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Sample records for prenatal treatment effect

  1. Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data

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    Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Leproust, Sandy; Chêne, Geneviève

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite three decades of prenatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in some European countries, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of prenatal treatment. METHODS: We did a systematic review of cohort studies based on universal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis. We did...... a meta-analysis using individual patients' data to assess the effect of timing and type of prenatal treatment on mother-to-child transmission of infection and clinical manifestations before age 1 year. Analyses were adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion and other covariates. FINDINGS......: We included 26 cohorts in the review. In 1438 treated mothers identified by prenatal screening, we found weak evidence that treatment started within 3 weeks of seroconversion reduced mother-to-child transmission compared with treatment started after 8 or more weeks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95...

  2. Effects of prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment in rats on water maze performance.

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    Leng, Andreas; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana L; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Feldon, Joram

    2005-06-20

    Prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment has been shown to induce morphological abnormalities in cortical areas of the offspring. Based on the neuroanatomical and behavioural abnormalities, this treatment has been suggested as a useful animal model for schizophrenia. In a previous study (Jongen-Relo AL, Leng A, Luber M, Pothuizen HHJ, Weber L, Feldon J. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate treatment: a neurodevelopmental animal model for schizophrenia? Behav Brain Res 2004;149:159-81) we have studied MAM-treated animals in a series of behavioural tests related to schizophrenia, such as latent inhibition and pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response to establish the validity of prenatal MAM treatment (20mg/kg i.p. on gestational days 9-15; MAM 9-MAM 15). We found that, apart from a marginal effect of increased activity in the open field, the MAM treatment on gestational day 15 was behaviourally ineffective. Here, we extended our previous study to a water maze experiment conducted in the same batch of animals as presented previously (MAM 12-MAM 15). MAM-treated animals showed similar water maze performance compared with control animals during the acquisition phase and the probe tests. However, during the reversal phase, MAM 15 animals showed impaired acquisition of the new platform location. This might indicate some cognitive deficits in MAM 15 animals in terms of working memory or behavioural flexibility. However, in combination with the lack of behavioural abnormalities of MAM 12-MAM 15 animals in several other tests related to schizophrenia in the previously reported study, the use of MAM treatment (MAM 12-MAM 15) as a valid model for schizophrenia still remains debatable.

  3. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

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    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  4. Hemodynamic effects of chronic prenatal ventricular pacing for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block.

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    Liddicoat, J R; Klein, J R; Reddy, V M; Klautz, R J; Teitel, D F; Hanley, F L

    1997-08-05

    Increasing the heart rate of the fetus with cardiac failure caused by complete AV block (CAVB) may allow delivery of a full-term, stable neonate with preserved ventricular function. Direct fetal pacing may be a feasible method to achieve this, but the effect of pacing on the structure and function of the rapidly developing fetal heart is unknown. CAVB was created in fetal lambs at 80% gestation by cryoablating the AV node. Epicardial ventricular pacing at 130 bpm was achieved by use of a pacemaker placed under the pectoral muscles. The fetus was returned to the uterus and allowed to continue to term. Ventricular function was assessed 1 week after birth in 7 lambs with CAVB and 10 control lambs. By use of the conductance catheter technique, the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship was determined at different heart rates, pacing conditions, and inotropic states. The contractility was not different between the two groups at their baseline heart rates and rhythms or when they were paced synchronously compared with asynchronously. Also, both groups responded significantly and similarly to inotropic manipulation, indicating preserved contractile reserve. Finally, in both groups, increased heart rates were associated with increased contractility, indicating an intact force-frequency relationship. We conclude that chronic epicardial ventricular pacing is well tolerated by the fetus, can be successfully applied as a treatment for CAVB, and does not adversely affect myocardial function in the rapidly developing, immature heart.

  5. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

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    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  6. The efficacy of physiotherapy for the prevention and treatment of prenatal symptoms: a systematic review.

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    Van Kampen, Marijke; Devoogdt, Nele; De Groef, An; Gielen, Annelies; Geraerts, Inge

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have described the evidence of prenatal physiotherapy for one symptom, but none has made an overview. We provided a systematic review on the effectiveness of prenatal physiotherapy. A full search was conducted in three electronic databases (Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE and PEDro), selecting randomized controlled trials concerning prenatal physiotherapy. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. We identified 1,249 studies and after exclusions 54 studies were included concerning the evidence of prenatal physiotherapy. The majority of studies indicated a preventative effect for low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and perineal massage. For leg edema, fear, and prenatal depression, the efficacy was only based on one study per symptom. No preventative effect was found for gestational diabetes, while literature concerning gestational hypertensive disorders was inconclusive. Regarding the treatment of low back pain/pelvic girdle pain and weight gain, most therapies reduced pain and weight respectively. Evidence regarding exercises for diabetes was contradictory and only minimally researched for incontinence. Foot massage and stockings reduced leg edema and leg symptoms respectively. Concerning gestational hypertensive disorders, perineal pain, fear, and prenatal depression no treatment studies were performed. The majority of studies indicated that prenatal physiotherapy played a preventative role for low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and pelvic pain. Evidence for the remaining symptoms was inclusive or only minimally investigated. Regarding treatment, most studies indicated a reduction of low back pain/pelvic girdle pain, weight gain, incontinence, and the symptoms of leg edema.

  7. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

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    Mario Cortina-Borja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%. 23/293 (8% fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71. This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15 after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75 at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95. The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%. CONCLUSION: The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Choate, Laura H.; Gintner, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current…

  9. Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.; Gintner, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide counselors with an overview of best practices for the treatment of women who experience prenatal depression (PND). The authors first discuss issues in the screening and diagnosis of PND. Next, the 2 most common treatments, antidepressants and psychotherapy, are reviewed and discussed in relation to current…

  10. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

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    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  11. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

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    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  12. Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) dissemination project: a science to prenatal care practice partnership.

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    Windsor, Richard; Clark, Jeannie; Cleary, Sean; Davis, Amanda; Thorn, Stephanie; Abroms, Lorien; Wedeles, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program selected by the West Virginia-Right From The Start Project for state-wide dissemination. A process evaluation documented the fidelity of SCRIPT delivery by Designated Care Coordinators (DCC), licensed nurses and social workers who provide home-based case management to Medicaid-eligible clients in all 55 counties. We implemented a quasi-experimental, non-randomized, matched Comparison (C) Group design. The SCRIPT Experimental E Group (N = 259) were all clients in 2009-2010 that wanted to quit, provided a screening carbon monoxide (CO), and received a SCRIPT home visit. The (C) Group was derived from all clients in 2006-2007 who had the same CO assessments as E Group clients and reported receiving cessation counseling. We stratified the baseline CO of E Group clients into 10 strata, and randomly selected the same number of (C) Group clients (N = 259) from each matched strata to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCRIPT Program. There were no significant baseline differences in the E and (C) Group. A Process Evaluation documented a significant increase in the fidelity of DCC delivery of SCRIPT Program procedures: from 63 % in 2006 to 74 % in 2010. Significant increases were documented in the E Group cessation rate (+9.3 %) and significant reduction rate (+4.5 %), a ≥50 % reduction from a baseline CO. Perinatal health case management staff can deliver the SCRIPT Program, and Medicaid-supported clients can change smoking behavior, even very late in pregnancy. When multiple biases were analyzed, we concluded the SCRIPT Dissemination Project was the most plausible reason for the significant changes in behavior.

  13. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

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    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  14. Prenatal treatment prevents learning deficit in Down syndrome model.

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    Maddalena Incerti

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Active fragments of neurotrophic factors release by astrocyte under the stimulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide, NAPVSIPQ (NAP and SALLRSIPA (SAL respectively, have shown therapeutic potential for developmental delay and learning deficits. Previous work demonstrated that NAP+SAL prevent developmental delay and glial deficit in Ts65Dn that is a well-characterized mouse model for Down syndrome. The objective of this study is to evaluate if prenatal treatment with these peptides prevents the learning deficit in the Ts65Dn mice. Pregnant Ts65Dn female and control pregnant females were randomly treated (intraperitoneal injection on pregnancy days 8 through 12 with saline (placebo or peptides (NAP 20 µg +SAL 20 µg daily. Learning was assessed in the offspring (8-10 months using the Morris Watermaze, which measures the latency to find the hidden platform (decrease in latency denotes learning. The investigators were blinded to the prenatal treatment and genotype. Pups were genotyped as trisomic (Down syndrome or euploid (control after completion of all tests.two-way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons, P<0.05 was used to denote statistical significance. Trisomic mice who prenatally received placebo (Down syndrome-placebo; n = 11 did not demonstrate learning over the five day period. DS mice that were prenatally exposed to peptides (Down syndrome-peptides; n = 10 learned significantly better than Down syndrome-placebo (p<0.01, and similar to control-placebo (n = 33 and control-peptide (n = 30. In conclusion prenatal treatment with the neuroprotective peptides (NAP+SAL prevented learning deficits in a Down syndrome model. These findings highlight a possibility for the prevention of sequelae in Down syndrome and suggest a potential pregnancy intervention that may improve outcome.

  15. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

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    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of a prenatal medical food to prenatal vitamins on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes: a retrospective analysis.

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    Bentley, Susan; Hermes, Amy; Phillips, Diane; Daoud, Yahya A; Hanna, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    The role of folate in pregnancy is well established, with most prenatal vitamins (PNVs) on the market containing at least 800 μg of folic acid. Folic acid must be converted in the body to L-methylfolate, the natural and biologically active form of folate. The role of vitamin B(12) in pregnancy is less characterized, and most PNV formulations contain only 0 to 12 μg. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether taking a prenatal medical food containing L-methylfolate and much higher doses of vitamin B(12) results in higher hemoglobin levels and thus, a lower incidence of anemia during pregnancy. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effects of the prenatal medical food versus standard PNVs on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes throughout pregnancy. For this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the charts of female patients taking either a prenatal medical food or standard PNV during pregnancy. Hemoglobin levels measured at initiation of prenatal care, end of second trimester, and delivery were recorded. Patients who had received additional iron supplementation, beyond that contained in the prenatal medical food or PNV they were taking and before anemia screening at the end of the second trimester, were excluded from the study. Fisher exact test, χ(2) test, student t test, and ANOVA were used to evaluate differences between the treatment groups. Data were analyzed from 112 charts: 58 patients (51.8%) were taking the prenatal medical food; 54 patients (48.2%) were taking standard PNVs. Mean (SD) age at first prenatal visit was 27 (4.6) years in the medical food group and 28.8 (3.5) years in the PNV group (P = 0.024). Mean (SD) body mass indices were 29.1 (6.5) and 31.7 (8.9) in the medical food and PNV groups, respectively (P = NS). In the medical food group, 35 women (60.3%) were white/Caucasian, 17 (29.3%) were African American, and 6 (10.4%) were of other races. In the PNV group, 24 women (44.4%) were white/Caucasian, 25 (46

  17. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment and later mental health in children and adolescents.

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    Natasha Khalife

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. METHODS: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC, n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment--gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort--matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves--pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR scale. RESULTS: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45] and inattention (B= .97 [95% CI: .16-1.80] at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on

  18. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation: impact of prenatal diagnosis and changing strategies in the treatment of the asymptomatic patient.

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    Marshall, K W; Blane, C E; Teitelbaum, D H; van Leeuwen, K

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of prenatal sonographic diagnosis on the treatment of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. The medical records of 27 patients with pathologically proven congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into four groups based on mode of presentation: with or without abnormal findings on prenatal sonography and with or without symptoms at birth. Age at diagnosis, age at surgical intervention, complications, and length of hospital stay were recorded for each group. Twenty-seven patients with 31 proven congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations were included. Eleven patients underwent prenatal sonography establishing the diagnosis (6 asymptomatic at birth, 5 symptomatic), and 16 did not have a prenatal diagnosis (10 asymptomatic at birth, 6 symptomatic). In the symptomatic populations, prenatal diagnosis had no impact on age at surgery, length of stay, or surgical complication rate (p = 0.78-0.83). In the asymptomatic population, prenatal diagnosis allowed early diagnosis (p < 0.001) and resection in the asymptomatic period. It was also associated with a shorter length of stay at the time of surgical resection (mean time, 4.2 days for patients with prenatal diagnosis versus 12.9 days for those without it;p < 0.001) and with a trend toward lower serious complication rate (3 patients without prenatal diagnosis versus 1 patient with it). Prenatal sonography provides the radiologist a means to identify congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations in a population of infants who are asymptomatic at birth. Surgical intervention in the asymptomatic infant is associated with a shorter length of stay, a trend toward fewer complications, and decreased medical cost compared with intervening after symptoms develop.

  19. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics.

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    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal T females and its amplification by postnatal obesity. Stereological examinations were performed at 5 (prepubertal, control and prenatal T) and 21 months (control, prenatal T and prenatal T obese, following estrus synchronization) of age. Obesity was induced by overfeeding from weaning. At 5 months, prenatal T females had 46% less primordial follicles than controls (P obesity did not exaggerate the impact of prenatal T on follicular recruitment indicating that compounding effects of obesity on loss of cyclicity females is not due to depletion of ovarian reserve. Assessment of follicular dynamics across several time points during the reproductive life span (this and earlier study combined) provides evidence supportive of a shift in follicular dynamics in prenatal T females from one of accelerated follicular depletion initiated prior to puberty to stockpiling of growing follicles after puberty, a time point critical in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

  20. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

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    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  1. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

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    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  2. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

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    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  3. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

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    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy.

  4. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  5. Statistical Methods for the Evaluation of Health Effects of Prenatal Mercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe;

    2002-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose......Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose...

  6. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. PMID:24655090

  7. Oregon's Coordinated Care Organizations and Their Effect on Prenatal Care Utilization Among Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Lisa P; Harvey, S Marie; Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff

    2017-07-12

    Introduction Previous studies indicate that inadequate prenatal care is more common among women covered by Medicaid compared with private insurance. Increasing the proportion of pregnant women who receive early and adequate prenatal care is a Healthy People 2020 goal. We examined the impact of the implementation of Oregon's accountable care organizations, Coordinated Care Organizations (CCOs), for Medicaid enrollees, on prenatal care utilization among Oregon women of reproductive age enrolled in Medicaid. Methods Using Medicaid eligibility data linked to unique birth records for 2011-2013, we used a pre-posttest treatment-control design that compared prenatal care utilization for women on Medicaid before and after CCO implementation to women never enrolled in Medicaid. Additional stratified analyses were conducted to explore differences in the effect of CCO implementation based on rurality, race, and ethnicity. Results After CCO implementation, mothers on Medicaid had a 13% increase in the odds of receiving first trimester care (OR 1.13, CI 1.04, 1.23). Non-Hispanic (OR 1.20, CI 1.09, 1.32), White (OR 1.20, CI 1.08, 1.33) and Asian (OR 2.03, CI 1.26, 3.27) women on Medicaid were more likely to receive initial prenatal care in the first trimester after CCO implementation and only Medicaid women in urban areas were more likely (OR 1.14, CI 1.05, 1.25) to initiate prenatal care in the first trimester. Conclusion Following Oregon's implementation of an innovative Medicaid coordinated care model, we found that women on Medicaid experienced a significant increase in receiving timely prenatal care.

  8. Prenatal stress and its effect on infant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation the effect of prenatal maternal stress on infant development and behavior is discussed. In a prospective longitudinal study of 170 nulliparous women, data was gatheren on the maternal stress level three times during pregnancy by means of questionnaires and endocrinologic

  9. Prenatal screening costs at a large military treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv, Erin; Sale, Taylor J; Simsiman, Amanda; Leininger, William M; Lutgendorf, Monica A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal screening with cell-free DNA (cfDNA) offers improved detection of Down syndrome (T21) compared to conventional screening. These tests are expensive and have fewer detectable anomalies. Our objective was to investigate potential costs and test performance of screening algorithms when accounting for detectable aneuploidies. This is a cost analysis for a large military treatment facility. Using a theoretical delivery cohort and published performance data, universal screening with cfDNA was compared to sequential screening, comparing T21 to all detectable aneuploidies. Predicted test performance and costs were calculated. A cohort of 3000 deliveries was used. For T21, universal cfDNA is more expensive ($1,346,064) than sequential screening ($244,885), but has a lower false positive rate and avoids 101 invasive diagnostic tests. An additional case of T21 is detected with a marginal cost of $1,101,179. For all detectable aneuploidies, cfDNA is more expensive ($1,353,660) than sequential screening ($239,189), and 59 invasive diagnostic tests are avoided. Sequential screening detects an additional case of aneuploidy, with a cost savings of $1,114,471. Although cfDNA is superior in detecting T21 cases, sequential screening is superior when considering all aneuploidies detectable. The cost increase with universal cfDNA is significant, and is not justified with small improvements in the performance.

  10. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age.

  11. Effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine on emotionality in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T

    1983-01-01

    Prenatal administration of high doses of tricyclic antidepressants have been reported to produce teratogenic and behavioral effects in rat offspring. In the present work, behavioral abnormalities are described in offspring of rats treated with therapeutic doses of chlorimipramine (CIM) during pregnancy (CIM-P), lactation (CIM-L) and during the whole pregnancy-lactation period (CIM-PL). CIM-P treatment did not produce teratogenic effects, did not affect number or body weight of pups at birth and did not induce neonatal mortality. At 2 months of age, the CIM-P males showed a significant increase in digging and grooming (familiar environment test), a decrease in "exploration" (novel environment test) and a decrease in active social interactions (social behavior test). Females were more resistant than males to the prenatal CIM treatment. The results suggest increased emotionality in CIM-P pups. Some behavioral abnormalities were also observed in the tests performed at 4 months of age. CIM-L treatment had minor effects on litter behavior. CIM-PL treatment potentiated the effects of the CIM-P treatment. In the CIM-PL males, impairment of exploration of a novel environment still remained in the tests performed at 4 months of age. It is speculated that when prenatal brain development is altered by CIM, further postnatal treatment may impair compensatory processes occurring in early postnatal life.

  12. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  13. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Homauni Afshari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have shown that prenatal stress affects development of fetal brain. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 16 male and 16 female Wistar rats in 2014. The rats were divided into four groups: male and female control groups, with natural pregnancy and two male and female treatment groups with exposure to combined stress (electromagnetic field, immobility and social stress in the second and third weeks of embryonic development. The learning was evaluated using shuttle box setup. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Findings: The prenatal combined stress caused decrease in the latency time to enter the dark chamber in male and female new born rats in post-training periods especially the second week compared to the control groups. Conclusion: With regards to the results, prenatal exposure to combined stress can reduce the memory retention of passive avoidance learning.

  16. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring...

  17. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Astapova, Olga; Evans, Neil P; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-12-01

    Increased occurrence of reproductive disorders has raised concerns regarding the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on reproductive health, especially when such exposure occurs during fetal life. Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to growth retardation, postnatal hypergonadotropism, compromised estradiol-positive feedback, polycystic ovaries, and infertility in the adult. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to affect ovarian morphology or estradiol-positive feedback, suggesting that effects of prenatal T may be facilitated via conversion of T to estradiol, thus raising concerns regarding fetal exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe. Suffolk ewes were administered MXC (n=10), BPA (n=10) (5 mg/kg.d sc in cotton seed oil) or the vehicle (C; n=16) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. On d 60 of treatment, maternal MXC concentrations in fat tissue and BPA in blood averaged approximately 200 microg/g fat and 37.4+/-3.3 ng/ml, respectively. Birth weights of BPA offspring were lower (P<0.05) relative to C. There was no difference in the time of puberty between groups. BPA females were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and ended their breeding season later, compared with C. Characterization of cyclic changes after synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in five C, six MXC, and six BPA females found that the onset of the LH surge was delayed in MXC (P<0.05) and the LH surge magnitude severely dampened (P<0.05) in BPA sheep. These findings suggest that prenatal BPA and MXC exposure have long-term differential effects on a variety of reproductive endocrine parameters that could impact fertility.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of rapid syphilis screening in prenatal HIV testing programs in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Schackman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care, rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care, and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization-Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. CONCLUSIONS: In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A

  19. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Prenatal Distribution of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon J Lubinga

    Full Text Available In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH. Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer and modified societal perspectives.To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution, we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs, costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.2% (95% credibility interval (CrI: 0.55%, 1.95%, mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13% and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03.” and “ICERs were US$181 (95% CrI: 81, 443 per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$64 (95% CrI: -84, 260 per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective [corrected].Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be considered for national-level scale up for prevention of PPH.

  20. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  1. Health effects of prenatal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela M; Fletcher, Stacy

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency, and electromagnetic waves. In utero exposure to nonionizing radiation is not associated with significant risks; therefore, ultrasonography is safe to perform during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation includes particles and electromagnetic radiation (e.g., gamma rays, x-rays). In utero exposure to ionizing radiation can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic. The effects are directly related to the level of exposure and stage of fetal development. The fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception). Noncancer health effects have not been detected at any stage of gestation after exposure to ionizing radiation of less than 0.05 Gy (5 rad). Spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, and mental retardation may occur at higher exposure levels. The risk of cancer is increased regardless of the dose. When an exposure to ionizing radiation occurs, the total fetal radiation dose should be estimated and the mother counseled about the potential risks so that she can make informed decisions about her pregnancy management.

  2. Prenatally evolving ectopia cordis with successful surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadłecki, Paweł; Krekora, Michał; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Grabiec, Marek; Moll, Jacek; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare malformation due to failure of maturation of the midline mesodermal components of the chest and abdomen. It can be defined as a complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Common cardiac anomalies associated with EC are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot. EC and additional anomalies usually lead to intrauterine death. The possibility and efficacy of surgery in a surviving neonate depends on the degree of EC, coexisting congenital heart defects and extracardiac malformations. We present a case of prenatally diagnosed isolated EC diagnosed in the first half of pregnancy. After counseling, the patient decided to continue her pregnancy which ended with a newborn baby discharged from the hospital after cardiac surgery performed just after elective cesarean section.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  4. [Study of long-lasting effects of acute prenatal stress induced forced swimming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, M A; Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaia, N G; Kamenskiĭ, A A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess long-lasting effects of acute prenatal stress in white rats. Forced swimming in cold water on the 7th or the 14th gestational day was used as a prenatal stressor. The prenatal stress led to low birthweight of offspring and their delayed growth rate during the second month of life. Prenatally stressed animals showed abnormalities in exploratory behavior and anxiety, increased emotionality and impaired learning capabilities at the age of 1-2 month. Consequently, acute stress on the 7th and at the 14th day of pregnancy induced long-lasting negative behavioral changes in offspring of stressed white rats.

  5. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin eGibb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

  6. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  8. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  9. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  10. Effects of repeated prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on long-term potentiation in the juvenile guinea-pig hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F; Matthews, Stephen G

    2007-06-15

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) are routinely used to treat women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung maturation. There is now strong evidence that exposure to excess glucocorticoid during periods of rapid brain development has permanent consequences for endocrine function and behaviour in the offspring. Prenatal exposure to sGC alters the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) subunits in the fetal and neonatal hippocampus. Given the integral role of the NMDA-R in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that prenatal sGC exposure will have effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) after birth. Further, this may occur in either the presence or absence of elevated cortisol concentrations, in vitro. Pregnant guinea-pigs were injected with betamethasone (Beta, 1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on gestational days (gd) 40, 41, 50, 51, 60 and 61 (term approximately 70 days), a regimen comparable to that given to pregnant women. On postnatal day 21, LTP was examined at Schaffer collateral synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile animals exposed to betamethasone or vehicle, in utero. Subsequently, the acute glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent effects of cortisol (0.1-10 microM; bath applied 30 min before LTP induction) were examined. There was no effect of prenatal sGC treatment on LTP under basal conditions. The application of 10 microM cortisol depressed excitatory synaptic transmission in all treatment groups regardless of sex. Similarly, LTP was depressed by 10 microM cortisol in all groups, with the exception of Beta-exposed females, in which LTP was unaltered. Hippocampal MR and GR protein levels were increased in Beta-exposed females, but not in any other prenatal treatment group. This study reveals sex-specific effects of prenatal exposure to sGC on LTP in the presence of elevated cortisol, a situation that would occur in vivo during stress.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of group and individual prenatal care on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Gesell, Sabina B

    2014-09-01

    This study examined differences in gestational weight gain for women in CenteringPregnancy (CP) group prenatal care versus individually delivered prenatal care. We conducted a retrospective chart review and used propensity scores to form a matched sample of 393 women (76 % African-American, 13 % Latina, 11 % White; average age 22 years) receiving prenatal care at a community health center in the South. Women were matched on a wide range of demographic and medical background characteristics. Compared to the matched group of women receiving standard individual prenatal care, CP participants were less likely to have excessive gestational weight gain, regardless of their pre-pregnancy weight (b = -.99, 95 % CI [-1.92, -.06], RRR = .37). CP reduced the risk of excessive weight gain during pregnancy to 54 % of what it would have been in the standard model of prenatal care (NNT = 5). The beneficial effect of CP was largest for women who were overweight or obese prior to their pregnancy. Effects did not vary by gestational age at delivery. Post-hoc analyses provided no evidence of adverse effects on newborn birth weight outcomes. Group prenatal care had statistically and clinically significant beneficial effects on reducing excessive gestational weight gain relative to traditional individual prenatal care.

  12. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids sensitizes the hpa axis response to stress among full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the consequences for HPA axis functioning among healthy full-term newborns of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), betamethasone, which is the routine treatment for threatened preterm delivery. Ninety full-term infants were recruited into two study groups (30 betamethasone treated; 60 comparison group matched for GA at birth and sex). The cortisol and behavioral response to the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw was assessed 24 hr after birth. Full-term infants exposed to prenatal betamethasone displayed a larger cortisol response to the heel-stick procedure, despite no differences in baseline levels. Further, within the recommended window of betamethasone administration (24-34 gestational weeks), infants exposed to betamethasone earlier in gestation displayed the largest cortisol response to the heel-stick. These data add to accumulating evidence that prenatal exposure to elevated GCs programs the development of the HPA axis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: screening, diagnostic, and treatment practices among prenatal care providers in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, J S; Koumans, E H; Toomey, K E; Grayson, C; Markowitz, L E

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes. We conducted a prenatal care provider survey to determine STD screening, diagnosis, and treatment practices. Standard questionnaires were mailed to Georgia-licensed obstetrician/ gynecologists, family practitioners, and nurse-midwives (N = 3,082) in 1998. Of the 1,300 care providers who returned the survey, 565 (44%) provided prenatal care, 390 (57%) were male, and 396 (70%) were obstetrician/ gynecologists. Overall, 553 prenatal care providers (98%) reported screening all pregnant patients for syphilis, 551 (98%) for hepatitis B, 501 (89%) for trichomonas, 474 (84%) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 401 (71%) for gonorrhea, 403 (71%) for chlamydia, 475 (84%) for group B streptococci, and 130 (23%) for bacterial vaginosis (BV) (high risk). Less than 10% used amplification tests for chlamydia or gonorrhea. Most providers used appropriate regimens to treat STD in pregnant women. A written office policy on testing for BV or HIV was associated with increased screening. Provider education is needed about diagnosis and treatment of STD during pregnancy.

  14. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  15. Effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and human development: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that prenatal stress can have significant effects on pregnancy, maternal health and human development across the lifespan. These effects may occur directly through the influence of prenatal stress-related physiological changes on the developing fetus, or indirectly through the effects of prenatal stress on maternal health and pregnancy outcome which, in turn, affect infant health and development. Animal and human studies suggest that activation of the maternal stress response and resulting changes in endocrine and inflammatory activity play a role in the aetiology of these effects. Ongoing research is focusing on clarifying these mechanisms, understanding the role of racial and cultural factors in these effects, and examining the epigenetic and transgenerational influences of prenatal stress. PMID:27757157

  16. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women.

  17. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig......A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal...... fibrosis in pre-natally exposed pigs. These findings indicate that further investigations will prove valuable, elucidating the influence of the parasitological and immunological status of the sow, on pre-natally exposed pigs, and on the ability of these pigs to develop resistance against S. japonicum later...

  18. Prenatal nutrition, epigenetics and schizophrenia risk: can we test causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Susser, Ezra; Kundakovic, Marija; Kresovich, Jacob K; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2012-06-01

    We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Although post-mortem human studies demonstrate DNA methylation changes in brains of people with schizophrenia, such studies cannot establish causality. We suggest a testable hypothesis that utilizes a novel two-step Mendelian randomization approach, to test the component parts of the proposed causal pathway leading from prenatal nutritional exposure to schizophrenia. Applied here to a specific example, such an approach is applicable for wider use to strengthen causal inference of the mediating role of epigenetic factors linking exposures to health outcomes in population-based studies.

  19. Prenatal treatment of mothers with fetuses at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: How relevant is it to Indian context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marumudi Eunice

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH from embryonic stage to adulthood is a critical challenge. We would like to comment on some of the practical difficulties in offering prenatal treatment for CAH-affected fetuses in Indian population. For initiating the prenatal dexamethasone (DEX treatment, all members of the family need to be informed about the risks and benefits of the treatment to the mother and the fetus as well as about the available invasive diagnostic tests to determine the gender and genotype of the fetus. Prenatal sex disclosure is not routinely practiced in India due to high female feticide rate. The treatment has to be given to both unaffected and affected female fetuses until the determination of prenatal sex. Moreover, most of our populations reside in rural areas where the antenatal care is not adequate. Prenatal DEX treatment in India outruns the risks rather than the benefits, as evident from the literature on the safety of pregnant mothers and fetuses.

  20. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  1. [Ultrasonic and biochemical detection and prenatal treatments of intra-uterine fetal growth retardation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneoka, T; Aso, M; Nobori, M; Aonuma, M; Shimizu, H; Shirakawa, K

    1980-01-01

    Efficacy of three ultrasonographic and six biochemical methods for the detection of intrauterine growth retardation were assessed in prospective studies of 40 cases associated with short uterine fundal height less than -1.5 SD and/or small ultrasonographically determined total intrauterine volume (TIUV) less than -1 SD of normal populations. Prenatal treatments, consisting of bed rest, high protein diet, intravenous drip infusion of 10% maltose, 500 ml per day, for more than 12 days, etc., were administered on them. Fifteen cases (37.5%) delivered small-for-date infants, 9 of which complicated by toxemia of pregnancy. At the final determinations, small TIUV were found in all small-for-date cases (100%), short biparietal diameter 80.0%, and short longitudinal intracavital uterine length 53.3% of 15 small-for-date cases. In biochemical parameters, low maternal plasma estriol levels were found in 73.3%, low plasma human placental lactogen levels 66.7%, low urinary estriol excretion 53.3%, abnormal plasma alpha-fetoprotein levels 33.3%, and low plasma progesterone levels 20.0% of 15 small-for-date cases. Nineteen cases (47.5%) demonstrated remarkable increases in TIUV following prenatal treatments, and delivered appropriate-for-date infants. Despite of marked growth in biophysical parameters, abnormal biochemical values were mostly not improved by these treatments.

