-abdominal ultrasonography with fecal steroid metabolite monitoring to accurately diagnose pregnancy and predict the timing of parturition in the red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Erin; Browning, Lissa J; Reinhart, Paul; Roth, Terri L

    2017-02-23

    Red pandas (Ailurus fulgens styani) exhibit a variable gestation length and may experience a pseudopregnancy indistinguishable from true pregnancy; therefore, it is not possible to deduce an individual's true pregnancy status and parturition date based on breeding dates or fecal progesterone excretion patterns alone. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in red pandas. Two to three females were monitored over 4 consecutive years, generating a total of seven profiles (four pregnancies, two pseudopregnancies, and one lost pregnancy). Fecal samples were collected and assayed for progesterone (P4) and estrogen conjugate (EC) to characterize patterns associated with breeding activity and parturition events. Animals were trained for voluntary transabdominal ultrasound and examinations were performed weekly. Breeding behaviors and fecal EC data suggest that the estrus cycle of this species is 11-12 days in length. Fecal steroid metabolite analyses also revealed that neither P4 nor EC concentrations were suitable indicators of pregnancy in this species; however, a secondary increase in P4 occurred 69-71 days prior to parturition in all pregnant females, presumably coinciding with embryo implantation. Using ultrasonography, embryos were detected as early as 62 days post-breeding/50 days pre-partum and serial measurements of uterine lumen diameter were documented throughout four pregnancies. Advances in reproductive diagnostics, such as the implementation of ultrasonography, may facilitate improved husbandry of pregnant females and allow for the accurate prediction of parturition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Comparison of ultrasonography and skinfold measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness in the evaluation of body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Adıgüzel, Esat; Sabir, Nuran; Akdoğan, Ilgaz; Yılmaz, Birsen; yonguç, gökşin nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the amount of body fat tissue with skinfold thickness measurements is a common method to estimate the body composition. The other method used for this purpose is ultrasonography which is expensive and needs specialization to apply. In this study, validity of skinfold thickness measurements was investigated using ultrasonography. Methods: One hundred adult volunteers (50 males and 50 females) were used in this study. The ages of the subjects were 20to 70, selected as10 ...

  6. Evaluation of the Effusion within Biceps Long Head Tendon Sheath Using Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    Park, In; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Kwang-Yeol; Park, Kwang-Sun; Kim, Yang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Many shoulder diseases are related to glenohumeral joint synovitis and effusion. The purpose of the present study is to detect effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath as the sign of glenohumeral joint synovitis using ultrasonography, and to evaluate the clinical meaning of effusion within the biceps long head tendon sheath. Methods A consecutive series of 569 patients who underwent ultrasonography for shoulder pain were reviewed retrospectively and ultimately, 303 patien...

  7. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas. There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions.

  8. What types of early gastric cancer are indicated for endoscopic ultrasonography staging of invasion depth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Hori, Kazutoshi; Hara, Ken; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-08-25

    To clarify the diagnostic efficacy and limitations of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and the characteristics of early gastric cancers (EGCs) that are indications for EUS-based assessment of cancer invasion depth. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 153 EGC patients who underwent conventional endoscopy (CE) and EUS (20 MHz) before treatment. We found that 13.7% were "inconclusive" cases with low-quality EUS images, including all nine of the cases with protruded (0-I)-type EGCs. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between CE and EUS. Two significant independent risk factors for misdiagnosis by EUS were identified-ulcer scarring [UL(+); odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, P = 0.003] and non-indication criteria for endoscopic resection (ER) (OR = 3.02, P = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, 23.1% of the differentiated-type cancers exhibiting SM massive invasion (SM2) invasion (submucosal invasion ≥ 500 μm) by CE were correctly diagnosed by EUS, and 23.1% of the undifferentiated-type EGCs meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER were correctly diagnosed by EUS. There is no need to perform EUS for UL(+) EGCs or 0-I-type EGCs, but EUS may enhance the pretreatment staging of differentiated-type EGCs with SM2 invasion without UL or undifferentiated-type EGCs revealed by CE as meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER.

  9. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  10. Integrating ultrasonography within the reproductive management of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; López-Gatius, Fernando; López-Béjar, Manel

    2005-04-15

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to elucidate certain aspects of the reproductive biology of wild or endangered species. However, to our knowledge, this tool has not been used for reproductive monitoring of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). In this study, real-time ultrasonography was used in 16 collared peccary females to diagnose early pregnancy status and predict gestational age. Based on the detection of an embryo, the earliest pregnancy diagnosis was made on Day 18 after mating, with the mean time needed for diagnosis being 22 days. Overall accuracies on Days 22, 26 and 28 were 56, 93, and 100%, respectively. On Days 26 and 28, all pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnoses, respectively, were correct. The fetal measurements that best correlated with gestational age were crown-rump-length (CRL) and the length and diameter of the thorax. CRL was considered the most practical measurement because, contrary to thoracic fetometry, it could be determined when the embryo was first detected. Our findings revealed real-time ultrasound scanning to be a very accurate method for early pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of gestational age in the collared peccary.

  11. The value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis by umbilical venous catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Keun; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Il Young [Chonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography for diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) associated with the umbilical venous catheterization (UVC). We reviewed the abnormal ultrasonography of 54 patients with UVC. We observed echogenic thrombus in the portal vein by ultrasonography which has a 5-10 MHz linear transducer. We evaluated the frequency of PVT, the relationship between PVT and duration of UVC, and the location of catheter tip (Group I (n=41): above the diaphragm, Group II (n=9): between the diaphragm and the liver, Group III (n=4): below the liver), the location of thrombus on US, and the change of PVT on the follow-up ultrasonography. PVT was identified in the 7 neonates (13%) among the 54 neonates with UVC. The frequency of PVT was 5% on group I, 45% on group II and 25% on group III. The 6 cases among the 7 cases(86%) of PVT were localized to the umbilical portion of the left portal vein, and there were completely resolved (n=4) or regressed (n=1) on the follow-up ultrasonography(n=5). Remaining one case of PVT was located in the right, left, and main portal veins with collateral formation, and cavernous transformation occurred on the follow-up. Most PVTs by UVC are localized to the umbilical portion of left portal vein. Ultrasonography is a useful modality to diagnose PVT by UVC.

  12. Significance of color doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of pancreatic carcinoma vascular invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is highly appreciated to provide exact data on vascular invasion of pancreatic carcinoma relying as much as possible on non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Color Doppler ultrasonography has been proven as an efficient method for clinical staging of pancreatic carcinoma essential for therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of the sensitivity and specificity for color Doppler ultrasonography in patients suffering from pancreatic carcinoma. Methods. We performed color Doppler ultrasonography examination in 43 patients with pancreatic carcinoma prior to the surgery. The findings of ultrasonography on neoplasm vascular invasion were correlated to the findings obtained during the subsequent surgical procedures. An estimation of neoplastic invasion of certain blood vessels including portal vein, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery and vein is critical for decision making regarding surgical treatment. The patients with metastases of pancreatic carcinoma were excluded from the study. Results. Comparing color Doppler and the surgical findings we estimated the sensitivity for detection of neoplastic vascular invasion ranging from 79−93%, whereas the specificity range was from 83−93%. Conclusion. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a sufficiently sensitive and specific method for evaluation of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma patients. Since color Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive, radiation free, and inexpensive diagnostic tool, considering also the results of this and similar studies we could strongly recommend its use for an initial presurgical evaluation of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma patients.

  13. Transabdominal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Ri Liao; Ying Dai; Ling Huo; Kun Yan; Lin Zhang; Hui Zhang; Wen Gao; Min-Hua Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the value of transabdominal ultrasonography (US) in the preoperative staging of gastric cancer.METHODS: A total of 198 patients with gastric cancer underwent preoperatively transabdominal US, depth of tumor infiltration was assessed in 125 patients, and lymph node metastasis was assessed in 106 patients.RESULTS: The staging accuracy of transabdominal US was 55.6%, 75.0%, 87.3% and 71.1% in T1, T2, T3 and T4 carcinomas, respectively. The overall accuracy was 77.6%.The detection rate for pancreatic invasion and liver invasion was 77.4%, 71.4%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity,accuracy of transabdominal US in assessment of lymph node metastasis were 77.6%, 64.1%, 72.6%, respectively.Various shapes such as round, ovoid, spindle were encountered in benign and malignant lymph nodes. Majority of both benign and malignant lymph nodes were hyperechoic and had a distinct border. Benign lymph nodes were smaller than malignant lymph nodes in length and width (P = 0.000,0.005). Irregular shape, fusional shape, infiltrative signs,inhomogenous echo were seen mainly in malignant lymph nodes (P = 0.045, 0.006, 0.027, 0.006).CONCLUSION: Transabdominal US is useful for preoperative staging in gastric cancer, although it is difficult to differentiate benign from malignant lymph nodes.

