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Sample records for prenatal treatment effect

  1. Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Leproust, Sandy; Chêne, Geneviève

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite three decades of prenatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in some European countries, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of prenatal treatment. METHODS: We did a systematic review of cohort studies based on universal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis. We did...... a meta-analysis using individual patients' data to assess the effect of timing and type of prenatal treatment on mother-to-child transmission of infection and clinical manifestations before age 1 year. Analyses were adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion and other covariates. FINDINGS......: We included 26 cohorts in the review. In 1438 treated mothers identified by prenatal screening, we found weak evidence that treatment started within 3 weeks of seroconversion reduced mother-to-child transmission compared with treatment started after 8 or more weeks (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95...

  2. Beneficial effects of co-treatment with dextromethorphan on prenatally methadone-exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Chang; Ye, Li-Ci; Hsu, Kuei-Ying; Liao, Chien-Wei; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Lo, Wan-Jou; Ho, Ing-Kang; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2015-03-20

    Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. Although methadone is widely used in maintenance therapy for heroin/morphine addiction, the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to methadone and preventative therapy remain unclear. For revealing this question, female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) methadone 5 mg/kg at embryonic day 3 (E3) and then 7 mg/kg from E4 to E20, (3) dextromethorphan (DM) 3 mg/kg, and (4) methadone + DM (the rats received methadone followed by DM treatment), subcutaneously, twice a day from E3 to E20. The body weight, natural withdrawal, pain sensitivity, ED50, conditioned place preference and water maze were conducted at different postnatal stages (P1 to P79) of offspring. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR and electrophysiology were also used to measure the gene expression of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and changes of LTP/LTD in the hippocampus, separately. Prenatal exposure to methadone or DM did not affect survival rate, body weight, water maze and LTP or LTD of offspring. However, prenatal methadone significantly increased the withdrawal symptoms, pain sensitivity, addiction liability and decreased the mRNA expression of pain related opioid receptors. Co-administration of DM with methadone in the maternal rats effectively prevented these abnormalities of offspring induced by methadone. Our study clearly showed that co-administration of dextromethorphan with methadone in the maternal rats prevented the adverse effects induced by prenatal methadone exposure. It implies that dextromethorphan may have a potential to be used in combination with methadone for maintenance treatment in pregnant heroin-addicted women to prevent the adverse effects induced by methadone on offspring.

  3. Early and late effects of prenatal corticosteroid treatment on the microRNA profiles of lung tissue in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, HONG-REN; LI, SUNG-CHOU; TSENG, WAN-NING; TAIN, YOU-LIN; CHEN, CHIH-CHENG; SHEEN, JIUNN-MING; TIAO, MAO-MENG; KUO, HO-CHANG; HUANG, CHAO-CHENG; HSIEH, KAI-SHENG; HUANG, LI-TUNG

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have been administered to mothers at risk of premature delivery to induce maturation of preterm fetal lungs and prevent the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Micro (mi)RNAs serve various crucial functions in cell proliferation, differentiation and organ development; however, few studies have demonstrated an association between miRNAs and lung development. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissue following prenatal glucocorticoid therapy for fetal lung development. The differences in miRNA expression profiles were compared between postnatal days 7 (D7) and 120 (D120) rat lung tissues, followed by validation using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues following prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) therapy were also investigated. miRNAs with 2-fold changes were selected for further analysis. At D120, 6 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs were detected, compared with D7. Among these differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-101-3p and miR-99b-5p were associated with the lowest and highest expressions of miRNA at D7, respectively. A limited impact on the miRNA profiles of rat lung tissues was observed following prenatal DEX treatment, which may help to further clarify the mechanisms underlying normal lung development. However, the results of the present study cannot entirely elucidate the effects of prenatal DEX treatment on the lung development of premature infants, and further studies investigating the impact of prenatal corticosteroids on fetal lung miRNA profiles are required. PMID:26997989

  4. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  5. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  6. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  7. Prenatal phencyclidine treatment induces behavioral deficits through impairment of GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Oki, Mika; Muto, Eriko; Tanaka, Junko; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induces glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), leading to schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits in adult mice. However, little is known about the prenatal effect of PCP treatment on other types of neurons. We focused on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and evaluated the effect of prenatal PCP exposure on the neurodevelopment of GABAergic interneurons in the PFC. PCP was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day to pregnant dams from embryonic day 6.5 to 18.5. After the pups were reared to adult, we analyzed their GABAergic system in the PFC using immunohistological, biochemical, and behavioral analyses in adulthood. The prenatal PCP treatment decreased the density of parvalbumin-positive cells and reduced the expression level of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GABA content of the PFC in adults. Additionally, prenatal PCP treatment induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as hypersensitivity to PCP and prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits. These behavioral deficits were ameliorated by pretreatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Furthermore, the density of c-Fos-positive cells was decreased after the PPI test in the PFC of mice treated with PCP prenatally, and this effect was ameliorated by pretreatment with baclofen. These findings suggest that prenatal treatment with PCP induced GABAergic dysfunction in the PFC, which caused behavioral deficits.

  8. Prenatal treatment of Down syndrome: a reality?

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    Guedj, Fayçal; Bianchi, Diana W; Delabar, Jean-Maurice

    2014-04-01

    Down syndrome affects more than 5 million people globally. During the last 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in the research efforts focused on therapeutic interventions to improve learning and memory in Down syndrome. This review summarizes the different functional abnormalities targeted by researchers in mouse models of Down syndrome. Three main strategies have been used: neural stem cell implantation; environmental enrichment and physical exercise; and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological targets include the choline pathway, GABA and NMDA receptors, DYRK1A protein, oxidative stress and pathways involved in development and neurogenesis. Many strategies have improved learning and memory as well as electrophysiological and molecular alterations in affected animals. To date, eight molecules have been tested in human adult clinical trials. No studies have yet been performed on infants. However, compelling studies reveal that permanent brain alterations originate during fetal life in Down syndrome. Early prenatal diagnosis offers a 28 weeks window to positively impact brain development and improve postnatal cognitive outcome in affected individuals. Only a few approaches (Epigallocatechine gallate, NAP/SAL, fluoxetine, and apigenin) have been used to treat mice in utero; these showed therapeutic effects that persisted to adulthood. In this article, we discuss the challenges, recent progress, and lessons learned that pave the way for new therapeutic approaches in Down syndrome.