  2. Prenatal stress in birds : Pathways, effects, function and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although most work on prenatal stress has been conducted on mammalian species, birds provide useful alternative models since avian embryos develop outside the mother's body in a concealed environment, the egg, which is produced during a short time window of 4-14 days. This facilitates measurement of

  3. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... about the birth.[4]. Over 90% of prenatal stress and anxiety is related to the process ... stress hormones increases and can lead to preterm birth, lack ... Results: The result of this study showed that the parent with a high level of education was more ..... the benefits of educational programs to participants and their newborns ...

  4. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η(2) = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014

  6. Antidepressants may mitigate the effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sharon K; Mendoza, Jordan H; D'Anna, Kimberly; Zerbe, Gary O; McCarthy, Lizbeth; Hoffman, Camille; Freedman, Robert; Ross, Randal G

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal maternal anxiety has detrimental effects on the offspring's neurocognitive development, including impaired attentional function. Antidepressants are commonly used during pregnancy, yet their impact on offspring attention and their interaction with maternal anxiety has not been assessed. The authors used P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, to assess the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use. A total of 242 mother-infant dyads were classified relative to maternal history of anxiety and maternal prenatal antidepressant use. Infant P50 auditory sensory gating was recorded during active sleep at a mean age of 76 days (SD=38). In the absence of prenatal antidepressant exposure, infants whose mothers had a history of anxiety diagnoses had diminished P50 sensory gating. Prenatal antidepressant exposure mitigated the effect of anxiety. The effect of maternal anxiety was limited to amplitude of response to the second stimulus, while antidepressant exposure had an impact on the amplitude of response to both the first and second stimulus. Maternal anxiety disorders are associated with less inhibition during infant sensory gating, a performance deficit mitigated by prenatal antidepressant exposure. This effect may be important in considering the risks and benefits of antidepressant use during pregnancy. Cholinergic mechanisms are hypothesized for both anxiety and antidepressant effects, although the cholinergic receptors involved are likely different for anxiety and antidepressant effects.

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response...... function due to CMS were observed. In the present experimental setting, there was no indication of the two exposures potentiating each other with respect to adverse effects on the nervous system. However, the effects of prenatal CMS indicate that stress during fetal life may interfere with the development...

  8. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Effectiveness of Prenatal Screening for Hemoglobinopathies in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Soumita; Sen, Aditi; Ghosh, Malay Kumar; Misra, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2015-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common monogenic diseases worldwide, a national health burden in India. There are estimated 7500-12,000 babies born with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) every year in this country. Couples who are at-risk of having children with hemoglobin (Hb) disorders desired to have the option of avoiding the birth of an affected child by prenatal diagnosis (PND). Thus, the prenatal women are a highly important target group for carrier screening and preventing the birth of thalassemic children in the country. The present study was conducted among 20,883 pregnant women, irrespective of gravida and duration of pregnancy, from the prenatal clinic of Nilratan Sarkar (NRS) Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from February 2009 to November 2012. Thalassemia carrier status was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) along with red blood cell (RBC) indices. Husbands of all thalassemia carrier women were advised and persuaded to undergo screening for hemoglobinopathies. The couples were counseled to undergo PND if both of them were detected to be thalassemia carriers. The data were statistically analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure.

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  11. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  13. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  14. Effect of prenatal cocaine on early postnatal thermoregulation and ultrasonic vocalization production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stephen McMurray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cocaine exposure can alter the postnatal care received by rat pups. Such effects could be caused in part by alterations in pup-produced stimuli that elicit early postnatal maternal care. Pup ultrasonic vocalizations are thought to be a particularly salient stimulus, and when paired with other cues, may elicit maternal attention. Cocaine is known to acutely alter thermoregulatory and cardiac function, thus prenatal cocaine may affect vocalizations through altering these functions. The data presented here determine the impact of full term prenatal cocaine exposure , saline exposure, or no exposure on thermogenic capacity, cardiac function, and the resulting ultrasonic vocalizations across the early postnatal period (days 1-5. Results indicated that while sharing many similar characteristics with saline-exposed and untreated animals, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with specific alterations in vocalization characteristics on postnatal day 1 (PND 1, including call amplitude. Furthermore, numerous spectral parameters of their vocalizations were found altered on PND 3, including rate, call duration, and frequency, while no alterations were found on PND 5. Additionally, cocaine-exposed pups also showed a reduced thermoregulatory capacity compared to saline animals and reduced cardiac mass compared to untreated animals on PND 5. Together, these findings indicate that prenatal cocaine may be altering the elicitation of maternal care through its impact on vocalizations and thermoregulation, and suggests a potential mechanism for these effects through cocaine’s impact on developing stress systems.

  15. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Rayen

    Full Text Available Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1. Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1 prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2 prenatal stress+vehicle, 3 fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4 vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  17. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Special Education in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. METHODS As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. RESULTS Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population. PMID

  18. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2016-08-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the brain in older age. We investigated brain size and structure at age 68 years after prenatal famine exposure. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were made in 118 Dutch famine birth cohort members. Of these 118 (44% male, age range 65-69 years), 41 had been exposed to famine in early gestation and 77 had been prenatally unexposed. Structural volumes were automatically assessed using FreeSurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and anisotropy and diffusivity were computed. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery was performed to assess white matter hyperintensities. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with smaller intracranial volume in males, but not females. Volumes of total brain, grey and white matter were also smaller in early exposed males, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for intracranial volume. Prenatally exposed males but not females, had a smaller intracranial and total brain volume compared to unexposed subjects. Our findings show that prenatal undernutrition permanently affected brain size.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww132_video_abstractaww132_video_abstract.

  19. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. (St. Mary' s Coll., Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  20. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second

  1. Effects of low-dose prenatal irradiation on the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Scientists are in general agreement about the effects of prenatal irradiation, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Differing concepts and research approaches have resulted in some uncertainties about some quantitative relationships, underlying interpretations, and conclusions. Examples of uncertainties include the existence of a threshold, the quantitative relationships between prenatal radiation doses and resulting physical and functional lesions, and processes by which lesions originate and develop. A workshop was convened in which scientists with varying backgrounds and viewpoints discussed these relationships and explored ways in which various disciplines could coordinate concepts and methodologies to suggest research directions for resolving uncertainties. This Workshop Report summarizes, in an extended fashion, salient features of the presentations on the current status of our knowledge about the radiobiology and neuroscience of prenatal irradiation and the relationships between them.

  2. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    compared to controls. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to SRM2975 was not associated with endocrine disruptor activity in adulthood. There was no significant change in expression levels of aquaporins 7, 8 and 9 in testes tissue, measured as mRNA expression and protein levels......In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to SRM2975 was associated with reduced daily sperm production in adulthood, which was not possible to clearly associate with altered endocrine function or expression of aquaporins in the testes....

  3. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin prenatal administration on dental enamel in Wistar rats. 12 pregnant adult rats were used distributed into five different groups: witness control (n=2) didn't get any treatment; negative control (n=2) they were prescribed with saline solution; positive control (n=3) they were prescribed with tetracycline 130 mg/kg, and two groups (n=3 and n=2) treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. The treatments were daily administered by mouth, from the 6th gestation day to the end of gestation. Twenty five days after they were born, the offspring were sacrificed with a sodium pentobarbital overdose, the mandible was dissected and the first lower molars were gotten. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and clinically and histologically observed to determine any enamel disorders. hypomineralization was observed in every single sample of the tetracyclic and amoxicillin treated group 100 mg/kg, meanwhile only 50% from the group administered with 50 mg/kg amoxicillin showed this histological disorder. the side effect caused by amoxicillin on dental enamel was doses dependent.

  4. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  5. Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Depressive Symptoms on Adopted Child HPA Regulation: Independent and Moderated Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck…

  6. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  7. Amniocentesis is a safe and effective prenatal diagnostic tool: a clinical study in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Mukherjee

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Two factors, indications for amniocentesis as well as the procedure itself, contribute to the risk of miscarriage. The procedure-related risk is very low and the total risk of miscarriage is around one percent. Amniocentesis is a safe and effective prenatal diagnostic procedure. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1330-1334

  8. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability...

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.;

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  10. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue.

  11. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  12. Sex specific effect of prenatal testosterone on language laterlization in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J.M.; Geuze, R.H.; Van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Groothuis, Antonius; Bouma, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Brain lateralization refers to the division of labour between the two hemispheres in controlling a wide array of functions and is remarkably well developed in humans. Based on sex differences in lateralization of handedness and language, several hypotheses have postulated an effect of prenatal expos

  13. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of i

  14. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of i

  15. Effect of prenatal haloperidol exposure on behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Mandavi

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Charles-Foster rats were exposed to haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug that binds to and blocks dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) from Gestation Day (GD) 12 to 20. The animals from both treated as well as vehicle control groups were allowed to deliver on GD 21. The offspring culled at birth on the basis of sex and weight were subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 8 weeks. The HAL-treated rat offspring showed a significant increase in anxiogenic behavior on the open field, elevated plus-maze and elevated zero-maze tests when compared with the vehicle-treated (control) rat offspring of the same age group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HAL during a critical period of brain development leaves a lasting imprint on the brain, resulting in abnormal anxiety states, possibly through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms.

  16. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Carmelinda A; Fried, Peter A; Cameron, Ian; Smith, Andra M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition were investigated in young adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood, which allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a Go/No-Go task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants prenatally exposed to nicotine demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve response inhibition including the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe, the thalamus and the basal ganglia. In addition, prenatally exposed participants showed greater activity in relatively large posterior regions of the cerebellum. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure leads to altered neural functioning during response inhibition that continues into adulthood. This alteration is compensated for by recruitment of greater neural resources within regions of the brain that subserve response inhibition and the recruitment of additional brain regions to successfully perform the task. Response inhibition is an important executive functioning skill and impairments can impede functioning in much of everyday life. Thus, awareness of the continued long-term neural physiological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure is critical.

  17. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling.

  18. Understanding Specific Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical...

  19. The Effects of Trauma History and Prenatal Affective Symptoms on Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Putnam, Frank W; Pressman, Eva K; Rubinow, David R; Putnam, Karen T; Matthieu, Monica M; Gilchrist, Michelle A; Jones, Ian; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal maternal mood may inform the adverse obstetric outcomes seen in disadvantaged populations. The contribution of having a trauma history is not well studied. We examined the impact of trauma exposure and mood symptoms on obstetric outcomes in 358 women. Women with antecedent trauma were more likely to have a history of depression, odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [1.81, 4.42], were younger at their first pregnancy, 18.86 years versus 20.10 years, and had a higher number of previous pregnancies, 2.01 versus 1.54, compared to those with no trauma exposure. Women with prenatal anxiety had significantly smaller babies than nonanxious women, 3,313.17 g, (SD = 441.58) versus 3,429.27 g, (SD = 437.82) Trauma history magnified the effects of maternal prenatal mood on birthweight; the moderating effect was limited to those who first experienced a trauma under 18 years of age. Childhood trauma exposure increased vulnerability for low birthweight delivery associated with prenatal mood disturbance. Screening pregnant women for trauma history and current mood symptoms is indicated.

  20. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  1. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  2. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  3. MATERNAL INTERACTION QUALITY MODERATES EFFECTS OF PRENATAL MATERNAL EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS ON GIRLS' INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; De Bruijn, Anouk T C E; Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; Van Baar, Anneloes L

    2017-09-01

    The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of prenatal feelings of anxiety and depression, or the "low-exposed group" (n = 50), consisting of mothers with normal levels of depressive or anxious symptoms during pregnancy. When the children (49 girls, 47 boys) were 23 to 60 months of age (M = 39.0, SD = 9.6), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, ), and mother-child interaction quality during a home visit was rated using the Emotional Availability Scales. There were no differences in mother-child interaction quality between the prenatally exposed and low-exposed groups. Girls exposed to high prenatal emotional symptoms showed more internalizing problems, if maternal interaction quality was less optimal. No significant effects were found for boys. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

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    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  5. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P G; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Meyer, Urs; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. To estimate the independent and joint effects of exposure to prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma on the risk of schizophrenia. Danish nationwide registers were linked in this prospective cohort study. We used survival analysis to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were adjusted for age and calendar period and stratified by sex. A total of 979701 persons born between 1980 and 1998 were followed up from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2013, with 9656 having a hospital contact for schizophrenia. Females exposed to prenatal infection had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.30-2.00), but not males (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.28). Peripubertal trauma was associated with increased risk in both sexes. Males, however, had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia after exposure to both prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma (IRR: 2.85, 95% CI: 2.32-3.51), with significant interaction between infection and peripubertal trauma on the multiplicative scale (P = .007). Our study demonstrated for the first time that prenatal infection and psychological trauma in peripubertal life can act in synergy to increase the risk of schizophrenia, with a potentially stronger susceptibility in males. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  7. The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms.

  8. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants.

  9. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11–12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  10. The effects of nursing case management on the utilization of prenatal care by Mexican-Americans in rural Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M; Curry, M A; Burton, D

    1998-04-01

    This quasi-experimental, retrospective study used birth certificate and medical record data to evaluate the effectiveness of the Rural Oregon Minority Prenatal Program (ROMPP) in improving patterns of prenatal care utilization by rural-dwelling, low-income, Mexican-American women at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. The ROMPP intervention provided nursing case management services and peer outreach to pregnant Mexican-American women in a rural Oregon community. The intervention group had more prenatal visits in months 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 than the comparison group (P cultural competency and sharpen their clinical focus on advocacy, marketing, facilitation of relationships between community groups, and community organizing.

  11. Effect of portfolio assessment on student learning in prenatal training for midwives

    OpenAIRE

    Nourossadat Kariman; Farnoosh Moafi

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to use portfolios for evaluation has been developed with the aim of optimizing the culture of assessment. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of using portfolios as an evaluation method on midwifery students??learning and satisfaction in prenatal practical training. In this prospective cohort study, all midwifery students in semester four (n=40), were randomly allocated to portfolio and routine evaluation groups. Based on their educational goals, the portfol...

  12. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  13. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  14. The Effects of Sertraline administration from adolescence to adulthood on physiological and emotional development in prenatally stressed rats of both sexes

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    Inês ePereira-Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline is a clinically effective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor known to increase and stabilize serotonin levels. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in adolescent brain development in both rodents and humans, and its dysregulation has been correlated with deficits in behaviour and emotional regulation. Since prenatal stress may disturb serotoninergic homeostasis, the aim of this study was to examine the long-lasting effects of exposure to sertraline throughout adolescence on behavioural and physiological developmental parameters in prenatally stressed Wistar rats. Sertraline was administered (5mg/kg/day p.o. from the age of 1-3 months to half of the progeny, of both sexes, of gestating dams stressed by use of a restraint (PS or not stressed. Our data reveal that long-term sertraline treatment slightly reduced weight gain in both sexes, but reversed the developmental disturbed ‘catch-up’ growth found in PS females.Neither prenatal stress nor Sertraline treatment induced remarkable alterations in behaviour and had no effects on mean startle reflex values. However, a sex-dependent effects of PS was found: in males the PS paradigm slightly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the open field, while in females, it impaired startle habituation. In both cases, sertraline treatment reversed the phenomena. Additionally, the PS animals exhibited a disturbed leukocyte profile in both sexes, which was reversed by sertraline.The present findings are evidence that continuous sertraline administration from adolescence through adulthood is safe in rodents and lessens the impact of prenatal stress in rats.

  15. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  16. Study on effect of prenatal exercise in the stage of labor%产前运动对产程进展的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妙仪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe and study the function and effect of prenatal exercise in the stage of labor,in order to explore an reasonable and effective treatment method.Methods Among 112 cases of childbirth maternal selected,56 cases in prenatal exercise group,while other 56 cases without prenatal exercise,the maternal labor duration and mode of delivery of the two groups were observed and compared,and the results were statistically processed and analyzed.Results The time of each stage of labor in matemal prenatal exercise group was significantly shorter than that of non-prenatal exercise maternal group(P<0.05); cesarean section incidence rate of prenatal exercise group (21.43%) was obviously lower than that of the control group (37.50%) (P<0.05).Conclusion The prenatal exercise can significantly promote the progress of labor,worthy of clinic promotion.%目的 观察与研究产前运动对产程进展的作用与效果,以期探讨一种合理且有效的治疗护理方法.方法 选取112例分娩产妇,其中进行产前运动产妇共计56例、非运动产妇56例,同时对两组产妇各个产程时间、分娩方式进行观察与对比且对所得数据进行统计学处理、分析.结果 产前运动产妇各产程时间较非运动产妇明显缩短(P<0.05);产前运动产妇剖宫产发生率(21.43%)低于非运动产妇(37.50%)(P<0.05).结论 产前运动能明显促进产程进展,值得临床推广.

  17. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Omer, V E; Ali, S F; Holson, R R; Duhart, H M; Scalzo, F M; Slikker, W

    1991-01-01

    MDMA is a hallucinogenic drug that is used by the general public as a recreational drug of abuse. The neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal MDMA exposure are unknown. Groups of pregnant rats were gavaged with 0, 2.5, or 10 mg/kg MDMA during gestation on alternate gestational days 6-18. Gestational duration, litter size, neonatal birth weights and physical appearance at birth were unaffected by MDMA treatments. Pregnancy weight gain was significantly reduced by MDMA treatment. Progeny growth, maturational parameters (eye opening and incisor eruption times), surface righting reflex, swimming performance, forelimb grip strength, milk-induced behaviors, passive avoidance behavior, figure-8 maze activity over 48 hours, the density of brain serotonin (5-HT) uptake sites, and brain 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were unaffected by MDMA treatments. Olfactory discrimination on postnatal days (PND) 9-11 was enhanced in both male and female MDMA-treated progeny, while negative geotaxis (PND 7-10) was delayed in female pups. In contrast to progeny, MDMA caused dose-dependent decreases in 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in discrete brain areas of the dam. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to MDMA at the levels used here produces only subtle behavioral alterations in developing rats. The dam is more at risk for MDMA-induced 5-HT depletion than is the conceptus.

  18. The role of pro-inflammatory factors in mediating the effects on the fetus of prenatal undernutrition: implications for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Q; Li, Z Q; Sun, Y; Wang, T; Wan, C L; Li, X W; Zhao, X Z; Feng, G Y; Li, Sh; St Clair, D; He, L; Yu, L

    2008-02-01

    Exposure to prenatal undernutrition or malnutrition increases the risk of schizophrenia, although little is known about the mechanism. Pro-inflammatory factors are critical in brain development, and are believed to play an important role in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prenatal exposure to infection, including schizophrenia. However it is not known whether pro-inflammatory factors also mediate the effects on the fetus of prenatal malnutrition or undernutrition. In this study, we established a new prenatal undernourished rat model induced by maternal exposure to a diet restricted to 50% of the low (6%) protein diet (RLP50). We observed the disappearance of maternal nest-building behavior in the RLP50 dams, increased levels of TNFA and IL6 in the placentas (P<0.001; P=0.879, respectively) and fetal livers (P<0.001; P<0.05, respectively), and a decrease in the fetal brains (P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively). Our results are similar to previous studies of maternal infection, which implies that a common pathway mediated by pro-inflammatory factors may contribute to the brain development, consequently increasing the risk of schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases programmed by varied maternal adversities. We also provide a new prenatal undernourished model for researching prenatal problems, which differs from previous malnourished model in terms of the maternal behavior of dams and of observed pro-inflammatory factor levels in fetal tissues.

  19. Effects of maternal plasmid GHRH treatment on offspring growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    To differentiate prenatal effects of plasmid growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) treatment from maternal effects mediated by lactation on long-term growth of offspring, a cross-fostering study was designed. Pregnant sows (n = 12) were untreated (n = 6), or received either a Wt-GHRH (n = 2), or H...

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to a mild chronic variable stress on body weight, preweaning mortality and rat behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Early stimulation has been shown to produce long-lasting effects in many species. Prenatal exposure to some strong stressors may affect development of the nervous system leading to behavioral impairment in adult life. The purpose of the present work was to study the postnatal harmful effects of exposure to variable mild stresses in rats during pregnancy. Female Holtzman rats were submitted daily to one session of a chronic variable stress (CVS during pregnancy (prenatal stress; PS group. Control pregnant rats (C group were undisturbed. The pups of PS and C dams were weighed and separated into two groups 48 h after delivery. One group was maintained with their own dams (PS group, N = 70; C group, N = 36 while the other PS pups were cross-fostered with C dams (PSF group, N = 47 and the other C pups were cross-fostered with PS dams (CF group, N = 58. Pups were undisturbed until weaning (postnatal day 28. The male offspring underwent motor activity tests (day 28, enriched environment tests (day 37 and social interaction tests (day 42 in an animal activity monitor. Body weight was recorded on days 2, 28 and 60. The PS pups showed lower birth weight than C pups (Duncan's test, P<0.05. The PS pups suckling with their stressed mothers displayed greater preweaning mortality (C: 23%, PS: 60%; c2 test, P<0.05 and lower body weight than controls at days 28 and 60 (Duncan's test, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. The PS, PSF and CF groups showed lower motor activity scores than controls when tested at day 28 (Duncan's test, P<0.01 for PS group and P<0.05 for CF and PSF groups. In the enriched environment test performed on day 37, between-group differences in total motor activity were not detected; however, the PS, CF and PSF groups displayed less exploration time than controls (Duncan's test, P<0.05. Only the PS group showed impaired motor activity and impaired social behavior at day 42 (Duncan's test, P<0.05. In fact, CVS treatment during gestation plus

  1. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L.; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator ...

  2. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  3. Effectiveness of Bacterial Vaginosis Screening Program in Routine Prenatal Care and Its Effect on Decrease of Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Mashoufi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is determined by changes in microbial ecosystem of vagina and is considered as a preventable risk factor for preterm delivery. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of bacterial vaginosis screening program in routine prenatal care and its effect on decreasing preterm labor.   Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 474 pregnant women at gestational stage between 2007 and 2008. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention group and control group. Screening was performed in intervention group with Amsel's criteria (3 of 4 needed for diagnosis. Positive cases were given clindamycin cream (2% for one week. The outcome of the delivery was assessed in both groups afterward. Data were analyzed by SPSS11 software using descriptive statistics.   Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding pregnancy rank, wanted and unwanted pregnancy, insufficient weight gain, mother vaccination and complication of pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in 17 out of 216 (8% in the intervention group and then treated. Prevalence of preterm delivery in the intervention and control groups were 3 (1.4% and 12 (4.7%, respectively. The relative risk was protective (RR: 0.3, DR: 0.033, NNT: 30.   Conclusion: Screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women could significantly decrease the rate of preterm delivery.

  4. Searsia chirindensis reverses the potentiating effect of prenatal stress on the development of febrile seizures and decreased plasma interleukin-1β levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, Willie M U; Russell, Vivienne; Mabandla, Musa V

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that more than 80% of patients with epilepsy live in developing countries with 50-60% of them being children. This high prevalence is perpetuated by low socio-economic challenges, poor health care facilities and lack of drug affordability. Searsia chirindensis formerly known as rhus chirindensis and commonly known as 'Red Current' is a popular traditional medicinal plant, which has been used to treat a number of illnesses such as heart complaints and neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of S. chirindensis on the development of febrile seizure in a prenatally stressed rat. Febrile seizures were induced by administering lipopolysaccharide to 14-day-old rat pups followed by kainic acid. A subset of the rats was treated with Searsia after induction of febrile seizures. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were measured in plasma. Lipid peroxidation was determined in liver tissue. Our data shows that treatment with Searsia reduced interleukin-1β levels in plasma of the febrile seizure rats and prevented lipid oxidation in the liver. Prenatal stress is dampened by the beneficial effects of Searsia on seizure development in rat pups. These results highlight the potentiating effects of Searsia in the reversal of febrile seizures and prenatal stress effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal treatment with retinoic acid activates parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling in the nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Ruttenstock, Elke; Dingemann, Jens; Puri, Prem

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal treatment with retinoic acid (RA) has been reported to stimulate alveologenesis in hypoplastic lungs (HL) in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) promotes alveolar maturation by stimulating surfactant production, regulated by PTHrP receptor (PTHrP-R). PTHrP knockout and PTHrP-R null mice both exhibit pulmonary hypoplasia. We have recently reported that nitrofen inhibits PTHrP signaling in the nitrofen-induced HL. Because both PTHrP and PTHrP-R genes have RA-inducible element, we hypothesized that prenatal administration of RA upregulates pulmonary gene expression of PTHrP and PTHrP-R in the nitrofen-induced HL. Pregnant rats were exposed to either olive oil or nitrofen on day 9 of gestation (D9). RA was given on days D18, D19 and D20. Fetal lungs were obtained on D21 and divided into four groups: control, control + RA, nitrofen, nitrofen + RA. RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate the pulmonary PTHrP and PTHrP-R gene and protein expression in each group, respectively. The pulmonary gene expression levels of PTHrP and PTHrP-R were significantly increased in nitrofen + RA group compared to nitrofen group (p PTHrP and PTHrP-R was also remarkably increased in nitrofen + RA group compared to nitrofen group. Upregulation of PTHrP and PTHrP-R genes after prenatal treatment with RA in the nitrofen-induced HL suggests that RA may have a therapeutic potential in reverting lung hypoplasia in CDH, by stimulating surfactant production and alveolar maturation.

  6. Prenatal Effects of Exposure to High-Level Noise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    responses could be recorded from the other 5 subjects; the investigators attribute this failure to the use of an oxytocin infusion in order to effect labor ...found to remain constant. The latencies of the fetal heart changes were as short as one second after tone onset , ruling out the likelihood that the fetal...sound stimuli was reported. Crimwade et al. (1970) used both vibrators and sound stimuli to record the fetal heart rate in 32 patients in labor

  7. The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Lester, Barry M; DeGarmo, David S; Lagasse, Linda L; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-08-01

    The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

  8. The Effect of Quercetin on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in a Prenatally Stressed Rat Model of Febrile Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nombuso Valencia Pearl; Qulu, Lihle; Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are childhood convulsions resulting from an infection that leads to an inflammatory response and subsequent convulsions. Prenatal stress has been shown to heighten the progression and intensity of febrile seizures. Current medications are costly and have adverse effects associated with prolonged use. Quercetin flavonoid exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and anti-stress effects. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of quercetin in a prenatally stressed rat model of febrile seizures. We hypothesized that quercetin will alleviate the effects of prenatal stress in a febrile seizure rat model. On gestational day 13, Sprague-Dawley rat dams were subjected to restraint stress for 1 hour/d for 7 days. Febrile seizures were induced on postnatal day 14 on rat pups by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide followed by kainic acid and quercetin on seizure onset. Hippocampal tissue was harvested to profile cytokine concentrations. Our results show that quercetin suppresses prenatal stress-induced pro-inflammatory marker (interleukin 1 beta) levels, subsequently attenuating febrile seizures. This shows that quercetin can be therapeutic for febrile seizures in prenatally stressed individuals.

  9. Prenatal smokeless tobacco effects on the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R B; Shanfeld, J; Mullet, D; Cole, J; Paulson, J O

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the development and bone ossification of the Sprague Dawley rat fetus at known nicotine blood levels. Dams were intubated with the ST extract three times daily on gestational days (GD) 6-18 with one of the following: ST equivalent to either 1.33 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-1), 6 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-2), or equal amounts of distilled water (sham-treated controls). Parallel groups of rats were used for nicotine-blood-level determinations. Dams were killed on GD 19, fetuses and placentas were weighed, and resorptions, deaths, and/or malformations were noted. Two thirds of the fetuses were further examined by Wilson's method, and the remaining one third was stained and cleared for skeletal examinations. Mean plasma nicotine levels, determined in a parallel group of nonpregnant/pregnant rats, were 220.4/283.3 ng/ml in the STD-1 group and 869.1/846.3 ng/ml in the STD-2 group. At these ST dosages, weight gain of dams was reduced in comparison with sham-treated controls (P effects of ST at the low dose are minimal, whereas the high ST dose resulted in significant growth retardation and decreased ossification levels (P < .05).

  10. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Larsen, Helle; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 pregnancies. PREDICT is a placebo-controlled randomized trial examining progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed, and neurophysiological development was evaluated by the parent-completed Ages and Stages...... between the groups in number or length of admissions, and we found no overall differences in rates of diagnoses. However, the odds ratio for a diagnosis related to the heart was 1.66 (95%CI 0.80;3.37) in favor of placebo among all children, 2.29 (1.02;5.12) in dichorionic twins, and 8.19 (1......) centile) was decreased in the progesterone group (OR 0.34 (0.14;0.86)). CONCLUSIONS: Second and third trimester exposure to progesterone does not seem to have long-term harmful effects on children, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the offspring. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudra...

  11. The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Michael M O; Shafer, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity.

  12. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  13. Toxic effects of prenatal Ipomoea carnea administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueza, I M; Dagli, M L Z; Górniak, S L; Paulino, C A

    2003-12-01

    Chronic exposure of livestock to Ipomoea carnea, a toxic plant, promotes toxicosis characterized by lysosomal vacuolization of different organs, and is clinically manifested by CNS signs, abnormal endocrine and gastrointestinal functions, alteration of the immune system, and abnormal embryogenesis. The present study evaluated the effects of different doses of the plant extract on pregnant rats and their offspring after oral administration to the dams from day 6 to day 20 of gestation. Histopathology of thyroid, pancreas, liver and kidneys of dams on gestational day 21 showed characteristic vacuolization promoted by I. carnea toxicosis in these organs; the same was observed in the organs of 7-d-old pups. On the other hand, no alteration was found in these same organs of dams the 7th d after parturition. Although the lesions were reversed in the dams, the same did not occur in their pups. I. carnea administration also promoted decreased body weight, thymus atrophy and spleen enlargement in pups. The toxic principle of I. carnea (swainsonine) seems to pass through the placenta.