  14. Utility of Ultrasonography for Urinary Tract Infections of Infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chul Ho; Kim, Yun Jeong [Dongnam Health Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, we investigated utility of ultrasonography for urinary tract infections of infants. The results of the research is as follows : 1. The number of infants under one year old was 100 out of 122 infants who were diagnosed as a unitary infection. The ratio of males to females was 1.7 : 1. Seventy-seven infants who underwent three kinds of radiologic examinations such as kidney sonography (51%), {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan (42%), and VCUG (22%). 2. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and VCUG, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 82% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 58%. In comparison of correlation between kidney sonography and {sup 99m}TC DMSA-scan, the sensitivity of kidney sonography was 66% while the specificity of kidney sonography was 67%. 3. Utility of kidney sonography showed the highest efficiency when we considered pain, discomfort, a sense of shame, psychological stress when infants may undergo at the examination, side-effect of a contrast agent after the examination, and complication of exposure to radiation.

  15. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; pleprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions.

  16. Mass-forming pancreatitis: Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko D'Onofrio; Giulia Zamboni; Alessia Tognolini; Roberto Malagò; Niccolò Faccioli; Luca Frulloni; Roberto Pozzi Mucelli

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with a second-generation contrast medium in the differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma.METHODS: From our radio-pathology database, we retrieved all the patients affected by mass-forming pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma who underwent CEUS. We evaluated the results of CEUS in the study of the 173 pancreatic masses considering the possibilities of a differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor by identifying the "parenchymographic" enhancement during the dynamic phase of CEUS, which was considered diagnostic for mass-forming pancreatitis.RESULTS: At CEUS, 94% of the mass-forming pancreatitis showed intralesional parenchymography.CEUS allowed diagnosis of mass-forming pancreatitis with sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 97.8%,positive predictive value of 91.2%, negative predictive value of 97.1%, and overall accuracy of 96%. CEUS significantly increased the diagnostic confidence in the differential diagnosis between mass-forming pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma, with receiver operating characteristic curve areas from 0.557 (P = 0.1608) for baseline US to 0.956 (P < 0.0001) for CEUS.CONCLUSION: CEUS allowed diagnosis of massforming pancreatitis with diagnostic accuracy of 96%. CEUS significantly increases the diagnostic confidence with respect to basal US in discerning mass-forming pancreatitis from pancreatic neoplasm.

  17. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MINIPROBE ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ESOPHAGEAL PROTRUDING LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of miniprobe ultrasonography (MPS) in the protruding lesions of esophagus. Methods Sixty-two patients with protruding lesions of esophagus were examined with MPS. Results The MPS examination showed diseases of esophageal polyp, inflammatory protruding, esophageal leiomyoma, esophageal leiomyosarcoma, esophageal venous aneurysm, esophageal lipoma, esophageal cyst, esophageal carcinoma, and extra esophageal compression including aorta compression, lung tumor compression and spina compression. Fourteen patients were verified by surgical operations and pathological examinations, resulting in 92.86% (13/14) diagnosis accuracy rate. Forty-eight cases had results of gastroscope examination consistent with that of MPS. Twelve cases had results of CT and MRI examination consistent with that of MPS. Follow-up was completed on 22 patients. Conclusion Besides imaging the esophageal layer, MPS can precisely locate the histological layer of the esophageal protruding lesions and predict their characters. This indicates its value in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the protruding lesions of esophagus. Furthermore, the miniature probe used in MPS examination can pass the structured esophagus, enabling wider application of the examination.

  18. Evaluation of chronic patellar tendinitis by ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Eun Jin; Song, In Sup; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Kun Sang; Seo, Kyung Ho; Seo, Kyung Mook [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US) for the diagnosis of jumper`s knee in high school basketball players. In order to detect clinical cases of jumper`s knee, 40 sites of patellar tendon in 20 knees of ten basketball players were assessed by an evaluation of personal history and physical examination. US and MRI were used for detecting compatible findings of this condition; the diagnostic criteria were hypoechoic focus with focal thickening as seen on US, and increased signal intensity with focal thickening as seen on MRI. As an early finding of jumper`s knee a new sonographic criterion of focal hypoechoic focus with or without focal thickening, was also applied. At 19 of 40 sites (48 %), clinical jumper`s knee was diagnosed. For the detection of this condition according to known cliteria, sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 63 % and 100 % (US) and 32 % and 90 % (MRI). Using the new criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 84 % and 76 %, respectively. On the basis of known US and MRI criteria for jumper`s knee, the sensitivity and specificity of US were higher than those of MRI. We suggest that hypoechoic focus without focal thickening oas seen on US, is an early finding of jumper`s knee. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Ultrasonography and arthrography in rotator cuff lesions: algorithmic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Chenona (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Twenty-six patients with chief complaint of shoulder pain who underwent both ultrasonographic examination and arthrography of the shoulder were analyzed. Ten out of 12 cases with clinical impression of frozen shoulder, showed normal findings on the ultrasonographic examination of the shoulder. Among these ten cases, nine cases showed adhesive capsulitis and one case showed rotator cuff tear on arthrography. Among six cases with the clinical impression of rotator cuff tear, five cases showed rotator cuff tear and one case showed combined calcific tendinitis and adhesive capsulitis on ultrasonographic examination. In arthrography, four cases of rotator cuff tear, one case of calcific tendinitis and biceps tendinitis and one case of normal finding were diagnosed. For the remaining eight cases in the ultrasonographic examination, normal finding or biceps tendinitis were found and for the remaining of the cases in arthrography adhesive capsulitis were found. With the above results, we recommend that the shoulder ultrasonography as the first line diagnostic modality for a patient with chief complaint of shoulder pain.

  20. Clinical diagnostic potentials of thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy; An evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizuka, Tatsuo; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital); Endo, Keigo

    1993-06-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate the potential contributions of high resolution ultrasonography (US) and Tc-99m scintigraphy in the routine diagnosis of thyroid disease. The diagnostic impacts of US and Tc-99m scintigraphy results in 177 patients visiting our thyroid clinic were assessed and scored according to the following criteria: when the information provided by either test supported, confirmed or changed the initial clinical diagnosis, they received scores of 2, 3 and 4 respectively, while score 1 was given when the test itself was useless for the differential diagnosis. US identified focal lesions that both palpation and scintigraphy had failed to detect in 14 (12.1%) of 116 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, suggesting the necessity of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, adenoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomatous goiter, and vice versa in the diagnosis of hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves's diseases. Thus, the advantages of US over scintigraphy for morphological evaluation were confirmed. US was particularly useful for the differential diagnosis of adenomatous goiter from Hashimoto's thyroiditis or a single nodular disease. In contrast, scintigraphy gave functional images, being especially helpful for the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. (author).

  1. THE USE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY TO PREDICT CARCASS COMPOSITION IN KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cadavez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyse the use of ultrasounds to predict carcass composition in kids. Twenty kids from Serrana Portuguese local breed with a mean live weight of 12.6 ± 2.99 kg were scanned by ultrasonography to determine longissimus muscle depth (LD, subcutaneous fat thickness (SF between the 12th and 13th vertebrae (D12, 1st and 2nd (L1 and 3rd and 4th (L3 lumbar vertebra and breast bone tissue thickness at 1st (BT1, 2nd (BT2, 3rd (S3 and 4th (BT4 sternebrae. Lambs were slaughtered after 24-h fasting and carcasses were cooled at 4 ºC for 24 hours. Carcass left side was dissected into muscle, subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat and bone and remainder (major blood vessels, ligaments, tendons, and thick connective tissue sheets associated with some muscles. Tissues measurements plus hot carcass weight were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. Models developed 96.7% of muscle, 64.6% of subcutaneous fat, 95.0% of intermuscular fat, and 85.0% of bone weight variation, respectively. Ultrasound measurements were admitted in the models, improving the determination coefficient (R2 and reducing the residual standard deviation. The HCW and tissues measurements taken by ultrasounds in live kids can be used to develop models to predict carcass composition at slaughter-house level.