  9. Do the effects of prenatal exposure and acute treatment of methamphetamine on anxiety vary depending on the animal model used?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Pometlová, M.; Macúchová, E.; Nohejlová, K.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 292, Oct 1 (2015), s. 361-369 ISSN 0166-4328 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03708S; GA MZd(CZ) NT14484 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : drug abuse * prenatal exposure * methamphetamine * anxiety * elevated plus-maze * social interaction text * ultrasound vocalization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  10. Prenatal programming of skeletal development in the offspring: effects of maternal treatment with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on femur properties in pigs at slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Sliwa, Ewa; Krupski, Witold

    2007-06-01

    Alteration in fetal growth and development in response to prenatal environmental conditions such as nutrition has long-term or permanent effects during postnatal life. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) treatment of sows during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy on programming of skeletal development in the offspring. The study was performed on 141 pigs born by 12 sows of Polish Landrace breed. Two weeks before delivery, pregnant sows were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of control sows (N=6) that were treated with placebo. Sows that were orally treated with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (N=6) at the dosage of 0.05 g/kg of body weight per day belonged to the second group. Newborn piglets were weighed and subjected to blood collection for determination of serum levels of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin, leptin, glucose and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity and lipid profile. At the age of 6 months, the piglets were slaughtered, their femur was isolated for analysis and assessment of lean meat content of carcasses was performed. The effects of maternal administration with HMB on skeletal properties in the offspring were evaluated in relation to bone mineral density and geometrical and mechanical properties. Maternal treatment with HMB increased serum levels of GH, IGF-1 and BAP activity in the newborns by 38.0%, 20.0% and 26.0%, respectively (PHMB administration significantly increased volumetric bone mineral density of the trabecular and cortical bone of femur in the offspring at the age of 6 months (PHMB treatment (PHMB induced higher values of maximum elastic strength and ultimate strength of femur (PHMB-treated sows (PHMB has positive long-term effects on bone tissue and improves volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical and mechanical properties of femur in the offspring. These effects were connected with increased level of GH and IGF-1 in the

  11. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Paul, Malgorzata; Prusa, Andrea; Buffolano, Wilma; Malm, Gunilla; Salt, Alison; Freeman, Katherine; Petersen, Eskild; Gilbert, Ruth E

    2010-10-12

    The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD) of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%). 23/293 (8%) fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71). This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15) after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75) at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95). The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%). The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Prenatal treatment for serious neurological sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cortina-Borja

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known.Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%. 23/293 (8% fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07-0.71. This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2-15 after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9-75 at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21-2.95. The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%-38.1%.The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of prenatal dexamethasone treatment on physical growth, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and performance of motor, motivational, and cognitive tasks in juvenile and adolescent common marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Jonas; Knapman, Alana; Zürcher, Nicole R; Pilloud, Sonia; Maier, Claudia; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans; Dettling, Andrea; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are commonly used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities (e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity). In the present study, we exposed pregnant common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, primates) to daily repeated DEX (5 mg/kg by mouth) during either early (d 42-48) or late (d 90-96) pregnancy (gestation period of 144 days). Relative to control, and with a longitudinal design, we investigated DEX effects in offspring in terms of physical growth, plasma ACTH and cortisol titers, social and maintenance behaviors, skilled motor reaching, motivation for palatable reward, and learning between infancy and adolescence. Early DEX resulted in reduced sociability in infants and increased motivation for palatable reward in adolescents. Late DEX resulted in a mild transient increase in knee-heel length in infants and enhanced reversal learning of stimulus-reward association in adolescents. There was no effect of either early or late DEX on basal plasma ACTH or cortisol titers. Both treatments resulted in impaired skilled motor reaching in juveniles, which attenuated in early DEX but persisted in late DEX across test sessions. The increased palatable-reward motivation and decreased social motivation observed in early DEX subjects provide experimental support for the clinical reports that prenatal glucocorticoid treatment impairs social development and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. These novel primate findings indicate that fetal glucocorticoid overexposure can lead to abnormal development of motor, affective, and cognitive behaviors. Importantly, the outcome is highly dependent upon the timing of glucocorticoid overexposure.

  15. Prenatal testosterone treatment alters LH and testosterone responsiveness to GnRH agonist in male sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is accumulating that prenatal testosterone (T compromises reproductive function in the female, the effects of excess T in utero on the postnatal development of male reproductive function has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal T excess on age-related changes in pituitary and gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in the male sheep. We used the GnRH agonist, leuprolide (10 µg/kg, as a pharmacologic challenge at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These time points correspond to early and late juvenile periods and the prepubertal and postpubertal periods of sexual development, respectively. LH and T were measured in blood samples collected before and after GnRH agonist administration. The area under the response curve (AUC of LH increased progressively in both controls and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age (P<0.01. The LH responses in prenatal T-treated males were lower at 20 and 30 weeks of age compared to controls (P<0.05. AUC-T increased progressively in control males from 5 through 30 weeks of age and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age. The T response in prenatal T-treated males was higher at 20 weeks compared to controls of same age but similar to controls and prenatal T-treated males at 30 weeks of age (P <0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment advances the developmental trajectory of gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in male offspring

  16. Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) dissemination project: a science to prenatal care practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Clark, Jeannie; Cleary, Sean; Davis, Amanda; Thorn, Stephanie; Abroms, Lorien; Wedeles, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program selected by the West Virginia-Right From The Start Project for state-wide dissemination. A process evaluation documented the fidelity of SCRIPT delivery by Designated Care Coordinators (DCC), licensed nurses and social workers who provide home-based case management to Medicaid-eligible clients in all 55 counties. We implemented a quasi-experimental, non-randomized, matched Comparison (C) Group design. The SCRIPT Experimental E Group (N = 259) were all clients in 2009-2010 that wanted to quit, provided a screening carbon monoxide (CO), and received a SCRIPT home visit. The (C) Group was derived from all clients in 2006-2007 who had the same CO assessments as E Group clients and reported receiving cessation counseling. We stratified the baseline CO of E Group clients into 10 strata, and randomly selected the same number of (C) Group clients (N = 259) from each matched strata to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCRIPT Program. There were no significant baseline differences in the E and (C) Group. A Process Evaluation documented a significant increase in the fidelity of DCC delivery of SCRIPT Program procedures: from 63 % in 2006 to 74 % in 2010. Significant increases were documented in the E Group cessation rate (+9.3 %) and significant reduction rate (+4.5 %), a ≥50 % reduction from a baseline CO. Perinatal health case management staff can deliver the SCRIPT Program, and Medicaid-supported clients can change smoking behavior, even very late in pregnancy. When multiple biases were analyzed, we concluded the SCRIPT Dissemination Project was the most plausible reason for the significant changes in behavior.