  14. Cerebral Palsy—Trends in Epidemiology and Recent Development in Prenatal Mechanisms of Disease, Treatment, and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavsky, Moshe; Mor, Omer; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Greenbaum, Shirley; Than, Nandor Gabor; Erez, Offer

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood. This syndrome is the manifestation of intrauterine pathologies, intrapartum complications, and the postnatal sequel, especially among preterm neonates. A double hit model theory is proposed suggesting that an intrauterine condition along with intrapartum or postnatal insult lead to the development of CP. Recent reports demonstrated that treatment during the process of preterm birth such as magnesium sulfate and postnatal modalities such as cooling may prevent or reduce the prevalence of this syndrome. Moreover, animal models demonstrated that postnatal treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs coupled with nanoparticles may affect the course of the disease in pups with neuroinflammation. This review will describe the changes in the epidemiology of this disease, the underlying prenatal mechanisms, and possible treatments that may reduce the prevalence of CP and alter the course of the disease. PMID:28243583

  15. A Genetic Instrumental Variables Analysis of the Effects of Prenatal Smoking on Birth Weight: Evidence from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature showing the detrimental effects of prenatal smoking on birth and childhood health outcomes. It is somewhat unclear, though, whether these effects are causal or reflect other characteristics and choices by mothers who choose to smoke that may also affect child health outcomes or biased reporting of smoking. In this paper, we use genetic markers that predict smoking behaviors as instruments in order to address the endogeneity of smoking choices in the production of birth and childhood health outcomes. Our results indicate that prenatal smoking produces more dramatic declines in birth weight than estimates that ignore the endogeneity of prenatal smoking, which is consistent with previous studies with non-genetic instruments. We use data from two distinct samples from Norway and the US with different measured instruments and find nearly identical results. The study provides a novel application that can be extended to study several behavioral impacts on health, social and economic outcomes. PMID:21845925

  16. The effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on trace element and antioxidant levels in rats following 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Moosa, Zulfiah; Daniels, Willie M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2014-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a metal toxin found commonly in the environment. Studies have shown severe neurotoxic effects of MeHg poisoning especially during pregnancy where it crosses the foetoplacental and the blood brain barrier of the foetus leading to neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring. These deficits may predispose offspring to neurodegenerative diseases later in life. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure (2.5 mg/L in drinking water from GND 1-GND 21) on the trace element status in the brain of adolescent offspring (PND 28). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured in their blood plasma. In a separate group of animals that was also exposed prenatally to MeHg, 6-hydroydopamine (6-OHDA) was administered at PND 60 as a model of neuronal insult. Trace element and TAC levels were compared before and after 6-OHDA exposure. Prenatal MeHg treatment alone resulted in significantly higher concentrations of zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in the brain of offspring at PND 28 (p levels in MeHg-exposed adolescent offspring were significantly lower than their controls (p levels of iron, zinc, copper and manganese were increased compared to sham-lesioned offspring (p levels thereby promoting toxicity (p levels were higher in adult male rats than in female rats during adolescence however male rats that had been exposed to MeHg in utero failed to show this increase at PND 74. Prenatal MeHg exposure results in trace element dyshomeostasis in the brain of offspring and reduces total antioxidant capacity. This may reflect a mechanism by which methylmercury exerts its neurotoxicity and/or predispose offspring to further neurological insults during adulthood.

  17. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  18. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.

  19. The effect of social health insurance on prenatal care: the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrokwah, Stephen O; Moser, Christine M; Norton, Edward C

    2014-12-01

    Many developing countries have introduced social health insurance programs to help address two of the United Nations' millennium development goals-reducing infant mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. By making modern health care more accessible and affordable, policymakers hope that more women will seek prenatal care and thereby improve health outcomes. This paper studies how Ghana's social health insurance program affects prenatal care use and out-of-pocket expenditures, using the two-part model to model prenatal care expenditures. We test whether Ghana's social health insurance improved prenatal care use, reduced out-of-pocket expenditures, and increased the number of prenatal care visits. District-level differences in the timing of implementation provide exogenous variation in access to health insurance, and therefore strong identification. Those with access to social health insurance have a higher probability of receiving care, a higher number of prenatal care visits, and lower out-of-pocket expenditures conditional on spending on care.

  20. Childhood maltreatment history, posttraumatic relational sequelae, and prenatal care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or had used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  2. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children’s cortisol variability

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, KRISTINE; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Daniel S Shaw; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children’s cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were o...

  3. The Effects of a Minimum Cigarette Purchase Age of 21 on Prenatal Smoking and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of US public health policies is to reduce costly adverse birth outcomes to which prenatal smoking is a crucial contributor. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of a minimum cigarette purchase age of 21 implemented in the state of Pennsylvania on prenatal smoking and infant health. Using a regression discontinuity method, it shows this smoking age of 21 reduces the prenatal daily cigarette consumption by 15 percent and lowers the incidence of low birth weight infants by ...

  4. Paradoxical effects of prenatal acetylcholinesterase blockade on neuro-behavioral development and drug-induced stereotypies in reeler mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Giovanni; Adriani, Walter; Gaudino, Chiara; Marino, Ramona; Keller, Flavio

    2006-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies support a link between genetic and epigenetic factors in vulnerability to develop enduring neurobehavioral alterations. We studied the interplay between genetic vulnerability and the prenatal exposure to a neurotoxic compound. Chlorpyrifos, a potent and reversible acetylcholinesterase blocker used as a pesticide, and the "reeler" mouse, lacking the extracellular-matrix protein Reelin, were used. Homozygous reeler (RL), heterozygous (HZ), and wild-type (WT) mice were prenatally exposed to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O), the active metabolite of chlorpyrifos, or to vehicle (prenatal controls) on gestation days 14-16, that is, during a peak period of neurogenesis in the cerebral cortex. The offspring was reared by the natural dam and tested during infancy and at adulthood for global consequences of the prenatal exposure. The results are consistent with complex interactions between genetic (reeler genotype) and epigenetic (prenatal exposure to CPF-O) factors. In the case of some "genetically modulated" parameters (ultrasound vocalization, amphetamine-induced locomotion, and stereotypy), exposure to CPF-O paradoxically reverted the effects produced by progressive reelin absence. Conversely, for an "epigenetically modulated" parameter (grasping reflex maturation), the effects of CPF-O exposure were counteracted by progressive reelin absence. Finally, for parameters apparently untouched by either factor alone (righting reflex latency, scopolamine-induced locomotor activity), prenatal CPF-O exposure unmasked an otherwise latent genotype dependency. This complex picture also points to reciprocal adaptations within cholinergic and dopaminergic systems during development. Data are interesting in view of recently discovered cholinergic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia, and may suggest new avenues for early intervention.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal screening strategies for congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, N. M.; Nelson, R.; Puchalski, M.; Metz, T. D.; Smith, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The economic implications of strategies to improve prenatal screening for congenital heart disease (CHD) in low-risk mothers have not been explored. The aim was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of different screening methods. Methods We constructed a decision analytic model of CHD prenatal screening strategies (four-chamber screen (4C), 4C + outflow, nuchal translucency (NT) or fetal echocardiography) populated with probabilities from the literature. The model included whether initial screens were interpreted by a maternal–fetal medicine (MFM) specialist and different referral strategies if they were read by a non-MFM specialist. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per defect detected. Costs were obtained from Medicare National Fee estimates. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken on model variables commensurate with their degree of uncertainty. Results In base–case analysis, 4C + outflow referred to an MFM specialist was the least costly strategy per defect detected. The 4C screen and the NT screen were dominated by other strategies (i.e. were more costly and less effective). Fetal echocardiography was the most effective, but most costly. On simulation of 10 000 low-risk pregnancies, 4C+ outflow screen referred to an MFM specialist remained the least costly per defect detected. For an additional $580 per defect detected, referral to cardiology after a 4C + outflow was the most cost-effective for the majority of iterations, increasing CHD detection by 13 percentage points. Conclusions The addition of examination of the outflow tracts to second-trimester ultrasound increases detection of CHD in the most cost-effective manner. Strategies to improve outflow-tract imaging and to refer with the most efficiency may be the best way to improve detection at a population level. PMID:24357432

  6. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome : preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  7. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  8. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  9. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  10. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  11. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  12. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT......-test counseling. Results: In total of 565 cases, NIPT had a failure rate of 0.9% (5/565). Four cases of T21 were identified by NIPT and confirmed by karyotyping, resulting in 100% (95%CI 39.8%-100%) positive predictive value. Among 556 cases with NIPT negative results, 506 cases (91.0%) were confirmed by follow......-up of postnatal phenotypes, while 33 cases (5.9%) had adverse pregnant outcomes with unconfirmed reasons because of the lack of cytogenetic samples. The remaining 17 cases (3.1%) refused follow-up. No false negative result was reported. Conclusion: With apparently high positive predictive value and low false...

  13. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L; Moore, Colleen F; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S; Larson, Julie A; Resch, Leslie M; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4-5 years, striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5-7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood.

  14. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulen, Lean; van den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N

    2016-10-01

    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range of prenatal tests is expanding due to the development of new techniques such as non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), autonomous reproductive decision-making is increasingly challenging. In this study, a randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a web-based multimedia decision aid on decision-making regarding prenatal testing. The decision aid provided both written and audiovisual information on prenatal tests currently available, that is, prenatal screening by first-trimester combined testing, NIPT and invasive diagnostic testing through chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Furthermore, it contained values clarification exercises encouraging pregnant women to reflect on the potential harms and benefits of having prenatal tests performed. The use of the decision aid improved informed decision-making regarding prenatal testing. Of pregnant women allocated to the intervention group (n=130) 82.3% made an informed choice compared with 66.4% of women in the control group (n=131), P=0.004. As the vast majority of pregnant women made decisions consistent with their attitudes towards having prenatal testing performed, this improvement in informed decision-making could be attributed mainly to an increase in decision-relevant knowledge. This study shows that the implementation of a web-based multimedia decision aid directly facilitates the ultimate goal of prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities, which is enabling informed autonomous reproductive choice.

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  17. The effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on childhood growth patterns from birth to 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaneh, Rachel; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Lin, Hai; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2012-03-01

    We examined the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on growth parameters from birth to age 3 years. The 412 subjects included (n = 204 exposed) were enrolled at birth in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study, a longitudinal study assessing the effects of prenatal MA exposure on childhood outcomes. Individual models were used to examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on weight, head circumference, height, and weight-for-length growth trajectories. After adjusting for covariates, height trajectory was lower in the exposed versus the comparison children (p = 0.021) over the first 3 years of life. Both groups increased height on average by 2.27 cm per month by age 3 years. In term subjects, MA exposure was also associated with a lower height trajectory (p = 0.034), with both the exposed and comparison groups gaining 2.25 cm per month by age 3 years. There was no difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length growth trajectories between the comparison and the exposed groups. Children exposed prenatally to MA have a modest decrease in height growth trajectory during the first 3 years of life with no observed difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length trajectories.

  18. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure effects on arousal-modulated attention during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, B Z; Gardner, J M

    1996-07-01

    The organization of arousal and attention as a function of intrauterine cocaine exposure was investigated in 180 normal nursery infants prior to hospital discharge and at 1 month of age. This was done by studying visual looking preferences when infants were in three arousal conditions: less aroused (after feeding); more aroused-endogenous (before feeding); and more aroused-exogenous (after feeding but including 8-Hz visual stimulation prior to each visual preference trial). The stimuli were light panels illuminated at three temporal frequencies between 1 and 8 Hz presented in pairs using a balanced presentation series of trials. Infants not exposed to cocaine demonstrated strong arousal-modulated attention, preferring faster frequencies when less aroused and slower frequencies when more aroused in both endogenous and exogenous conditions. In contrast, cocaine-exposed infants showed a lack of arousal-modulated attention and preferred faster frequencies of stimulation regardless of arousal condition. Similar differences in arousal-modulated attention as a function of cocaine exposure were obtained at 1 month after birth, indicating that these effects lasted longer than would be reasonable to attribute to the active presence of cocaine or its metabolites. This form of stimulus-seeking behavior was shown to be independent of confounding factors associated with prenatal cocaine exposure such as the absence of prenatal care, alcohol use, minority status, or gender, as well as mediating factors associated with growth such as birthweight. A direct and more chronic effect of intrauterine cocaine exposure on arousal-modulated attention and presumably on the developing CNS therefore was supported.

  20. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  1. Effect of portfolio assessment on student learning in prenatal training for midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourossadat Kariman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use portfolios for evaluation has been developed with the aim of optimizing the culture of assessment. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of using portfolios as an evaluation method on midwifery students??learning and satisfaction in prenatal practical training. In this prospective cohort study, all midwifery students in semester four (n=40, were randomly allocated to portfolio and routine evaluation groups. Based on their educational goals, the portfolio groups prepared packages which consisted of a complete report of the history, physical examinations, and methods of patient management (as evaluated by a checklist for women who visited a prenatal clinic. During the last day of their course, a posttest, clinical exam, and student satisfaction form were completed. The two groups??mean age, mean pretest scores, and their prerequisite course that they should have taken in the previous semester were similar. The mean difference in the pre and post test scores for the two groups??knowledge and comprehension levels did not differ significantly (P>0.05. The average scores on questions in Bloom?占퐏 taxonomy 2 and 3 of the portfolio group were significantly greater than those of the routine evaluation group (P=0.002, P=0.03, respectively. The mean of the two groups??clinical exam scores was significantly different. The portfolio group?占퐏 mean scores on generating diagnostic and therapeutic solutions and the ability to apply theory in practice were higher than those of the routine group. Overall, students??satisfaction scores in the two evaluation methods were relatively similar. Portfolio evaluation provides the opportunity for more learning by increasing the student?占퐏 participation in the learning process and helping them to apply theory in practice.

  2. Effect of portfolio assessment on student learning in prenatal training for midwives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafi, Farnoosh

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to use portfolios for evaluation has been developed with the aim of optimizing the culture of assessment. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of using portfolios as an evaluation method on midwifery students' learning and satisfaction in prenatal practical training. In this prospective cohort study, all midwifery students in semester four (n=40), were randomly allocated to portfolio and routine evaluation groups. Based on their educational goals, the portfolio groups prepared packages which consisted of a complete report of the history, physical examinations, and methods of patient management (as evaluated by a checklist) for women who visited a prenatal clinic. During the last day of their course, a posttest, clinical exam, and student satisfaction form were completed. The two groups' mean age, mean pretest scores, and their prerequisite course that they should have taken in the previous semester were similar. The mean difference in the pre and post test scores for the two groups' knowledge and comprehension levels did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The average scores on questions in Bloom's taxonomy 2 and 3 of the portfolio group were significantly greater than those of the routine evaluation group (P=0.002, P=0.03, respectively). The mean of the two groups' clinical exam scores was significantly different. The portfolio group's mean scores on generating diagnostic and therapeutic solutions and the ability to apply theory in practice were higher than those of the routine group. Overall, students' satisfaction scores in the two evaluation methods were relatively similar. Portfolio evaluation provides the opportunity for more learning by increasing the student's participation in the learning process and helping them to apply theory in practice. PMID:21602913

  3. Effect of portfolio assessment on student learning in prenatal training for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Moafi, Farnoosh

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to use portfolios for evaluation has been developed with the aim of optimizing the culture of assessment. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of using portfolios as an evaluation method on midwifery students' learning and satisfaction in prenatal practical training. In this prospective cohort study, all midwifery students in semester four (n=40), were randomly allocated to portfolio and routine evaluation groups. Based on their educational goals, the portfolio groups prepared packages which consisted of a complete report of the history, physical examinations, and methods of patient management (as evaluated by a checklist) for women who visited a prenatal clinic. During the last day of their course, a posttest, clinical exam, and student satisfaction form were completed. The two groups' mean age, mean pretest scores, and their prerequisite course that they should have taken in the previous semester were similar. The mean difference in the pre and post test scores for the two groups' knowledge and comprehension levels did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The average scores on questions in Bloom's taxonomy 2 and 3 of the portfolio group were significantly greater than those of the routine evaluation group (P=0.002, P=0.03, respectively). The mean of the two groups' clinical exam scores was significantly different. The portfolio group's mean scores on generating diagnostic and therapeutic solutions and the ability to apply theory in practice were higher than those of the routine group. Overall, students' satisfaction scores in the two evaluation methods were relatively similar. Portfolio evaluation provides the opportunity for more learning by increasing the student's participation in the learning process and helping them to apply theory in practice.

  4. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of cerebral cortex: I. Neuronal generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes profound disruptions in the development of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effect of in utero ethanol exposure on the generation of neurons was determined. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet in which ethanol constituted 37.5% of the total caloric content (Et) or pair-fed an isocaloric control diet (Ct) from gestational day (GD) 6 to the day of birth. The time of origin of cortical neurons was determined in the mature pups of females injected with (3H)thymidine on one day during the period from GD 10 to the day of birth. The brains were processed by standard autoradiographic techniques. Ethanol exposure produced multiple defects in neuronal ontogeny. The period of generation was 1-2 days later for Et-treated rats than for rats exposed prenatally to either control diet. Moreover, the generation period was 1-2 days longer in Et-treated rats. The numbers of neurons generated on a specific day was altered; from GD 12-19 significantly fewer neurons were generated in Et-treated rats than in Ct-treated rats, whereas after GD 19 more neurons were born. The distribution of neurons generated on a specific day was disrupted; most notable was the distribution of late-generated neurons in deep cortex of Et-treated rats rather than in superficial cortex as they are in controls. Cortical neurons in Et-treated rats tended to be smaller than in Ct-treated rats, particularly early generated neurons in deep cortex. The late-generated neurons in Et-treated rats were of similar size to those in Ct-treated rats despite their abnormal position in deep cortex. Neurons in Ct-treated rats tended to be rounder than those in Et-treated rats which were more polarized in the radial orientation.

  5. Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use

  6. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  7. [Effects of different home visit strategies on prenatal care in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul A; Ulmi, Eduardo F; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M; Neumann, Nelson A

    2008-11-01

    This non-randomized community intervention study evaluated the impact of prenatal home visits by community health agents and volunteer leaders from the Children's Mission on prenatal care among poor pregnant women in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Previously trained interviewers applied pre-coded questionnaires to the women at home, investigating demographic and reproductive characteristics, socioeconomic status, housing conditions, and prenatal care. Of the 339 pregnant women interviewed, 115 were assigned to the intervention group visited by community health agents, 116 to the group visited by volunteer leaders, and 108 to the control group. Pregnant women visited by community health agents began prenatal visits earlier than other groups, had more prenatal visits, lab tests, and clinical exams, and received more counseling on breastfeeding and iron supplementation. Participation by family members during medical consultations for pregnant women visited by volunteer leaders was higher than for community health agents. Pregnant women visited by community health agents received better prenatal care than the other groups. Home visits can improve the quality of prenatal care for poor women and increase participation by family members (mainly husbands) during the pregnancy.

  8. Protective effect of early prenatal stress on the induction of asthma in adult mice: Sex-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Campos, Natália Evangelista; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; da Cunha, Aline Andrea; Nuñez, Nailê Karine; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2016-10-15

    Adversities faced during the prenatal period can be related to the onset of diseases in adulthood. However, little is known about the effects on the respiratory system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress in two different time-points during pregnancy on pulmonary function and on the inflammatory profile of mice exposed to an asthma model. Male and female BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: control (CON), prenatal stress from the second week of pregnancy (PNS1) and prenatal stress on the last week of pregnancy (PNS2). Both PNS1 and PNS2 pregnant females were submitted to restraint stress. As adults, fear/anxiety behaviors were assessed, and animals were subjected to an asthma model induced by ovalbumin. Pulmonary function, inflammatory parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histology were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the central quadrant on the open field test for the PNS1 animals. Females (PNS1) showed improved pulmonary function (airway resistance, tissue damping and pulmonary elastance), significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes and a decrease in eosinophils when compared to controls. There was a significant decrease in inflammatory cytokines in BAL of both males (IL-5 and IL-13) and females (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) from PNS1 and PNS2 when compared to the CON group. Prenatal stress starting from the beginning of pregnancy reduces the impact of asthma development in adult female mice, showing an improved pulmonary function and a lower inflammatory response in the lungs.

  9. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  10. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    : Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: update on the management of adult patients and prenatal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Grouthier, Virginie; Courtillot, Carine; Dulon, Jérôme; Touraine, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by cortisol and in some cases aldosterone deficiency associated with androgen excess. Goals of treatment are to replace deficient hormones and control androgen excess, while avoiding the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoid. Over the last 5 years, cohorts of adults with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency from Europe and the United States have been described, allowing us to have a better knowledge of long-term complications of the disease and its treatment. Patients with CAH have increased mortality, morbidity and risk for infertility and metabolic disorders. These comorbidities are due in part to the drawbacks of the currently available glucocorticoid therapy. Consequently, novel therapies are being developed and studied in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. New management strategies in the care of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using fetal sex determination and dexamethasone have also been described, but remain a subject of debate. We focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, concentrating on studies dealing with cardiovascular risk, fertility, treatment and prenatal management in adults with classic CAH to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Effects of prenatal Poly I:C exposure on global histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Lopez, Yara; Kenis, Gunter; Stettinger, Waldtraud; Neumeier, Karin; de Jonge, Sylvia; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Zill, Peter; van den Hove, Daniel L A; Myint, Aye M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the brain-specific epigenetic effects on global enzymatic histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity after prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) at gestational day (GD) 17 in C57BL/6JRccHsd mouse offspring. Pregnant mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, receiving either 5 mg/kg Poly I:C or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravenously at GD 17. Subsequently, the effects on whole brain enzymatic HDAC and DNMT activity and the protein levels of various HDAC isoforms were assessed in the offspring. Overall, a significant sex × treatment interaction effect was observed after prenatal exposure to maternal immune challenge by Poly I:C, indicative of increased global HDAC activity particularly in female offspring from mothers injected with Poly I:C when compared to controls. Results on the levels of specific HDAC isoforms suggested that neither differences in the levels of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC4 or HDAC6 could explain the increased global HDAC activity observed in female Poly I:C offspring. In conclusion, we show that Poly I:C administration to pregnant mice alters global brain HDAC, but not DNMT activity in adult offspring, whereas it is still unclear which specific HDAC(s) mediate(s) this effect. These results indicate the necessity for further research on the epigenetic effects of Poly I:C.

  13. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  14. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł; Chrząścik, Katarzyna; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a (mo-ms) recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15 and 18 with a combination of CuCl(2) (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl(2) alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl(2) alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards a normalization of the copper level. Although copper-DMDTC prenatal treatment only leads to a small increase in the sub-normal copper concentration in the liver and to an increase of copper in the already overloaded small intestine, the combined results suggest that prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment also should be considered for humans.

  15. Prenatal Treatment of Mosaic Mice (Atp7a mo-ms) Mouse Model for Menkes Disease, with Copper Combined by Dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł; Chrząścik, Katarzyna; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a mo-ms recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15 and 18 with a combination of CuCl2 (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl2 alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl2 alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards a normalization of the copper level. Although copper-DMDTC prenatal treatment only leads to a small increase in the sub-normal copper concentration in the liver and to an increase of copper in the already overloaded small intestine, the combined results suggest that prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment also should be considered for humans. PMID:22815746

  16. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  17. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling.METHODS...

  18. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars Ake

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling...

  19. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falgreen Eriksen, H‐L; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2012-01-01

    ..., Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191–1200. Objective...

  20. Early experiences matter: a review of the effects of prenatal environment on offspring characteristics in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L M; Sparks, N H C; Rutherford, K M D

    2016-03-01

    Early life experiences can be important in determining offspring phenotypes and may influence interaction with the environment and hence health, welfare, and productivity. The prenatal environment of poultry can be divided into the pre-lay environment and the egg storage/incubation environment, both of which can affect offspring outcomes. The ability to separate maternal and egg/incubation effects makes birds well suited to this type of research. There are many factors, including feeding and nutrition, environmental conditions, husbandry practices, housing system, social environment, infectious environment, and maternal health status, that can influence both the health and performance and behavior and cognition of the offspring. There are some aspects of the environments that can be changed to produce beneficial effects in the offspring, like addition of certain additives to feed or short changes in incubation temperatures, while other aspects should be avoided to reduce negative effects, such as unpredictable feeding and lighting regimens. Measures of offspring characteristics may prove to be a useful method of assessing parent stock welfare if known stressors result in predictable offspring outcomes. This has the advantage of assessing the parent environment without interfering with the animals and possibly affecting their responses and could lead to improved welfare for the animals.

  1. Frequency of infant stroking reported by mothers moderates the effect of prenatal depression on infant behavioural and physiological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Sharp

    Full Text Available Animal studies find that prenatal stress is associated with increased physiological and emotional reactivity later in life, mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR gene expression. Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. Post-natal maternal behaviours may therefore be expected to modify prenatal effects, but this has not previously been examined in humans. We examined whether, according to self-report, maternal stroking over the first weeks of life modified associations between prenatal depression and physiological and behavioral outcomes in infancy, hence mimicking effects of rodent licking and grooming. From a general population sample of 1233 first time mothers recruited at 20 weeks gestation we drew a stratified random sample of 316 for assessment at 32 weeks based on reported inter-partner psychological abuse, a risk to child development. Of these 271 provided data at 5, 9 and 29 weeks post delivery. Mothers reported how often they stroked their babies at 5 and 9 weeks. At 29 weeks vagal withdrawal to a stressor, a measure of physiological adaptability, and maternal reported negative emotionality were assessed. There was a significant interaction between prenatal depression and maternal stroking in the prediction of vagal reactivity to a stressor (p = .01, and maternal reports of infant anger proneness (p = .007 and fear (p = .043. Increasing maternal depression was associated with decreasing physiological adaptability, and with increasing negative emotionality, only in the presence of low maternal stroking. These initial findings in humans indicate that maternal stroking in infancy, as reported by mothers, has effects strongly resembling the effects of observed maternal behaviours in animals, pointing to future studies of the epigenetic

  2. Bystander effects, adaptive response and genomic instability induced by prenatal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian [Institute for Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, Auf dem Sutan 12, D-45239 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: streffer.essen@t-online.de

    2004-12-02

    The developing human embryo and fetus undergo very radiosensitive stages during the prenatal development. It is likely that the induction of low dose related effects such as bystander effects, the adaptive response, and genomic instability would have profound effects on embryonic and fetal development. In this paper, I review what has been reported on the induction of these three phenomena in exposed embryos and fetuses. All three phenomena have been shown to occur in murine embryonic or fetal cells and structures, although the induction of an adaptive response (and also likely the induction of bystander effects) are limited in terms of when during development they can be induced and the dose or dose-rate used to treat animals in utero. In contrast, genomic instability can be induced throughout development, and the effects of radiation exposure on genome instability can be observed for long times after irradiation including through pre- and postnatal development and into the next generation of mice. There are clearly strain-specific differences in the induction of these phenomena and all three can lead to long-term detrimental effects. This is true for the adaptive response as well. While induction of an adaptive response can make fetuses more resistant to some gross developmental defects induced by a subsequent high dose challenge with ionizing radiation, the long-term effects of this low dose exposure are detrimental. The negative effects of all three phenomena reflect the complexity of fetal development, a process where even small changes in the timing of gene expression or suppression can have dramatic effects on the pattern of biological events and the subsequent development of the mammalian organism.

  3. The effect of prenatal exposure to 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-old-day rat testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancı, Hatice; Odacı, Ersan; Kaya, Haydar; Aliyazıcıoğlu, Yüksel; Turan, İbrahim; Demir, Selim; Çolakoğlu, Serdar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) in the prenatal term on the 21-old-day rat testicle. Pregnant rats were divided into control (CG) and EMF (EMFG) groups. EMFG was exposed to 900-MHz EMF during days 13-21 of pregnancy. Newborn CG rats were obtained from the CG and newborn EMFG (NEMFG) rats from the EMFG. Testicles were extracted at postnatal day 21. Lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation levels, apoptotic index and histopathological damage scores were compared. NEMFG rats exhibited irregularities in seminiferous tubule basal membrane and epithelium, immature germ cells in the lumen, and a decreased diameter in seminiferous tubules and thickness of epithelium. Apoptotic index, lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation were higher in NEMFG rats than in NCG. 21-day-old rat testicles exposed to 900-MHz EMF in the prenatal term may be adversely affected, and this effect persists after birth.

  4. An intergenerational effect of neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration induced by prenatal ethanol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Luo, Han-Wen; Chen, Liao-Bin; Wu, Dong-Fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-12

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls. Following chronic stress, the percentage increase in CORT from the basal state tended to be greater for some PEE groups compared with controls while the percentage reduction of glucose and percentage elevation of TG were smaller. These results revealed that the low basal activity and hyper-responsiveness of the HPA axis as well as glucocorticoid-associated glucose and lipid phenotypic alterations were partially retained in F2, which indicates PEE-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration may have an intergenerational effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal versus postnatal sex steroid hormone effects on autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auyeung Bonnie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of prenatal exposure to sex steroid hormones predict autistic traits in children at 18 to 24 and at 96 months of age. However, it is not known whether postnatal exposure to these hormones has a similar effect. This study compares prenatal and postnatal sex steroid hormone levels in relation to autistic traits in 18 to 24-month-old children. Fetal testosterone (fT and fetal estradiol (fE levels were measured in amniotic fluid from pregnant women (n = 35 following routine second-trimester amniocentesis. Saliva samples were collected from these children when they reached three to four months of age and were analyzed for postnatal testosterone (pT levels. Mothers were asked to complete the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT, a measure of autistic traits in children 18 to 24 months old. Finding fT (but not pT levels were positively associated with scores on the Q-CHAT. fE and pT levels showed no sex differences and no relationships with fT levels. fT levels were the only variable that predicted Q-CHAT scores. Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that prenatal (but not postnatal androgen exposure, coinciding with the critical period for sexual differentiation of the brain, is associated with the development of autistic traits in 18 to 24 month old toddlers. However, it is recognized that further work with a larger sample population is needed before the effects of postnatal androgen exposure on autistic traits can be ruled out. These results are also in line with the fetal androgen theory of autism, which suggests that prenatal, organizational effects of androgen hormones influence the development of autistic traits in later life.

  6. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  7. Effect of prenatal counselling on compliance and outcomes of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersal, F A; Esmat, O M; Khalil, G M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal counselling on compliance for health promotion and pregnancy outcomes we conducted an experimental randomized control study on a sample of 86 teenage pregnant women attending the maternal and child health centre in Elkhosos village, Egypt. Data were collected pre-counselling, post-counselling and after delivery. At the post test, women in the study (counselling) group showed statistically significantly greater knowledge and compliance of health promotion (P < 0.001) than women in the control group. In the study group, 90.7% were full term at labour compared with 41.9% in the control group; 88.4% of the women in the study group had normal vaginal delivery compared with 76.7% of those in the control group. The health condition in 90.7% of the study group neonates was classified as good compared with only 46.5% in the control group. Only 9.3% of the study group babies had low birth weight compared with 32.6% of the control group babies (P = 0.008).

  8. Effectiveness of β-thalassemia prenatal diagnosis in Southern Iran: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Karimi, Mehran; Dehghani, Seyed Javad; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Montazeri, Somaye; Javanmardi, Elham; Asadzade, Rahimeh; Amiri, Azizollah; Saghatoleslam, Zahra; Sotodegan, Fatemosadat; Morshedi, Nazila; Imanifard, Jaber; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prenatal diagnosis (PND) for the prevention of thalassemia in Southern Iran. From 2004 to 2012 1346 couples with β-thalassemia minor were referred to our center. Mutation analyses utilized different methods including polymerase chain reaction-based technique of amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of PCR-Amplified Fragments (PCR-RFLP) and Gel Electrophoresis and direct sequencing. Haplotype analysis of the β-globin gene cluster was done routinely using the PCR-RFLP technique. Of the 1346 couples, 884 (66%) requested PND. They had a total of 985 pregnancies (954 singleton and 31 twin pregnancies): the 1016 fetuses underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS). Thalassemia major was diagnosed in 266 cases (26.2%), and termination of pregnancy was requested by the parents in 264 of them (99%). Thalassemia trait was detected in 499 (49.1%) and 251 cases (24.7%) showed no β-thalassemia mutations. There were three misdiagnoses (0.4%) (affected children diagnosed as carriers at PND). A unique pattern of thalassemia mutations was present in the study population, with IVS II-I (G→A), C36-37(-T), IVS I-5(G>C), -25bpdel (252-276), IVS I-110(G>A) and C44 (-C) being present in 62% of cases. The pattern of distribution of thalassemia mutations differs among ethnic groups within the same country. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  10. TREATMENT EFFECTS 101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma J. Mielenz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical therapy researchers are interested in how beneficial an intervention is or the “treatment effect.” There are many measures of treatment effect that are applicable for understanding the efficacy and effectiveness of health interventions. Given that each treatment effect has its own set of advantages and disadvantages, understanding these characteristics can help guide which measure is most appropriate for a specific study. This article presents the more common treatment effects for both dichotomous and continues outcomes. The overall aim is to serve as a guide to newer physical therapy researchers on using and interpreting treatment effects.