  2. Usefulness of ultrasonography is the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Uliaque, Carolina; Pardo Berdún, Francisco Javier; Laborda Herrero, Ricardo; Lórenz, Carmen Pérez

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of ultrasonography (US) for differentiating between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and its usefulness in obviating unnecessary invasive procedures. From January 2012 through December 2014, a total of 321 fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedures were done in 302 patients selected according to the criteria recommended by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinology guidelines and the American Thyroid Association guidelines. We analyzed the following characteristics on US: location, size, morphology, contour, consistency, echostructure, echogenicity, calcifications, and vascularization. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to investigate the relationship between the US findings and thyroid cancer. The prevalence of malignancy in our study population was 5.92%. The US findings that were significantly associated with a greater probability of malignancy were microcalcifications, central vascularization, and hypoechogenicity. The US findings that were associated with a lower risk of malignancy were areas of colloid degeneration and nodule heterogeneity. Our results suggest that decisions about whether to perform FNAB should be based on the presence of suspicious US findings found with our statistic model rather than on the size of the nodule. Thus, unnecessary FNAB procedures on nodules without suspicious US characteristics can be avoided. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seok Ho; Jung, Kun Sik; Kim, Jung Sik; Woo, Seong Ku; Chung, Ki Yong [School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Jin [Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    During a 12-month period high-resolution, real-time ultrasonography (US) with graded compression was performed on 268 consecutive patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis and its complications. US visualization of a fluid-filled, non-compressed appendix or a decompressed, thick-walled appendix was the primary criterion for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The sonographic findings were correlated with surgical-pathologic outcome in 92 cases and with the findings of clinical follow-ups in the remainder. US was found to be accurate in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its complication with a sensitivity of 93.3%, a specificity of 98.9%, and an accuracy of 97%. The predictive value of a positive test was 97.7%; that of a negative test was 96.7%. There were two false-positive examinations in patients with a thick-walled appendix or periapperdiceal abscess, which were surgically confirmed as appendiceal adenocarcinoma and perforated cecal diverticulitis respectively. There were six false-negative examinations in patients with a sonographically no-visible appendix, which were confirmed surgically as acute appendicitis (n=5) and perforated appendicitis (n=1). Our results show that high-resolution, real-time US is an accurate imaging modality in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and the evaluation of its complications.

  4. Review on the applications of ultrasonography in dentomaxillofacial region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ?ehrazat Evirgen; K?van? Kamburo?lu

    2016-01-01

    Use of ultrasonography(US) in dentomaxillofacial region became popular in recent years owing to increasing radiation dose concerns and economic limitations. It helps to visualize fine detail of the surface structure of the oral and maxillofacial tissues without ionizing radiation. In diagnostic ultrasound,high frequency sound waves are transmitted into the body by a transducer and echoes from tissue interface are detected and displayed on a screen. Sound waves are emitted via piezoelectric crystals from the ultrasound transducer. US technique can be used in dentomaxillofacial region for the examination of bone and superficial soft tissue,detection of major salivary gland lesions,temporomandibular joint imaging,assessment of fractures and vascular lesions,lymph node examination,measurement of the thickness of muscles and visualization of vessels of the neck. It has the potential to be used in the evaluation of periapical lesions and follow up of periapical bone healing. Also,it may be used for the evaluation of periodontal pocket depth and for the determination of gingival thickness before dental implantology.

  5. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; pleprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions. PMID:27851766

  6. The role of ultrasonography in patients with celiac disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirella Fraquelli; Valentina Sciola; Chiara Villa; Dario Conte

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present review was to summarize the current evidence on the role of ultrasonography (US) and doppler-US in the diagnosis of celiac disease.Several ultrasonographic signs have been reported in the association with celiac disease in studies using realtime US. Firstly, case control studies identified some of these US signs and then in a prospective series some of these parameters, due to their high specificity, have been shown to be of value in confirming CD diagnosis,whereas others, due to their high sensitivity, have been demonstrated to be useful in excluding the presence of the disease.The pattern of splanchnic circulation in CD have extensively been investigated by several studies all of which reported similar results and identified a hyperdynamic mesenteric circulation that reverts to normal values after successful a gluten-free regimen.The last part of this review will deal with the possible role of US in identyfing the most severe and common intestinal complication of CD, i.e. the enteropathyassociated T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  7. Determination of Thyroid Volume by Ultrasonography among Schoolchildren in Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Kyung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Iodine deficiency is defined by the goiter and the urinary iodine concentration. However, a lack of local thyroid volume reference data resulted in the vague definition of goiter, especially in school-aged children. The aim of this paper was to determine the thyroid volumes by ultrasonography in schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years living in Cagayan areas in Philippine. Methods. Cross-sectional thyroid ultrasonographic data of 158 schoolchildren aged 6–12 years from Tuguegarao and Lagum in Cagayan valley, Philippine were used. Thyroid volumes were compared based on logistic issue and urban and rural area and compared with other previously reported data. Results. The mean values of thyroid volume in Tuguerago and Lagum were 2.99±1.34 mL and 2.42±0.92 mL. The thyroid size was significantly in association with age (P<0.00, weight (P<0.00, height (P<0.00, and BSA (P<0.00 by Pearson’s correlation. The median thyroid volumes of schoolchildren investigated in this study were generally low compared to international reference data by age group but not by BSA. Conclusions. We propose for the first time local reference ultrasound values for thyroid volumes in 6–12 aged schoolchildren that should be used for monitoring iodine deficiency disorders.

  8. Bedside thoracic ultrasonography of the fourth intercostal space reliably determines safe removal of tube thoracostomy after traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Rita O; Miraflor, Emily; Yeung, Louise; Strumwasser, Aaron; Victorino, Gregory P

    2012-12-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography is more sensitive than chest radiography (CXR) in detecting pneumothorax; however, the role of ultrasonography to determine resolution of pneumothorax after thoracostomy tube placement for traumatic injury remains unclear. We hypothesized that ultrasonography can be used to determine pneumothorax resolution and facilitate efficient thoracostomy tube removal. We sought to compare the ability of thoracic ultrasonography at the second through fifth intercostal space (ICS) to detect pneumothorax with that of CXR and determine which ICS maximizes the positive and negative predictive value of thoracic ultrasonography for detecting clinically relevant pneumothorax resolution. A prospective, blinded clinical study of trauma patients requiring tube thoracostomy placement was performed at a university-based urban trauma center. A surgeon performed daily thoracic ultrasonographies consisting of midclavicular lung evaluation for pleural sliding in ICS 2 through 5. Ultrasonography findings were compared with findings on concurrently obtained portable CXR. Of the patients, 33 underwent 119 ultrasonographies, 109 of which had concomitant portable CXR results for comparison. Ultrasonography of ICS 4 or 5 was better than ICS 2 and 3 at detecting a pneumothorax, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 92%. The positive and negative predictive values for ICS 2 were 46% and 93% and for ICS 3 were 63% and 92%, respectively. Bedside, surgeon-performed, thoracic ultrasonography of ICS 4 for pneumothorax can safely and efficiently determine clinical resolution of traumatic pneumothorax and aid in the timely removal of thoracostomy tubes. Diagnostic study, level II.

  9. The Impact on Clinical Practice of Endoscopic Ultrasonography Used for the Diagnosis and Staging of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queneau PE

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endoscopic ultrasonography is considered a highly accurate procedure for diagnosing small pancreatic tumors and assessing their locoregional extension. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of endoscopic ultrasonography on the management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. PATIENTS: Sixty-four consecutive patients (mean age 70.5 plus/minus 11.9 years hospitalized for staging or diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma were retrospectively (from January 1995 to November 1997 or prospectively studied (from December 1997 to August 1999. SETTING: Group 1 consisted of 52 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma which was discovered using computerized tomography scanning and/or ultrasound. Endoscopic ultrasonography was utilized for staging purposes only in patients who were considered to be operable and the tumor to be resectable based on computerized tomography scanning criteria. Group 2 consisted of 12 patients who were diagnosed as having a pancreatic adenocarcinoma using endoscopic ultrasonography whereas computerized tomography scanning and ultrasound was negative. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The impact of endoscopic ultrasonography was analyzed on the basis of the number of patients requiring endoscopic ultrasonography as a staging procedure (Group 1 and by evaluating the performance of endoscopic ultrasonography in determining resectability (Groups 1 and 2 based on the surgical and anatomopathological results. RESULTS: Endoscopic ultrasonography was performed in 20 out of 64 patients (31.3%: 8/52 in Group 1 (15.4% and all 12 patients of Group 2. Endoscopic ultrasonography correctly assessed an absolute contraindication to resection in 11 cases. Resection was confirmed in 8 of the 9 cases selected by endoscopic ultrasonography. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value and overall accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for determining resection were 89%, 100%, and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of

  10. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  11. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established.

  12. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored......, individual sessions and by way of written materials. None of the interventions leads to a raise in anxiety scores or influence up-take rates. Satisfaction with information provided is found unrelated to level of knowledge, but associated with having expectations for information met. Information does not seem...

  13. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  14. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  15. Prenatal exclusion of severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Levinsky, R J; Linch, D. C.; Beverly, C L; Rodeck, C.

    1982-01-01

    By analysing leucocyte subpopulations with monoclonal antisera, we have shown that the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency can be made soon after birth. The technique of staining has been adapted for small blood samples, and normal ranges of leucocyte subpopulations have been established for fetal blood taken from mid-trimester pregnancies. Using this information, we gave prenatal advice to an at risk family and predicted that the pregnancy would be normal; this was confirmed after ...