  17. Effects of chronic prenatal MK-801 treatment on object recognition, cognitive flexibility, and drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile and adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, S; Welch, L; Martone, P; Shalev, U

    2017-06-15

    Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered saline or MK-801 (0.1mg/kg; s.c.) at gestation day 7-19. Object recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed in the male offspring using a novel object preference task and a maze-based set-shifting procedure, respectively. Locomotor-activating effects of acute amphetamine and MK-801 were also assessed. Adult, but not juvenile, prenatally MK-801-treated rats failed to show novel object preference after a 90min delay, suggesting that object recognition memory may have been impaired. In addition, the set-shifting task revealed impaired acquisition of a new rule in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats compared to controls. This deficit appeared to be driven by regression to the previously learned behaviour. There were no significant differences in drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile offspring or in adult offspring following acute amphetamine challenges. Unexpectedly, MK-801-induced locomotor activity in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats was lower compared to controls. Glutamate transmission dysfunction during early development may modify behavioural parameters in adulthood, though these parameters do not appear to model deficits observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  19. Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Methods in Medicaid-Supported Prenatal Care: Trial III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Woodby, Lesa; Miller, Thomas; Hardin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This two-phase evaluation documented the delivery and effectiveness of evidence-based health education methods by regular staff to pregnant smokers. During Phase 1, a total of 436 Medicaid patients were screened and 416 (95%) gave consent: 334 nonsmokers and 102 smokers. This historical Comparison (C) group was assessed to document the "normal"…

  20. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  1. Psychological Effect of Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Lip and Palate: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, V P; Arun, V; Devarajan, Anooj P; Gopinath, Arjun; Sunil, Madhuri

    2018-01-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly. Prenatal diagnosis of the craniofacial anomalies is possible with the advent of newer imaging modalities. The identification of the defect at an early stage in the pregnancy helps the parents to be well informed and counseled regarding the treatment possibilities and outcomes of cleft lip and palate (CLP) treatment. To analyze the psychological effects of prenatal diagnosis of CLP on the parents. PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar searches were made with search strings "prenatal diagnosis cleft lip palate," "antenatal diagnosis," "anomaly scan," "psychological effect cleft lip palate," and "prenatal counseling cleft lip palate." Of the results obtained, studies which evaluated the psychological aspects of parents of cleft children were further included in the study. Electronic search yielded 500 articles after duplication removal. Forty studies concentrated on the results of the scan and their implications predominantly in the diagnosis and management of cleft and other related abnormalities. Eight studies discussed the effects of prenatal diagnosis and counseling on the parents. Prenatal diagnosis enables appropriate and timely counseling of the parents by the cleft team and helps instill a sense of preparedness for the family which highly improves the quality of treatment received by the child enabling a near-to-normal quality and standard of life.

  2. Prenatal treatment prevents learning deficit in Down syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Maddalena; Horowitz, Kari; Roberson, Robin; Abebe, Daniel; Toso, Laura; Caballero, Madeline; Spong, Catherine Y

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Active fragments of neurotrophic factors release by astrocyte under the stimulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide, NAPVSIPQ (NAP) and SALLRSIPA (SAL) respectively, have shown therapeutic potential for developmental delay and learning deficits. Previous work demonstrated that NAP+SAL prevent developmental delay and glial deficit in Ts65Dn that is a well-characterized mouse model for Down syndrome. The objective of this study is to evaluate if prenatal treatment with these peptides prevents the learning deficit in the Ts65Dn mice. Pregnant Ts65Dn female and control pregnant females were randomly treated (intraperitoneal injection) on pregnancy days 8 through 12 with saline (placebo) or peptides (NAP 20 µg +SAL 20 µg) daily. Learning was assessed in the offspring (8-10 months) using the Morris Watermaze, which measures the latency to find the hidden platform (decrease in latency denotes learning). The investigators were blinded to the prenatal treatment and genotype. Pups were genotyped as trisomic (Down syndrome) or euploid (control) after completion of all tests. two-way ANOVA followed by Neuman-Keuls test for multiple comparisons, PDown syndrome-placebo; n = 11) did not demonstrate learning over the five day period. DS mice that were prenatally exposed to peptides (Down syndrome-peptides; n = 10) learned significantly better than Down syndrome-placebo (ptreatment with the neuroprotective peptides (NAP+SAL) prevented learning deficits in a Down syndrome model. These findings highlight a possibility for the prevention of sequelae in Down syndrome and suggest a potential pregnancy intervention that may improve outcome.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  5. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  6. Effect of Amphetamine on Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Exposed to Methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Šlamberová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the cross-sensitization induced by prenatal methamphetamine (MA exposure to adult amphetamine (AMP treatment in male and female rats. Rat mothers received a daily injection of MA (5 mg/kg or saline throughout the gestation period. Adult male and female offspring (prenatally MA- or saline-exposed were administered with AMP (5 mg/kg or saline (1 ml/kg in adulthood. Behaviour in unknown environment was examined in open field test (Laboras, active drug-seeking behaviour in conditioned place preference test (CPP, spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM, and levels of corticosterone (CORT were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Our data demonstrate that in Laboras test, AMP treatment in adulthood increased general locomotion (time and distance travelled regardless of the prenatal exposure and sex, while AMP increased exploratory activity (rearing only in prenatally MA-exposed animals. AMP induced sensitization only in male rats, but not in females when tested drug-seeking behaviour in the CPP test. In the spatial memory MWM test, AMP worsened the performance only in females, but not in males. On the other hand, males swam faster after chronic AMP treatment regardless of the prenatal drug exposure. EIA analysis of CORT levels demonstrated higher level in females in all measurement settings. In males, prenatal MA exposure and chronic adult AMP treatment decreased CORT levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that adult AMP treatment affects behaviour of adult rats, their spatial memory and stress response in sex-specific manner. The effect is also influenced by prenatal drug exposure.