  11. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions.

  12. The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Alexander J.; Lule, Swaib A.; Kizito, Dennison; Smits, Gaby; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring’s response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. Methodology/Principal findings We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis. 2705 mothers were investigated for parasitic infections and then randomised to albendazole (400mg) versus placebo and praziquantel (40mg/kg) during pregnancy in a factorial design. All mothers received sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for presumptive treatment of malaria. Offspring received Expanded Programme on Immunisation vaccines at birth, six, 10 and 14 weeks. New data on antibody levels to diphtheria toxin, three pertussis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) and Hepatitis B, measured at one year (April 2004 –May 2007) from 1379 infants were analysed for this report. Additional observational analyses relating maternal infections to infant vaccine responses were also conducted. Helminth infections were highly prevalent amongst mothers (hookworm 43.1%, Mansonella 20.9%, Schistosoma mansoni 17.3%, Strongyloides 11.7%, Trichuris 8.1%) and 9.4% had malaria at enrolment. In the trial analysis we found no overall effect of either anthelminthic intervention on the measured infant vaccine responses. In observational analyses, no species was associated with suppressed responses. Strongyloidiasis was associated with enhanced responses to pertussis toxin, HiB and Hep B vaccine antigens. Conclusions/Significance Our results do not support the hypothesis that routine anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy has a benefit for the infant’s vaccine response, or

  13. The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring's response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial.We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis. 2705 mothers were investigated for parasitic infections and then randomised to albendazole (400mg versus placebo and praziquantel (40mg/kg during pregnancy in a factorial design. All mothers received sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for presumptive treatment of malaria. Offspring received Expanded Programme on Immunisation vaccines at birth, six, 10 and 14 weeks. New data on antibody levels to diphtheria toxin, three pertussis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB and Hepatitis B, measured at one year (April 2004 -May 2007 from 1379 infants were analysed for this report. Additional observational analyses relating maternal infections to infant vaccine responses were also conducted. Helminth infections were highly prevalent amongst mothers (hookworm 43.1%, Mansonella 20.9%, Schistosoma mansoni 17.3%, Strongyloides 11.7%, Trichuris 8.1% and 9.4% had malaria at enrolment. In the trial analysis we found no overall effect of either anthelminthic intervention on the measured infant vaccine responses. In observational analyses, no species was associated with suppressed responses. Strongyloidiasis was associated with enhanced responses to pertussis toxin, HiB and Hep B vaccine antigens.Our results do not support the hypothesis that routine anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy has a benefit for the infant's vaccine response, or that maternal helminth infection has a net suppressive effect

  14. Evaluating the effect of educational intervention based on Theory of Planned Behavior on prenatal care of addicted pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Honari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Using drugs during pregnancy is one of the most important health concerns Prenatal care is crucial in addicted women and thus educational interventions are required. In the present study, the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on ‘Theory of Planned Behavior’ on prenatal care of addicted women was evaluated. Materials and Methods: This randomized field- trial study was performed on 46 pregnant addicted women who were randomly divided into equal experimental and control groups. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire used had been confirmed. before, immediately after, and two months after the intervention in both groups. The intervention consisted of 6 sessions, based on the theory of planned behavior, which was implemented for the experimental group. Data analysis was performed using. independent t- test, Anova and Fisher’s exact test. The obtained results were interpreted at the significant level 0.05. Results: It was found that a significant increase in the mean change in attitude, intention, and perceived behavioral control before and immediately after the intervention in the experimental group compared to the control one (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study showed the effectiveness of the education based on the theory of planned behavior on the attitude, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention associated with prenatal care.

  15. Effect of education and pill count on hemoglobin status during prenatal care in Nepalese women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kamala; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Pradhan, Neelam

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of an education program and/or pill count on the change in hemoglobin levels and the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women. A randomized, factorial design controlled trial was conducted at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A total of 320 eligible pregnant women receiving prenatal care were randomized into four groups (control, education, pill count and education with pill count) by block randomization with allocation concealment. All recruited women received conventional routine prenatal care with a daily dose of 60 mg iron supplementation. In addition, the education group received an education program. Pill counting was done for the pill count group at their routine prenatal visits. The education with pill count group received both the education program plus pill counting. Baseline hemoglobin at the recruitment phase and follow-up hemoglobin after three months of recruitment were measured. Changes in hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence were analyzed and compared between groups. The education only and education with pill count groups had significantly higher hemoglobin changes (0.23 and 0.26 g/dL, respectively) than the control group (P control group (P control group. An education program along with routine iron supplementation can improve hemoglobin levels and reduce anemia prevalence in pregnant women. Pill count as a measure of compliance has no additional effect on improving hemoglobin status.

  16. Effect of prenatal stress on memory, nicotine withdrawal and 5HT1A expression in raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal distress has often been associated with cognitive deficiencies and drug abuse in rats. This study examined these behavioral effects in offspring of mothers stressed during gestation. To this end, pregnant dams were subjected to daily electric foot shocks during the last 10 days of pregnancy. We measured litter parameters and body weights of the descendants after weaning (21 days) and at adulthood (80 days). Afterwards, prenatally stressed and control rats' performances in the novel object recognition test were compared in order to evaluate their memory while others underwent the Water consumption test to assess the nicotine withdrawal intensity after perinatal manipulations. Meanwhile, another set of rats were sacrificed and 5HT1A receptors' mRNA expression was measured in the raphe nuclei by quantitative Real Time PCR. We noticed no significant influence of maternal stress on litter size and body weight right after weaning. However, control rats were heavier than the stressed rats in adulthood. The results also showed a significant decrease in the recognition score in rats stressed in utero compared to the controls. Moreover, a heightened anxiety symptom was observed in the prenatally stressed offspring following nicotine withdrawal. Additionally, the Real Time PCR method revealed that prenatal stress induced a significant decrease in 5HT1A receptors' levels in the raphe nuclei. Nicotine had a similar effect on these receptors' expression in both nicotine-treated control and prenatally stressed groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cognitive functions and drug dependence can be triggered by early adverse events in rats.

  17. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  18. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  19. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  20. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  1. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  2. Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted external environmental conditions, but because both affect phenotypes similarly, they are largely indistinguishable. Only external (not internal) PARs rely on high environmental stability particularly in long-lived species. We report on a crucial test case in a wild long-lived mammal, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), which evolved and lives in an unpredictable environment where external PARs are probably not advantageous. We quantified food availability, growth, motor skills, maternal caretaking style and maternal physiological stress from faecal glucocorticoid measures. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively correlated to prenatal food availability and led to accelerated offspring growth accompanied by decelerated motor skill acquisition and reduced immune function. These results support the ‘internal PAR’ theory, which stresses the role of stable adverse internal somatic states rather than stable external environments. PMID:27655764

  3. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the pyramidal tract in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons. Electron microscopic analyses of the pyramidal tracts of the offspring of pregnant rat dams fed a control diet ad libitum, pair-fed a liquid control diet, or fed an ethanol-containing diet ad libitum were performed. The pups were 5-, 15-, 30- and 90-days-old. The numbers of axons in control rats fell precipitously after postnatal day (P) 15 and the frequency of myelinated axons rose dramatically between P15 and P90. Ethanol exposure had no significant effect on the numbers of pyramidal tract axons at any age. Moreover, no ethanol-induced differences in the numbers of axons in different stages of myelination, i.e., axons that were "free" of glial associations, glia-engulfed, invested by 1-2 layers of myelin, or myelinated by 3+ layers of myelin, were detected on P15. Thus, it appears that (a) pyramidal tract axons are lost or pruned during the first two postnatal weeks and (b) postnatal development of pyramidal tract axons (e.g., pruning and myelination) is not affected by ethanol. The implications are that the ethanol-induced increase in the number of axons relative to the number of somata of corticospinal neurons detected in pups and adults results from the effects of ethanol on early stages (initiation) of axogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  5. The effect of ketogenic diet in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Baronio, Diego; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos; Gottfried, Carmem

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Its etiology is still unknown, but different environmental factors during pregnancy, such as exposure to valproic acid (VPA), are associated with high incidence of ASD in children. In this context, prenatal exposure to VPA in rodents has been used as a reliable model of ASD. Ketogenic diet (KD) is an alternative therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy; however, the effects of this approach in ASD-like behavior need to be evaluated. We conducted a behavioral assessment of the effects of KD in the VPA model of autism. Pregnant animals received a single-intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg VPA, and their offspring were separated into four groups: (1) control group with standard diet (C-SD), (2) control group with ketogenic diet (C-KD), (3) VPA group with standard diet (VPA-SD), and (4) VPA group with ketogenic diet (VPA-KD). When compared with the control group, VPA animals presented increased social impairment, repetitive behavior and higher nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, the VPA group fed with KD presented improvements in social behavior. These mice displayed higher scores in sociability index and social novelty index when compared with the SD-fed VPA mice. VPA mice chronically exposed to a KD presented behavioral improvements; however, the mechanism by which KD improves ASD-like features needs to be further investigated. In conclusion, the present study reinforces the potential use of KD as a treatment for the core deficits of ASD.

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to nanoparticles titanium dioxide and carbon black on female germline DNA stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    are actively dividing. The aim of this PhD study was to determine if two widely used nanoparticles titanium dioxide UV-Titan and carbon black Printex 90 induce ESTR mutations in the germ cells of prenatally exposed females. Pregnant generation P mice were exposed to ~42 mg UV-Titan/m3/1 h/d during gestation...

  8. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P G; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. OBJECTIVE: To estim...

  9. The effects of prenatal HIV exposure on language functioning in Kenyan children : establishing an evaluative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, K. J.; Abubakar Ali, Amina; Newton, Charles R.; Holding, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV infection has been associated with impaired language development in prenatally exposed children. Although most of the burden of HIV occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, there have not been any comprehensive studies of HIV exposure on multiple aspects of language development using instrument

  10. Long-term effects of prenatal stress : Changes in adult cardiovascular regulation and sensitivity to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastorci, Francesca; Vicentini, Massimo; Viltart, Odile; Manghi, Massimo; Graiani, Gallia; Quaini, Federico; Meerlo, Peter; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Maccari, Stefania; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal environment exerts profound influences on the development of an organism and stressful events during pregnancy can bring about long-term physiological/behavioral alterations in the offspring. Epidemiological evidence points to a relationship between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), b

  11. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1) in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1), which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min(-1)·100 g body wt(-1)). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing.

  12. Application of the Integration of TCM-WM with Dietotherapy in the Treatment of Prenatal Anemia%中西医结合配合食疗在产前贫血中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧英; 牛学敏; 于文霞; 张贵谨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of the integration of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM )w-estern medicine( WM ) with dietotherapy in the treatment of prenatal anemia, we aim to popularize that therapy in the obstetrics and seek for a quick way to improve the prenatal anemia condition. Methods 200 cases of prenatal anemia patients,who were in the pregnancy of 36-38 week then and have visited the primary hospital during Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2010-12 were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The control group just adopted the traditional western medicine such as 0.1 ferrous fumarate tid,0. Lg vitamin C tid and 5 mg folacin tid to cure the disease. The treatment group adopted the integrated TCM-WM therapy with the same WM as above but adding TCM 9 g ginseng spleen invigorating bolus tid and at the same time matched the longan together with egg( consisting of 6 g of dried longan pulp and 2 eggs per day ) as dietotherapy. Both of the treatment courses were 2 weeks. After the treatment was finished,the changes of HB,RBC and HCT were observed and compared in order to know the improvement degree of anemia. Results After treatment, Hb, RBC, HCT index increased obviously, but the treatment group was obviously better than the control group, difference was statistically significant( P <0.01 ). Conclusion With short course,it is effective in the treatment of prenatal anemia by using the integrated TCM-WM with dietotherapy, which can improve the condition of prenatal anemia in short period.%目的 探讨中西医结合配合食疗治疗产前贫血的效果,以推动其在产科的应用,寻求短期快速改善产前贫血的方法.方法 选择2009年1月至2010年12月在基层医院门诊就诊的妊娠36 ~38周合并贫血的孕妇200例,上述患者随机分为两组,各100例,对照组:采用传统西药(富马酸亚铁0.1 g,每日3次,维生素C 0.1 g,每日3次,叶酸5 mg,每日3次)治疗;治疗组:采用中西医结合(西

  13. The effect in premature infants of prenatal corticosteroids on endogenous surfactant synthesis as measured with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik); V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMost in vitro studies show that prenatal administration of corticosteroids stimulates the synthesis of surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC), but studies in animals are controversial. Whether prenatal corticosteroids stimulate surfactant PC synthesis in humans

  14. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  15. Effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormone levels, mental and psychomotor development of infants: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary.

  16. Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin β-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G,N(G-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3, and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA. In contrast, tubulin α-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment.

  17. [Neurotoxic effect of toluene on background of prenatal hypoxic brain damage to white rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokina, V A; Sosedova, L M; Rukavishnikov, V S; Iakimova, N L; Lizarev, A V

    2014-01-01

    Comparative study covered influence of toluene on behavioral parameters, cognitive abilities and brain bioelectric activity in white rats with normal embryonic development or with prenatal hypoxia. Prenatal hypoxia was simulated by subcutaneous injection of 50 mg/kg sodium nitrite into female white rats on day 13-14 of gestation. The offspring at the age of 2, 5-3 months was exposed to toluene (concentration of 560 mg/m3, 4 hours per day, 5 days per week, over 4 weeks). After the exposure, the animals were estimated for individual and intraspecific behaviour in "open fields and "resident-intruder" tests, for cognitive abilities in "radial maze" training, EEG with visual and auditory evoked potentials. Acute hypoxia at early stages of organogenesis appeared to be burdening factor and to influence consequences of toluene intoxication.

  18. Density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult male and female rats is altered by prenatal morphine exposure and gonadal hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Bar, Noffar; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2003-01-01

    The present in vitro autoradiography study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to morphine alters the density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult female but not adult male rats. Prenatal morphine exposure increased the mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 of ovariectomized (OVX) females and in the CA3 of OVX, estradiol benzoate-plus progesterone (EB+P)-treated females, but decreased it in CA3 of OVX females. There were also hormonal effects on mu-opioid receptor density in adult female rats. In the CA1, only morphine-exposed but not saline-exposed, hormone-treated females (EB, P, or EB+P) had a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density relative to OVX females. Both saline-exposed and morphine-exposed, OVX females after gonadal hormone replacement had a lower density of mu-opioid receptors in the CA3 and in the dentate gyrus (DG) than OVX females. In male rats, there was a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 and CA3 of gonadectomized (GNX), testosterone 17beta-proprionate (TP)-treated males relative to GNX males regardless of prenatal morphine exposure. In the DG, the mu-opioid receptor density was reduced only in morphine-exposed but not in saline-exposed, TP-treated males compared with GNX males. Thus, our data demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor density in the hippocampus is affected by prenatal morphine exposure and by male and female gonadal hormones.

  19. Beneficial effects of the sigma1 receptor agonists igmesine and dehydroepiandrosterone against learning impairments in rats prenatally exposed to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-01-01

    In utero cocaine (IUC) exposure results in offspring rats in complex neurochemical and behavioral alterations, particularly affecting learning and memory processes. We examined here the impact of IUC exposure on memory functions in male and female offspring rats and report that selective sigma(1) (sigma(1)) receptor agonists are effective in reversing the deficits. Dams received a daily cocaine, 20 mg/kg ip, injection between gestational days E17 to E20. Learning was examined in offspring between day P30 and P41 using delayed alternation in the T-maze, water-maze learning and passive avoidance. Both male and female rats prenatally exposed to cocaine showed delayed alternation deficits and impairments of acquisition of a fixed platform position in the water maze, as shown by higher acquisition latencies and diminutions of time spent in the training quadrant during the probe test. The acquisition of a daily changing platform position also demonstrated impaired working memory. Finally, passive avoidance deficits were observed. Pretreatment with the synthetic sigma(1) agonist igmesine (0.1-1 mg/kg ip) or the neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA 10-40 mg/kg ip) reversed the prenatal cocaine-induced learning deficits in offspring rats for each test. The sigma(1) antagonist BD1063 (1 mg/kg ip) failed to affect performances alone but blocked the igmesine and DHEA effects, confirming the involvement of the sigma(1) receptor. IUC exposure thus results in marked memory deficits, affecting spatial and nonspatial short- and long-term memories in juvenile male and female offspring rats. The activation of the sigma(1) neuromodulatory receptor allows a complete behavioral recovery of the memory functions in prenatally cocaine-exposed rats.

  20. Single and combined effects of prenatal immune activation and peripubertal stress on parvalbumin and reelin expression in the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanoli, Sandra; Weber, Liz; Meyer, Urs

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences in peripubertal life are two environmental risk factors for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Modeling the cumulative neuronal impact of these factors in a translational animal model has led to the recent identification of pathological interactions between these environmental adversities in the development of adult brain dysfunctions. The present study explored the consequences of combined prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress on discrete cellular abnormalities in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system of the hippocampus. Pregnant mice were treated with the viral mimetic poly(I:C) (=polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid) or control solution, and offspring born to poly(I:C)-exposed or control mothers were then left undisturbed or subjected to unpredictable sub-chronic stress during peripubertal development. Stereological estimations of parvalbumin-expressing cells revealed a significant reduction of these GABAergic interneurons in the ventral dentate gyrus of adult offspring exposed to combined immune activation and stress. Single exposure to either environmental factor was insufficient to cause similar neuropathology. We further found that peripubertal stress exerted opposite effects on reelin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal cornu ammonis (CA) region of the hippocampus, with stress increasing and decreasing reelin expression in control offspring and prenatally immune challenged animals, respectively. The present data suggest that the combination of two environmental risk factors, which have each been implicated in the etiology of major neuropsychiatric disease, induces significant but restricted neuropathological effects on hippocampal GABAergic cell populations known to be affected in brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Project ice storm : effects of prenatal stress on children's physical, cognitive and behavioral development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPlante, D.P.; King, S.; Brunet, A. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ice storm in the winter of 1998 left three million people in Quebec without power for as long as 40 days. This study recruited 224 women who were pregnant during the storm or who became pregnant within 3 months after the storm. The study examined the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in an effort to fill gaps in literature regarding prenatal stress and increased risks and to assist in the development of preventive interventions for pregnant women who have experienced stress or trauma. Natural disaster studies provide good opportunities to study the effects of PNMS, as effects are random across large numbers of women and can be assessed independently of the pregnant women's own personality traits. The study examined whether there was an effect of the timing and severity of the ice storm on perinatal outcomes and later health; intellectual and linguistic functioning at two and a half and five years of age; behavioural and attention problems at four and five and a half years of age and physical features. The study concluded that pregnant women are a risk group and need proper interventions as children experienced delays or deficiencies in several key developmental areas. tabs., figs.

  2. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ON BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE FINDINGS AT 7.5 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Sabrina D.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine child behavioral and cognitive outcomes after prenatal exposure to methamphetamine. Study design 412 mother-infant pairs (204 methamphetamine-exposed and 208 unexposed matched comparisons) were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. The 151 children exposed to methamphetamine and 147 comparisons who attended the 7.5 year visit were included. Exposure was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium toxicology. Maternal interviews assessed behavioral and cognitive outcomes using the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale – Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Results After adjusting for covariates, children exposed to methamphetamine had significantly higher cognitive problems subscale scores than comparisons and were 2.8 times more likely to have cognitive problems scores that were above average on the CPRS-R:S No association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and behavioral problems, measured by the oppositional, hyperactivity and ADHD Index subscales, were found. Conclusion Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased cognitive problems which may impact academic achievement and lead to increased negative behavioral outcomes. PMID:24630350

  3. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.

  4. Effects of an H3R antagonist on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Diego; Castro, Kamila; Gonchoroski, Taylor; de Melo, Gabriela Mueller; Nunes, Gustavo Della Flora; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Gottfried, Carmem; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Ligands of histamine receptor 3 (H3R) are considered potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of different brain disorders and cognitive impairments. Considering this, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the actions of ciproxifan (CPX), an H3R antagonist, on the animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to VPA on embryonic day 11 and assessed for social behavior, nociceptive threshold and repetitive behavior at 50 days of life. The treatment with CPX (3 mg/kg) or saline was administered 30 minutes before each behavioral test. The VPA group presented lower sociability index compared to VPA animals that were treated with CPX. Compared to the Control group, VPA animals presented a significantly higher nociceptive threshold, and treatment with CPX was not able to modify this parameter. In the marble burying test, the number of marbles buried by VPA animals was consistent with markedly repetitive behavior. VPA animals that received CPX buried a reduced amount of marbles. In summary, we report that an acute dose of CPX is able to attenuate sociability deficits and stereotypies present in the VPA model of autism. Our findings have the potential to help the investigations of both the molecular underpinnings of ASD and of possible treatments to ameliorate the ASD symptomatology, although more research is still necessary to corroborate and expand this initial data.

  5. Prenatal programming of obesity in a swine model of leptin resistance: modulatory effects of controlled postnatal nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, A; Astiz, S; Ovilo, C; Lopez-Bote, C J; Perez-Solana, M L; Ayuso, M; Garcia-Real, I; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2014-06-01

    The main role of early nutritional programming in the current rise of obesity and associated diseases is well known. However, translational studies are mostly based in postnatal food excess and, thus, there is a paucity of information on the phenotype of individuals with prenatal deficiencies but adequate postnatal conditions. Thus, we assessed the effects of prenatal programming (comparing descendants from females fed with a diet fulfilling 100 or only 50% of their nutritional requirements for pregnancy) on gene expression, patterns of growth and fattening, metabolic status and puberty attainment of a swine model of obesity/leptin resistance with controlled postnatal nutrition and opportunity of exercise. Maternal restriction was related to changes in the relationships among gene expression of positive (insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2) and negative (myostatin) regulators of muscle growth, with negative correlations in gilts from restricted pregnancies and positive relationships in the control group. In spite of these differences, the patterns of growth and fattening and the metabolic features during juvenile growth were similar in control gilts and gilts from restricted pregnancies. Concomitantly, there was a lack of differences in the timing of puberty attainment. However, after reaching puberty and adulthood, females from restricted pregnancies were heavier and more corpulent than control gilts, though such increases in weight and size were not accompanied by increases in adiposity. In conclusion, in spite of changes in gene expression induced by developmental programming, the propensity for higher weight and adiposity of individuals exposed to prenatal malnutrition may be modulated by controlled food intake and opportunity of physical exercise during infant and juvenile development.

  6. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl(2) alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards......Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level...... in the kidney in postnatal copper-treated Menkes patients may reach toxic levels. The mouse model, mosaic Atp7a (mo-ms) recapitulates the Menkes phenotype and die about 15.75±1.5 days of age. In the present study we found that prenatal treatment of mosaic murine fetuses throughout gestation days 7, 11, 15...

  7. The role of prenatal exposures on body fat patterns at 7 years: Intrauterine programming or birthweight effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S; Severo, M; Gaillard, R; Santos, A C; Barros, H; Oliveira, A

    2016-11-01

    It remains unknown whether the effects of prenatal exposures on child's adiposity reflect entirely intrauterine programming. We aimed to assess the effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on the child's body fat patterns, disentangling the direct (through intrauterine programming) and indirect (through birthweight) effects. We included 4747 singleton 7-year-old children from the Generation XXI birth cohort (Porto, Portugal). At birth, maternal and newborn's characteristics were obtained. Anthropometrics were measured at age 7 years and body fat patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Path analysis was used to quantify direct, indirect and total effects of gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on body fat patterns. Pattern 1 was characterized by strong factor loadings with body mass index, fat mass index and waist-to-height ratio (fat quantity) and pattern 2 with waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, and waist-to-weight ratio (fat distribution). The positive total effect of maternal gestational weight gain and diabetes on the child's fat quantity was mainly through a direct pathway, responsible for 91.7% and 83.7% of total effects, respectively (β = 0.022; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.017, 0.027; β = 0.041; 95% CI: -0.011, 0.093). No effects on fat distribution were found. Maternal prenatal smoking had a positive direct effect on patterns 1 and 2, explaining 94.9% and 76.1% of total effects, respectively. The effects of maternal gestational weight gain, diabetes and smoking on a child's fat quantity seem to be mainly through intrauterine programming. Maternal smoking also showed a positive direct effect on child's fat distribution. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türedi, Sibel; Hancı, Hatice; Topal, Zehra; Ünal, Deniz; Mercantepe, Tolga; Bozkurt, İlyas; Kaya, Haydar; Odacı, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    The growing spread of mobile phone use is raising concerns about the effect on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) these devices emit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on rat pup heart tissue of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF. For this purpose, pregnant rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group rats were exposed to a 900 MHz EMF (1 h/d) on days 13-21 of pregnancy. Measurements were performed with rats inside the exposure box in order to determine the distribution of EMF intensity. Our measurements showed that pregnant experimental group rats were exposed to a mean electrical field intensity of 13.77 V/m inside the box (0.50 W/m(2)). This study continued with male rat pups obtained from both groups. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal day 21, and the heart tissues were extracted. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase values were significantly higher in the experimental group rats, while glutathione values were lower. Light microscopy revealed irregularities in heart muscle fibers and apoptotic changes in the experimental group. Electron microscopy revealed crista loss and swelling in the mitochondria, degeneration in myofibrils and structural impairments in Z bands. Our study results suggest that exposure to EMF in the prenatal period causes oxidative stress and histopathological changes in male rat pup heart tissue.

  9. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Arguello, Margia; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH) at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL) at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396) and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in cord plasma (n = 325). Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD) BMI was 19.5 (2.4) kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41) kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction); and among women with height pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470 PMID:26431336

  10. Long-term follow-up of prenatally dexamethasone-treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2011-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a disorder of steroid genesis affecting approximately 1:10 000 children and leading to increased levels of androgens during foetal life and subsequent virilization of external genitalia in affected girls. However, prenatal virilization can be eliminated by antenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. To be fully effective, DEX treatment has to be started in the 6–7th postmenstrual week and continued until the results of the prenatal diagnosis are available ...

  11. The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Adoption Scale: evaluating the diffusion of a tobacco treatment innovation to a statewide prenatal care program and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Cleary, Sean; Ramiah, Kalpana; Clark, Jeannie; Abroms, Lorien; Davis, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    When a new patient education program is being considered for adoption by a public health agency, it is essential to determine provider perceptions of its acceptability for routine use. In 2007, the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Perinatal Program, Right From The Start (RFTS), decided to adopt the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program. RFTS is a statewide perinatal home visitation initiative delivered by designated care coordinators (DCCs). The authors developed the SCRIPT Adoption Scale (SAS) in the absence of a valid instrument to assess the perceived attributes of a tobacco treatment innovation among the RFTS DCC population. They evaluated the validity of the five constructs of the Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model in an organization (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability) to predict SCRIPT use. After reviewing the literature and developing draft SAS forms, 2 expert panel reviews established the face and content validity of a 43-item SAS. It was administered to 90% (85/90) of the RFTS DCC population. Psychometric analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of a 28-item scale. All 28 items had factor loadings greater than 0.40 (range = 0.43-0.81). All SAS subscales were strongly correlated, r = 0.51 to 0.97, supporting the convergent validity of a 5-factor SAS. There was a significant association between the DCC SAS score and DCC SCRIPT Program Implementation Index supporting the SAS convergent (construct) validity (r = 0.38). The SAS internal consistencyr = 0.93 and stabilityr = 0.76. Although 2 specific subscales need to be improved, the SAS can be adapted by prenatal care programs to measure the attributes of adoption of new, evidence-based patient education and counseling methods.

  12. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  13. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  14. Assessing the effect on outcomes of public or private provision of prenatal care in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sofia; Rodrigues, Teresa; Barros, Henrique

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate whether public and private prenatal care users experience similar outcomes, taking into consideration maternal pre-pregnancy social and clinical risk. We studied 7,325 women who delivered single newborns at five public maternity units in Porto, Portugal. Health behaviors and prenatal care were self-reported; pregnancy complications and delivery data were retrieved from medical files. The odds of inadequate weight gain, continuing to smoke, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, caesarean section, preterm birth, low birthweight, and small- and large-for-gestational-age were estimated for public and private providers using logistic regression, stratified by pre-pregnancy risk profile, adjusted for maternal characteristics. 38 % of women used private prenatal care. Among low-risk women, public care users were more likely to gain excessive weight (OR 1.26; 95 % CI 1.06-1.57) and be diagnosed with gestational diabetes (OR 1.37; 95 % CI 1.01-1.86). They were less likely to have a caesarean (OR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.51-0.78) and more likely to deliver small-for-gestational-age babies (OR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.19-1.83). Outcomes were similar in high-risk women although preterm and pre-labor caesarean were less frequent in public care users (OR 0.64 95 % CI 0.45-0.91; OR 0.69 95 % CI 0.49-0.97). The amount of care was not significantly related to risk profile in either case. Public care users experienced similar outcomes to those using private care, despite higher pre-pregnancy disadvantage. Low-risk women need further attention if narrowing inequalities in birth outcomes remains a priority.

  15. Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different.