  16. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis associated with oesophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula: A case report with prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Go; Morita, Keiichi; Kaneshiro, Masakatsu; Miyake, Hiromu; Koyama, Mariko; Nouso, Hiroshi; Yamoto, Masaya; Nakano, Reiji; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Nishiguchi, Tomizo; Kawamura, Takakazu; Fukumoto, Koji; Urushihara, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    We describe herein a case of unilateral pulmonary agenesis (PA) with oesophageal atresia (EA)/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) that was diagnosed prenatally and repaired by esophagoesophagostomy with stable postoperative course. The patient was born at 34 weeks gestation, after ultrasonography at 22 weeks gestation showed possible right-sided diaphragmatic eventration or PA and EA was subsequently suspected due to hydramnios. The initial X-ray showed mediastinal shift to the right, and coil up sign of the nasogastric tube, without intracardiac anomaly. Immediately after the diagnosis of EA/TEF and unilateral PA on day 0, the patient was intubated in the operating room, and a gastrostomy tube was placed. After pulmonary status stabilized, at 4 days old, EA/TEF was repaired through a thoracotomy in the right 4 th intercostal space. The right main bronchus was noted to continue into the distal oesophagus; this fistula was ligated and divided, and a single-layer esophagoesophagostomy was performed under mild tension with one vertebral gap. The neonate was maintained on mechanical ventilation and gradually weaned to extubation at 7 days old. The postoperative course was uneventful, with the exception of prolonged jaundice that emerged at 3 months old. Laparoscopic cholangiography at that time excluded biliary atresia, and jaundice resolved spontaneously. The patient has not shown any respiratory symptoms or feeding difficulties as of the 12-month follow-up.

  17. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis associated with oesophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula: A case report with prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein a case of unilateral pulmonary agenesis (PA with oesophageal atresia (EA/tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF that was diagnosed prenatally and repaired by esophagoesophagostomy with stable postoperative course. The patient was born at 34 weeks gestation, after ultrasonography at 22 weeks gestation showed possible right-sided diaphragmatic eventration or PA and EA was subsequently suspected due to hydramnios. The initial X-ray showed mediastinal shift to the right, and coil up sign of the nasogastric tube, without intracardiac anomaly. Immediately after the diagnosis of EA/TEF and unilateral PA on day 0, the patient was intubated in the operating room, and a gastrostomy tube was placed. After pulmonary status stabilized, at 4 days old, EA/TEF was repaired through a thoracotomy in the right 4 th intercostal space. The right main bronchus was noted to continue into the distal oesophagus; this fistula was ligated and divided, and a single-layer esophagoesophagostomy was performed under mild tension with one vertebral gap. The neonate was maintained on mechanical ventilation and gradually weaned to extubation at 7 days old. The postoperative course was uneventful, with the exception of prolonged jaundice that emerged at 3 months old. Laparoscopic cholangiography at that time excluded biliary atresia, and jaundice resolved spontaneously. The patient has not shown any respiratory symptoms or feeding difficulties as of the 12-month follow-up.

  18. Prenatal substance use in a Western urban community.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, K F; Varner, M W

    1994-01-01

    To assess the extent of prenatal substance use in a predominantly white population in an urban area of the western United States and to develop a risk profile for this population, a cross-sectional prevalence study was done. Prenatal clinics (10 public and 10 private) anonymously recorded demographic information about and collected aliquots of routinely obtained urine specimens from women during prenatal visits. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay for amphetamines, marijuana, ...

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of cyclopia associated to trisomy 13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A cyclopia case with prenatal diagnosis by two dimensional and three dimensional ecography is presented, chordocentesis was realized, the chariotype in fetal blood with G banding presented trisomy 13. Phenotypic characteristics prenatally found where confirmed with the physical examination of the newborn. A revision to the literature about cyclops associated with trisomy 13 was made, and important aspects in prenatal diagnosis were highlighted.

  20. Diagnostic performance and reliability of ultrasonography for fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Lindley B; Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Steger-May, Karen; Kim, H Mike; Wessell, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-06-20

    Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) and moderate for the teres

  1. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  2. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually.

  3. Foreign body-induced changes in the reticular contraction pattern of sheep observed with M-mode ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, A.A.; Sucupira, M.C.A.; Nunes, G.R.; Hagen, S.C.F.

    2015-01-01

    In the pre-experimental period of a clinical trial, an apparently clinically healthy sheep fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulas showed changes in the reticular contraction pattern visualized in M-mode ultrasonogram. Radiographic examination revealed a blunt metal screw in its reticulum. By the time change in the reticular motility through the ultrasound examination was detected, the animal had still not expressed any behavioral changes. A description of the clinical case, follow-up of the findings and laboratory data, like white blood cell count, serum pepsinogen and fibrinogen concentrations, were presented. The foreign body was removed through the ruminal cannula and reticular contraction tended to normal. An association of the contraction pattern with measured clinical data was possible, leading to the conclusion that use of M-mode ultrasonography has a potential application in similar clinical situations. PMID:26623361

  4. Volvulus of the gall bladder diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography, coronal magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Matsuhashi; Chihiro Tanaka; Atsushi Misao; Shinji Ogura; Shinichi Satake; Kazunori Yawata; Eri Asakawa; Takashi Mizoguchi; Masayuki Kanematsu; Hiroshi Kondo; Ichiro Yasuda; Kenichi Nonaka

    2006-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of right upper quadrant pain. Upon physical examination the vital signs of the patient were within normal ranges. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) examination of the abdomen was obtained, which demonstrated a large dilatated cystic structure, measuring approximately 68.6 mm ×48.6 mm, with marked distension and inflammation.Additionally, the enhanced CT was characterized by the non-enhanced wall of the gallbladder. As the third examination in this study, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), namely coronal MRI and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP), were performed.The MRCP demonstrated a dilatation of the gallbladder but detected no neck of the gallbladder. Simple cholecystectomy was performed. Macroscopic findings included a distended and gangrenous gallbladder, and closer examination revealed a counterclockwise torsion of 360 degrees on the gallbladder mesentery. Coronal MRI and MRCP showing characteristic radiography may be useful in making a definitive diagnosis.

  5. A novel approach for manual de-torsion of an atypical (outward) testicular torsion with bedside Doppler ultrasonography guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Armağan, Hamit Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with right testicular torsion to the lateral side. Torsion was diagnosed by physical examination; the colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) confirmed right testicular torsion with minimal peripheral hydrocele. Transverse and longitudinal examination of the spermatic cord with ultrasound and CDU revealed a counter-clockwise testicular torsion. Manual de-torsion was performed in a clockwise direction (720o) and testicular blood flow and the neutral position of the spermatic cord were confirmed by CDU. We did not encounter a residual twist of the spermatic cord upon surgical exploration. In our experience, ultrasound and CDU may predict the direction of testicular torsion and may allow appropriate management of cases prior to surgery.

  6. Foreign body-induced changes in the reticular contraction pattern of sheep observed with M-mode ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Morgado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the pre-experimental period of a clinical trial, an apparently clinically healthy sheep fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulas showed changes in the reticular contraction pattern visualized in M-mode ultrasonogram. Radiographic examination revealed a blunt metal screw in its reticulum. By the time change in the reticular motility through the ultrasound examination was detected, the animal had still not expressed any behavioral changes. A description of the clinical case, follow-up of the findings and laboratory data, like white blood cell count, serum pepsinogen and fibrinogen concentrations, were presented. The foreign body was removed through the ruminal cannula and reticular contraction tended to normal. An association of the contraction pattern with measured clinical data was possible, leading to the conclusion that use of M-mode ultrasonography has a potential application in similar clinical situations.

  7. [When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-04-01

    The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Zhe; Li, Na; Song, Chen; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. The scientific literature databases PubMed, Cochrane Library and CNKI were comprehensively searched for studies relevant to the use of CEUS technique for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian cancer. Pooled summary statistics for specificity (Spe), sensitivity (Sen), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and their 95%CIs were calculated. Software for statistical analysis included STATA version 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) and Meta-Disc version 1.4 (Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain). Following a stringent selection process, seven high quality clinical trials were found suitable for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The 7 studies contained a combined total of 375 ovarian cancer patients (198 malignant and 177 benign). Statistical analysis revealed that CEUS was associated with the following performance measures in differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors: pooled Sen was 0.96 (95%CI = 0.92∼0.98); the summary Spe was 0.91 (95%CI = 0.86∼0.94); the pooled LR+ was 10.63 (95%CI = 6.59∼17.17); the pooled LR- was 0.04 (95%CI = 0.02∼0.09); and the pooled DOR was 241.04 (95% CI = 92.61∼627.37). The area under the SROC curve was 0.98 (95% CI = 0.20∼1.00). Lastly, publication bias was not detected (t = -0.52, P = 0.626) in the meta-analysis. Our results revealed the high clinical value of CEUS in differential diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Further, CEUS may also prove to be useful in differential diagnosis at early stages of this disease.