  7. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics

  8. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  9. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  10. Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

  11. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  12. Metabolism of endogenous surfactant in premature baboons and effect of prenatal corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Seidner, [No Value; Ikegami, M; Wattimena, JLD; Sauer, PJJ; Jobe, AH; Zimmermann, LJI

    1999-01-01

    We studied the synthesis of surfactant and the effect of prenatal betamethasone treatment in vivo in very preterm baboons. Ten pregnant baboons were randomized to receive either betamethasone (beta) or saline (control) 48 and 24 h before preterm delivery. The newborn baboons were intubated, treated

  13. Metabolism of endogenous surfactant in premature baboons and effect of prenatal corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, JEH; Carnielli, VP; Seidner, [No Value; Ikegami, M; Wattimena, JLD; Sauer, PJJ; Jobe, AH; Zimmermann, LJI

    We studied the synthesis of surfactant and the effect of prenatal betamethasone treatment in vivo in very preterm baboons. Ten pregnant baboons were randomized to receive either betamethasone (beta) or saline (control) 48 and 24 h before preterm delivery. The newborn baboons were intubated, treated

  14. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  15. Prenatal care and socioeconomic status: effect on cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcent, Carine; Zbiri, Saad

    2018-03-10

    Cesarean deliveries are widely used in many high- and middle-income countries. This overuse both increases costs and lowers quality of care and is thus a major concern in the healthcare industry. The study first examines the impact of prenatal care utilization on cesarean delivery rates. It then determines whether socioeconomic status affects the use of prenatal care and thereby influences the cesarean delivery decision. Using exclusive French delivery data over the 2008-2014 period, with multilevel logit models, and controlling for relevant patient and hospital characteristics, we show that women who do not participate in prenatal education have an increased probability of a cesarean delivery compared to those who do. The study further indicates that attendance at prenatal education varies according to socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic women are more likely to have cesarean deliveries and less likely to participate in prenatal education. This result emphasizes the importance of focusing on pregnancy health education, particularly for low-income women, as a potential way to limit unnecessary cesarean deliveries. Future studies would ideally investigate the effect of interventions promoting such as care participation on cesarean delivery rates.

  16. Oregon's Coordinated Care Organizations and Their Effect on Prenatal Care Utilization Among Medicaid Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Lisa P; Harvey, S Marie; Yoon, Jangho; Luck, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Previous studies indicate that inadequate prenatal care is more common among women covered by Medicaid compared with private insurance. Increasing the proportion of pregnant women who receive early and adequate prenatal care is a Healthy People 2020 goal. We examined the impact of the implementation of Oregon's accountable care organizations, Coordinated Care Organizations (CCOs), for Medicaid enrollees, on prenatal care utilization among Oregon women of reproductive age enrolled in Medicaid. Methods Using Medicaid eligibility data linked to unique birth records for 2011-2013, we used a pre-posttest treatment-control design that compared prenatal care utilization for women on Medicaid before and after CCO implementation to women never enrolled in Medicaid. Additional stratified analyses were conducted to explore differences in the effect of CCO implementation based on rurality, race, and ethnicity. Results After CCO implementation, mothers on Medicaid had a 13% increase in the odds of receiving first trimester care (OR 1.13, CI 1.04, 1.23). Non-Hispanic (OR 1.20, CI 1.09, 1.32), White (OR 1.20, CI 1.08, 1.33) and Asian (OR 2.03, CI 1.26, 3.27) women on Medicaid were more likely to receive initial prenatal care in the first trimester after CCO implementation and only Medicaid women in urban areas were more likely (OR 1.14, CI 1.05, 1.25) to initiate prenatal care in the first trimester. Conclusion Following Oregon's implementation of an innovative Medicaid coordinated care model, we found that women on Medicaid experienced a significant increase in receiving timely prenatal care.

  17. Adolescent Initiation of Drug Use: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…

  18. The effect of prenatal counselling on postpartum family planning use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal contraceptive counselling on postpartum contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes after one year. Methods: Sixteen health centres were equally and randomly allocated to control and intervention arms. Mothers were consecutively recruited during their first ...

  19. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety during the Process of ... and intensity of pain based on visual analogue scale and McGill scales. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software ...

  20. The effect of external irradiation on the prenatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerttler, K.

    1982-01-01

    Concerning the effect of external irradiation on prenatal development the pathologist must either admit that the number of observed developmental disorders produced by low doses is very small or he must confess that his methods for detecting such lesions are not sufficiently sophisticated. The author prefers the second alternative and tries to verify this viewpoint. Section I concerns the behaviour of the treated organism following an injury. In the author's opinion the course of such prenatal damage is not taken sufficiently into consideration today. Section II should explain the biological basis of sensitivity to injury. We have to consider the use of different parameters for each existent damage. Section III should point out the development of formal deviations from early development stages. This will be exemplified on irradiated chicken embryos. Comparable abnormal developmental steps also occur in human embryos. Section IV concerns the appearance of secondary effect as the result of prenatal disorders. These disorders have been taken only little or not at all into consideration until now. We have to recognize its importance in regard to prenatal irradiation. (orig./MG)

  1. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  2. The Effects of Prenatal Stocking Densities on the Fear Responses and Sociality of Goat (Capra hircus) Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Rachel M.; Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother) and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of ‘stress’ as “physical or perceived threats to homeostasis.” The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively). One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The ‘social test’ was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the ‘separation test’ assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats. PMID:24710177

  3. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  4. Long-term outcome of prenatal dexamethasone treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajic, Svetlana; Nordenström, Anna; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with dexamethasone (DEX) has been in use since the mid- 1980s. Its effectiveness for reducing virilization of external genitalia is well established. DEX treatment has to be started in the 6th-7th postmenstrual week and continued until the results of the prenatal diagnosis are available. Hence, the dilemma is that 7 out of 8 fetuses (boys and unaffected girls) are treated unnecessarily. Girls with CAH are treated until term. Accumulating evidence from animal studies and follow-up data has raised concerns regarding the long-term consequences of this controversial treatment. We have previously reported that direct neuropsychological assessment of children exposed to DEX and controls show normal full-scale IQ, learning and longterm memory. However, the children exposed to DEX during the first trimester had an impaired verbal working memory which was significantly associated with low self-perceived scholastic competence. In addition, the children showed increased self-rated social anxiety. The same cohort of children answered questions concerning friends, activities and gender-related behaviors. The results indicate less masculine and more neutral behavior in short-term DEX-exposed boys. These findings indicate that long-term follow-ups of this group of patients are of extreme importance and that future DEX treatment of CAH may be questioned. We therefore encourage additional studies on larger cohorts in order to draw more decisive conclusions about the safety of the treatment. Until then, it is important that the parents are thoroughly informed about the potential risks and uncertainties, as well as the benefits, of this treatment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  6. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice

  7. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  8. The role of glucocorticoid, interleukin-1β, and antioxidants in prenatal stress effects on embryonic microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Jada; Stevens, Hanna E

    2018-02-16

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. Resident immune cells of the brain, microglia, may be mediators of prenatal stress and altered neurodevelopment. Here, we demonstrate that neither the exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nor the glucocorticoid hormone, corticosterone, recapitulated the full effects of prenatal stress on the morphology of microglial cells in the cortical plate of embryonic mice; IL-1β effects showed greater similarity to prenatal stress effects on microglia. Unexpectedly, oil vehicle alone, which has antioxidant properties, moderated the effects of prenatal stress on microglia. Microglia changes with prenatal stress were also sensitive to the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, suggesting redox dysregulation as a mechanism of prenatal stress.