  16. EXPLORING THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECT OF PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE UPON THE SPORTING BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Golby

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2D:4D ratio is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone and has the potential to explain variations in sport performance. To date there has been little research into the association between sporting performance, digit ratio and psychological variables. This study examined the relationship between 2D:4D and mental toughness, optimism, goal orientations, aggression, coping style and their association with sporting achievement. A post facto design was adopted. Participants consisted of an opportunity sample of 122 sports people: male (n =60 and female (n = 62 from a university in North East England. Following informed consent, a Vernier Caliper was used to measure digit ratio hand scans. Participants completed self-reports measures including, the Alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (Golby et al., 2008, Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (Sheard et al., 2009, Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al., 1994, Buss-Perry aggression (Buss-Perry, 1992 and 30 item coping style questionnaire (Joseph et al., 1995. MANOVA revealed significant gender differences in 2D:4D with males demonstrating lower ratios (Manning, 2002. The 2D:4D was found to differentiate eleven of the seventeen measured variables, including mental toughness scores (p < 0.001 and varying levels of sporting achievement i.e. international/national, regional and school levels (p< 0.001. Specifically, this difference was significant when comparing the highest (international/national and lowest (leisure/school groups. Perhaps there is a threshold for prenatal testosterone's influence upon sporting ability. Further research is necessary to examine the subtle differences between competitors involved in different achievement levels. It is proposed that high prenatal levels of testosterone may contribute to the development of increased mental toughness, optimism, ego/task goal orientations in individuals, and hence aptitude towards sport. Findings lend support for the

  17. Exploring the organizational effect of prenatal testosterone upon the sporting brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golby, Jim; Meggs, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The 2D:4D ratio is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone and has the potential to explain variations in sport performance. To date there has been little research into the association between sporting performance, digit ratio and psychological variables. This study examined the relationship between 2D:4D and mental toughness, optimism, goal orientations, aggression, coping style and their association with sporting achievement. A post facto design was adopted. Participants consisted of an opportunity sample of 122 sports people: male (n =60) and female (n = 62) from a university in North East England. Following informed consent, a Vernier Caliper was used to measure digit ratio hand scans. Participants completed self-reports measures including, the Alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (Golby et al., 2008), Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (Sheard et al., 2009), Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier et al., 1994), Buss-Perry aggression (Buss-Perry, 1992) and 30 item coping style questionnaire (Joseph et al., 1995). MANOVA revealed significant gender differences in 2D:4D with males demonstrating lower ratios (Manning, 2002). The 2D:4D was found to differentiate eleven of the seventeen measured variables, including mental toughness scores (p high prenatal levels of testosterone may contribute to the development of increased mental toughness, optimism, ego/task goal orientations in individuals, and hence aptitude towards sport. Findings lend support for the tentative claim that mental toughness may be partially biologically predetermined. Theoretical and practical implications are considered, along with limitations of the current study. Key pointsIncreased prenatal testosterone exposure was associated with successful sport performance. There is a need to further consider psychological aspects related to sport performance and their potential relationship with 2D:4D.Mental toughness variables, optimism, goal orientation, hostility and coping style are

  18. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the electrical cerebral activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frías, V; Varela, O; Oropeza, J J; Bisiacchi, B; Alvarez, A

    2010-10-04

    Early protein restriction during the prenatal period has significant repercussions on the ontogeny and development of the central nervous system. The present study investigates whether early prenatal protein malnutrition could alter the electrical cerebral activity of the progeny. We used Sprague-Dawley female rats of 200 g randomly divided into three groups: a control group that received a diet with 25% of the protein content (lactalbumin), the experimental group, that received a diet with 6% of the protein content and the rehabilitated group that initially received a diet with 6% of the protein content, then switched to a diet with 25% of the protein content after the weaning period (P20D) up to 60 days of life (P60D). Reduction of the protein content from 25% to 6% of lactalbumin in the diet of pregnant rats produces impairment in the electrical cerebral activity in the progeny at P20D and at P60D. The power spectral analysis for each one of the electroencephalograms revealed that prenatal protein malnutrition in rats produced a significant reduction of the alpha (8-13 Hz) and the beta bands (13-30 Hz) and a significant increase of the theta (4-8 Hz), and delta bands (1-4 Hz), at two different stages of life (P20D and P60D). Similar results were obtained for the rehabilitated group. These results indicate that early malnutrition in life affects the ontogeny of the electrical cerebral activity. This insult probably disrupts the establishment of cortical neural circuits during the critical period of brain development. The rehabilitation period did not revert the impairment in the electrical cerebral activity produced by malnutrition. We used one-way ANOVA analysis, followed by Tukey test (*p<0.001). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of iron content on the tolerability of prenatal multivitamins in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarson Tom R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal irritability can deter pregnant women from starting or continuing prenatal multivitamin supplementation. In a previous study, suboptimal tolerability was observed among pregnant women taking a large tablet (18 mm × 8 mm × 8 mm multivitamin with high elemental iron content (60 mg as ferrous fumarate. The objective of the present study was to compare rates of adherence and reported adverse events among pregnant women who were randomized to commence supplementation with a small-tablet prenatal multivitamin, containing either low or high iron content. Methods Pregnant women who called the Motherisk Program (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto and had not started taking or had discontinued any multivitamin due to adverse events were included in this prospective, randomized, open-label, 2-arm study. Women were randomized to take a small-size (16 mm × 9 mm × 4 mm, low elemental iron content (35 mg as ferrous fumarate multivitamin ('35 mg' group; or a small-size (5 mm radius, 5 mm thickness, high elemental iron content (60 mg as ferrous sulphate multivitamin ('60 mg' group. Follow-up interviews documented pill intake and adverse events. Rates of adherence and adverse events were compared between groups using chi-squared tests and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results Of 167 randomized women, 92 in the '35 mg' group and 75 in the '60 mg' group were included in the analysis. Despite ideal conditions and regular follow-ups, mean adherence based on pill intake recall, in both groups was approximately 50%. No statistically significant difference was detected in proportions of women who actually started taking either multivitamin. Among those who started, no difference was detected in rates of adherence or reported adverse events. Conclusion The present results suggest that iron content is not a major determinant of adherence to prenatal multivitamins. Combined with our previous study, tablet size may be the more

  20. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalindi Bakshi

    Full Text Available Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1 activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21 prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  1. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  2. Developmental programming: Interaction between prenatal BPA and postnatal overfeeding on cardiac tissue gene expression in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, L A; Vyas, A K; McEachin, R C; Puttabyatappa, M; Wang, H-S; Sartor, M A; Padmanabhan, V

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies and studies in rodents point to potential risks from developmental exposure to BPA on cardiometabolic diseases. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that the manifestation and severity of adverse outcomes is the result of interaction between developmental insults and the prevailing environment. Consistent with this premise, recent studies in sheep found prenatal BPA treatment prevented the adverse effects of postnatal obesity in inducing hypertension. The gene networks underlying these complex interactions are not known. mRNA-seq of myocardium was performed on four groups of four female sheep to assess the effects of prenatal BPA exposure, postnatal overfeeding and their interaction on gene transcription, pathway perturbations and functional effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to BPA, postnatal overfeeding, and prenatal BPA with postnatal overfeeding all resulted in transcriptional changes (85-141 significant differentially expressed genes). Although the effects of prenatal BPA and postnatal overfeeding did not involve dysregulation of many of the same genes, they affected a remarkably similar set of biological pathways. Furthermore, an additive or synergistic effect was not found in the combined treatment group, but rather prenatal BPA treatment led to a partial reversal of the effects of overfeeding alone. Many genes previously known to be affected by BPA and involved in obesity, hypertension, or heart disease were altered following these treatments, and AP-1, EGR1, and EGFR were key hubs affected by BPA and/or overfeeding. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:4-18, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  4. Behavioural effects in rats after prenatal exposure to dearomatized white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    months, learning and memory deficits were observed in exposed offspring. The differences were not related to poorer swimming capabilities. because swim speeds were similar to control values. The results show that prenatal exposure to 800 ppm white spirit caused longlasting learning and memory deficits......), the performance in a Morris water maze was similar in exposed and control animals. When testing for memory at the age of 2 months, the exposed male offspring used more time to locate the hidden platform. After platform relocation, impaired cognitive function was revealed in the exposed females. At the age of 5...

  5. The effect of supervised prenatal exercise on fetal growth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Henry W; Boulé, Normand G; Chari, Radha; Davenport, Margie H

    2015-05-01

    To estimate the influence of structured prenatal exercise on newborn birth weight, macrosomia, and growth restriction. A structured search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sport Discus, Ovid's All EBM Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases up to January 13, 2015. The search combined keywords and MeSH-like terms including, but not limited, to "physical activity," "exercise," "pregnancy," "gestation," "neonatal," and "randomized controlled trial." Articles reporting randomized controlled trials comparing standard care with standard care plus supervised prenatal exercise for which birth size was available were included. Supervision was defined as at least one exercise session performed with study personnel every 2 weeks throughout the program. Interventions consisting solely of pelvic floor exercises, stretching, or relaxation were excluded. Our search yielded 1,036 publications of which 79 were assessed for eligibility. Twenty-eight studies reporting on 5,322 pregnancies were subsequently included in the analysis. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that prenatal exercise reduced the odds of having a large newborn (birth weight greater than 4,000 g or greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age and sex) by 31% (odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.86; I 25%) without altering the risk of having a small newborn (birth weight less than 2,500 g or less than the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex) (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.72-1.46; I 0%) or gestational age at delivery (weighted mean difference -0.00 weeks, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.09; I 0%). Newborns of mothers assigned to exercise were lighter than those of nonexercising controls (weighted mean difference -31 g, 95% CI -57 to -4; I 0%). Maternal gestational weight gain (weighted mean difference -1.1 kg, 95% CI -1.5 to -0.6; I 53%) and odds of cesarean delivery (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94; I 0%) were also reduced. These data demonstrate that structured prenatal exercise reduces the risk of having a large

  6. The effect of different information sources on the anxiety level of pregnant women who underwent invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Mehmet; Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna; Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Okuducu, Ümmühan; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to explore the effects of age, education, obstetric history and information sources on the (Beck) anxiety levels of pregnant women attending invasive prenatal testing. Questionnaire results from 152 pregnant women are utilized. Results are analyzed through an independent samples t-test and a two-step cluster analysis attempting to categorize patients in terms of the chosen variables. t-Tests reveal that age, education and bad obstetric history do not significantly affect anxiety levels. Descriptive statistics indicate that almost 60% of patients feel anxious mostly because of the fear of receiving bad news, followed by the fear of miscarriage, the fear of pain and the fear of hurting the baby. According to the cluster analysis, patients who use doctors or nurses as information sources have significantly lower anxiety levels, while those who do not receive information from any source have the second lowest level of anxiety. Patients who receive information from personal sources (i.e. friends and family) have the highest level of anxiety. Anxiety levels do not change according to test type. Doctors and nurses should allocate enough time for providing information about prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. This will reduce the anxiety level as well as the felt necessity to search for information from other sources, such as personal or popular which will further increase the level of anxiety.

  7. Prenatal exposure to anti-tubercular drugs and postnatal effect on growth, development and cognitive ability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi, K N; Natesh, T S; Ashwitha Reddy, A

    2012-04-27

    The effect of prenatal exposure to antitubercular drugs in therapeutic and double therapeutic doses on postnatal developments was studied in albino rats of Wistar strain. Seven groups with six female rats each were taken for the study and were allowed to mate with male in the ratio of (2:1). The drugs isoniazid 27 and 54mg/kg b.w. p.o., ethambutol 144 and 288mg/kg b.w. p.o., rifampin 54 and 108mg/kg b.w. p.o. were administered to each group from the day of pregnancy till parturition. Control group was administered with distilled water (1ml/kg). Litters of the respective groups were studied for litter size; body weight; physical development i.e. eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption; behavioral development i.e. righting reflex, negative geotaxis, ascending wire mesh; motor development i.e. rotarod and cognitive function i.e. elevated plus maze, Hebb-William maze and step-down (passive avoidance). The results obtained indicate that the prenatal exposure to therapeutic dose of rifampin and double therapeutic dose of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol affect the postnatal growth, development and cognitive ability. Hence, the study suggests that potential benefit risk ratios to be considered for their use in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of central muscarinic receptors on passive-avoidance learning deficits induced by prenatal pentylenetetrazol kindling in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmotabbed, A; Mahmoodi, G; Mahmoodi, S; Mohammadi-Farani, A; Nedaei, S E; Pourmotabbed, T; Pourmotabbed, T

    2014-10-24

    Occurrence of the epileptic seizures during gestation might affect the neurodevelopment of the fetus resulting in cognitive problems for the child later in life. We have previously reported that prenatal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling induces learning and memory deficits in the children born to kindled mothers, later in life but the mechanisms involved in this processes are unknown. The cholinergic system plays a major role in learning and memory. The present study was performed to investigate the possible involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic receptors on learning and memory deficits induced by prenatal PTZ-kindling in male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were kindled by repetitive i.p. injection of 25mg/kg of PTZ on day 13 of their pregnancy. The effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of scopolamine and pilocarpine, muscarinic cholinergic receptors antagonist and agonist, respectively on passive-avoidance learning of pups were tested at 12weeks of age using shuttle-box apparatus. Our data showed that the retention latencies of pups that received scopolamine (2 or 3μg) were significantly reduced compared to those received normal saline (pkindled dams and suggest a central mechanism for the cognitive and memory dysfunction, associated with seizures during pregnancy.

  9. Effects of prenatal stress on lever-press acquisition with delayed reinforcement in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Salm, A K; Anderson, Karen G

    2012-03-01

    The prenatally stressed (PS) rat shows enhanced conditioned fear and increased behavioral inhibition in response to footshock compared to control (CON) rats. It is unclear whether this facilitated learning will occur only with aversive stimulation, or if it will also be observed in the context of positive reinforcement. There are limited and inconsistent data regarding sex differences and the impact of prenatal stress on learning. The present study was designed to examine lever-press acquisition with a 10-s delay to food reinforcement in male and female PS and CON rats. Overall, twice as many PS male rats acquired the lever-press response than the PS female rats, CON male rats, and CON female rats. PS male rats also earned significantly more reinforcers and responded on the operative lever at a significantly greater rate than the other three rat groups. These findings suggest that PS rats exhibit altered learning with a task involving positive reinforcement, and this effect of PS is sex specific for male rats.

  10. Investigation of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase pathway to elucidate off-target prenatal effects of pharmaceuticals: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M R; Tatonetti, N P

    2016-01-01

    Mendelian diseases contain important biological information regarding developmental effects of gene mutations that can guide drug discovery and toxicity efforts. In this review, we focus on Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a rare Mendelian disease characterized by compound heterozygous mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) resulting in severe fetal deformities. We present a compilation of SLOS-inducing DHCR7 mutations and the geographic distribution of those mutations in healthy and diseased populations. We observed that several mutations thought to be disease causing occur in healthy populations, indicating an incomplete understanding of the condition and highlighting new research opportunities. We describe the functional environment around DHCR7, including pharmacological DHCR7 inhibitors and cholesterol and vitamin D synthesis. Using PubMed, we investigated the fetal outcomes following prenatal exposure to DHCR7 modulators. First-trimester exposure to DHCR7 inhibitors resulted in outcomes similar to those of known teratogens (50 vs 48% born-healthy). DHCR7 activity should be considered during drug development and prenatal toxicity assessment. PMID:27401223

  11. Dynamic Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric; Veramendi, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops robust models for estimating and interpreting treatment effects arising from both ordered and unordered multistage decision problems. Identification is secured through instrumental variables and/or conditional independence (matching) assumptions. We decompose treatment effects into direct effects and continuation values associated with moving to the next stage of a decision problem. Using our framework, we decompose the IV estimator, showing that IV generally does not estimate economically interpretable or policy relevant parameters in prototypical dynamic discrete choice models, unless policy variables are instruments. Continuation values are an empirically important component of estimated total treatment effects of education. We use our analysis to estimate the components of what LATE estimates in a dynamic discrete choice model.

  12. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR.

  14. Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Goozen, S.H. van; Orlebeke, J.F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Men and women differ in temperament and personality traits, such as aggression and sensation seeking. The sex hormone testosterone could play a role in the origin of these differences, but it remains unclear how and when testosterone could have these effects. One way to investigate the prenatal expo

  15. The effects of prenatal sound stress on the spatial learning and memory of rat's male offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Numerous evidences indicate that various environmental stresses during pregnancy affect physiological behavior of the offspring. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of noise stress during prenatal period of rats on spatial learning and memory and plasma corticostrone level in postnatal life."n"nMethods: Three groups of pregnant rats were given daily noise stress with durations of two and/ or four hours in last week of pregnancy period. The fourth group was left unstressed. The male offspring from the unstressed and different stressed groups were assigned as controls and stressed groups. The animals were introduced to a spatial task in Morris water maze 4 trials/day for five consecutive days. The probe test was performed on the 5th day of the experiment. The delay in findings and the distance passed to locate the target platform were assessed as the spatial learning. "n"nResults: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to noise stress for two and/ or four hours a day, leads to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the postnatal animals. The plasma level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups of rats markedly matched with their behavioral function. Prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise stress revealed no effects on the offsprings' behavior and plasma corticostrone level."n"nConclusion: Based on our study results, it seems that applied range of stress which is executed through the noise stress could increase the plasma corticostrone level and

  16. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress.

  17. Effects of treadmill running exercise during the adolescent period of life on behavioral deficits in juvenile rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to morphine throughout pregnancy results in an array of prolonged or permanent neurochemical and behavioral deficits, including deficits in learning and memory in children of addicted mothers. This study investigated the effects of forced exercise on behavioral deficits of pups born to mothers addicted to morphine in rats. After mating and ensuring of pregnancy of female Wistar rats, they were divided into morphine or saline groups and in the second half of pregnancy (on days 11-18 of gestation) were injected subcutaneously with morphine or saline, respectively. Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and trained at mild intensity on a treadmill 20 days. On PND 41-47, the behavioral responses were studied. Light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus were used for investigation of anxiety, shuttle box and forced swimming tests were used to assess passive avoidance learning and memory and depression behavior, respectively. The results showed that prenatal morphine exposure caused reductions in time spent in light compartment of L/D box and EPM open arm, while postnatal exercise reversed these effects. We also found that prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in step through latency in passive avoidance memory test and exercise counteracted with this effect. Performance in the forced swimming test did not affected by prenatal morphine exposure or postnatal exercise. Exercise seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits of children born to addicted mothers to morphine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit

    2015-12-01

    Early experience with speech and language, starting in the womb, has been shown to shape perceptual and learning abilities, paving the way for language development. Indeed, recent studies suggest that prenatal experience with speech, which consists mainly of prosodic information, already impacts how newborns perceive speech and produce communicative sounds. Similarly, the newborn brain already shows specialization for speech processing, resembling that of the adult brain. Yet, newborns' early preparedness for speech is broad, comprising many universal perceptual abilities. During the first years of life, experience narrows down speech perception, allowing the child to become a native listener and speaker. Concomitantly, the neural correlates of speech and language processing become increasingly specialized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimation of health effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure using structural equation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in epidemiology always involve concerns regarding validity, especially measurement error, confounding, missing data, and other problems that may affect the study outcomes. Widely used standard statistical techniques, such as multiple regression analysis, may...... to some extent adjust for these shortcomings. However, structural equations may incorporate most of these considerations, thereby providing overall adjusted estimations of associations. This approach was used in a large epidemiological data set from a prospective study of developmental methyl......-mercury toxicity. RESULTS: Structural equation models were developed for assessment of the association between biomarkers of prenatal mercury exposure and neuropsychological test scores in 7 year old children. Eleven neurobehavioral outcomes were grouped into motor function and verbally mediated function...

  20. [Prenatal corticosteroids: short-term and long-term effects of multiple courses. Literature review in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Audibert, F; Senat, M-V

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal corticosteroids administration is one of the major advances in obstetrics and neonatology for the prevention of preterm-birth related complications. However, concerns have been raised about its safety regarding neonatal growth and children development. Therefore, some obstetricians have restricted the use of corticosteroids to precisely defined indications. It remains some uncertainty regarding the choice of antenatal corticosteroids, the interval between injections, the timing of effectiveness and the maximum number of courses per pregnancy that is acceptable without causing complications among children. Thus, we performed a current literature review in 2013 regarding short- and long-term efficacy and safety in order to give clear recommendations to practitioners. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  4. The effect of prenatal counselling on postpartum family planning use among early postpartum women in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiasi, Richard Mangwi; Muhumuza, Christine; Bukenya, Justine; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, most postpartum pregnancies are unplanned, mainly as a result of low level of knowledge and fear of contraceptive use especially in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal contraceptive counselling on postpartum contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes after one year. Sixteen health centres were equally and randomly allocated to control and intervention arms. Mothers were consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic consultations. In the intervention arm Village Health Team members made home visits and provided prenatal contraceptive advice and made telephone consultations with health workers for advice while in the control arm mothers received routine antenatal care offered in the health centres. Data were collected in 2014 in the two districts of Kiryandongo and Masindi. This data was collected 12-14 months postpartum. Mothers were asked about their family planning intentions, contraceptive use and screened for pregnancy using human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Socio-demographic and obstetric indices were recorded. Our primary outcomes of interests were current use of modern contraceptive, decision to use a modern contraceptive method and pregnancy status. Multilevel analysis using the xtmelogit stata command was used to determine differences between intervention and control groups. A total of 1,385 women, 748 (control) and 627 (intervention) were recruited. About 80% initiated breastfeeding within six hours of delivery 78.4% (control) and 80.4% (intervention). About half of the mothers in each arm had considered to delay the next pregnancy 47.1% (control) and 49% (intervention). Of these 71.4% in the control and 87% in the intervention had considered to use a modern contraceptive method, only 28.2% of the control and 31.6% in the intervention were current modern contraceptive users signifying unmet contraceptive needs among immediate postpartum mothers. Regarding pregnancy, 3.3% and 5

  5. Effects of prenatal childbirth education for partners of pregnant women on paternal postnatal mental health and couple relationship: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Maiko; Takehara, Kenji; Yamane, Yumina; Ota, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Partner education during pregnancy may be able to prevent postnatal mental health problems, and support expectant fathers in their transition to parenthood. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of prenatal childbirth education among partners of pregnant women, particularly regarding paternal postnatal mental health and couple relationship. We searched Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, and CENTRAL using terms such as "partners of pregnant women," "education," and "prenatal support." Searches were limited to randomized trials. We included 11 trials out of 13 reports that addressed the following topics: childbirth preparation, couple relationship, infants and parenting, postpartum psychosocial issues, and housework sharing. Overall risk of bias was low or unclear. Study outcomes, including parents' mental health (e.g., anxiety, depression, distress), couple relationship, parents' transition adjustment and parenting stress, and parents' satisfaction with their experience of childbirth and prenatal childbirth education programs were reported. The studies included in this review were very diverse regarding intervention intensity and content, outcome types, measurement tools, and outcome timing. This impeded evaluation of the interventions' effectiveness. No sufficient evidence was identified that prenatal childbirth education for partners of pregnant women protects against paternal postnatal depression and couple relationship; however, paternal postnatal mental health is important to maternal and perinatal healthcare. The results of this review suggest that further research and intervention are required to provide partners of pregnant women with evidence-based information and support whole families during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  7. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  8. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  9. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  10. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

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    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  11. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions in the infection model of schizophrenia.

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    Meyer, Urs; Schwendener, Severin; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2006-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the risk of schizophrenia is enhanced by prenatal maternal infection with viral or bacterial pathogens. Recent experimentation in rodents has yielded additional support for a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and the emergence of psychosis-related abnormalities in brain and behaviour in later life. However, little is known about the putative roles of maternal postnatal factors in triggering and modulating the emergence of psychopathology following prenatal immunological stimulation. Here, we aimed to dissect the relative contributions of prenatal inflammatory events and postnatal maternal factors in precipitating juvenile and adult psychopathology in the resulting offspring with a cross-fostering design. Pregnant mice were exposed to the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C; at 5 mg/kg, intravenously), or vehicle treatment on gestation day 9, and offspring born to PolyI:C- and vehicle-treated dams were then simultaneously cross-fostered to surrogate rearing mothers, which had either experienced inflammatory or vehicle treatment during pregnancy. Prenatal PolyI:C administration did not affect the expression of latent inhibition (LI) at a juvenile stage of development, but led to the post-pubertal emergence of LI disruption in both aversive classical and instrumental conditioning regardless of the postnatal rearing condition. In addition, deficits in conditioning as such led to a pre- and post-pubertal loss of LI in prenatal control animals that were adopted by PolyI:C-treated surrogate mothers. Our findings thus indicate that the adoption of prenatally immune-challenged neonates by control surrogate mothers does not possess any protective effects against the subsequent emergence of psychopathology in adulthood. At the same time, however, the present study highlights for the first time that the adoption of prenatal control animals by immune-challenged rearing mothers is

  12. Effect of prenatal methadone and ethanol on opioid receptor development in rats

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    Peters, M.A.; Braun, R.L. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The current literature shows that the offspring of female rats exposed to methadone or ethanol display similar neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and suggests that these drugs may be operating through a common mechanism. If this hypothesis is true, their effect on the endogenous opioid systems should be qualitatively similar. In this study virgin females were treated with methadone or 10% ethanol oral solution starting prior to conception and continued throughout gestation. When the offspring had reached 15 or 30 days of age they were sacrificed, the brain was removed and prepared for opioid receptor binding studies. ({sup 3}H)DAGO and ({sup 3}H)DADLE were used as ligands for the mu and delta receptors, respectively. These studies show significant treatment-related differences in both the number of mu and delta binding sites as well as in apparent receptor affinity. Significant sex- and age-related differences between treatments were also observed. These data show that methadone and ethanol, while manifesting some similar neurochemical and behavioral effects, have unique effects on opioid receptor binding, suggesting that they may be acting by different mechanisms.

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

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    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  14. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

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    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  15. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

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    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure.

  16. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  17. Prenatal Curcumin Administration Reverses Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects and Decreases iNOS and COX-2 Expressions in Ischemic Rat Pups

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    Maria Valéria Leimig Telles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to evaluate alterations in ischemic rat pups, from dams administered with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg. Ten-day-old male pups were subjected or not (SO to brain ischemia and reperfusion, for 1, 7, and 14 days (this last group was submitted to behavioral evaluation. After that, pups were euthanized for determinations of striatal DA and DOPAC in SO, ischemic from untreated (ICUD or curcumin treated (ICTD dams, as well as hippocampal immunohistochemistry assays for iNOS and COX-2 and cresyl violet staining. At the 14th postischemia day, the ICUD group showed increased locomotor activity and rearing behavior, which were reversed in ICTD animals. ICUD pups presented decreased striatal DA and DOPAC levels, relatively to SO, mainly at the 1st postischemia day, but also at the 7th and 14th days which were partially reversed in ICTD pups. A greater number of viable neurons were observed in ICTD, as related to the ICUD group. Ischemia increased iNOS and COX-2 expressions, in CA1 and CA3 areas, at the 1st, 7th, and 14th postischemia days, and these effects were minimized in ICTD pups. In conclusion, the prenatal curcumin treatment was shown to be neuroprotective where the drug anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects probably play a role.

  18. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species.

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    Kelly, S J; Day, N; Streissguth, A P

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggesting that these changes are largely the result of the alcohol exposure rather than maternal behavior. In the periadolescent period, people exposed to alcohol during development show a variety of difficulties in the social domain as measured by checklists filled out by either a parent or teacher. Rats exposed to alcohol during development show changes in play and parenting behaviors. In adulthood, prenatal alcohol exposure is related to high rates of trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, depression, suicide, and failure to care for children. These high rates all suggest that there may be fundamental problems in the social domain. In other animals, perinatal alcohol exposure alters aggression, active social interactions, social communication and recognition, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in adults. In conclusion, research suggests that people exposed to alcohol during development may exhibit striking changes in social behavior; the animal research suggests that these changes may be largely the result of the alcohol insult and not the environment.

  19. Effect of E-learning on primigravida women's satisfaction and awareness concerning prenatal care.

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    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Bahadoran, Parvin; Fahami, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    E-learning, in addition to promotion of patients' level of awareness, causes a more efficient way to increase patient-personnel interaction and provision of patients' educational content. In a quasi-experimental study, 100 primigravida women, referring to Navab Safavi health care center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were selected through convenient sampling. The subjects received education via E-learning or booklet education methods for four weeks. Questionnaire of satisfaction with the awareness of prenatal care was completed by both groups before and 4-6 weeks after education. Data were analyzed by student t-test and paired t-test through SPSS with a significance level of P control groups, respectively (P = 0.034). E-learning can cause an increase in the level of primigravida women's satisfaction and awareness. Therefore, conducting such education, as an efficient learning method, is recommended as it needs less time, has lower costs, and does not need any special equipment.

  20. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

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    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  1. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of First Trimester Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening for Fetal Trisomies in the United States.

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    Brandon S Walker

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT is a relatively new technology for diagnosis of fetal aneuploidies. NIPT is more accurate than conventional maternal serum screening (MSS but is also more costly. Contingent NIPT may provide a cost-effective alternative to universal NIPT screening. Contingent screening used a two-stage process in which risk is assessed by MSS in the first stage and, based on a risk cutoff, high-risk pregnancies are referred for NIPT. The objective of this study was to (1 determine the optimum MSS risk cutoff for contingent NIPT and (2 compare the cost effectiveness of optimized contingent NIPT to universal NIPT and conventional MSS.Decision-analytic model using micro-simulation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. We evaluated cost effectiveness from three perspectives: societal, governmental, and payer.From a societal perspective, universal NIPT dominated both contingent NIPT and MSS. From a government and payer perspective, contingent NIPT dominated MSS. Compared to contingent NIPT, adopting a universal NIPT would cost $203,088 for each additional case detected from a government perspective and $263,922 for each additional case detected from a payer perspective.From a societal perspective, universal NIPT is a cost-effective alternative to MSS and contingent NIPT. When viewed from narrower perspectives, contingent NIPT is less costly than universal NIPT and provides a cost-effective alternative to MSS.

  2. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on the development of brain white matter, cognition, and behavior in later childhood.

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    Peterson, Bradley S; Rauh, Virginia A; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Toth, Zachary; Nati, Giancarlo; Walsh, Kirwan; Miller, Rachel L; Arias, Franchesca; Semanek, David; Perera, Frederica

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and neurotoxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal PAH exposure is associated with subsequent cognitive and behavioral disturbances in childhood. To identify the effects of prenatal PAH exposure on brain structure and to assess the cognitive and behavioral correlates of those abnormalities in school-age children. Cross-sectional imaging study in a representative community-based cohort followed up prospectively from the fetal period to ages 7 to 9 years. The setting was urban community residences and an academic imaging center. Participants included a sample of 40 minority urban youth born to Latina (Dominican) or African American women. They were recruited between February 2, 1998, and March 17, 2006. Morphological measures that index local volumes of the surface of the brain and of the white matter surface after cortical gray matter was removed. We detected a dose-response relationship between increased prenatal PAH exposure (measured in the third trimester but thought to index exposure for all of gestation) and reductions of the white matter surface in later childhood that were confined almost exclusively to the left hemisphere of the brain and that involved almost its entire surface. Reduced left hemisphere white matter was associated with slower information processing speed during intelligence testing and with more severe externalizing behavioral problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct disorder problems. The magnitude of left hemisphere white matter disturbances mediated the significant association of PAH exposure with slower processing speed. In addition, measures of postnatal PAH exposure correlated with white matter surface measures in dorsal prefrontal regions bilaterally when controlling for prenatal PAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH air pollutants contributes to slower processing speed, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms

  3. Additive effect between IL-13 polymorphism and cesarean section delivery/prenatal antibiotics use on atopic dermatitis: a birth cohort study (COCOA.

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    So-Yeon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cesarean delivery and prenatal exposure to antibiotics are likely to affect the gut microbiome in infancy, their effect on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD in infancy is unclear. The influence of individual genotypes on these relationships is also unclear. To evaluate with a prospective birth cohort study whether cesarean section, prenatal exposure to antibiotics, and susceptible genotypes act additively to promote the development of AD in infancy. METHODS: The Cohort for Childhood of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA was selected from the general Korean population. A pediatric allergist assessed 412 infants for the presence of AD at 1 year of age. Their cord blood DNA was subjected to interleukin (IL-13 (rs20541 and cluster-of-differentiation (CD14 (rs2569190 genotype analysis. RESULTS: The combination of cesarean delivery and prenatal exposure to antibiotics associated significantly and positively with AD (adjusted odds ratio, 5.70; 95% CI, 1.19-27.3. The association between cesarean delivery and AD was significantly modified by parental history of allergic diseases or risk-associated IL-13 (rs20541 and CD14 (rs2569190 genotypes. There was a trend of interaction between IL-13 (rs20541 and delivery mode with respect to the subsequent risk of AD. (P for interaction = 0.039 Infants who were exposed prenatally to antibiotics and were born by cesarean delivery had a lower total microbiota diversity in stool samples at 6 months of age than the control group. As the number of these risk factors increased, the AD risk rose (trend p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Cesarean delivery and prenatal antibiotic exposure may affect the gut microbiota, which may in turn influence the risk of AD in infants. These relationships may be shaped by the genetic predisposition.