  11. Computed tomography and ultrasonography of alveolar hydatid disease of the liver. Comparative study with pathology

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    Choji, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Shinohara, Masahiro; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yutaka; Hiromura, Tadao; Irie, Goro

    1988-06-01

    Retrospective review of both CT and ultrasonography (US) was done of 54 lenions of alveolar hydatid disease of the liver (AHDL) in 41 cases, and correlations were compiled between each kind of image and pathology of each lesion. In CT, which revealed 96 % of the lesions, ''Massive Low Density (MLD)'' were identified in 50 %, ''Granular Low Density (GLD)'' in 63 %, ''Calcified High Density (CHD)'' in 87 %; and ''Large Low density-Cystic (LLC)'' in 41 % were identified, each of which was proved to correspond with either fibrotic stroma, metacestodal vesicle, calcification, or liquified necrosis. When CT of a lesion contains GLD within and/or around MLD, such CT is highly specific of AHDL. US revealed 91 % of the lesions. Sonographic features were also classified into four categories : ''Echogensic area (E)'' was noted in 63 %; ''Small hypoechoic area (S)'' in 41 %, ''Granular strong echo (G)'' in 83 % ; and ''Large hypoechoic or echo free area (L)'' in 24 %. ''G'' and ''L'' had simple pathologic correlations to calcification and liquified necrosis respectively. ''E'' was produced from either stroma containing metacestodal vesicles, or liquified necrosis. ''S'' corresponded with metacestodal vesicle, however, the number of ''S'' was less than the actual count and the image itself was not clear. This limited the specificity of the sonographic image of AHDL even if ''S'' was visualized.

  12. [Screening of urogenital malignancies by transabdominal ultrasonography in "human dry dock"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, I; Hatano, T; Yanada, S; Tomita, M; Takeuchi, H; Madarame, J; Yoshino, Y; Ohishi, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Narusawa, T

    1999-10-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) has been widely accepted as a diagnostic method with which to examine multiple organs simultaneously. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of trans-abdominal US to screen for urogenital malignancies. From 1993 through 1997 109,077 men and 28,023 women underwent abdominal US to screen for abdominal and pelvic diseases as part of a regular health check-up program at the Tokyu Medical Health Center. Twelve renal cell cancers (RCCs), 7 bladder tumors (BTs), 4 prostatic cancers (PCs), and 1 testicular tumor (TT) were detected. All cancers were diagnosed pathologically and treated surgically except for one PC. Surgical pathological examination and conventional imaging revealed that all 12 RCCa and 6 of the 7 BTs were of less advanced stage than pT1N0M0. However, all 3 PCs and the TT were pT3N0-1M0 and pT1N3M0, respectively. The stage and grade of these 12 RCCs were significantly lower than those of 29 symptomatic RCCs. All 12 patients with RCC patients and 6 of the 7 patients with BT had no urological symptom, whereas 3 of the 4 patients with PC and the patient with TT had urogenital symptoms. Microscopic examination of the urine revealed both red blood cells and tumors cells in two of the seven patients with BT. All four patients with PC had serum levels of prostatic-specific antigen greater than 4 ng/ml. These results indicate that screening by transabdominal US as part of regular health check-ups can detect many types of urogenital malignancy. In particular, US is useful for detecting low-grade and low-stage RCCs and superficial BTs but is less sensitive for early-stage PCs and TTs.

  13. Diagnostic value of three-dimensional and two-dimensional ultrasonography on normal lip and cleft lip in fetus:a comparison study%三维与二维超声对胎儿正常唇及唇裂的诊断价值比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋兰; 温红; 李坚

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of three-dimensional and two-dimensional ultrasonography on normal lip and cleft lip in fetus. Methods: The clinical data of 4380 pregnant women underwent pre-pregnancy physical examination in our hospital between January 2011 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The missed diagnosis rate, diagnostic accordance rate, and prevalence at different gestational weeks of the three-dimensional and two-dimensional ultrasonography were statistically analyzed. Results:The 4 380 pregnant women gave birth to 4355 fetus with normal lip and 25 fetus with cleft lip and palate (9 simple cleft lip and 16 cleft lip and palate). Missed diagnosis were found in 7 patients by two-dimensional ultrasonography ( 0. 16%) and 1 patient by three-dimensional ultrasonography ( 0. 02%) . The missed diagnosis rate of three-dimensional ultrasonography was lower than that of two-dimensional ultrasonography ( P<0.05) . The diagnostic accordance rate of three-dimensional ultrasonography was higher than that of two-dimensional ultrasonography on simple cleft lip and cleft lip and palate ( P<0.05) . Highest prevalence of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography on cleft lip was foud at 25-34 gestational week. Conclusion:The prevalence of three-dimensional ultrasonography is higher than that of two-dimensional ultrasonography, which has significantly clinical value for the prenatal screening of fetal cleft lip.%目的::对比三维与二维超声对胎儿正常唇及唇裂的诊断价值。方法:回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月在本院进行孕前检查的4380例孕妇的临床资料,统计二维超声、三维超声的漏诊率、诊断符合率、不同孕周检出率。结果:4380例孕妇中产后发现正常唇胎儿4355例,唇腭裂胎儿25例(单纯性唇裂9例、唇腭裂l6例)。二维超声漏诊7例(0.16%),三维超声漏诊l例(0.02%),三维超声漏诊率低于二维超声(P<0.05)。三维

  14. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit.

  15. Ultrasonography - A diagnostic modality for oral and maxillofacial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Shirish Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many diseases present themselves in oral and maxillofacial regions and various modalities may be applied for their diagnosis, including intraoral and panoramic radiography, ultrasonography (USG, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine methods such as positron emission tomography. Of these modalities, USG is easy to-use for the detection of non-invasive and soft tissue related diseases in oral and maxillofacial regions. USG plays an important role in analyzing normal and abnormal structures. In particular, in oral and maxillofacial regions, the USG may be clinically applied to evaluate lymph nodes, subcutaneous, and oral cavity-related diseases. Aims: The aim was to correlate the findings of USG and histopathology for the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial pathology and to evaluate whether USG can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 clinically diagnosed patients with intraoral cancerous growths, swellings in maxillary and neck region were included in this study. Incision biopsy was obtained for confirming provisional clinical diagnosis. The selected cases were advised USG. All patients were then posted either for hemi-glossectomy, hemi-mandibulectomy, and partial maxillectomy with or without radical neck dissection. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and coefficient of correlation was used to statistically analyze significant relationship of both the methods. Result: In all 10 cases, USG correlated well with histopathology findings, it could also delineate tumor extent and measure tumor thickness. Conclusion: USG is an excellent method for the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions and can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology.

  16. Ultrasonography of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radak-Perović Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. About one half of the first gout attacks occur in the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1; in the disease course this joint is practically inevitably affected. Radiographic evidence of bone erosions is the indication for hypouricaemic therapy in order to prevent joint destruction and nephropathy. Advantages of ultrasonography (US comparing to conventional x-ray findings in depicting early bone erosions in various inflammatory arthropathies have been demonstrated by several studies. Objective. The aims of this study were to compare US and x-ray findings in the detection of MTPJ1 erosions in patients with gout, to correlate sonographic and clinical features, and to detect possible characteristic sonographic features of gout. Methods. Thirty patients (60 MTPJ1 with primary gout (ACR and 10 age-matched control subjects (20 MTPJ1 with different inflammatory arthropathies were clinically evaluated. Standard dorsiplantar weight bearing and lateral weight bearing x-ray views of both feet were taken. US was performed and interpreted by an independent sonographer on the presence of bone erosions, synovial fluid, synovial hypertrophy, Doppler signal and hyperechoic spots. Statistical analysis was performed (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon and χ2 test. Results. Twenty-four studied MTPJ1 had evidence of erosions, 17 only on US and seven both on x-ray and on US (Z=-4.123; p=0.000. US findings showed that hyperechoic spots were the most prominent feature of gouty MTPJ1 (χ2=40.909; p=0.000, followed by erosions and synovial fluid presentation. Conclusion. US of MTPJ1 in gout discovers significantly more erosions than x-ray, which may have therapeutic implications. The evidence of hyperechoic spots (surrogate crystals of the different size, number and orientation is a major sonographic feature of the MTPJ1 in gout, which may be of importance in the diagnosis of certain cases (low serum urate, unavailable synovial fluid

  17. Ultrasonography-guided punctures-with and without puncture guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mahesh