  9. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Prenatal Distribution of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon J Lubinga

    Full Text Available In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH. Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer and modified societal perspectives.To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution, we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs, costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.2% (95% credibility interval (CrI: 0.55%, 1.95%, mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13% and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03.” and “ICERs were US$181 (95% CrI: 81, 443 per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$64 (95% CrI: -84, 260 per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective [corrected].Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be considered for national-level scale up for prevention of PPH.

  10. Developmental effects of prenatal irradiation. Entwicklungsstoerungen nach praenataler Bestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, H; Schmahl, W; Kistner, G; Stieve, F E

    1982-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium which was organised jointly by the WHO and the department for nuclear biology of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (Society for Radiation- and Environmental Research) Neuherberg; the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (Institute for Radiation Hygiene) of the Federal Board of Health (Bundesgesundheitsamt), Neuherberg and the working group ''Radiation Biology'' in the ''Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft'' and took place in Neuherberg near Munich from the 26.-28. November 1980. Subjects dealt with the lectures were: Developmental disturbances caused by prenatal exposure to either external radiation or incorporation of radionuclides in the organism of the mother. Based on the prenatal radiation effects already known new experiences and new knowledge were reported on and show new consequences on peri- and postnatal development. Radiation effects of incorporated radionuclides include also questions of the biokinetics of radioactive substances at present the emphasis lies on diaplacental penetration. Questions of synergetic effects of radiation and diaplacentally penetrating chemical substances were discussed on the symposium as well. These subjects were also extensively dealt with in a panel discussion.

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  12. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin eGibb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

  13. Growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine administered for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Cai, Haodong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-01

    We studied the growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine used to treat chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in their mothers. Maternal abnormalities during pregnancy and delivery and infant congenital anomalies, physical development status, developmental quotient (DQ), HBV vertical transmission status, and HBV vaccination outcomes of 54 infants were evaluated (2010-2013). No fetal abnormalities were observed during pregnancy or delivery. Postpartum, three infants (5.56%) had abnormalities: ankyloglossia, cutaneous hemangioma, and vaginal canal leak. Height and weight were within the normal range at birth and at 6 weeks, but were higher than the reference at 12 months (pchildren (68.52%), abnormal or suspicious for a developmental delay (15.19%, 41/270) in 17 children (31.48%), and indicated a developmental delay (4.07%, 11/270) in seven children (12.96%). There were no significant differences in developmental delay between children prenatally exposed to telbivudine and controls (p>0.05). HBV vertical transmission was successfully blocked in all infants. The effective HBV vaccination rate was 98.15% (53/54). The growth and development of children prenatally exposed to telbivudine was normal, indicating that telbivudine treatment during pregnancy is safe and effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The effect of prenatal pravastatin treatment on altered fetal programming of postnatal growth and metabolic function in a preeclampsia-like murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnold, Mollie; Tamayo, Esther; Kechichian, Talar; Gamble, Phyllis; Longo, Monica; Hankins, Gary D V; Saade, George R; Costantine, Maged M

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia alters fetal programming and results in long-term metabolic consequences in the offspring. Pravastatin has been shown to prevent preeclampsia in animal models. Our aim was to characterize the effects of preeclampsia on fetal programming of adult growth and metabolic function, and evaluate the role of preventive pravastatin therapy, using a well characterized murine model. CD-1 mice were injected through the tail vein with adenovirus carrying soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and randomly allocated to pravastatin (5 mg/kg/day; sFlt-1/prav, n = 7) or water (sFlt-1, n = 6) until weaning. A control group was injected with adenovirus carrying the murine immunoglobulin G2α Fc fragment (mFc, n = 8). Male and female offspring (6-8/group) were weighed every month until 6 months of age. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing was performed after 16 hours of fasting at 3 and 6 months of age; glucose and insulin responses were measured. sFlt-1 offspring weight was lower than mFc control (P < .001) until 2 months of age for females and 5 months of age for males (P < .001). There were no differences in postnatal growth between mFc and sFlt-1/prav offspring. At 3 and 6 months, female sFlt-1 offspring had higher glucose response compared with mFc and sFlt-1/prav. Three-month-old male sFlt-1 had lower insulin response compared with mFc offspring. Preeclampsia alters postnatal growth and metabolic function in the adult offspring in this animal model. Maternal therapy with prav prevents some of these alterations in the offspring. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of prenatal cocaine, post-weaning housing and sex on conditioned place preference in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow-Edwards, Diana; Iijima, Maiko; Stephenson, Stacy; Jackson, April; Weedon, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    Gestational exposure to cocaine now affects several million people including adolescents and young adults. Whether prenatal drug exposures alter an individual's tendency to take and/or abuse drugs is still a matter of debate. This study sought to answer the question "Does prenatal exposure to cocaine, in a dose-response fashion, alter the rewarding effects of cocaine using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure during adolescence in the rat?" Further, we wanted to assess the possible sex differences and the role of being raised in an enriched versus impoverished environment. Virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed daily with cocaine at 30 mg/kg (C30), 60 mg/kg (C60), or vehicle intragastrically prior to mating and throughout gestation. Pups were culled, fostered and, on postnatal day (PND) 23, placed into isolation cages or enriched cages with three same-sex littermates and stimulus objects. On PND43-47, CPP was determined across a range of cocaine doses. C30 exposure increased sensitivity to the rewarding effects of cocaine in adolescent males, and being raised in an enriched environment further enhanced this effect. Rats exposed to C60 resembled the controls in cocaine CPP. Overall, females were modestly affected by prenatal cocaine and enrichment. These data support the unique sensitivity of males to the effects of gestational cocaine, that moderate prenatal cocaine doses produce greater effects on developing reward circuits than high doses and that housing condition interacts with prenatal treatment and sex such that enrichment increases cocaine CPP mostly in adolescent males prenatally exposed to moderate cocaine doses.