  4. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

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    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): prenatal MM-exposed children sustained a higher mean predicted LAZ of ∼0.10 at 1 and 3 mo and 0.06 at 6 mo of age compared with children in the IFA group. Supplementation reduced the prevalence of stunting at 1 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98) and 3 (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.94) mo of age. Differences between groups were absent by 6, 12, and 24 mo of age, when nearly 50% of children had stunted growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

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    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental plasticity in covariance structure of the skull: effects of prenatal stress.

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    Gonzalez, Paula N; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2011-02-01

    Environmental perturbations of many kinds influence growth and development. Little is known, however, about the influence of environmental factors on the patterns of phenotypic integration observed in complex morphological traits. We analyze the changes in phenotypic variance-covariance structure of the rat skull throughout the early postnatal ontogeny (from birth to weaning) and evaluate the effect of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on this structure. Using 2D coordinates taken from lateral radiographs obtained every 4 days, from birth to 21 days old, we show that the pattern of covariance is temporally dynamic from birth to 21 days. The environmental perturbation provoked during pregnancy altered the skull growth, and reduced the mean size of the IUGR group. These environmental effects persisted throughout lactancy, when the mothers of both groups received a standard diet. More strikingly, the effect grew larger beyond this point. Altering environmental conditions did not affect all traits equally, as revealed by the low correlations between covariance matrices of treatments at the same age. Finally, we found that the IUGR treatment increased morphological integration as measured by the scaled variance of eigenvalues. This increase coincided and is likely related to an increase in morphological variance in this group. This result is expected if somatic growth is a major determinant of covariance structure of the skull. In summary, our findings suggest that environmental perturbations experienced in early ontogeny alter fundamental developmental processes and are an important factor in shaping the variance-covariance structure of complex phenotypic traits. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to hydoxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitenhuis, C.; Cenijn, P.C.; Velzen, M. van; Gutleb, A.C.; Legler, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lilienthal, H. [Heinrich Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. Neurobehavioural Toxicology, Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Brouwer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Possible human health effects from low-level exposure to environmental chemicals are an issue that has attracted much attention. Environmental compounds that may play a role are those that may disrupt endocrine function. Organohalogen compounds, and in particular their hydroxylated metabolites, show a striking resemblance to steroid hormones.The main objective of this research is to investigate comparative pathways of early life-stage exposure and long-term effects for several classes of organohalogens, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and flame retardants, polybrominated bisphenols and -diphenylethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites. Due to their prevalence in human plasma, the hydroxylated PCB metabolites 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187, as well as 6-OH-BDE47 and 2,4,6- tribromophenol, were selected as test compounds. BDE 47 has been included as a test compound due to its relatively high levels in the environment and biota, whereas tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was selected because of its high volume production. The in vivo studies involved prenatal exposure of rats to test compounds during critical stages of gonadal development and were focussed on low dose effects. Several endpoints were investigated, including endocrine (thyroid and sex steroid hormones) effects, developmental landmarks, sexual and neurobehavioural development. Blood plasma and tissue levels of test compounds were analysed to determine transplacental transfer of (hydroxylated) organohalogens.

  8. Effects of perinatal diet and prenatal stress on the behavioural profile of aged male and female rats.

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    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier; Ramírez, María J

    2017-03-01

    The present work studies whether chronic prenatal stress (PS) influences the long-term sex-dependent neuropsychological status of offspring and the effects of an early dietary intervention in the dam. In addition, dams were fed with either a high-fat sugar diet (HFSD) or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDSD). PS procedure did not affect body weight of the offspring. MDSD induced decreases in body weight both in male and female offspring (1 month) that were still present in aged rats. HFSD induced an increase in body weight both in male and female offspring that did not persist in aged rats. In the Porsolt forced swimming test, only young males showed increases in immobility time that were reversed by MDSD. In old female rats (20 months), PS-induced cognitive impairment in both the novel object recognition test (NORT) and in the Morris water maze that was reversed by MDSD, whereas in old males, cognitive impairments and reversion by MDSD was evident only in the Morris water maze. HFSD induced cognitive impairment in both control and PS old rats, but there was no additive effect of PS and HFSD. It is proposed here that the diversity of symptoms following PS could arise from programming effects in early brain development and that these effects could be modified by dietary intake of the dam.

  9. [Effects of prenatal alcohol consumption upon fecundity, natality, growth, vaginal opening and sexual cycle in the rat (author's transl)].

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    Fueyo-Silva, A; Menéndez-Patterson, A; Marin, B

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of prenatal alcohol consumption upon offspring and sexual maturity parameters on a rat strain which, for several years, drank only a brandy/water solution. With regard to fecundity and number of pups our results show no variation, while weight, vaginal opening, and sexual cycle are severely affected by alcohol intake. Possible alterations upon offspring due to chronic prenatal alcohol intake are examined.

  10. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake.

  11. Effects of prenatal stress on development and health of offspring and its potential mechanisms%产前应激对子代的影响及潜在作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阿迪; 刘健康; 冯智辉

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate diet and stress in maternal pregnancy may affect the development of the offspring . Brain dysfunction and some chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes in offspring are associated with the factors during maternal pregnancy.Many researches focused on how prenatal stress affected cognitive function and behavior of the off -spring and how nutritional modulation might prevent the pathogenesis of such diseases .Here we summarize the effects of prenatal stress on the offspring and the potential mechanism , like hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation, and the prevention of nutrient to offspring dysfunction by prenatal stress , based on our previous work and some existing references .

  12. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  13. Effects of prenatal /sup 60/Co irradiation on postnatal neural, learning, and hormonal development of the squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Knight, C.

    1982-02-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the effects of 0, 50, and 100 rad of /sup 60/Co administered prenatally on postnatal development of neuromuscular coordination, visual discrimination learning, spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity, plasma cortisol, and somatometric growth rates of diurnal squirrel monkeys from birth to 90 days. In terms of accuracy, completeness, and time required for performance of reflexes and neuromuscular coordination, the performance of 50- and 100-rad offspring was less accurate and poorly coordinated and required more time for completion to that of controls. In visual orientation, discrimination, and reversal learning, the percentage correct responses of the 50- and 100-rad offspring were significantly lower than those of controls. Spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity of 50- and 100-rad offspring was significantly higher in the dark session than that of controls. Plasma cortisol was significantly higher in 100-rad infants than in controls. Comparisons of somatometric growth rates indicated that postnatal head circumference, crown-rump length, and to a lesser extent body weight increased at significantly slower rates in 50- and 100-rad offspring. These findings should provide essential information for formulating and carrying out multivariate behavioral, biochemical, and morphometric assessments of low-dose effects on the brain of primate offspring within demonstrable dose-response curves.

  14. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to AZT: a preliminary investigation with the D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, Aldina; Valanzano, Angelina; Puopolo, Maria; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2005-01-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) is the main therapeutic agent against HIV vertical transmission and is routinely administered to seropositive pregnant women and their newborns. Toxicity after chronic administration as well as citogenetic effects following developmental AZT exposure has been reported. Furthermore, recent animal data indicate alterations of several behavioral endpoints during the entire lifespan of mice and rats after developmental AZT exposure. In this study, we investigated specific central nervous system (CNS) effects of AZT administration during pregnancy on the offspring. CD-1 mouse females were administered twice daily from day 10 of pregnancy until delivery with either AZT (160 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl). On PND, 60 male offsprings received an intraperitoneal injection of the D1 receptor agonist 2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-7,8-diol-1-phenyl-(1H)-3-benzazepine (SKF 38393) (0, 3, and 10 mg/kg), and spontaneous behavior was assessed in an automated activity chamber for 40 min. At variance from what observed in control mice that displayed excessive grooming when administered the higher dose of the D1 agonist, SKF 38393 failed to increase duration of grooming in AZT-treated mice. These data suggest that the D1 receptorial dopaminergic subsystem might be hyporesponsive in mice prenatally exposed to AZT.

  15. The effectiveness of introducing Group Prenatal Care (GPC) in selected health facilities in a district of Bangladesh: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ali, Nausad; Ahmed, Sayem; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A M; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

    2017-01-31

    Despite high rates of antenatal care and relatively good access to health facilities, maternal and neonatal mortality remain high in Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of the intervention namely Group Prenatal Care (GPC) on utilization of standard number of antenatal care, post natal care including skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries instead of usual care. The study is quasi-experimental in design. We aim to recruit 576 pregnant women (288 interventions and 288 comparisons) less than 20 weeks of gestational age. The intervention will be delivered over around 6 months. The outcome measure is the difference in maternal service coverage including ANC and PNC coverage, skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries between the intervention and comparison group. Findings from the research will contribute to improve maternal and newborn outcome in our existing health system. Findings of the research can be used for planning a new strategy and improving the health outcome for Bangladeshi women. Finally addressing the maternal health goal, this study is able to contribute to strengthening health system.

  16. Prenatal Association between a Chemosensory Cue (Cineole and Ethanol Postabsortive Effects Modulates Later Operant Responsiveness to Cineole-Flavored Milk in 1 Day Old Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March, Samanta Mabel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Near-term rat fetuses detect and associate ethanol’s sensory and postabsortive properties. We aimed to evaluate changes upon operant conditioning in neonates, as a function of prenatal ethanol-mediated associative experiences. Prenatal treatments were: Paired group, dams administered (i.g. with cineole and 15-min later with EtOH (2.0 g/kg; Long-delay group, dams received cineole 6 hours before ethanol intoxication; Water group, dams received two administrations of water separated by 15 min. On PD1 neonates were trained in an operant task. Two different learning conditions were used. Paired pups were trained under a FR=1 reinforcement schedule. Yoked pups received the reinforcer but, unrelated to their own behavior. Milk or Cineole-flavored milk were the reinforce solutions. Present results support the idea that ethanol-related prenatal memories modulate operant responsiveness when pups are re-exposed to cues that predict toxic consequences of the drug.

  17. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  18. Effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on microRNA expression are ameliorated by social enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry eIgnacio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are associated with abnormal social behavior. These behavioral changes may resemble those seen in autism. Rats acutely exposed to ethanol on gestational day 12 show decreased social motivation at postnatal day 42. We previously showed that housing these ethanol-exposed rats with non-exposed controls normalized this deficit. The amygdala is critical for social behavior and regulates it, in part, through connections with the basal ganglia, particularly the ventral striatum. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short, hairpin-derived RNAs that repress mRNA expression. Many brain disorders, including FASD, show dysregulation of miRNAs. In this study, we tested if miRNA and mRNA networks are altered in the amygdala and ventral striatum as a consequence of prenatal ethanol exposure and show any evidence of reversal as a result of Social Enrichment. RNA samples from two different brain regions in 72 male and female adolescent rats were analyzed by RNA-Seq and microarray analysis. Several miRNAs showed significant changes due to prenatal ethanol exposure and/or Social Enrichment in one or both brain regions. The top predicted gene targets of these miRNAs were mapped and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Several miRNA changes caused by ethanol were reversed by Social Enrichment, including mir-204, mir-299a, miR-384-5p, miR-222-3p, miR-301b-3p and mir-6239. Moreover, enriched gene networks incorporating the targets of these miRNAs also showed reversal. We also extended our previously published mRNA expression analysis by directly examining all annotated brain-related canonical pathways. The additional pathways that were most strongly affected at the mRNA level included p53, CREB, Glutamate and GABA signaling. Together, our data suggest a number of novel epigenetic mechanisms for Social Enrichment to reverse the effects of ethanol exposure through widespread influences on gene expression.

  19. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  20. Prenatal prevention for severe thalassemia disease at Srinagarind Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiri, Thawalwong; Charoenthong, Chutharat; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Changtrakul, Yotsombat; Fucharoen, Supan; Wongkham, Jamras; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Seejorn, Kanok

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the results and cost-effectiveness of prenatal prevention measurement in severe thalassemia diseases at Srinagarind Hospital. Descriptive study. Antenatal care (ANC) Clinic, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University. 1,498 thalassemic screened pregnant women first presenting at ANC Clinic at gestational age less than 17 weeks. Medical records of thalassemic screened pregnant women between February 2002 and February 2005 were analyzed. Those with a value of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) less than 80 fl, or positive dichlorophenol indophenol precipitation test (KKU-DCIP Clear Reagent Kit) underwent hemoglobin (Hb) typing by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with thalassemia investigation (complete blood count, MCV and Hb typing) of their husbands and to identify couples at risk of 3 severe thalassemia diseases; Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis, homozygous, -thalassemia and, -thalassemia/ Hb E disease. Then they were advised to undergo DNA analysis and, if they had fetal risk, appropriate prenatal diagnosis was offered. Number of affected fetuses detected by prenatal diagnosis. Nine hundred and ninety six pregnant women (66.49%) were positive on screening. Of these, 642 (64.46%) had thalassemia investigation done with their spouses. There were 19 couples at risk (1.27% of total screened pregnant women) for having fetal severe thalassemia disease from initial laboratory results. Most of them were, -thalassemia/ Hb E diseases. We found only 10 pregnant women (52.63%) that had undergone prenatal diagnosis. The consequent results were two affected fetuses (20%), one was Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis, and the other was, o-thalassemia/ Hb E disease. In these cases, their parents decided to discontinue the pregnancy. Our prevention program could save 1.14 million bahts for the cost of treatment in two prevented severe thalassemia cases. The prenatal prevention program of severe thalassemia disease at Srinagarind Hospital can

  1. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; van Rooij, Daan; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that individuals carrying the ADHD risk alleles of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes may be especially sensitive to their effects. Methods Functional MRI data, information on prenatal adversities and genetic data were available for 239 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre ADHD cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17.3 yr). We analyzed the effects of DRD4 and DAT1, prenatal exposure to alcohol and smoking and their interactions on ADHD severity, response inhibition and neural activity. Results We found no significant gene × environment interaction effects. We did find that the DRD4 7-repeat allele was associated with less superior frontal and parietal brain activity and with greater activity in the frontal pole and occipital cortex. Prenatal exposure to smoking was also associated with lower superior frontal activity, but with greater activity in the parietal lobe. Further, those exposed to alcohol had more activity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and the DAT1 risk variant was associated with lower cerebellar activity. Limitations Retrospective reports of maternal substance use and the cross-sectional study design restrict causal inference. Conclusion While we found no evidence of gene × environment interactions, the risk factors under investigation influenced activity of brain regions associated with response inhibition, suggesting they may add to problems with inhibiting behaviour. PMID:28234207

  2. Risk of prenatal depression and stress treatment: alteration on serotonin system of offspring through exposure to Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Siran; Liu, Li; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Han; Lin, Shuo; Shang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine is widely used to treat depression, including depression in pregnant and postpartum women. Studies suggest that fluoxetine may have adverse effects on offspring, presumably through its action on various serotonin receptors (HTRs). However, definitive evidence and the underlying mechanisms are largely unavailable. As initial steps towards establishing a human cellular and animal model, we analyzed the expression patterns of several HTRs through the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells, and analyzed expression pattern in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of zebrafish embryos with fluoxetine significantly blocked the expression of multiple HTRs. Furthermore, fluoxetine gave rise to a change in neuropsychology. Embryos treated with fluoxetine continued to exhibit abnormal behavior upto 12 days post fertilization due to changes in HTRs. These findings support a possible long-term risk of serotonin pathway alteration, possibly resulting from the “placental drug transfer”. PMID:27703173

  3. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreases anxiety in developing rats: hippocampal neuropeptide y as a target molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velísek, Libor

    2006-10-01

    Repeated antenatal administration of betamethasone is frequently used as a life-saving treatment in obstetrics. However, limited information is available about the outcome of this therapy in children. The initial prospective studies indicate that there are behavioral impairments in children exposed to repeated courses of prenatal betamethasone during the third trimester of pregnancy. In this study, pregnant rats received two betamethasone injections on day 15 of gestation. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of a powerful anxiolytic molecule neuropeptide Y (NPY) was determined on postnatal day (PN) 20 in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (structures related to anxiety and fear) of the offspring. Prenatal betamethasone exposure induced significant increases in NPY expression in the hippocampus but not in the amygdala. Indeed, behavioral tests in the offspring, between PN20 and PN22 in the open field, on the horizontal bar, and in the elevated plus maze, indicated decreases in anxiety, without impairments in motor performance or total activity. Decreased body weight in betamethasone-exposed rats confirmed long-lasting effects of prenatal exposure. Thus, prenatal betamethasone treatment consistently increases hippocampal NPY, with decreases in anxiety-related behaviors and hippocampal role in anxiety in rats. Animal models may assist in differentiation between pathways of the desired main effect of the antenatal corticosteroid treatment and pathways of unwanted side effects. This differentiation can lead to specific therapeutic interventions directed against the side effects without eliminating the beneficial main effect of the corticosteroid treatment.

  4. Missouri Mothers and Their Children: A Family Study of the Effects of Genetics and the Prenatal Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S; Heath, Andrew C; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H C; McGeary, John E; Todorov, Alexandre; Evans, Allison Schettini

    2015-10-01

    The Missouri Mothers and Their Children Study (MO-MATCH) was specifically designed to critically investigate prenatal environmental influences on child attention problems and associated learning and cognitive deficits. The project began as a pilot study in 2004 and was formally launched in 2008. Participants in the study were initially identified via the Department of Vital Statistics birth record (BR) database. Interview and lab-based data were obtained from: (1) mothers of Missouri-born children (born 1998-2005), who smoked during one pregnancy but not during another pregnancy; (2) biological fathers when available; and (3) the children (i.e., full sibling pairs discordant for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP). This within-mother, between-pregnancy contrast provides the best possible methodological control for many stable maternal and familial confounding factors (e.g., heritable and socio-demographic characteristics of the mother that predict increased probability of SDP). It also controls for differences between mothers who do and do not smoke during pregnancy, and their partners, that might otherwise artifactually create, or alternatively mask, associations between SDP and child outcomes. Such a design will therefore provide opportunities to determine less biased effect sizes while also allowing us to investigate (on a preliminary basis) the possible contribution of paternal or other second-hand smoke exposure during the pre, peri, and postnatal periods to offspring outcome. This protocol has developed a cohort that can be followed longitudinally through periods typically associated with increased externalizing symptoms and substance used initiation.

  5. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  6. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  7. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing different strategies to implement noninvasive prenatal testing into a Down syndrome screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Alice C; Whitty, Jennifer A; Ellwood, David A

    2014-10-01

    Currently, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is only recommended in high-risk women following conventional Down syndrome (DS) screening, and it has not yet been included in the Australian DS screening program. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different strategies of NIPT for DS screening in comparison with current practice. A decision-analytic approach modelled a theoretical cohort of 300,000 singleton pregnancies. The strategies compared were the following: current practice, NIPT as a second-tier investigation, NIPT only in women >35 years, NIPT only in women >40 years and NIPT for all women. The direct costs (low and high estimates) were derived using both health system costs and patient out-of-pocket expenses. The number of DS cases detected and procedure-related losses (PRL) were compared between strategies. The incremental cost per case detected was the primary measure of cost-effectiveness. Universal NIPT costs an additional $134,636,832 compared with current practice, but detects 123 more DS cases (at an incremental cost of $1,094,608 per case) and avoids 90 PRL. NIPT for women >40 years was the most cost-effective strategy, costing an incremental $81,199 per additional DS case detected and avoiding 95 PRL. The cost of NIPT needs to decrease significantly if it is to replace current practice on a purely cost-effectiveness basis. However, it may be beneficial to use NIPT as first-line screening in selected high-risk patients. Further evaluation is needed to consider the longer-term costs and benefits of screening. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina von Wilmsdorff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14 and male (n = 12 Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56-174 that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15 and male (n = 16 control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.

  10. Evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive prenatal testing%无创产前基因检测技术的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓曦; 苏日娜; 谷孝月; 武艾宁; 于荣鑫

    2013-01-01

    应用母血中胎儿游离的DNA检测胎儿非整倍体技术已开始应用于临床,这一技术与传统的产前筛查和诊断技术相比,具有无创、快速、准确等优点,它是产前筛查和诊断领域的一次革命。本文通过对比分析现有研究资料,评估无创产前基因检测技术在临床应用价值。%Recently, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) via sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA has already translated to clinical care. This technique is noninvasive, quick, correct, compared with conventional screening and diagnosis. NIPT for aneuploidy using cell-free in maternal plasma is revolutionizing prenatal screening and diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  11. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and an executive function (EF battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  14. Differential effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonist methimepip on dentate granule cell excitability, paired-pulse plasticity and long-term potentiation in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K.; Rosenberg, Martina J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenatal alcohol-induced deficits in dentate gyrus (DG) long-term potentiation (LTP) are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. ABT-239 did not enhance LTP in control rats, suggesting a heightened H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE) offspring. As the modulation of glutamate release is one important facet of LTP, we examined the effect of methimepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, on DG granule cell excitability, glutamate release and LTP in control and PAE rats. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution four hours daily throughout gestation. Male adult offspring were anesthetized with urethane and electrodes implanted into the entorhinal cortex and DG. PAE reduced coupling of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials to population spikes, an effect mimicked in control rats treated with 1 mg/kg methimepip. Methimepip decreased release probability in controls but not in PAE offspring. GABAergic feedback inhibition of granule cell responsiveness was not affected by either PAE or methimepip. PAE reduced LTP in the DG, another effect mimicked in methimepip-treated control rats. Again, methimepip did not exacerbate the PAE-induced LTP deficit. Thus, while methimepip treatment of control rats mimicked some baseline and activity-dependent deficits observed in saline-treated PAE offspring, methimepip treatment of PAE rats did not exacerbate these deficits. Whether the absence of an added methimepip effect in PAE offspring is a consequence of a “floor effect” for the responses measured or is due to differential drug dose responsiveness will require further investigation. Further, more detailed studies of H3 receptor-mediated responses in vitro may provide clearer insights into the role of the H3 receptor regulation of excitatory transmission at the perforant path - DG synapse in PAE rats. PMID:24818819

  15. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Fiv

  16. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used

  17. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Adolescent Cognitive Processing: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul D.; Kerr, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Streissguth, Ann P.; Hunt, Earl; Barr, Helen M.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Thiede, Keith

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of cognitive processing were evaluated for 462 adolescents followed for 14 years. Adolescents had been exposed prenatally to a broad range of maternal drinking, mostly at "social" levels. Alcohol-related deficits on cognitive tasks were summarized by a speed-accuracy trade-off on the spatial-visual reasoning task. (SLD)

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan. A study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibenholt Anni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181. Methods Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m3 aerosolized powder (1.7·106 n/cm3; peak-size: 97 nm on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2 with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test. Conclusion Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development.

  19. Comparison of the effect of multimedia and illustrated booklet educational methods on women's knowledge of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Fahami, Fariba; Bahadoran, Parvin

    2014-03-01

    E-learning can increase knowledge in patients and provide an efficient way to enhance the personnel-patient interaction as well as patient-specific education materials. So, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of two methods, multimedia and illustrated booklet educational method, on primigravida women's knowledge of prenatal care. This was a quasi-experimental study based on pre- and post-tests carried out on 100 primigravida women (50 in electronic and 50 in illustrated booklet groups) referring to Navabsafavi Health Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups of learning interventions, including multimedia and illustrated booklet. Subjects' knowledge scores were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire with 50 questions. Before training, the mean scores (out of 50) of knowledge in e-learning and illustrated booklet education groups were 29.21 ± 7.4 and 30.01 ± 6.4, respectively. The difference between the mean scores was not significant 4-6 weeks after education. The score was 44.74 ± 3.4 in the e-learning group and 40.74 ± 6.4 in the illustrated booklet group, which showed a statistically significant difference (P learning and illustrated booklet groups as 61% and 37%, respectively. This study showed that the courses of e-learning training improved the knowledge of pregnant women to a higher extent compared to illustrated booklet education. Therefore, different aspects of e-learning, including computer literacy and infrastructure of telecommunications, should be revised.

  20. Adverse health effects of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hofhuis (Ward); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractParents who choose to smoke are possibly not aware of, or deny, the negative effects of passive smoking on their offspring. This review summarises a wide range of effects of passive smoking on mortality and morbidity in children. It offers paediatricians, obstetricians,

  1. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects were not worse. The results point to the need to aim to avoid stress in pregnant women.

  2. Distinct neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to sulpiride (SUL) and risperidone (RIS) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jing; Liu, Zhening; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Yihui; Xu, Lin; Lu, Xiao-Hong

    2008-02-15

    Antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is indicated when risk of drug exposure to the fetus is outweighed by the untreated psychosis in the mother. Although increased risk of congenital malformation has not been associated with most available antipsychotic drugs, there is a paucity of knowledge on the subtle neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal receptor blockade by these drugs. In the present study, antipsychotic drugs, sulpiride (SUL, a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and risperidone (RIS, a D2/5HT2 receptor antagonist) were administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from gestational day 6 to 18. Both RIS and SUL prenatal exposed rats had lower birth body weights compared to controls. RIS exposure had a significant main effect to retard body weight growth in male offspring until postnatal day (PND) 60. Importantly, water maze tests revealed that SUL prenatal exposure impaired visual cue response in visual task performance (stimulus-response, S-R memory), but not place response as reflected in hidden platform task (spatial memory acquisition and retention). In addition, prenatal SUL treatment reduced spontaneous activity as measured in open field. Both behavioral deficits suggest that SUL prenatal exposure may lead to subtle disruption of striatum development and related learning and motor systems. RIS exposure failed to elicit deficits in both water maze tasks and increased rearing in open field test. These results suggest prenatal exposure to SUL and RIS may produce lasting effects on growth, locomotion and memory in rat offspring. And the differences may exist in the effects of antipsychotic drugs which selectively block dopamine D2 receptors (SUL) as compared to second generation drugs (RIS) that potently antagonize serotonin and dopamine receptors.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to toluene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.;

    1999-01-01

    during initial learning gave some indications of impaired cognitive functions, which was confirmed during further testing, especially in reversal and new learning. Effects on cognitive functions seemed most marked in female offspring. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  4. Prenatal endotoxemia and placental drug transport in the mouse: placental size-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrrico Bloise

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in high doses inhibits placental multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp--Abcb1a/b and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP--Abcg2. This potentially impairs fetal protection against harmful factors in the maternal circulation. However, it is unknown whether LPS exposure, at doses that mimic sub-lethal clinical infection, alters placental multidrug resistance. We hypothesized that sub-lethal (fetal LPS exposure reduces placental P-gp activity. Acute LPS (n = 19;150 µg/kg; ip or vehicle (n = 19 were given to C57BL/6 mice at E15.5 and E17.5. Placentas and fetal-units were collected 4 and 24 h following injection. Chronic LPS (n = 6; 5 µg/kg/day; ip or vehicle (n = 5 were administered from E11.5-15.5 and tissues were collected 4 h after final treatment. P-gp activity was assessed by [³H]digoxin accumulation. Placental Abcb1a/b, Abcg2, interleukin-6 (Il-6, Tnf-α, Il-10 and toll-like receptor-4 (Tlr-4 mRNA were measured by qPCR. Maternal plasma IL-6 was determined. At E15.5, maternal IL-6 was elevated 4 h after single (p<0.001 and chronic (p<0.05 LPS, but levels had returned to baseline by 24 h. Placental Il-6 mRNA was also increased after acute and chronic LPS treatments (p<0.05, whereas Abcb1a/b and Abcg2 mRNA were unaffected. However, fetal [³H]digoxin accumulation was increased (p<0.05 4 h after acute LPS, and maternal [³H]digoxin myocardial accumulation was increased (p<0.05 in mice exposed to chronic LPS treatments. There was a negative correlation between fetal [³H]digoxin accumulation and placental size (p<0.0001. Acute and chronic sub-lethal LPS exposure resulted in a robust inflammatory response in the maternal systemic circulation and placenta. Acute infection decreased placental P-gp activity in a time- and gestational age-dependent manner. Chronic LPS decreased P-gp activity in the maternal myocardium and there was a trend for fetuses with smaller placentas to accumulate more P

  5. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  6. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In Denmark prevention to reduce Spina bifida birth rate has focused in two areas: Folic acid supplementation (1997) and changes in national ultrasonography screening programme (2004). Myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most severe malformation among Spina Bifida. Taken into consideration...... the potential negative effect of high dose folic acid consumption, we found a need to look into the effectiveness of these two strategies in our complete MMC population. Methods: All Spina Bifida patients born in the western part of Denmark are differentiated into proper subgroups based on MR-Imaging, giving us...

  7. Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: evidence from the Greek famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelsen, Sven; Stratmann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse outcomes due to the famine are largest for infants. Further, in our regression analysis we exploit the fact that the famine was more severe in urban than in rural areas. Consistent with our prediction, we find that urban-born cohorts show larger negative impacts on educational outcomes than rural-born cohorts.

  8. Confounder selection in environmental epidemiology: assessment of health effects of prenatal mercury exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    : Confounders were selected by using backward elimination (BE), change in estimate (CIE) method, Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and an empirical approach using a priori information. A modified ridge regression estimator, which shrinks effects of confounders toward zero, also...... was considered. For each criterion, uncertainty in the estimated exposure effect was assessed by using bootstrap simulations for which confounders were selected in each sample. These methods were illustrated by using data for mercury neurotoxicity in Faroe Islands children. Point estimates and standard errors...

  9. The Effects of Prenatal Expectations on Postpartum Outcomes in Lamaze-Prepared Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-18

    D.C. metropolitan area <American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics and Parent and Child, Incorporated) to approach their instructors...Effect of psychoprophylaxis <Lamaze preparation) on labor and delivery in primiparas. New England Journal of Medicine, 294, 1205-1207. Seligman

  10. The role of prenatal nutrition assistance on the prevalence of night blindness in pregnant adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Ribeiro Neves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing countries, night blindness is a very common public health problem among pregnant women. Objective: Evaluate the effect of the changes occurred on prenatal care concerning prenatal nutritional care on the occurrence of night blindness (XN in adult pregnant women in public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro between 1999-2001 and between 2007-2008. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted, been the first one conducted between 1999-2001 and the second one between 2007-2008. Were studied 402 puerperal women, 225 between 1999-2001 (GI and 177 between 2007-2008 (GII. The gestational XN was investigated during the immediate puerperium (GI and during the prenatal/puerperium (GII, diagnosed by the World Health Organization. The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric, anthropometric and prenatal care information. Results: It verified significant reduce of prevalence of gestational XN (GI = 18.7% e GII = 0.6%, p 0.05. Conclusion: The inclusion of nutritional care in routine prenatal care may have contributed to the reduction of gestational XN. Studies to assess the nutritional intervention in the prevention and treatment of gestational XN at regions at greatest risk are suggested.