    2009-10-01

    The key requisite of any percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique is access to the collecting system. The kidney has a high degree of vascular network and is liable for vascular injury. Therefore, for an ideal puncture, a percutaneous tract would be developed that leads straight from the skin through a papilla and the target calix into the renal pelvis. Percutaneous renal access can be achieved under fluoroscopic control or using an ultrasonography (US)-guided puncture. The shortcomings and side effects of extensive radiation during therapeutic procedures are well known. The choice of method for the type of access depends on training and personal preference. The advantages of US-guided puncture are avoidance of radiation, avoiding adjacent and visceral injury and, most importantly, intrarenal vascular injury. US offers the shortest and straight access to the collecting system with minimal morbidity. US-guided access is of particular importance in the pediatric population and in special situations in which the procedure is performed with the patient in the supine position. I believe US-guided puncture has a significant reduction in complications. The available ultrasound probes come with a puncture attachment and, on US scanning, the puncture pathway is represented by an electronic dotted line on the scanner screen, which facilitates exact placement of the needle. US-guided access is optimal with a needle guide, because the electronic dotted line helps in assessing the depth and plane of the puncture needle. This helps in reaching the desired calix in the most accurate way. US access without a needle guide is useful in bedside procedures, in grossly hydronephrotic systems, and nonavailability of an electronic guide. We think the punctures with this technique are suboptimal. Both methods need a certain degree of training and orientation. The training in US should be structured.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis by Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-bo Zhang; En-ze Qu; Ji-Bin Liu; Jin-rui Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.Methods 86 patients with chronic viral hepatitis B were enrolled in this study from March 2007 to August 2009.The patients were classified into 5 groups (S0-S4) according to fibrosis stage evaluated with ultrasound guided liver biopsy.New contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) features including area under the time-intensity curve (TIC) of portal venous phase/hepatic arterial phase (Qp/Qa) and intensity of portal venons phase/hepatic arterial phase (Ip/Ia) were used to detect the blood supply ratio (portal vein/hepatic artery) in each group.Arrival time of portal vein trunk (Tp) and decreasing rate of TIC (β) were also analyzed.Results Qp/Qa and Ip/Ia decreased from So to S4,while Tp and β increased These 4 features were significantly correlated with the degree of fibrosis (P<0.001) and were significantly different among the five groups (P<0.001).Sensitivity and specificity of Ip/Ia were 80% and 86% for groups ≥S1,75% and 86% for groups ≥ S2,71% and 84% for groups ≥ S3,and 76% and 80% for group S4,respectively.Sensitivity and specificity of Qp/Qa were 70% and 88% for groups ≥ S1,80% and 76% for groups ≥ S2,74% and 70% for groups ≥ S3,and 81% and 95% for group S4,respectively.Conclusion Ip/Ia and Qp/Qa could be adopted as reliable,non-invasive features for quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis.

  19. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Morton Neuroma: Evaluated with Ultrasonography and MR Imaging

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    Lee, Mi-Jung; Kim, Sung-Jun; Huh, Yong-Min; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Jin Woo; Suh, Jin-Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of both ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of Morton neuroma. Our study group was comprised of 20 neuromas from 17 patients, and the neuromas were confirmed on surgery following evaluation with US, MRI, or both US and MRI. The diagnostic criterion for Morton neuroma, as examined by US, was the presence of a round or ovoid, well-defined, hypoechoic mass. The diagnostic criterion, based on MR imaging, was a well defined mass with intermediate to low signal intensity on both the T1- and T2-weighted images. The retrospective comparison between the sonographic and MR images was done by two experienced radiologists working in consensus with the surgical and pathologic correlations. The detection rate of Morton neuroma was 79% for 14 neuromas from 11 patients who had undergone US followed by an operation. The detection rate was 76% for 17 neuromas from 15 patients who had undergone MRI and a subsequent operation. The mean size of the examined neuromas was 4.9 mm on the US images and it was 5.1 mm on the MRI studies. Ten neuromas (71%) were 5 mm or less as measured by US, and three neuromas were not detected, whereas on the MRI analysis, 10 neuromas (59%) were 5 mm or less and four neuromas were not visualized. Among the patients examined during postoperative followup, symptoms were completely relieved in 85% and the symptoms were partially relieved in 15%. US and MR imaging are comparable modalities with high detection rate for the evaluation of Morton neuroma.

  1. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography: Assessment of safety and prevention of complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Jenssen; Maria Victoria Alvarez-Sánchez; Bertrand Napoléon; Siegbert Faiss

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained wide acceptance as an important,minimally invasive diagnostic tool in gastroenterology,pulmonology,visceral surgery and oncology.This review focuses on data regarding risks and complications of non-interventional diagnostic EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUSFNB).Measures to improve the safety of EUS und EUSFNB will be discussed.Due to the specific mechanical properties of echoendoscopes in EUS,there is a low but noteworthy risk of perforation.To minimize this risk,endoscopists should be familiar with the specific features of their equipment and their patients' specific anatomical situations (e.g.,tumor stenosis,diverticula).Most diagnostic EUS complications occur during EUSFNB.Pain,acute pancreatitis,infection and bleeding are the primary adverse effects,occurring in 1% to 2% of patients.Only a few cases of needle tract seeding and peritoneal dissemination have been reported.The mortality associated with EUS and EUS-FNB is 0.02%.The risks associated with EUS-FNB are affected by endoscopist experience and target lesion.EUS-FNB of cystic lesions is associated with an increased risk of infection and hemorrhage.Peri-interventional antibiotics are recommended to prevent cyst infection.Adequate education and training,as well consideration of contraindications,are essential to minimize the risks of EUS and EUS-FNB.Restricting EUS-FNB only to patients in whom the cytopathological results may be expected to change the course of management is the best way of reducing the number of complications.

  2. Ultrasonography: A novel approach to central venous cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Ankit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Portable ultrasound machines are highly valuable in ICUs, where a patient′s condition might not permit shifting the patient to the USG department for imaging. Traditionally central lines are put blindly using anatomical landmarks, which often result in complications such as difficulty in access, misplaced lines, pneumothorax, bleeding from inadvertent arterial punctures, etc. Ultrasonography provides "real time" imaging, i.e., the needle can be visualized entering the vein. Aims: We performed a study to compare USG guided central venous cannulation (CVC and conventional anatomical landmark approach to CVC, in terms of ease of cannulation, time consumed, and associated complications. Settings and Design: The study was performed in a 16-bed open ICU. Eighty patients were randomly divided in two groups. Materials and Methods: The right internal jugular vein (IJV was cannulated in all. In Group I, a portable ultrasound machine was used during cannulation. The vessels were visualized in the transverse section with the internal carotid artery (ICA identified as a circular pulsatile structure, while the IJV as a lateral, oval nonpulsatile structure. The needle was inserted perpendicular to the skin under visualization on the US screen. Central venous line was then inserted by the Seldinger technique. In Group II, CVC was performed by the conventional landmark approach. The parameters studied included time for insertion, attempts required, and complications encountered. Statistical Analysis: The database of all parameters was analyzed using SPSS software version 10.5. Results: The mean time to successful insertion was 145 and 176.4 sec in groups I and II, respectively (p = 0.00. An average of 1.2 attempts per cannulation was required for group I, while 1.53 for group II (p = 0.03: 10% witnessed arterial puncture and 2.5% pneumothorax in group I and none in group II. Conclusion: USG-guided CVC is thus easier, quicker, and safer than

  3. Using Intraoperative Ultrasonography for Spinal Cord Tumor Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Marcel; Budu, Alexandru; Sims-Williams, Hugh; Poeata, Ion

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of modern intraoperative ultrasonography (iUS) in the resection of a wide variety of spinal intradural pathologic entities. We evaluated patients with spinal cord disease treated between January 2006 and September 2015. Intraoperative standard B-mode images were acquired using a 3.5-MHz to 12-MHz ultrasonographic probes (linear and curvilinear) on various ultrasound machines. The benefits and disadvantages of iUS were assessed for each case. A total number of 158 intradural spinal lesions were operated on using iUS. Of these, 107 lesions (68%) were intradural extramedullary and 51 (32%) were intramedullary. All lesions were clearly visible using the ultrasound probe. The high-frequency linear probes (10-12 MHz) provided a better image quality compared with lower-frequency probes. Color and power-angiography modes were helpful in assessing the vascularization of the tumors and location of the major vessels in the vascular lesions. We document how iUS was used to facilitate safe and efficient spinal tumor resection at each stage of the operation. iUS was beneficial in confirmation of tumor location and extension, planning myelotomy, and estimation of degree of resection of the intramedullary tumors. It was particularly helpful in guiding the approach in redo surgeries for recurrent spinal cord tumors. iUS has a fast learning curve and offers additional intraoperative information that can help improve surgical accuracy and therefore may reduce procedure-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamic study of syringomyelia by MRI and intraoperative ultrasonography

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    Moritake, Kouzo; Takaya, Mikio; Minamikawa, Jun; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Minami, Shunsuke (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    Syringomyelic cavities were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in eleven patients with special reference to the hemodynamic contribution to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. They were also studied intraoperatively with ultrasonography (USG) in five patients. Syrinx cavities combined with lumbosacral lipomyelomeningocele or with spinal stenosis did not present a flow-void phenomenon reflecting pulsatile movements of syrinx fluid. On serial MRI study in those the patients, enlargement of the syrinx cavity was not observed. Syrinx cavities occupying the caudal part of the spinal cord did not develop either. These cases were not treated surgically but followed conservatively. On the other hand, the flow-void sign in the syrinx cavities was present on MRI in patients who also had Chiari type I or type II malformations. They were treated with a syringo-subarachnoid shunt. In these cases, intraoperative USG disclosed marked fluctuation of syrinx cavity size synchronous with the motions of pulmonary ventilation. In all of them, clinical signs and symptoms improved postoperatively to various degrees. These results suggest that both the flow-void sign in the syrinx cavity on MRI and marked fluctaution of cavity size on intraoperative USG are indications for the shunt operation and support William's revised theory (1987). Fluctuation of cystic cavity size synchronous with ventilation suggests that venous pressure in the spinal subarachnoid space contributes to the pathogenesis of syringomyelic cavities. Further analysis of the fluctuation of cystic cavities by video monitoring will provide further information on the etiology and other clinical problems of syringomyelia. (author).