  16. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  17. [Prenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal choroid plexus cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei-Ying; Wang, Hong-Bin; Huang, Xin; Wei, Yan-Qiu

    2007-09-01

    To discuss the clinical management and significance of the prenatal diagnosis of Fetal Choroid Plexus Cysts (CPC). From May 2004 to March 2007, 55 cases of fetal CPC diagnosed by B-ultrasound during second trimester were prospectively studied. Each case was studied regarding fetal chromosome karyotype, disappearance weeks of the cyst, the clinical outcome and follow-up results respectively. The cases were diagnosed during 16 - 25 gestational weeks. The diameters of the cysts varied from 0.2 cm to 2.4 cm. There were 25 cases of bilateral cysts and 30 cases of unilateral or 50 cases of isolated CPC and 5 cases of complicated CPC. The cysts of all cases who continued pregnancy disappeared before 28 weeks. Fetal chromosome karyotypes were obtained in 50 cases. Among them, two cases were 18-trisomy, and one case was 21-trisomy. Five cases were terminated pregnancy because of abnormal chromosome karyotype or malformation during second trimester. One neonate was diagnosed as ventricular septal defect among 50 cases of follow up. Among these six cases, three were from advanced-age pregnant women, five cases were with abnormal fetal structure and five cases were with the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cysts more than 1.0 cm. (1) Fetal CPC can be diagnosed during second trimester, and the majority disappear before 28 gestational weeks. (2) High risk factors for fetal abnormal chromosome karyotype may be: advanced-age pregnant women, abnormal structure of fetus, and the diameter of bilateral or unilateral cyst more than 1.0 cm. It is suggested that fetal CPC with the high risks should receive fetal chromosome karyotype test during pregnancy.

  18. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...... does not seem to have long-term harmful effects during childhood, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the child. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...

  19. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  20. Immunotoxic effects of iodine-131 in prenatally exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.A.; Stevens, R.H.; Lindholm, P.A.; Cheng, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Present results suggest that offspring exposed in utero to radioactive iodine-131 develop a measureable cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. Regnant Fischer F344 inbred rats were exposed to 370 kBg to 3.7 MBg (10 to 100 μCi) Na 131I on 16 to 18 days of gestation and evaluated for CMI responsiveness 2 to 3 months post exposure using an 125I radiolabeled membrane release assay. Current data suggest that not only the F1, but also the F2 pups develop a measureable CMI response. In order to determine whether other immune functions are altered studies have been initiated to evaluate the immunotoxic effect of prenatal exposure to 131I. These studies include the evaluation of the delayed hypersensitivity response and the blastogenic responses to phytoheemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide

  1. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on social development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Kennedy, Bruce; Katzman, Aaron; Lahvis, Garet P; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans and animals has been shown to impair social development. Molecules that mediate synaptic plasticity and learning in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecule, early growth response protein 1 (egr1), have been shown to affect the regulation of social interactions (SI). In this study we determined the effects of PCE on SI and the corresponding ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in developing mice. Furthermore, we studied the PCE-induced changes in the constitutive expression of BDNF, egr1 and their transcriptional regulators in the mPFC as a possible molecular mechanism mediating the altered SI. In prenatal cocaine-exposed (PCOC) mice we identified increased SI and USV production at postnatal day (PD) 25, and increased SI but not USVs at PD35. By PD45 the expression of both social behaviors normalized in PCOC mice. At the molecular level, we found increased BDNF exon IV and egr1 mRNA in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30 that normalized by PD45. This was concurrent with increased EGR1 protein in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30, suggesting a role of egr1 in the enhanced SI observed in juvenile PCOC mice. Additionally, by measuring the association of acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 9 and 14 (acH3K9,14) and MeCP2 at the promoters of BDNF exons I and IV and egr1, our results provide evidence of promoter-specific alterations in the mPFC of PCOC juvenile mice, with increased association of acH3K9,14 only at the BDNF exon IV promoter. These results identify a potential PCE-induced molecular alteration as the underlying neurobiological mechanism mediating the altered social development in juvenile mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The effect of prenatal exposure to diazepam on aspects of postnatal development and behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, N; Grimm, V E

    1982-01-01

    In the present study the effects of chronic treatment of pregnant rats with diazepam on the physical and behavioral development of their offspring were investigated. Rats that were diazepam-exposed prenatally were compared to age-matched controls in terms of the following: number of littermates; birth weight and weight gain until weaning: motor development and coordination; simple motor learning; open field activity; performance on learning tasks of varying complexity; retention of these tasks. Nulliparous Wistar rats were injected s.c. for 16 days of their pregnancy was either 2.5, 5, of 10 mg/kg diazepam or an equal volume of vehicle. Prenatal diazepam treatment did not alter litter size, birth weight, or the righting reflex, but seemed to retard early motor development transiently. Diazepam pups showed longer latencies and less rearing in the open field. There were no differences between animals exposed to drug and vehicle in simple motor learning or in acquiring a simple successive discrimination task. However, there were significant dose-dependent differences on a complex six-choice simultaneous discrimination learning task, the diazepam-exposed rats making more errors and taking more time to reach the goal. A significant difference was seen again between diazepam- and vehicle-exposed rats on the retention test 10 days later. The results indicate that diazepam administered to pregnant rats has long-range effects on the behavior of the offspring, some becoming manifest even in maturity.

  3. Effectiveness of prenatal screening for Down syndrome on the basis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) of 61 AMA women reached genetic counselling in tertiary care: reasons included late initiation of antenatal care and low referral rates from primary care. Conclusion. Prenatal screening and diagnosis for DS based on AMA is working ...

  4. Reduced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Cognitive Impairments following Prenatal Treatment of the Antiepileptic Drug Valproic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Juliandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, an established antiepileptic drug, has been reported to impair postnatal cognitive function in children born to VPA-treated epileptic mothers. However, how these defects arise and how they can be overcome remain unknown. Using mice, we found that comparable postnatal cognitive functional impairment is very likely correlated to the untimely enhancement of embryonic neurogenesis, which led to depletion of the neural precursor cell pool and consequently a decreased level of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Moreover, hippocampal neurons in the offspring of VPA-treated mice showed abnormal morphology and activity. Surprisingly, these impairments could be ameliorated by voluntary running. Our study suggests that although prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs such as VPA may have detrimental effects that persist until adulthood, these effects may be offset by a simple physical activity such as running.