  11. Cost effectiveness, the economic considerations of prenatal screening strategies for trisomy 21 in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaifalah, I; Májek, O

    2012-02-01

    To perform an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis for screening of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) in the Czech Republic through a decision tree model designed to evaluate the costs and potential risks involved in using different strategies of screening. METHODS AND DATA ANALYSIS: Using decision-analysis modelling, we compared the cost-effectiveness of nine possible screening strategies for trisomy 21: 1. maternal age > or = 35 in first trimester, 2. maternal age > or = 35 in second trimester, 3. second trimester triple test (AFP, hCG, mu E3), 4. nuchal translucency measurement, 5. first trimester serum test (PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG), 6. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) not in OSCAR manner, 7. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) in OSCAR manner, 8. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, nasal bone, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) not in OSCAR manner, 9. first trimester combined (nuchal translucency, nasal bone, PAPP-A, fbeta-hCG) in OSCAR manner. The analysis is performed from a health care payer perspective using relevant cost and outcomes related to each screening strategy in a cohort of 118,135 pregnant women presenting around 12 weeks of pregnancy in the Czech Republic. Using a computer spreadsheet Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash) the following outcomes: overall cost-effectiveness, trisomy 21 cases detected, trisomy 21 live birth prevented and euploid losses from invasive procedures were obtained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were also calculated by a comparison of strategy nine and strategy three (the current practice in the Czech Republic). Under the baseline assumptions, the model favors strategy nine as the most cost-effective trisomy 21 screening strategy. This strategy was the least expensive strategy per trisomy 21 cases averted. Although all the other strategies cost less, they all had lower trisomy 21 detection rates and higher numbers of procedure-related losses (except for

  12. Female immune system is protected from effects of prenatal exposure to mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L. Penta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant which bioaccumulates and has many biological effects, including detrimental effects on the nervous and immune systems. Because mercury can cross the placenta and concentrates in the fetal compartment, the developing fetus is particularly vulnerable. We hypothesize that developmental exposure to mercury will cause immunological changes, leading to an increased susceptibility to, or exacerbation of, immune disorders later in life. To better understand these changes, we exposed pregnant female mice to low doses of mercury for a short duration and examined the genetic effects related to immune function in the adult offspring. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to mercury (200 µg/kg HgCl2 in PBS by subcutaneous injection or vehicle control every other day from gestation day 5 to 15. Offspring remained with the dam until weaning and were euthanized at 8 weeks of age with no further exposures to mercury. Splenic RNA was isolated and gene expression changes examined by microarray in a non-random subset of samples and changes confirmed by quantitative PCR. Epigenetic changes were also examined in terms of miRNA levels in the spleen. Although male and female offspring were exposed to mercury in the same in utero environment, the effects on expression of immune-related genes and immune-regulatory epigenetic signals were different dependent upon the sex of the offspring with males, but not females, displaying up-regulation at least two-fold of arginase, interferon-γ, STAT1, vitronectin, and TNFSF18. Epigenetic changes in miRNA levels were differentially expressed in males and females with in utero mercury exposure; miR-191-5p was decreased in males, while miR-1188-3p was increased in females. These gene expression and gene regulation changes modulate the baseline immune response and may impact risks for autoimmunity later in life.

  13. Individual and combined effects of maternal anemia and prenatal infection on risk for schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Philip R; Meyer, Urs; Mortensen, Preben B

    2016-04-01

    Maternal iron deficiency and infection during pregnancy have individually been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring, but possible interactions between the two remain unidentified thus far. Therefore, we determined the individual and combined effects of maternal infection during pregnancy and prepartum anemia on schizophrenia risk in the offspring. We conducted a population-based study with individual record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Hospital Register, and the Central Danish Psychiatric Register. In a cohort of Danish singleton births 1,403,183 born between 1977 and 2002, 6729 developed schizophrenia between 1987 and 2012. Cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received a diagnosis of anemia at any time during the pregnancy. Maternal infection was defined based on infections requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Maternal anemia and infection were both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in unadjusted analyses (1.45-fold increase for anemia, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82; 1.32-fold increase for infection, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48). The effect of maternal infection remained significant (1.16-fold increase, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Combined exposure to anemia and an infection increased the effect size to a 2.49-fold increased schizophrenia risk (95% CI: 1.29-4.27). The interaction analysis, however, failed to provide evidence for multiplicative interactions between the two factors. Our findings indicate that maternal anemia and infection have additive but not interactive effects, and therefore, they may represent two independent risk factors of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  15. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  16. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  17. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  18. Prenatal exposure to radiofrequencies: effects of WiFi signals on thymocyte development and peripheral T cell compartment in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudisi, Federica; Sambucci, Manolo; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2012-12-01

    Wireless local area networks are an increasing alternative to wired data networks in workplaces, homes, and public areas. Concerns about possible health effects of this type of signal, especially when exposure occurs early in life, have been raised. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to wireless fidelity (WiFi) signal-associated electromagnetic fields (2450 MHz center-frequency band) on T cell development and function. Pregnant mice were exposed whole body to a specific absorption rate of 4 W/kg, 2 h per day, starting 5 days after mating and ending 1 day before the expected delivery. Sham-exposed and cage control groups were used as controls. No effects on cell count, phenotype, and proliferation of thymocytes were observed. Also, spleen cell count, CD4/CD8 cell frequencies, T cell proliferation, and cytokine production were not affected by the exposure. These findings were consistently observed in the male and female offspring at early (5 weeks of age) and late (26 weeks of age) time points. Nevertheless, the expected differences associated with aging and/or gender were confirmed. In conclusion, our results do not support the hypothesis that the exposure to WiFi signals during prenatal life results in detrimental effects on the immune T cell compartment.

  19. Independent and joint effects of prenatal Zinc and Vitamin A Deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: prospective cohort study.

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    Samson Gebremedhin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effects of prenatal Zinc Deficiency (ZD and Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD on birthweight are controversial and their interaction has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the independent and interaction effects of prenatal zinc and vitamin A deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A community-based prospective cohort study design was employed. Six hundred fifty pregnant women in their second or third trimester were randomly selected and their serum zinc and retinol concentrations were determined. About 575 subjects were successfully followed until delivery and birthweight was measured within 72 hours after delivery. The association between the exposures and birthweight was examined using log-binomial and liner regression analyses. Potential interaction between ZD and VAD was examined using Synergy Index (SI. RESULTS: The mean birthweight (± standard deviation was 2896 g (±423. About 16.5% (95% CI: 13.5-19.6% of the babies had Low Birthweight (LBW. Prenatal ZD and VAD were not significantly associated to LBW with Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR of 1.25 (95 CI: 0.86-1.82 and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.86-1.87, respectively. Stratified analysis on the basis of gestational trimester showed that the occurrence of the deficiencies neither in the second nor third trimester were associated to LBW. The deficiencies did not show synergetic interaction in causing LBW [SI = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.17-6.28]. Important risk factors of LBW were maternal illiteracy [RR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.11-2.93], female sex of the newborn [RR = 1.79 (95% CI: 1.19-2.67], primiparity [RR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02-1.35], short maternal stature [RR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.06-2.51] and maternal thinness [RR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.03-2.25]. In the linear regression model, elevated CRP was also negatively associated to birthweight. CONCLUSION: LBW is of public health significance in the locality. The study did not witness any independent or

  20. Prenatal care in combination with maternal educational level has a synergetic effect on the risk of neonatal low birth weight: new findings in a retrospective cohort study in Kunshan City, China.

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    Lin-Lin Dai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by

  1. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Similar associations of parental prenatal smoking suggest child blood pressure is not influenced by intrauterine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2007-06-01

    Maternal smoking in pregnancy may be associated with higher offspring blood pressure; however, results of previous studies have been inconsistent and included varying confounder adjustments. We studied the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure at 7 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, accounting for important social and environmental confounders and using partner smoking to investigate intrauterine effects. Analysis was carried out in 6509 children with maternal smoking data and 7149 children with partner smoking data. In models adjusting for child age and sex, modest differences in systolic blood pressure were observed between children of mothers who did and did not smoke during pregnancy (beta=0.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.20; P=0.02). Adjusting for all of the confounders attenuated this difference toward the null (beta=0.05 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.59 to 0.68; P=0.9), mostly because of adjustment for breastfeeding, maternal education, and family social class. Associations were similar between maternal and partner smoking with offspring systolic blood pressure (for partner smoking: beta=0.62 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.17 to 1.07; P=0.07 minimally adjusted and beta=0.26 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.87; P=0.4 fully adjusted), providing further evidence that differences in child blood pressure observed in minimally adjusted models are not because of a biological influence of maternal smoking on the intrauterine environment.

  3. Developmental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Uterus of Rat Offspring

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    Gilbert Schönfelder

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA, which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERβ and beta (ERα, because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERα and ERβ distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced. ERβ expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERβ expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of ERα and ERβ.

  4. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on central dopamine and Met-enkephalin system ontogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of utero ethanol exposure on the development of central neurotransmitter systems was examined in rat offspring of dams that consumed liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories either before and during pregnancy (E-P and P), or exclusively during gestation (E-Preg). Autoradiography of tritiated ligand receptor binding was used to rapidly screen neurotransmitter receptors in cholinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic, and opiatergic systems. The results led to a more comprehensive study of (1) the dopaminergic D-2 receptor binding using (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol, and (2) the opiatergic mu and delta receptor binding defined by (/sup 3/H)Met-enkephalin. Significant reductions in (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol binding were found in the 15 day old E-Preg caudate-putamen, which may be related to reductions in neurotransmission and increased locomotor activity. This provides a link between the hyperactivity reported in animal models and children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and its attenuation by drugs that facilitate dopaminergic transmission. Significant reductions were also seen in D-2 receptor binding in the inferior colliculus, which may be related to the functional deficits in the auditory processing of information by hyperactive children and the changes in the auditory evoked potentials of FAS children found at the level of that structure. The hyperactivity and auditory dysfunction improve with age, consistent with the trend in binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroperidol to D-2 receptors. The D-2 receptor binding in the E-P and P group was normal in nearly all brain regions which suggests that ethanol exposure begun during pregnancy may be more harmful than when initiated before pregnancy.

  5. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  6. Prenatal Care Intervention Effect on Prevention and Cure of Postpartum Depression%产前护理干预对产后抑郁症的防治作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze prenatal care intervention effect on prevention and cure of postpartum depression. Methods Collected from June 2012 - September 2014 during the diagnosis and treatment of 448 cases of maternal as the research object, will be one of the 224 cases according to the traditional nursing management of maternal set as control group, Another 224 cases to strengthen maternal prenatal care intervention as experimental group, observe the two groups of maternal postpartum depression occurs. Results Patients of postpartum depression in 4 patients, the incidence of postpartum depression was 1.79%, the control group with 37 cases of patients with postpartum depression, the incidence of postpartum depression was 16.52%, the incidence of maternal postpartum depression test group significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion To strengthen the prenatal care intervention can effectively reduce the incidence of postpartum depression.%目的 分析产前护理干预对产后抑郁症的防治作用.方法 收集我院2012年6月~2014年9月期间诊治的448例产妇作为研究对象,将其中224例按照传统护理管理的产妇设为对照组,观察两组产妇的产后抑郁症发生情况.结果 试验组有4例患者发生产后抑郁,产后抑郁发生率为1.79%,对照组有37例患者发生产后抑郁,产后抑郁发生率为16.52%,试验组产妇产后抑郁症发生率低于对照组(P<0.05).结论加强产前护理干预能有效降低产后抑郁症发生率.

  7. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  8. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars Ake

    2014-01-07

    Evidence is often missing on social differentials in effects of nutrition interventions. We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling. Data came from the MINIMat study (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab), a randomized trial of prenatal food supplementation (invitation early, about 9 weeks [E], or at usual time, about 20 weeks [U] of pregnancy) and 30 mg or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm folic acid, or multiple micronutrients (Fe30F, Fe60F, MMS) resulting in six randomization groups, EFe30F, UFe30F, EFe60F, UFe60F, EMMS, and UMMS (n = 4436). Included in analysis after omissions (fetal loss and out-migration) were 3625 women and 3659 live births of which 3591 had information on maternal schooling. The study site was rural Matlab, Bangladesh. The main stratifying variable was maternal schooling dichotomized as mortality, but the EMMS supplementation reduced the social difference in mortality risk (using standard program and schooling mortality in children before the age of five years and reduced the gap in child survival chances between social groups. The pattern of adherence to the supplementations was complex; women with less education adhered more to food supplementation while those with more education had higher adherence to micronutrients. ISRCTN16581394.

  9. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on fetal cardiac state, newborn anthropometric measurements and vital signs of pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Manchon García, F; Pallarés Ruiz, T I; Marin Gascón, M L; Requena Mullor, M; Alarcón Rodriguez, R; Parron Carreño, T

    2017-05-01

    Music has been used for medicinal purposes throughout history due to its variety of physiological, psychological and social effects. To identify the effects of prenatal music stimulation on the vital signs of pregnant women at full term, on the modification of fetal cardiac status during a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph, and on anthropometric measurements of newborns taken after birth. A randomized controlled trial was implemented. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) during a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph. All of the pregnant women were evaluated by measuring fetal cardiac status (basal fetal heart rate and fetal reactivity), vital signs before and after a fetal monitoring cardiotocograph (maternal heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and anthropometric measurements of the newborns were taken after birth (weight, height, head circumference and chest circumference). The strip charts showed a significantly increased basal fetal heart rate and higher fetal reactivity, with accelerations of fetal heart rate in pregnant women with music stimulation. After the fetal monitoring cardiotocograph, a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in women receiving music stimulation was observed. Music can be used as a tool which improves the vital signs of pregnant women during the third trimester, and can influence the fetus by increasing fetal heart rate and fetal reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  11. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  12. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  13. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who experience rapid postnatal catch-up in weight are at risk for central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia. To study the effects of prepubertal metformin intervention over 24 months on the body composition and endocrine-metabolic profile of catch-up SGA children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study including 23 post-catch-up non-obese prepubertal SGA children [age, 7.7 yr; body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) >50th and 75th for age]. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or metformin (425 mg/d) for 24 months. Clinical, biochemical [IGF-I, glucose, insulin, lipids, androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin] and imaging [body composition (absorptiometry and MRI; carotid intima-media thickness (ultrasonography)] variables were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. After 24 months, metformin-treated children were leaner, had higher SHBG levels, and less total and abdominal fat than placebo-treated children (all p ≤ 0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that metformin had a significant effect on anthropometric (weight, BMI, and waist) and biochemical variables [glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides] (all p ≤ 0.05); and in total and abdominal fat (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). Prepubertal intervention with metformin reduces central adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese catch-up SGA children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

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    Dawn Kingston

    Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  16. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

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    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  17. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  18. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  19. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  20. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  1. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  2. Prenatal Choline Availability Alters the Context Sensitivity of Pavlovian Conditioning in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Jeffrey A.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo). Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline…

  3. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Effect of Prenatal Education on Mother’s Quality of Life during First Year P ostpartum among Iranian Women:A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosrat Bahrami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal educations provide information regarding pregnancy, birth, infantcare and early parenthood. The purpose of this study was to determine effect ofprenatal education on mother’s quality of life during first year after childbirth amongIranian women.Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized control trial study was performedon 160 first-time pregnant women; with a singleton fetus; aged 18 to 35;without history of medical, psychological, and infertility diseases; as well as withat least eight prenatal visits during pregnancy. Participants were invited into twogroups of intervention (n=80 and control (n=80. The antenatal education classeswere consisted of eight sessions, and then, mother’s quality of life was evaluatedduring first year after childbirth. Data was analyzed using t test, chi-square, andMann-Withney.Results: The interventional group demonstrated higher scores of quality of life domainsthan the control group (p<0.05. The interventional group (at one year postpartum demonstratedsignificantly higher scores for quality of life in the physical health, psychologicalhealth, and environmental health domains compared to the control group. In addition,the interventional group showed a significant increase in the mean scores for the domainsof physical, psychological, and environmental health from 6-8 weeks to 1 year postpartum.Conclusion: The study showed that women receiving prenatal education had higherlevel of happiness and satisfaction in their overall quality of life and health, respectively(Registration Number: IRCT201101115571N2.

  5. Antitumor effects of electrochemical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Héctor Manuel Camué Ciria; Maraelys Morales González; Lisset Ortíz Zamora; Luis Enrique Bergues Cabrales; Gustavo Victoriano Sierra González; Luciana Oliveira de Oliveira; Rodrigo Zanella

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas.This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness,minimal invasiveness and local effect.Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy.In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained.By this reason,researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells.Although,it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis,electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues.However,action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood.Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple,a standardized method is not yet available.The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process.The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors.We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy.Also,we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy.In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done.Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods.

  6. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  7. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  8. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  9. Case of chest-wall rigidity in a preterm infant caused by prenatal fentanyl administration

    OpenAIRE

    Eventov-Friedman, S; Rozin, I; Shinwell, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    The inability to appropriately ventilate neonates shortly after their birth could be related in rare cases to chest-wall rigidity caused by the placental transfer of fentanyl. Although this adverse effect is recognized when fentanyl is administered to neonates after their birth, the prenatal phenomenon is less known. Treatment with either naloxone or muscle relaxants reverses the fentanyl effect and may prevent unnecessary excessive ventilatory settings.

  10. Case of chest-wall rigidity in a preterm infant caused by prenatal fentanyl administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eventov-Friedman, S; Rozin, I; Shinwell, E S

    2010-02-01

    The inability to appropriately ventilate neonates shortly after their birth could be related in rare cases to chest-wall rigidity caused by the placental transfer of fentanyl. Although this adverse effect is recognized when fentanyl is administered to neonates after their birth, the prenatal phenomenon is less known. Treatment with either naloxone or muscle relaxants reverses the fentanyl effect and may prevent unnecessary excessive ventilatory settings.

  11. Prenatal exposure to non-ionizing radiation: effects of WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome, peripheral B-cell compartment and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    During embryogenesis, the development of tissues, organs and systems, including the immune system, is particularly susceptible to the effects of noxious agents. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome and the immune B-cell compartment, including antibody production. Sixteen mated (plug-positive) female mice were assigned to each of the following groups: cage control, sham-exposed and microwave-exposed (WiFi signals at 2.45 GHz, whole body, SAR 4 W/kg, 2 h/day, 14 consecutive days starting 5 days after mating). No effects due to exposure to WiFi signals during pregnancy on mating success, number of newborns/mother and body weight at birth were found. Newborn mice were left to grow until 5 or 26 weeks of age, when immunological analyses were performed. No differences due to exposure were found in spleen cell number, B-cell frequency or antibody serum levels. When challenged in vitro with LPS, B cells from all groups produced comparable amounts of IgM and IgG, and proliferated at a similar level. All these findings were consistently observed in the female and male offspring at both juvenile (5 weeks) and adult (26 weeks) ages. Stress-associated effects as well as age- and/or sex-related differences were observed for several parameters. In conclusion, our results do not show any effect on pregnancy outcome or any early or late effects on B-cell differentiation and function due to prenatal exposure to WiFi signals.

  12. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  13. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  14. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  15. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  16. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Griffiths

    Full Text Available Some observational studies have suggested that higher prenatal Vitamin D intake may be associated with improved health outcomes in childhood. However there have been mixed results in this area with some negative studies, especially for effects on atopic and respiratory outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal Vitamin D on healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life.In an ethnically stratified randomised controlled trial conducted at St Mary's Hospital London, 180 women at 27 weeks gestation were allocated to no Vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery, or a single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol. Participants were randomised in blocks of 15 using computer-generated numbers and investigators were blinded to group assignment. Supplementation increased maternal and cord blood 25(OH vitamin D concentrations, but levels remained lower than current recommendations. Primary health economic outcome was overall cost of unscheduled healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life as documented in the child's electronic health record. Secondary outcomes included cost attributable to: primary and secondary healthcare visits, respiratory and atopic complaints, cost in years 1, 2 and 3 of life and cost and frequency of prescribed medication. All costs were calculated as pounds sterling. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and analysis of variance for adjusted analyses.We assessed 99/180 (55% complete electronic health records, control (n = 31, daily (n = 36 and bolus (n = 32. We found no difference in total healthcare utilisation costs between the control and daily (mean difference in costs in pounds sterling 1.02, 95%CI -1.60, 1.65; adjusted 1.07, 95%CI -1.62, 1.86 or control and bolus groups (mean difference -1.58, 95%CI -2.63, 1.06; adjusted -1.40, 95%CI -2.45, 1.24. There were no adverse effects of supplementation reported during the trial.We found no evidence

  17. Assessment of neurotoxic effects and brain region distribution in rat offspring prenatally co-exposed to low doses of BDE-99 and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchang; Cheng, Jinping; Gu, Jinmin; Liu, Yuanyuan; Fujimura, Masatake; Wang, Wenhua

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PDBE) and methylmercury (MeHg) can occur simultaneously as both contaminants are found in the same food sources, especially fish, seafood, marine mammals and milk. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exposure to low levels of MeHg (2.0 μg mL(-1) in drinking water) and BDE-99 (0.2 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21, alone and in combination, on neurobehavioral development and redox responses in offspring. The present study demonstrated an interaction due to co-exposure with low doses of MeHg and BDE-99 enhanced developmental neurotoxic effects. These effects were manifested as the delayed appearance of negative geotaxis reflexes, impaired motor coordination, and induction of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In particular, the cerebellum may be a sensitive target for combined MeHg and BDE-99 toxicity. The neurotoxicity of low dose MeHg was exacerbated by the presence of low dose of BDE-99. It is concluded that prenatal co-exposure to MeHg and BDE-99 causes oxidative stress in the cerebellum of offspring by altering the activity of different antioxidant enzymes and producing free radicals. Hg retention was not affected by co-exposure to BDE-99. However, MeHg co-exposure seemed to increase BDE-99 concentrations in selected brain regions in pups compared to pups exposed to BDE-99 only. These results showed that the adverse effects following prenatal co-exposure to MeHg and BDE-99 were associated with tissue concentrations very close to the current human body burden of this persistent bioaccumulative compound.

  18. Migraine treatment and placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciali, José G; Peres, Mário; Bigal, Marcelo E

    2010-03-01

    Placebos are typically defined as physiologically inactive substances that elicit a therapeutic response. The antipode of the placebo effect is the nocebo effect, or the negative effects of placebo, where unpleasant symptoms (e.g., adverse events) emerge after the administration of placebo. Placebo analgesia is one of the most striking examples of the cognitive modulation of pain perception. Herein we focus on the importance of placebo in headache research. We first review the mechanisms of the placebo effect. We then focus on the importance of placebo in the acute treatment of migraine. We follow by discussing the importance of placebo on the preventive treatment of migraine and our perspectives for the 5 years to come regarding the study of the placebos.

  19. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  1. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  2. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  3. Effects of prenatal maternal injections of phenobarbital on brain neurotransmitters and behavior of young C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, L D; Thomas, T N; Simpson, L W; Zemp, J W

    1981-01-01

    Offspring of C57BL/6J mice injected daily with phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg) for the last 6 or 7 days of pregnancy were compared with offspring of saline control mice on behavioral and neurochemical measures of brain function at 21 days of age. Activity in an open field arena was elevated in male offspring and reactivity to presentation of a tone-light stimulus was increased for female offspring of drug treated dams. Brain concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine was reduced and the uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid into synaptosomal preparations of brain tissue was greater for treated offspring. Both the behavioral and neurochemical indices indicate that the brain is altered by maternal prenatal injections of phenobarbital but the relationship between these changes remains speculative.

  4. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Van Den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; Van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N.

    2016-01-01

    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range o

  5. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Berg, M. van den; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Hageman, M.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range o

  6. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Van Den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; Van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N.

    2016-01-01

    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range o

  7. EVALUATION OF EFFICACY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PRENATAL NUTRITIONAL CARE ON PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PREGNANT WOMEN; RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Padilha, Patricia; Mello de Oliveira, Larissa; Queiróz Caldeiras Neves, Elisabete; Ghedini, Anna Carolina; Costa, Thaísa; Saunders, Cláudia

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de una propuesta de asistencia nutricional prenatal (ANP) para las mujeres embarazadas adultas. Métodos: estudio del impacto de una intervención nutricional prenatal en los resultados perinatales, adecuación de la ganancia total de peso durante la gestación, frecuencia de anemia gestacional y complicaciones en el embarazo en una maternidad pública de Río de Janeiro. Los datos representan tres grupos de mujeres embarazadas adultas, durante 10 años: GI (1999-2001, n = 225), GII (2005-2006, n = 208) y GIII (2007-2008, n = 394). Resultados: en el GII (grupo de referencia) se incluyó una evaluación nutricional detallada, un plan de alimentación individualizado y una asistencia de por lo menos cuatro citas programadas con un nutricionista. La cobertura PNA se produjo en solo el 20,4% en el GI, el 100% en el GII y el 42,1% en el GIII (p embarazo (OR 1.57, IC 95%: 1,04 - 2,36), así como aquellas que se unieron al GIII, - OR 1,68 (IC 95%: 1.16 - 2.44), OR 2,45 (IC 95%: 1,56-3,84), OR 2,07 (IC 95%:1,42- 3,00), en comparación con las mujeres del GII. Conclusiones: el modelo probado en el GII PNA demostró ser eficaz según los resultados estudiados.

  8. The Effect of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure on Attention as Assessed by Continuous Performance Tests: Results from the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiblawi, Zeina N.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess for increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity problem in young children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure from the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. Methods IDEAL enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at four sites (Tulsa, OK; Des Moines, IA; Los Angeles, CA; and Honolulu, HI). Methamphetamine exposed subjects (n=204) were identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Matched subjects (n=208) denied methamphetamine use and had a negative meconium screen. This analysis includes a subsample of 301 subjects that were administered the Conners’ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at age 5.5 years (153 exposed, 148 comparison). Hierarchical linear models adjusted for covariates tested exposure effects on K-CPT measures. Using the same covariates, logistic regression was used to determine the effect of exposure on the incidence of a positive ADHD confidence index score, defined as greater than 50%. Results There were no differences between the groups in omission or commission errors or reaction time for correct trials. However, methamphetamine exposure was associated with subtle differences in other outcomes predictive of ADHD, including increased slope of reaction time across blocks (p<0.001), increased variability in reaction time with longer interstimulus intervals (p<0.01), and increased likelihood of greater than 50% on the ADHD confidence index (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2–7.8; p=0.02). Conclusion Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was associated with subtle differences in K-CPT scores at age 5.5 years. Even at this relatively young age, these children exhibit indicators of risk for ADHD and warrant monitoring. PMID:23275056

  9. Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment increase the expression of GAP-43 in the hippocampus and promote cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hua; Du, Baoling; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-26

    Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment have been used to aid the treatment and recovery of a diverse variety of brain dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects on cognitive function following neonatal handling and environmental enrichment are still unclear. In this study, we investigated GAP-43 protein levels in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed rat pups by Western blot on postnatal day (P) 10, P20 and P45. The cognitive ability of prenatally stressed rat pups was tested by using the Morris water maze on P45. GAP-43 protein levels were upregulated on P10 in the prenatal restraint stress (RS) group and the prenatal restraint stress plus neonatal handling and environmental enrichment (RE) group compared to the negative control (NC) group. However, the expression of GAP-43 in RS pups was lower on P20 and P45 than that in NC and RE pups. Exposure to prenatal stress prolonged average latency and total swim distance, but neonatal handling and environmental enrichment could reverse the change. Differences were also observed in the selection of search strategies. These results indicate that neonatal handling and environmental enrichment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring, and the possible mechanism is the upregulation of GAP-43. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  12. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23,665 deliveries, 198 were classified as patients with little or no prenatal care who received traditional, individualized, and physician-based discontinuous prenatal care (community-based model), and 187 were classified as control patients who received tertiary hospital-based continuous prenatal care. The effects on perinatal outcome were significantly different between the two groups. The cases in the hospital-based care group were less likely to be associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. After adjustment of confounding factors, the factors associated with pregnant women who received little or no prenatal care by individualized physician groups were diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mmHg, serum aspartate transaminase level ≥ 150 IU/L, and low-birth-weight deliveries. This study also demonstrated the dose-response effect of inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive prenatal care status on fetal birth weight and gestational periods (weeks to delivery). The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Mitigating the Effects of Poverty and Crime: The Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Programme for Children Who Were Developmentally Delayed and Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Gonzalez, Antonio; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the long-term impact on participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) for children (n = 54) who were developmentally delayed and prenatally exposed to cocaine. By identifying a group of programme graduates from a high crime/high poverty neighbourhood in Miami-Dade County using ArcGIS 10.2 software, a…

  14. Prenatal betamethasone does not affect glutamatergic or GABAergic neurogenesis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vose, L R; Vinukonda, G; Diamond, D; Korumilli, R; Hu, F; Zia, M T K; Hevner, R; Ballabh, P

    2014-06-13

    Prenatal glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely used for pregnant women in preterm labor to prevent respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants. However, the effect of antenatal GCs on neurogenesis in preterm neonates remains elusive. Herein, we hypothesized that prenatal GCs might suppress both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurogenesis in preterm rabbits and that this treatment would induce distinct changes in the expression of transcription factors regulating these developmental events. To test our hypotheses, we treated pregnant rabbits with betamethasone at E27 and E28, delivered the pups at E29 (term=32d), and assessed neurogenesis at birth and postnatal day 3. We quantified radial glia (Sox2(+)) and intermediate progenitor cells (Tbr2(+)) in the dorsal cortical subventricular zone to assess glutamatergic neuronal progenitors, and counted Nkx2.1(+) and Dlx2(+) cells in the ganglionic eminence to evaluate GABAergic neurogenesis. In addition, we assayed transcription factors regulating neurogenesis. We found that prenatal GCs did not affect the densities of radial glia and intermediate progenitors of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. The number of GABA(+) interneurons in the ganglionic eminence was similar between the prenatal GC-treated pups compared to untreated controls. Moreover, the mRNA expression of transcription factors, including Pax6, Ngn1/2, Emx1/2, Insm1, Dlx1, Nkx2.1, and Gsh2, were comparable between the two groups. However, there was a transient elevation in Mash1 protein in betamethasone-treated pups relative to controls at birth. These data suggest that prenatal GC treatment does not significantly impact the balance of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurogenesis in premature infants.

  15. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  16. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  17. Developmental programming: impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n=8), 2) 5mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n=6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n=6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them.

  18. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  19. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group.

  20. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

  1. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

  2. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  3. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Rauh, V.A.; Xie, J.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Mailman School for Public Health

    2008-05-15

    Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH-DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH-DNA adducts (specifically benzo(a)pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang.

  5. The Application of Next Generation Sequencing Technology on Noninvasive Prenatal Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hui

    of effective treatment. The rapid development of next generation sequencing technology boosts the discovery of new causative gene for these rare diseases, as well as the genetic diagnosis in clinic practice. Carrier screening, prenatal diagnosis and newborn screening are wildly used in the world to prevent...... an invasive process, which might lead to maternal anxiety, or even miscarriage. Therefore, developing an effective approach to perform noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) for rare diseases is the key challenge to prevent birth defect in the future. The discovery of cell-­free fetal DNA, coupling with next......, and maternal plasma. In order to obtain accurate result, we combined the haplotype information from the parents with maternal plasma deep sequencing data to recover the fetal genotype. Our study demonstrated that the sequencing-based new approach could be used to detect rare diseases, including chromosomal...