  5. Comparison of the capsular width measured on ultrasonography and MR image of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Wan; Yoo, Dong Soo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate the reliability and clinical usefulness of ultrasonography in the temporomandibular joint(TMJ). Parasagittal and paracoronal 1.5 T MR images and 7.5 MHz ultrasonography of 40 TMJs in 20 asymptomatic volunteers were obtained. Disc position using MR imaging was evaluated and the distance between the lateral surface of mandibular condyle and the articular capsule using MR image and ultrasonography of 27 TMJs with normal disc position was measured and compared. Intraobserver and interobserver measurements reliability was evaluated by using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and measurement error. Also, the distance measured on ultrasonography was compared, according to mouth position and disc position. The normal disc position was found in 27 of 40 asymptomatic joints. At the intraobserver reliability of measurement, ICC at the closed and open mouth position were 0.89 and 0.91. The measurement error was 0.4% and 0.5%. At the interobserver reliability, ICC at the closed and open mouth position, the distances between the lateral surface of mandibular condyle and the articular capsule measured on MR images and ultrasonography were 2.0{+-} 0.7 mm, 1.8{+-}0.5 mm, respectively (p<0.05). On the ultrasonography, the distances at open mouth position were 1.2{+-}0.5 mm (p<0.05). At the TMJ with medially displaced disc, the distances at the closed and open mouth position were 1.3{+-}0.3 mm and 0.9{+-}0.2 mm (p<0.05). The results suggest ultrasonography of TMJ is a reliable imaging technique for assessment of normal disc position.

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  7. Diagnóstico pré-natal das genodermatoses Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina de Abreu Sampaio

    2007-08-01

    genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.

  8. [Production of data for the pre-natal information system in basic health units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline Pinto de; Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the process of data production for Information System Prenatal and Birth (SISPRENATAL) in Basic Health Units of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. This qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was developed in eight units of Basic Health Coordination, through semi-structured interviews with professionals who worked with SISPRENATAL (nurses, physicians, managers and data entry) and comparative document analysis between system data and the written patient records. Data analysis revealed a lack of definition of the team's participation in the production of data and different modes of completing forms within the system. Professionals' knowledge about many aspects of the formswas divergent, completion of the forms was inadequate, and flaws in the computerized system were identified. Measures such as professional training, the review of the system and its forms are indispensible for the production of reliable information about prenatal care in the municipality.

  9. Prenatal 3- and 4-dimensional Ultrasonographic Findings of Giant Fetal Nuchal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jhy Tseng

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A precise prenatal diagnosis of hemangioma may be uncertain although a variety of the antenatal appearances on 2-dimensional sonography have been reported. A 27-year-old primigravida was referred at 32 weeks of gestation for evaluation of a fetal nuchal mass. Two-dimensional sonography showed an extracranial mixed echogenic mass (65 × 54 × 59 mm occupying the posterior neck. Color Doppler imaging revealed intense hypervascularization. Three-dimensional (3D and 4-dimensional (4D sonography showed that the mass was lobulated, with a lumpy internal structure. Nuchal hemangioma was further confirmed by clinical examination and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor began to regress in size when the infant was 7 months old. Prenatal 3D/4D ultrasound techniques could be considered as complementary diagnostic tools for such a tumor. They have the advantages of providing accurate and inexpensive virtual reality images through more realistic interactions with the virtualized in utero condition.

  10. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  11. The efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davachi, Behrooz; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Majidi, Mohamad Reza; Sahebalam, Ahmad; Johari, Masoomeh; Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Although salivary gland tumors are not very common, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial because of their proximity to vital organs, and therefore, determining the efficacy of new imaging procedures becomes important. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and color doppler ultrasonography parameters in the diagnosis and differentiation of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, color doppler ultrasonography and MRI were performed for 22 patients with salivary gland tumor. Demographic data as well as MRI, color doppler ultrasonography, and surgical parameters including tumor site, signal in MRI images, ultrasound echo, tumor border, lymphadenopathy, invasion, perfusion, vascular resistance index (RI), vascular pulse index (PI) were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and independent t-test. Results. The mean age of patients was 46.59±13.97 years (8 males and 14females). Patients with malignant tumors were older (P color doppler ultrasonography in determining tumor site was 100% and 95%, respectively. No significant difference observed between RI and PI and the diagnosis of tumor. Conclusion. Both MRI and ultrasonography have high accuracy in the localization of tumors. Well-identified border was a sign of benign tumors. Also, invasion to adjacent structures was a predictive factor for malignancy.

  12. A Prospective Comparison of Duplex Ultrasonography, Captopril Renography, MRA, and CTA in Assessing Renal Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekloef, H.; Ahlstroem, H.; Magnusson, A.; Andersson, L.G.; Andren, B.; Haegg, A.; Bergqvist, D.; Nyman, R. [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Depts. of Radiology, Clinical Physiology, Medicine, and Surgery

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To prospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of duplex ultrasonography, captopril renography, computed tomography angiography (CTA), and 3D Gd magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in diagnosing hemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Material and Methods: The standard of reference was measurement of transstenotic pressure gradient. Fifty-eight hypertensive patients with suspicion of RAS were evaluated, when possible, by all five techniques. Sensitivity and specificity to detect RAS were compared for each technique on both a patient and kidney basis. Discrepancies were evaluated separately and classified as borderline, method dependent, or operator dependent. Results: The prevalence of RAS was 77%. The sensitivity/specificity of ultrasonography, captopril renography, CTA, and MRA in detecting kidneys with RAS was 73/71%, 52/63%, 94/62%, and 93/91%, respectively. Ultrasonography had a significantly lower sensitivity than CTA and MRA (P <0.001) but higher than captopril renography (P = 0.013). Borderline RAS was the main cause for discrepancies. Conclusion: MRA and CTA were significantly better than duplex ultrasonography and captopril renography in detecting hemodynamically significant RAS. The ultrasonography criteria for RAS based on the evaluation of renal peak systolic velocity and renal/aortic ratio are questionable. Captopril renography cannot be recommended for assessing RAS.

  13. Midline Cysts in the Prostate: Incidence in Healthy Men on Transrectal Ultrasonography (TRUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Yong Seok [Dongguk University Il-san Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Ho [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To describe the incidence of prostatic midline cysts in healthy men on transrectal ultrasonography. From 2005 to 2009, 1,175 transrectal ultrasonography examinations were performed on 1,086 men (22-85 years) in a health promotion center. Incidence and size of midline cysts in men without any symptoms in the genitourinary tract were investigated according to age, prostate volume, and other ultrasonography findings. The incidence of midline cysts in healthy men was 28% (280/999). The mean diameter of midline cysts was 7.2 mm (1-30 mm). The incidence was the highest (32/102; 31.4%) and the size was the smallest (6.2 mm in mean) in men older than 60 years. The incidence of midline cysts in prostates larger than 20 ml was 33.2% (157/473) and in prostates smaller than or equal to 20 ml was 23.4% (123/526) (p < 0.05). Abnormal ultrasonography findings other than midline cysts were found in 196 men, and the incidence of midline cysts was high with seminal vesicle abnormalities (5/11: 45.5%). The incidence of prostatic midline cysts in healthy men on transrectal ultrasonography is higher than the result of previous studies. The incidence is higher in an enlarged prostate than in a prostate of normal size

  14. An experimental comparative study of radiography, ultrasonography and CT imaging in the IV catheter fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to detect the fragments generated during IV (intravenous) catheter injection of contrast medium and drug administration in a clinical setting and removal was performed by experimentally producing a phantom, and to compare the radiography, ultrasonography, and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging and radiation dose. A 1 cm fragment of an 18 gage Teflon® IV catheter with saline was inserted into the IV control line. Radiography, CT, and ultrasonography were performed and radiography and CT dose were calculated. CT and ultrasonography showed an IV catheter fragment clinically and radiography showed no visible difference in the ability to provide a useful image of an IV catheter fragment modality (p >.05). Radiography of effective dose (0.2139 mSv·Gy-1·cm-2) form DAP DAP (0.93 μGy·m2 ), and dose length product (DLP) (201 mGy·cm) to effective dose was calculated as 0.483 mSv. IV catheter fragment were detected of radiography, ultrasonography and CT. These results can be obtained by menas of an excellent IV catheter fragment of detection capability CT. However, CT is followed by radiation exposure. IV catheter fragment confirming the position and information recommend an ultrasonography.