  5. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, V; Smith, P; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  6. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to cadmium on neurodevelopment of infants in Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Caifeng; Zhou, Yijun; Hu, Yi; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although animal studies suggested that prenatal cadmium exposure can cause neurodevelopmental deficits, little is explored in human populations, or its mechanism. We investigated the association between prenatal cadmium exposures and infants' developmental quotients (DQs) based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules (gross motor, fine motor, adaptive, language, and social domains) at 12 months of age and explored the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prenatal cadmium-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in Shandong, China, by enrolling 300 mothers between September 2010 and December 2011. Maternal blood cadmium concentration (median, 1.24 μg/L) was negatively associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels in cord serum. A 10-fold increase in maternal cadmium levels was associated with a 5.70-point decrease in social domain DQs, a 4.31-point decrease in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. These data suggest that prenatal low-level cadmium exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. BDNF may play an important role in the decline of social domain DQs induced by prenatal low-level cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Cadmium was inversely associated with social domain DQs and BDNF levels. • BDNF levels were positively associated with social domain DQs. • BDNF may contribute to the decline of DQs induced by prenatal cadmium exposure. - Negative associations were found between prenatal cadmium exposure and social domain DQs as well as BNDF levels in cord serum.

  8. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect on intelligence of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of intelligence test scores at 10 - 11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has revealed the following: 1) For those individuals exposed in the first eight weeks after fertilization or after the 25th week, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence; 2) The mean test scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories for individuals exposed at 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16 - 25 weeks; 3) The regression of intelligence score on estimated fetal tissue dose is linear or linear-quadratic for the 8 - 15 week group and possibly linear for the 16 - 25 week group; 4) The cumulative distributions of test scores suggest a progressive shift downwards in the scores with increasing exposure; and 5) Within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable, severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 to 15 weeks after fertilization, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear-quadratic model is 21 - 27 points at 1 gray (Gy = 100 cGy = 100 rad). The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 33 - 41 points at 1 Gy; but the two estimates are not statistically significantly different. (author)

  10. Disentangling Genetic and Prenatal Maternal Effects on Offspring Size and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.

  11. The effect of colostrum on pigs pre-natally or post-natally exposed to Schistosoma japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Techau, M.E.; Johansen, M.V.; Lind, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Pre-natal infection of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs may prove to be a useful model in shedding light on human pre-natal schistosomiasis. This study describes the effects of immune colostrum on worm burdens, tissue egg counts, liver pathology and crude worm or egg antigen-specific IgG and Ig......A responses, in groups of pigs pre-natally, pre-natally + post-natally or post-natally exposed to S. japonicum. Results suggest that pre-natal exposure and immune colostrum did not affect the establishment of a post-natal challenge infection. However, immune colostrum seemed to increase the levels of septal...

  12. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation on neural function and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Pennwalt Corp., Rochester, NY

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral studies in the past decade on postnatal effects of prenatal ionizing irradiation (125-R) revealed alterations in circadian locomotor activity and modifications of duration, frequency and sequences of certain behavioral acts in irradiated rats. Other studies have shown that the effect of irradiation (150-R) and enriched environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores while at 200-R enrichment was less effective. Rats irradiated on the 13th, 14th and 15th day of gestation were born with a hopping gait, paired hind and forelimbs moving in unison. Thoracic cord section led to crossed extention hind-limb reflexes in control rats and simultaneus withdrawal of hind limbs in hopping rats, in response to pinprick. In 90 day old squirrel monkeys the percent of correct response in visual orientation, discrimination and reversal learning in 50- and 100-R offspring (Co 60 irradiation at 89-90 days gestation) were significantly lower than those of controls, and differences in reversal learning persisted undiminished at 2 years of age. Time required for body righting, head-up orientation and climbing at 45 0 incline was significantly greater in irradiated (mainly 100-R) than control animals at from 2 to 28 days of age. Visual acuity levels of 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants were significantly lower than in control infants. Stabilimeter activity in the dark was significantly higher in 50- and 100-R 30 day old infants than in controls. In the squirrel monkey studies effects of Co 60 irradiation (100-R) on postnatal development of the brain and behaviour can be identified at statistically significant levels of confidence independent of offspring nursery rearing effects. (orig.)

  14. Influence of prenatal EGCG treatment and Dyrk1a dosage reduction on craniofacial features associated with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElyea, Samantha D; Starbuck, John M; Tumbleson-Brink, Danika M; Harrington, Emily; Blazek, Joshua D; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine; Roper, Randall J

    2016-11-15

    Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.

  15. Prenatal nutrition, epigenetics and schizophrenia risk: can we test causal effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, James B; Susser, Ezra; Kundakovic, Marija; Kresovich, Jacob K; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2012-06-01

    We posit that maternal prenatal nutrition can influence offspring schizophrenia risk via epigenetic effects. In this article, we consider evidence that prenatal nutrition is linked to epigenetic outcomes in offspring and schizophrenia in offspring, and that schizophrenia is associated with epigenetic changes. We focus upon one-carbon metabolism as a mediator of the pathway between perturbed prenatal nutrition and the subsequent risk of schizophrenia. Although post-mortem human studies demonstrate DNA methylation changes in brains of people with schizophrenia, such studies cannot establish causality. We suggest a testable hypothesis that utilizes a novel two-step Mendelian randomization approach, to test the component parts of the proposed causal pathway leading from prenatal nutritional exposure to schizophrenia. Applied here to a specific example, such an approach is applicable for wider use to strengthen causal inference of the mediating role of epigenetic factors linking exposures to health outcomes in population-based studies.

  16. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pcontrol group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pPrenatal yoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  18. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  20. Effects of prenatal and postnatal maternal emotional stress on toddlers' cognitive and temperamental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Huang, Jun; Jia, Yinan; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress is associated with impairments in the neurodevelopment of offspring; however, the effects of the timing of exposure to maternal stress on a child's neurodevelopment are unclear. In 2010, we studied 225 mother-child pairs in Shanghai, recruiting mothers in mid-to-late pregnancy and monitoring offspring from birth until 30 months of age. Maternal stress was assessed prenatally (at 28-36 weeks of gestation) and postnatally (at 24-30 months postpartum) using the Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) and Life-Event-Stress Scale to evaluate mothers' emotional stress and life event stress levels, respectively. Children's cognition and temperament were assessed at 24-30 months of age using the Gesell Development Scale and Toddler Temperament Scale, respectively. Multi-variable linear regression models were used to associate prenatal and postnatal stress with child cognitive and temperamental development. Maternal prenatal and postnatal Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R were moderately correlated (ICC r=0.30, Ptoddlers' gross motor, fine motor, adaptive and social behavior development independently of postnatal GSI, while the increase in postnatal GSI was associated with changes in multiple temperament dimensions independently of prenatal GSI. The effects of prenatal and postnatal depression scores of SCL-90-R were similar to those of GSI. Relatively small sample size. Compared with postnatal exposure, children's cognitive development may be more susceptible to prenatal exposure to maternal emotional stress, whereas temperamental development may be more affected by postnatal exposure to maternal emotional stress compared with prenatal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    amount of NO available, which may have formed free radicals damaging the tissue and resulting in cell death. Treatment with a synthetic cGMP also failed...Watkinson B (36- and 48-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana , cigarettes, and alcohol. J Dev Behav Pediatr

  2. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  4. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayen, Ine; van den Hove, Daniël L; Prickaerts, Jos; Steinbusch, Harry W; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2011-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1). Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1) prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  5. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Rayen

    Full Text Available Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1. Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1 prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2 prenatal stress+vehicle, 3 fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4 vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  6. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Higgins, Rosemary

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.