  6. Prenatal valproate treatment produces autistic-like behavior and increases metabotropic glutamate receptor 1A-immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Francisco; Fuentealba, Constanza; Fiedler, Jenny; Aliaga, Esteban

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and social interaction, and repetitive and stereotypical patterns of behavior. Previously, a common physiopathological pathway, involving the control of synaptic protein synthesis, was proposed as a convergence point in ASD. In particular, a role for local mRNA translation activated by class I metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) was suggested in genetic syndromes with autistic signs and in the prenatal exposition to the valproate model of autism. However, the role of the other members of class I metabotropic glutamate receptors, including mGluR1, has been poorly studied. The present study analyzed the immunoreactivity for mGluR1a in the hippocampus of rats prenatally treated with valproate. Pregnant dams (embryonic day 12.5) were injected with valproate (450 mg/kg) and subsequently, the behavior and mGluR1a were evaluated at postnatal day 30. Experimental rats exhibited social deficit, repetitive conduct and anxious behaviors compared with that of the control animals. Additionally, the present study observed an increased level of mGluR1a-immunoreactivity in the hilus of dentate gyrus and in the CA1 alveus region of the hippocampus. These results suggested an over‑functioning of mGluR1a signaling in the hippocampus, induced in the valproate model of autism, which may serve a role in cognitive and behavioral signs of ASD.

  7. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  8. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  9. The effectiveness of ultrasound screening in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal malformation%胎儿肢体畸形的产前超声诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小利; 薛玉; 许建萍; 张歆; 吴新财; 陈宝定

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨超声筛查诊断胎儿肢体畸形的价值。方法超声筛查8368名孕16~34周的孕妇,运用二维连续顺序追踪超声检测法(SCSA)结合三维超声表面及透明成像模式检查胎儿肢体。结果引产后胎儿肢体畸形22例,产前超声检出21例[9例双足内翻,1例一足外翻,2例四肢短小畸形,1例左小腿缺如,1例双上肢前臂缺如,3例肢体姿势异常,1例双侧桡骨缺失,3例多指(趾)]。其中19例合并其他畸形,1例漏诊及3例部分漏诊。结论二维超声连续顺序追踪检测法结合三维超声表面及透明成像法是产前检出胎儿肢体畸形的有效方法。%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound screening and diagnosis of fetal limb defor-mities. Methods Ultrasound screening of 8 368 cases of pregnancy 16 to 34 weeks pregnant , focus on detection of fetus′limbs by using systematic continuous sequence approach (SCSA) combined with three-dimensional ultrasound. Results After development of fetal limb deformity in 22 cases, prenatal ultrasound detected 21 cases, including 9 cases of varus feet,1 case of valgus foot , 2 cases of short limb deformity, 1 case with left leg absent,1 case of upper forearm absent, 1 cases of pairs of limb posture abnormalities, 3 cases of pairs of limb posture abnormalities, 1 case of Congenital radiu deficiency ,and 3 cases of multiple fingers (toes), with 19 cases complicate with other malformations,1 case of missed diagnosis and missed parts of 3 cases. Conclusion The method of systematic continuous sequence ap-proach (SCSA) in two-dimensional ultrasound combined with three-dimensional ultrasound screening are effective tools for use in prenatal identification ofetal limb deformities.

  10. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  11. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  13. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  14. The protective effect of bee venom against verapamil embryotoxicity during prenatal liver and kidney development of mice Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin A. Seleem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker that has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular abnormalities, hypertension and angina pectoris. The present study investigates the effect of bee venom against verapamil embryotoxicity, bee venom (BV is characterized with anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatoid, pain-relieving and neuroprotective agents. The current study was carried out on 70 pregnant female mice which were divided into two main groups, the first main group divided into three subgroups, control, treated with single and twice dose daily of verapamil (40 mg/kg that was treated from zero day of gestation to scarification of females at E10. The second main group that was treated from the seventh day of gestation was divided into four subgroups, control, treated with single dose daily of verapamil (40 mg/kg, injected with bee venom (150 μg/kg/BW and treated with verapamil combined with bee venom, the females were sacrificed at E14 and E17. The results of this study showed that verapamil treated groups once or twice daily in the first main experiment showed abortion and resorption of uteri embryos. In the second main experiment, developing liver and kidney at E14 and E17 in verapamil treated group showed abnormal architecture of histological picture and alterations of immunohistochemical expression of heat shock protein and BAK that were associated with ultrastructure abnormalities at E17. Bee venom treated group showed the similar structure as control, verapamil combined with bee venom treated group exhibited amelioration against verapamil embryotoxicity. In conclusion, bee venom could be considered as a therapeutic agent and it has a curative effect against the toxicity of verapamil during development of liver and kidney.

  15. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  16. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  18. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 'junk food' diet on offspring food preferences and fat deposition can be mitigated by improved nutrition during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Vithayathil, M; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to a maternal junk food (JF) diet in utero and during the suckling period has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable food and increase the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether the effects of prenatal exposure to JF could be ameliorated by cross-fostering offspring onto dams consuming a standard rodent chow during the suckling period. We report here that when all offspring were given free access to the JF diet for 7 weeks from 10 weeks of age, male offspring of control (C) or JF dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams (C-JF, JF-JF), exhibited higher fat (C-C: 12.3 ± 0.34 g/kg/day; C-JF: 14.7 ± 1.04 g/kg/day; JF-C: 11.5 ± 0.41 g/kg/day; JF-JF: 14.0 ± 0.44 g/kg/day; P food intake, had increased fat mass as percentage of body weight (C-C: 19.9 ± 1.33%; C-JF: 22.8 ± 1.57%; JF-C: 17.4 ± 1.03%; JF-JF: 22.0 ± 1.0%; P food preferences in females and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in males can be prevented by improved nutrition during the suckling period.

  19. Discrimination Begins in the Womb: Evidence of Sex- Selective Prenatal Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Prashant; Lakdawala, Leah K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether boys receive preferential prenatal treatment in a setting where son preference is present. Using micro health data from India, we highlight sex-selective prenatal investments as a new channel via which parents practice discriminatory behavior. We find that mothers visit antenatal clinics and receive tetanus…

  20. Disentangling prenatal and inherited influences in humans with an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale F; van den Bree, Marianne; Thapar, Anita

    2009-02-17

    Exposure to adversity in utero at a sensitive period of development can bring about physiological, structural, and metabolic changes in the fetus that affect later development and behavior. However, the link between prenatal environment and offspring outcomes could also arise and confound because of the relation between maternal and offspring genomes. As human studies cannot randomly assign offspring to prenatal conditions, it is difficult to test whether in utero events have true causal effects on offspring outcomes. We used an unusual approach to overcome this difficulty whereby pregnant mothers are either biologically unrelated or related to their child as a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In this sample, prenatal smoking reduces offspring birth weight in both unrelated and related offspring, consistent with effects arising through prenatal mechanisms independent of the relation between the maternal and offspring genomes. In contrast, the association between prenatal smoking and offspring antisocial behavior depended on inherited factors because association was only present in related mothers and offspring. The results demonstrate that this unusual prenatal cross-fostering design is feasible and informative for disentangling inherited and prenatal effects on human health and behavior. Disentangling these different effects is invaluable for pinpointing markers of prenatal adversity that have a causal effect on offspring outcomes. The origins of behavior and many common complex disorders may begin in early life, therefore this experimental design could pave the way for identifying prenatal factors that affect behavior in future generations.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of inadequate prenatal care: a comparison of aboriginal and non-aboriginal women in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Gupton, Annette L; Moffatt, Michael E

    2005-03-01

    Despite the importance of prenatal care, there are no national data and limited provincial data on use of prenatal care by women in Canada, nor is there much information on racial/ethnic disparities in access to prenatal care. This study describes and compares the prevalence and predictors of inadequate prenatal care among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women giving birth in Manitoba. Data were obtained from interviews with 652 postpartum women who delivered a live singleton infant in 2 tertiary hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We identified inadequate prenatal care, using the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index. We used stratified analysis to describe effect-measure modification for predictors of inadequate prenatal care among the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal subgroups. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis for the total sample. A significantly higher proportion of Aboriginal women (15.7%) than non-Aboriginal women (3.6%) received inadequate prenatal care. After controlling for other factors, significant predictors of inadequate prenatal care included low income, low self-esteem, high levels of perceived stress, and Aboriginal background. Women who do not receive adequate prenatal care are more likely to live in poverty, experience highly stressed lives, have low levels of self-esteem, and be Aboriginal. Efforts to improve the provision of prenatal care should be directed toward these women. Racial/ethnic disparities in use of prenatal care need to be addressed.

  2. Effect of Prenatal Protein Malnutrition on Long-Term Potentiation and BDNF Protein Expression in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex after Neocortical and Hippocampal Tetanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55–60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  3. Effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on long-term potentiation and BDNF protein expression in the rat entorhinal cortex after neocortical and hippocampal tetanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandro; Burgos, Héctor; Mondaca, Mauricio; Barra, Rafael; Núñez, Héctor; Pérez, Hernán; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Olivares, Ricardo; Valladares, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP) of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC) in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55-60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  4. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  5. Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Green, Chris G; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of regional variations in use of prenatal care to identify individual-level and neighbourhood-level determinants of inadequate prenatal care among women giving birth in the province of Manitoba. Data were obtained from Manitoba Health administrative databases and the 1996 Canadian Census. An index of prenatal care use was calculated for each singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 149,291). Births were geocoded into 498 geographic districts, and a spatial analysis was conducted, consisting of data visualization, spatial clustering, and data modelling using Poisson regression. We found wide variation in rates of inadequate prenatal care across geographic areas, ranging from 1.1% to 21.5%. Higher rates of inadequate care were found in the inner-city of Winnipeg and in northern Manitoba. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care were among women living in neighbourhoods with the lowest average family income, the highest proportion of the population who were unemployed, the highest rates of recent immigrants, the highest percentage of the population reporting Aboriginal status, the highest percentage of single parent families, the highest percentage of the population with fewer than nine years of education, and the highest rates of women who smoked during pregnancy. Social inequalities exist in the use of prenatal care among Manitoba women, despite there being a universally funded health care system. Regional disparities in rates of inadequate prenatal care emphasize the need for further research to determine specific risk factors for inadequate prenatal care in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, followed by provision of effective targeted services.

  6. Effects of prenatal chronic mild stress exposure on hippocampal cell proliferation, expression of GSK-3α, β and NR2B in adult offspring during fear extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Xiaobai; Zhang, Xinxin; Ren, Jintao; Jiang, Han; Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Cheng, Wenwen

    2014-06-01

    Stress during pregnancy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of many mental disorders; however, the influence of prenatal stress on the fear or anxiety-related behaviors, especially the fear extinction in adult offspring has been little investigated. In order to investigate how prenatal stress affects fear extinction, which is regarded as a form of new learning that counteracts the expression of Pavlovian's conditioned fear, a rat model of prenatal chronic mild stress (PNS) was used to evaluate the effects of PNS on fear extinction in adult offspring. The expression of hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3s (GSK-3α, β), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs)-2B and the hippocampal cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in the adult offspring during fear extinction were studied. Our results showed that PNS significantly reduced body weight of pups, indicating PNS might induce growth retardation in offspring. Moreover, PNS significantly enhanced the freezing behavior of offspring at the phase of extinction, suggesting PNS impaired the abilities of fear extinction learning. In addition, PNS significantly increased the levels of GSK-3α, β and NR2B, but reduced hippocampal cell proliferation during fear extinction. Taken together, our findings suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy can impair the fear extinction of adult offspring, probably by affecting the neural plasticity of brain.

  7. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  8. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans.

  10. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  11. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  12. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  13. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  14. Prenatal ultrasound application in diagnosis and treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion syndrome%产前超声在双胎反向动脉灌注综合征诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭喜平; 王慧芳; 胡芷洋; 林琪; 冯程

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声在双胎反向动脉灌注(TRAP)综合征诊疗中的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析我院产前超声诊断的5例TRAP超声图像、临床资料及妊娠结局,总结TRAP声像学特点.结果 5例TRAP初次确诊孕周为13~28周,均于产后得到证实.彩色多普勒超声检查显示无心畸胎血液循环呈现反向动脉灌注的特点.5例中2例引产;1例流产;1例超声引导下接受无心畸胎减胎术,妊娠至37周分娩;1例在超声密切监测下妊娠至32~(+4)周分娩,新生儿结局良好.结论 产前超声检查对TRAP的早期诊断、预后判断、治疗方案和分娩时机的选择有重要应用价值.%Objective To investigate the value of prenatal ultrasound in diagnosis and treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion (TRAP) syndrome. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 5 TRAP cases, including ultrasound images, clinical data and pregnancy outcomes. The sonographic characteristics were summarized. Results Five TRAP cases were diagnosed during 13 to 28 weeks' gestation and confirmed after birth. Color Doppler unltrasonography revealed retrograde umbilical artery perfusion towards acardiac twin. Two of 5 cases ended up in induced abortion, 1 in spontaneous abortion, 1 was delivered at 37 weeks' gestation after ultrasound-guided feticide of the acardiac twin and 1 was monitored closely with ultrasound and delivered alive at 32~(+4) weeks' gestation. Conclusion Prenatal ultrasonography has great applicative value for TRAP syndrome in early diagnosis, choosing optimal treatment and prognosis assessment.

  15. Umbilical Cord Mercury Concentration as Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    2005-01-01

    biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord.......biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord....

  16. Beneficial effects of offering prenatal HIV counselling and testing on developing a HIV preventive attitude among couples. Abidjan, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrées-Du-Loû, Annabel; Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K; Zanou, Benjamin; Viho, Ida; Allou, Gerard; Dabis, Francois; Leroy, Valériane

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal HIV counselling and testing is mainly an entry-point to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but it may also play an important role in triggering the development of spousal communication about HIV and sexual risks and thus the adoption of a preventive attitude. In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, we investigated couple communication on STIs and HIV, male partner HIV-testing and condom use at sex resumption after delivery among three groups of pregnant women who were offered prenatal counselling and HIV testing: HIV-infected women, uninfected women, and women who refused HIV-testing. The proportion of women who discussed STIs with their regular partner greatly increased after prenatal HIV counselling and testing in all three groups, irrespective of the women's serostatus and even in the case of test refusal. Spousal communication was related to more frequent male partner HIV-testing and condom use. Prenatal HIV counselling and testing proposal appears to be an efficient tool to sensitize women and their partner to safer sexual practices.

  17. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Temporal Memory: Synergistic Effects of Combining Prenatal Choline and Nicotine on Reinforcement-Induced Resetting of an Interval Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the ability of adult rats to selectively control the reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a function…

  18. The effect of prenatal exposure on total IgE at birth and sensitization at twelve months and four years of age : The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Aalberse, RC; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Postma, DS

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the development of the fetal immune system can be influenced by environmental exposure in utero. We investigated whether prenatal exposure is associated with a high neonatal total IgE level and sensitization at the age of 1 and 4 yr. Data from 1027 infants were coll

  19. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; van Rooij, Daan; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that

  20. A Neurobiological Model for the Effects of Early Brainstem Functioning on the Development of Behavior and Emotion Regulation in Infants: Implications for Prenatal and Perinatal Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Ronny; Feldman, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Neurobiological models propose an evolutionary, vertical-integrative perspective on emotion and behavior regulation, which postulates that regulatory functions are processed along three core brain systems: the brainstem, limbic, and cortical systems. To date, few developmental studies applied these models to research on prenatal and perinatal…

  1. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  2. Studies of the effect of 0. 4-Gy and 0. 6-Gy prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal adult behavior in the Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1987-02-01

    Thirty-four pregnant Wistar rats were X-irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation at a dosage level 0.4 Gy or 0.6 Gy or were sham-irradiated. All mothers were allowed to deliver their offspring, and litters were limited to a maximum of eight on day 2. On day 30, 224 offspring were weaned and raised until 60 days of age, at which time testing began. Each rat randomly received, in random order, three of the following six behavioral tests: Water T-maze, Conditioned Avoidance Response, Forelimb Hanging, Activity Wheel, Swimming, and Open Field. There were no statistically significant differences between the irradiated and control groups for maternal weight or weight gain or mean litter size, although the litter size of the 17th day 0.6-Gy group was slightly lower. Among offspring irradiated with 0.6 Gy on the 17th day, 3-day-old neonates' weights were significantly reduced. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day with 0.6 Gy exhibited higher Conditioned Avoidance Response 5th-day and retest avoidance scores than did the controls. There were also significant sex differences in responses within the irradiated and control groups for several tests, which were unrelated to radiation exposure. The results of this study indicate that low-level X-irradiation during the fetal period of rat gestation results in neonatal growth retardation and subtle behavioral alterations that may be manifested in adult life. Growth retardation may be the most sensitive indicator of subtle effects that result from low-level prenatal exposure to X-rays.

  3. Prenatal exposure to fenugreek impairs sensorimotor development and the operation of spinal cord networks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Khalki

    Full Text Available Fenugreek is a medicinal plant whose seeds are widely used in traditional medicine, mainly for its laxative, galactagogue and antidiabetic effects. However, consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal treatment of fenugreek seeds on the development of sensorimotor functions from birth to young adults. Pregnant mice were treated by gavage with 1 g/kg/day of lyophilized fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSAE or distilled water during the gestational period. Behavioral tests revealed in prenatally treated mice a significant delay in righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis responses and the swimming development. In addition, extracellular recording of motor output in spinal cord isolated from neonatal mice showed that the frequency of spontaneous activity and fictive locomotion was reduced in FSAE-exposed mice. On the other hand, the cross-correlation coefficient in control mice was significantly more negative than in treated animals indicating that alternating patterns are deteriorated in FSAE-treated animals. At advanced age, prenatally treated mice displayed altered locomotor coordination in the rotarod test and also changes in static and dynamic parameters assessed by the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. We conclude that FSAE impairs sensorimotor and coordination functions not only in neonates but also in adult mice. Moreover, spinal neuronal networks are less excitable in prenatally FSAE-exposed mice suggesting that modifications within the central nervous system are responsible, at least in part, for the motor impairments.

  4. The effects of prenatal exposure to atrazine on pubertal and postnatal reproductive indices in the female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used herbicide that can exert negative reproductive effects in animals. We examined the effects of vehicle or ATR at 1, 5, 20 and 100 mg/kg/d, administered to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestational days 14-21, once daily or divided into two doses per day,...

  5. The effects of prenatal exposure to atrazine on pubertal and postnatal reproductive indices in the female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used herbicide that can exert negative reproductive effects in animals. We examined the effects of vehicle or ATR at 1, 5, 20 and 100 mg/kg/d, administered to Sprague-Dawley rats on gestational days 14-21, once daily or divided into two doses per day,...

  6. Sexual differences of the effects of prenatal stress on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinaseas in the hippocampus of offspring rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Cai; Zhongliang Zhu; Xiaoli Fan; Ning Jia; Qinghong Li; Liang Song; Hui Li; Jiankang Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, reduce hippocampal volume, and cause neuronal loss and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of offspring rats, but the sexual difference of the effects on offsprings is seldom referred to.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of prenatal stress to adult pregnant rats on expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in hippocampus of the offspring rats of different genders.DESIGN : A randomized and control animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the Key Laboratory of Environment and Gene Related Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education between October 2005 and March 2006. Fifteen female and five male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were adopted. Female rats weighing 230-250 g and male rats weighing 280-350 g were used.METHODS: The virgin female rats were placed overnight with adult male rats (3:1) for mating. A total of twelve pregnant rats were randomly assigned to prenatal stress group (PNS group, n=6) and control group (n=6). The pregnant rats of the PNS group were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy three times a day, 45 minutes for each time [9,13]. The restraint device was a transparent plastic tube (6.8 cm in diameter) with air holes for breathing and closed end. The length could be adjusted to accommodate the size of the animals. To prevent habituation of animals to the daily procedure, restraint periods were randomly shifted within certain time periods (8:00-11:00, 11:00-14:00, and 16:00-19:00). After birth,offsprings of all groups were culled to 8-10 litters in each group and housed in the same animal room, and kept together with their biologic mothers. The pregnant rats of the control group were left undisturbed. On day 21, after all the offspring were weaned, male and female pups

  7. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  8. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linda R Sagedal; Ingvild Vistad; Nina C Overby; Elling Bere; Monica K Torstveit; Hilde Lohne-Seiler; Elisabet R Hillesund; Are Pripp; Tore Henriksen

    2017-01-01

    .... The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention...

  9. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  10. 40 CFR 799.9370 - TSCA prenatal developmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true TSCA prenatal developmental toxicity. 799.9370 Section 799.9370 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... control shall be used. Healthy animals shall be randomly assigned to the control and treatment groups,...

  11. Developmental immunotoxicity of Diazepam in prenatally exposed weanling Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Piersma AH; Jong WH de; Waal EJ de; LPI; LEO; LGM

    1999-01-01

    A prenatal developmental toxicity study was conducted in rats receiving the pharmaceutical Diazepam from gestation days 14 to 20. Reports from the literature claim that Diazepam has impaired the immune function in the offspring of rats receiving treatment during the third trimester of gestation. Dia

  12. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  13. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Alan; Tillinghast, J; Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual...... mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough...

  14. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

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    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  15. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  16. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  17. Prenatal stress influences the insulin response to a glucose challenge in yearling Brahman heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of prenatal stress on postnatal glucose metabolism was studied in progeny of cows that did or did not experience a transportation event during gestation. Specifically, 12 prenatally stressed (dams transported for 2 hours on days 40, 60, 80, 120, and 140 of gestation) and 12 Control yearli...

  18. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  19. Prenatal detection of transposition of the great arteries reduces mortality and morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, C. L.; Haak, M. C.; Reijnders, G.; Rijlaarsdam, M. E. B.; Bax, C. J.; Pajkrt, E.; Hruda, J.; Galindo-Garre, F.; Bilardo, C. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Blom, N. A.; Clur, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prenatal detection of transposition of the great arteries (TGA), after the introduction of a Dutch screening program in 2007, as well as the effect of prenatal detection on pre- and postsurgical mortality and morbidity. Methods In a geographical cohort study, all infants w

  20. Effects on gender identity of prenatal androgens and genital appearance: evidence from girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Bailey, J Michael

    2003-03-01

    To address questions about sex assignment in children with ambiguous genitalia, we studied gender identity in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in relation to characteristics of the disease and treatment, particularly genital appearance and surgery. A 9-item gender identity interview was administered to 43 girls with classical CAH ranging in age from 3-18 yr, 7 tomboys, and 29 sister control girls. Groups were compared on total score and on individual items. Results showed that, on the total gender identity score, 88% of girls with CAH had scores overlapping those of control girls, but the average score was intermediate between control girls and tomboys. On individual items of gender identity (discomfort as a girl, wish to be a boy), girls with CAH were similar to control girls. Gender identity in girls with CAH was not related to degree of genital virilization or age at which genital reconstructive surgery was done. Thus, moderate androgen excess early in development appears to produce a small increase in the risk of atypical gender identity, but this risk cannot be predicted from genital virilization.

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan). A study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Jensen, Keld A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physicochemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure...... neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results: Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated...

  2. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of Blake's pouch cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vicente Brusius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blake's pouch cyst (BPC is a midline cystic malformation of the posterior fossa, within Dandy-Walker's complex (DWC, often associated with hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV has been an alternative to conventional methods for BPC treatment. This study aimed at reporting our experience with ETV in a series of patients with BPC. METHODS: Of 33 patients diagnosed with midline posterior fossa cyst, 26 met the protocol criteria for DWC, and eight subjects with BPC were selected (aged one month to two years old. All cases were treated with ETV. RESULTS: Five patients were male; and three were prenatally diagnosed. They had hydrocephalus and motor deficiencies. Motor assessment at a five-year follow-up yielded normal findings. All patients improved, and only one had residual cognitive dysfunction, despite overall neurological improvement. There were no complications. CONCLUSIONS: ETV was a safe and effective procedure, reducing risks and morbidity associated with open surgery and shunt-related problems.

  3. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses

  4. Effects of prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure and maternal stress on postnatal morphological development of hippocampal neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa; Elibol, Birsen; Dursun, Ilknur; Yürüker, Sinan

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months. Ethanol was administered to the pregnant Wistar dams intragastrically, throughout gestation days (GD) 7-20, at a total dose of 6g/kg/day resulting in the mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 246.6±40.9mg/dl. Ten morphometric parameters of Golgi-stained hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule) from CA1, CA3, and DG areas were examined at critical postnatal days (PD): at birth (PD1), at the end of the brain growth spurt period (PD10), in juveniles (PD30), and in young adults (PD60). During postnatal development, the temporal pattern of morphometric changes was shown to be region-dependent with most significant alterations observed between PD1-30 in the CA region and between PD10-30 in the DG region. It was also parameter-dependent with the soma size (except for CA3 pyramids), number of primary dendrites, dendrite diameter, dendritic tortuosity and the branch angle demonstrating little changes, while the total dendritic field area, dendritic length, number of dendritic bifurcations, and spine density being highly increased in all hippocampal regions during the first postnatal month. Moderate ethanol intoxication and the maternal intubation stress during gestation, showed similar, transient effects on the neuron development manifested as a smaller soma size in granule cells, reduced dendritic parameters and lower spine density in pyramidal neurons

  5. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  6. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  7. An Atypical Withdrawal Syndrome in Neonates Prenatally Exposed to Gabapentin and Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Sean; Murray, Sara; Prunty, Leesa; Davies, Todd; Evans, Joseph; Werthammer, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    We report a retrospective case series of 19 infants exposed to both opioids and gabapentin prenatally. We describe a unique behavioral phenotype in 15 of these infants and report a treatment strategy.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of fetal lung maturation in sheep: effect of prenatal cortisone administration on ADC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Chressen Catharina; Schoennagel, Björn Phillip; Yamamura, Jin; Buchert, Ralph; Kooijman, Hendrik; Schätzle, Anne-Kathrin; Adam, Gerhard; Wedegaertner, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    To assess changes in diffusion properties in the fetal lung after cortisone administration with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in fetal sheep. DWI was performed on 11 pregnant sheep with singleton pregnancies on a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Four animals received cortisone injections before baseline imaging. Seven animals served as controls. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured on DWI in the fetal lungs by two independent readers. The Pearson test was used to correlate ADC and gestational age. A t-test was performed to compare differences in ADC values at the baseline and follow-up images within and between groups. Inter-rater reliability was calculated. In the cortisone group, ADC values increased about 10 % between the baseline and follow-up images (P = 0.039). Comparing the cortisone and control groups, ADC values of the baseline images did not differ; whereas in the follow-up imaging, ADC values were significantly higher in the cortisone group (P = 0.024). Lung ADC values did not correlate with gestational age (P = 0.970). Inter-rater reliability was high (0.970, P = 0.000). In this experimental model, MR-DWI can detect cortisone-induced changes in diffusion properties of the fetal lung. • Corticosteroids are frequently administered antenatally to prevent fetal lung immaturity at birth • DWI can detect changes in the fetal lung after corticosteroid administration • Changes can be detected as early as 5 days after treatment • Fetal MRI may offer a non-invasive method of monitoring lung maturation.

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Prenatal Exposure of CD-1 Mice to Three Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Melissa M.; Jernigan, Peter L.; Henson, Megan B.; Sturdivant, John; Rasco, Jane F.; Lovich, Ashley N.; Lockhard, Jarrett E.; Hough, Whitney; Di Bona, Kristin R.; Beaird, Janis; Sherrill, Jonathan; Swatloski, Richard P.; Rogers, Robin D.; Hood, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ionic liquids (ILs; salts with melting points below 100 °C) exhibit wide liquid ranges, non-flammability, and thermal stability among other properties. These unique salts are best known as ‘green’ alternatives to traditional volatile organic solvents, which are utilized in both academia and industry. Our current study compares the developmental toxicity potential of three representative ionic liquids, with various chain lengths: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl), and 1-decyl-3methylimidazolium chloride ([C10mim]Cl). METHODS From gestation days (GD) 6-16, mated CD-1 mice were orally dosed with one of the following: 1000, 2000, or 3000 mg/kg/day [C2mim]Cl; 113, 169, or 225 mg/kg/day [C4mim]Cl; 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg/day [C10mim]Cl; or the vehicle only. Dams were sacrificed on GD 17, and their litters were examined for adverse effects. RESULTS Fetal weight was significantly decreased in the two highest dosage groups exposed to [C4mim]Cl and [C10mim]Cl in comparison with their controls, but the [C2mim]Cl treated groups were not affected. An apparent teratogenic effect was associated with both [C4mim]Cl and [C10mim]Cl, as the offspring exhibited certain uncommon morphological defects. However, the incidences of malformations were low and no correlation between incidence and dosage could be made. No morphological defects were observed in any of the [C2mim]Cl-treated groups, despite maternal morbidity at the highest dosage level. CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that [C4mim]Cl and [C10mim]Cl may have adverse effects on development at high maternal exposures and strongly supports the supposition that the toxicity of imidazolium-based ILs is influenced by alkyl chain length. PMID:20540104

  10. Changes in endocrine and neurochemical profiles in neonatal pigs prenatally exposed to increased maternal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret

    2006-10-01

    Early life environmental factors are able to influence prenatal development and may cause structural and functional effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neurotransmitter systems in the offspring. These effects seem to be species specific and may depend on the period of gestation when the factors are effective. Elevated maternal cortisol levels are assumed to play a crucial role as a programming factor during prenatal development. Thus, the present study was performed in order to examine the effects of increased maternal cortisol levels during mid- and late gestation on central and peripheral alterations of the HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter profiles in piglets. Endogenous cortisol release was induced by i.m. administration of ACTH to sows every second day either during mid- (day 49 until 75) or late gestation (day 85 until 107). Controls received injections of saline. ACTH treatment of sows during mid- and late gestation had no effects on the gestation length, the number of total born and the frequency of stillborn piglets. However, ACTH treatment during late gestation caused an increase of birth weight (P pigs affect growth, HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter systems in the offspring in a sex-specific manner. The observed alterations in endocrine and neurotransmitter systems are dependent on the gestational period. Late gestation appears to be a more sensitive phase for cortisol-induced programming in pigs. Moreover, the present data show that there are marked developmental differences between laboratory animals and domestic pigs, and highlight the importance of species-specific studies on prenatal influences.

  11. Treatment Effects on Neonatal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rawad; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2016-10-01

    Conventional EEG and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography are used in neonates to assess prognosis and significant changes in brain activity. Neuroactive medications and hypothermia can influence brain activity and therefore alter EEG interpretation. There are limited studies on the effect of these therapies on neonatal EEG background activity. Medication effects on the EEG or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography include increased interburst interval duration, voltage suppression, and sleep disruption. The effect is transient in term newborns but can be persistent in premature newborns. Although therapeutic hypothermia does not produce significant changes in EEG activity, it does change the time point at which EEG can accurately predict neurodevelopmental outcome. It is important to account for these effects on the EEG to avoid inaccurate interpretation that may affect prognostication.

  12. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina [UNIFESP; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. in this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depres...