  15. The role of ultrasonography in the imaging of body packers comparison with CT: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Ferhat; Bulakci, Mesut; Selcuk, Tuba; Savas, Yildiray; Ceyhan, Muhammet; Kocak, Ayhan; Bilgili, Cigdem Ozkara

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the sonographic properties of drug packets containing narcotic drugs and the diagnostic role of ultrasonography in detecting body packing in comparison with CT. Forty-five suspects admitted to our hospital for diagnosis and management were routinely evaluated by non-contrast CT for the presence of drug packets. A single radiologist blind to CT data independently performed the abdominal ultrasonographic scans. Thirty-five of 45 suspects were carrying packets. In positive cases, two types of packets with different properties were noted. Twenty-eight cases had type 1 packets (solid form drug) and 7 had type 2 packets (liquid form cocaine). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for detecting drug packets were 91%, 70%, 91%, and 70%, respectively. Ultrasonography accurately determined the presence or absence of packs in 39 of 45 suspects. Ultrasonography was found to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity in suspected cases. A negative ultrasonography cannot rule out the diagnosis of body packing. However, it may be preferred as the initial imaging method or for follow-up of suspected cases as a radiation-free, easy-to-use, and inexpensive technique.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PREOPERATIVE ULTRASONOGRAPHY REPORTS WITH INTRAOPERATIVE SURGICAL FINDINGS IN CHOLELITHIASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Flávio; Cunha, Daniel José Dias; Ferreira, Carolina Cavalcanti Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Thais Menezes; Fulco, Lucas Gomes de Morais; Godoy, Eduardo Sávio Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely used for cholelithiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography often precedes this operation and can prove diagnosis, as well as helps in showing possible complications during the perioperative period. Evaluate the description of variables of gallbladder and bile ducts present in reports of preoperative abdominal ultrasonography in cholelithiasis comparing with surgical findings. Were studied 91 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy with previous abdominal ultrasonography. Variables such as identification and amount of gallstones involved were evaluated, both in preoperative ultrasonography and during surgery to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, concordance and positive and negative predictive values. The reports did not mention diameter of vesicular light (98.9%), organ distension (62.6%), gallstone sizes (58.2%), wall thickness (41.8%) and evaluation of the common bile duct (39.6%). Ultrasound had high values for sensitivity, consistency and positive predictive value for identifying the presence/absence of gallstones: 98.8%, 96.7% and 97.8% respectively. As for the amount of stones, ultrasonography showed agreement in 82.7%, negative predictive value in 89.1% and specificity in 87.7%, with lower values for sensitivity (68.2%) and positive predictive value (65.2%). The ultrasound reports were flawed in standardization. Significant percentage of them did not have variables that could predict perioperative complications and surgical conversion.

  17. Ultrasonography of symptomatic rotator cuff tears compared with MR imaging and surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadou, Anastasia N. [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Larissa, Mezourlo 41110, Larissa (Greece); Radiology Department, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Exochi 32100, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: natfot@yahoo.gr; Vlychou, Marianna [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Larissa, Mezourlo 41110, Larissa (Greece)], E-mail: mvlychou@med.uth.gr; Papadopoulos, Periklis [University Orthopaedic Clinic, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Exochi 32100, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: perpap@otenet.gr; Karataglis, Dimitrios S. [University Orthopaedic Clinic, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Exochi 32100, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: dkarataglis@yahoo.gr; Palladas, Panagiotis [Radiology Department, G. Papanikolaou Hospital, Exochi 32100, Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: palladaspan@in.gr; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V. [Radiology Department, University Hospital of Larissa, Mezourlo 41110, Larissa (Greece)], E-mail: oswestanast@yahoo.gr

    2008-10-15

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of rotator cuff tears. Materials and methods: Ninety-six patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff pathology underwent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder. The findings in 88 patients were compared with arthroscopy or open surgery. Results: Full-thickness tear was confirmed in 57 cases, partial-thickness tear in 30 cases and degenerative changes without tear in 1. In all 57 cases of full-thickness tear and in 28 out of 30 cases of partial-thickness tear the supraspinatus tendon was involved. The accuracy in the detection of full-thickness tears was 98 and 100% for ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. The accuracy in the detection of bursal or articular partial-thickness tears was 87 and 90% for ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Conclusions: In experienced hands ultrasonography should be considered as an accurate modality for the initial investigation of rotator cuff, especially supraspinatus, tears.

  18. The diagnostic concordance of endoanal ultrasonography and endoanal MRI in cases of anorectal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan Tae; Yoo, Weon Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Jae Sik [Kandong Colon and Rectal Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the preoperative diagnostic concordance of morphologic classification of anorectal fistula by endoanal ultrasonography (EUSG) and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging (EMRI). Between January 1998 and March 1999, 17 patients with anorectal fistula underwent endoanal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative assessment. The types of fistula and abscess formation were evaluated, and the findings compared with those obtained during surgery. The overall accordance of anorectal fistula was 76% (13 of 17 cases) on ultrasonography and 94% (16 of 17 cases) on magnetic resonance imaging. According to the findings of EUSG, the accordance of each type of anorectal fistula was as follows: transphineteric, 92% (11 of 12 cases); suprasphinteric, 33% (1 of 3); and extrasphincteric, 50% (1 of 2), while for EMRI, the respective figures were 100% (12 of 12 cases), 67% (2 of 3), and 100% (2 of 2). An analysis of reproducibility using kappa value showed that overall concordance between endoanal ultrasonography and surgery ({kappa}=0.820) as well as between endoanal MRI and surgery ({kappa}=0.866), was very close. For the evaluation of anorectal fistula, preoperative endoanal magnetic resonance imaging was more accurate and informative than endoanal ultrasonography.

  19. Prenatal imaging of occipital encephaloceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprian, Gregor J; Paldino, Michael J; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Shetty, Anil; Williams, Jennifer L; Lee, Wesley; Cassady, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe systematically the fetal cerebral MR morphology in cases with occipital meningoencephaloceles using standard and advanced fetal MRI techniques. The 1.5-tesla MR examinations (T1- and T2-weighted imaging, echo planar imaging, EPI, diffusion-weighted imaging, DWI) of 14 fetuses with occipital/parietal meningoencephaloceles were retrospectively analyzed for the classification of anatomic characteristics. A diffusion tensor sequence was performed in 5 cases. In 9/14 cases the occipital lobes were entirely or partially included in the encephalocele sac. Typical features of Chiari III malformation were seen in 6/14 cases. The displaced brain appeared grossly disorganized in 6/14. The brainstem displayed abnormal 'kinking'/rotation (3/14), a z-shape (1/14) and/or a molar tooth-like configuration of the midbrain (3/14). Tractography revealed the presence and position of sensorimotor tracts in 5/5 and the corpus callosum in 3/5. DWI was helpful in the identification of a displaced brain (in 8/9). EPI visualized the anatomy of draining cerebral veins in 7/9 cases. Clinical (9/14) and MRI (7/14) follow-up data are presented. Encephaloceles show a wide range of morphological heterogeneity. Fetal MRI serves as an accurate tool in the visualization of brainstem, white matter pathway and cerebral venous involvement and facilitates the detection of specific underlying syndromes such as ciliopathies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. 超声对胎儿脑白质软化的诊断价值%Study on the diagnostic efficacy of craniocerebral ultrasonography for periventricular leukomalacia in fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳利; 周柳英

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of ultrasonography in diagnosis of periventricular leukomalacia ( PVL) in fetus.Methods The prenatal ultrasound data of 4 fetuses identified as PVL by antenatal ultrasonography examinations between March 2012 to July 2015 in Chengdu Women & Children’ s Central Hospital were analyzed, and were compared with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis .Results Ultrasonography of fetal PVL showed periventricular and centrum semiovale and /or subcutaneous brain white matter echo enhancement , multiple lumens without echo or with low echo .4 fetuses’ sixth ventricle were dilated .For the 4 cases with periventricular leukomalacia , the ultrasonography results were in accordance with MRI .However , MRI found 3 cases of cystic lesions by follicular lesions(diameter <0.5 cm), ultrasonography found only 2 cases.Postpartum follow-up showed that among the 4 cases, 1 case was found with growth retardation , including movement disorder , convulsions , mental retardation and poor language ability.1 case had a better growth situation but there was slight movement disorder , and convulsions.While the other two cases were with normal growth and intelligence currently .Conclusion The diagnostic efficacy of craniocerebral ultrasonography is relatively high , craniocerebral ultrasonography can be used as a preferred diagnostic method for diagnosis of PVL in fetus .%目的:探讨超声对胎儿脑白质软化( periventricular leukomalacia ,PVL)的诊断价值。方法对2012年3月至2015年7月在成都市妇女儿童中心医院产前超声诊断为 PVL的4例胎儿超声影像检查资料进行总结,并与胎儿头颅磁共振成像( magnetic resonance imaging ,MRI)诊断结果进行对照,分析胎儿PVL的超声表现及超声对PVL的诊断价值。结果胎儿PVL的超声表现为侧脑室旁、半卵圆中心和/或大脑皮下脑白质回声增强、可见无回声或低回声囊腔;4例胎儿第六脑室( verga