  7. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT...

  8. The Effects of Prenatal Care Utilization on Maternal Health and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji

    2017-08-01

    While many economic studies have explored the role of prenatal care in infant health production, the literature is sporadic on the effects of prenatal care on the mother. This research contributes to this understudied but important area using a unique large dataset of sibling newborns delivered by 0.17 million mothers. We apply within-mother estimators to find robust evidence that poor prenatal care utilization due to late onset of care, low frequency of care visits, or combinations of the two significantly increases the risks of maternal insufficient gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, premature rupture of membranes, precipitous labor, no breastfeeding, postnatal underweight, and postpartum smoking. The magnitude of the estimates relative to the respective sample means of the outcome variables ranges from 3% to 33%. The results highlight the importance of receiving timely and sufficient prenatal care in improving maternal health and health behaviors during pregnancy as well as after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of prenatal stress on vulnerability to stress in prepubertal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride, E; Dan, Y; Feldon, J; Halevy, G; Weinstock, M

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that unpredictable prenatal stress has effects on the offspring, similar to those induced by perinatal administration of glucocorticoids and increases the vulnerability to stressful situations at adulthood. Rats were exposed to random noise and light stress throughout pregnancy. Offspring were tested for the development of spontaneous alternation behavior (SA) and at adulthood, their response to novel or aversive situations, open field, extinction and punishment following acquisition of an appetitive response and two-way active avoidance, were assessed. In prenatally stressed rats, the development of SA was significantly delayed. On repeated exposure to an open field they were less active; control rats had elevated plasma corticosterone (CCS) on days 2 and 4 of open field exposure, while prenatally stressed rats had significantly raised plasma CCS after each exposure (days 1-8). Furthermore, punishment-induced suppression of an appetitive response was enhanced. Acquisition of active avoidance was faciliated in female but reduced in male prenatally stressed offspring. It is suggested that random prenatal noise and light stress may cause impairment of development of hippocampal function which lasts into adulthood. This impairment is manifested as an increase in vulnerability and a decrease in habituation to stressful stimuli.

  10. Effects of low-dose prenatal irradiation on the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Scientists are in general agreement about the effects of prenatal irradiation, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Differing concepts and research approaches have resulted in some uncertainties about some quantitative relationships, underlying interpretations, and conclusions. Examples of uncertainties include the existence of a threshold, the quantitative relationships between prenatal radiation doses and resulting physical and functional lesions, and processes by which lesions originate and develop. A workshop was convened in which scientists with varying backgrounds and viewpoints discussed these relationships and explored ways in which various disciplines could coordinate concepts and methodologies to suggest research directions for resolving uncertainties. This Workshop Report summarizes, in an extended fashion, salient features of the presentations on the current status of our knowledge about the radiobiology and neuroscience of prenatal irradiation and the relationships between them

  11. Effects of low-dose prenatal irradiation on the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    Scientists are in general agreement about the effects of prenatal irradiation, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Differing concepts and research approaches have resulted in some uncertainties about some quantitative relationships, underlying interpretations, and conclusions. Examples of uncertainties include the existence of a threshold, the quantitative relationships between prenatal radiation doses and resulting physical and functional lesions, and processes by which lesions originate and develop. A workshop was convened in which scientists with varying backgrounds and viewpoints discussed these relationships and explored ways in which various disciplines could coordinate concepts and methodologies to suggest research directions for resolving uncertainties. This Workshop Report summarizes, in an extended fashion, salient features of the presentations on the current status of our knowledge about the radiobiology and neuroscience of prenatal irradiation and the relationships between them.

  12. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  13. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  14. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  15. Expanding Prenatal Care to Unauthorized Immigrant Women and the Effects on Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonas J; Hainmueller, Jens; Lawrence, Duncan; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2017-11-01

    To measure the effect of access to prenatal care on unauthorized and low-income, new legal permanent resident immigrant women and their offspring. We used a difference-in-differences design that leverages the staggered rollout of Emergency Medicaid Plus by county from 2008 to 2013 as a natural experiment to estimate the effect on health service utilization for women and health outcomes for their infants. Regular Medicaid pregnancies were used as an additional control in a triple difference design. Our sample included pregnancies covered by Emergency Medicaid (35,182), Emergency Medicaid Plus (12,510), and Medicaid (166,054). After expansion of access to prenatal care, there was an increase in prenatal visits (7.2 more visits, 95% CI 6.45-7.96), receipt of adequate prenatal care (28% increased rate, CI 26-31), rates of diabetes screening (61% increased rate, CI 56-66), and fetal ultrasonograms (74% increased rate, CI 72-76). Maternal access to prenatal care was also associated with an increased number of well child visits (0.24 more visits, CI 0.07-0.41), increased rates of recommended screenings and vaccines (0.04 increased probability, CI 0.002-0.074), and reduced infant mortality (-1.01/1,000, CI -1.42 to -0.60) and rates of extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 g) (-1.33/1,000, CI -2.44 to -0.21). Our results provide evidence of increased utilization and improved health outcomes for unauthorized immigrants and their children who are U.S. citizens after introduction of prenatal care expansion in Oregon. This study contributes to the debate around reauthorization of the Children's Health Insurance Program in 2017.

  16. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin prenatal administration on dental enamel in Wistar rats. 12 pregnant adult rats were used distributed into five different groups: witness control (n=2) didn't get any treatment; negative control (n=2) they were prescribed with saline solution; positive control (n=3) they were prescribed with tetracycline 130 mg/kg, and two groups (n=3 and n=2) treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. The treatments were daily administered by mouth, from the 6th gestation day to the end of gestation. Twenty five days after they were born, the offspring were sacrificed with a sodium pentobarbital overdose, the mandible was dissected and the first lower molars were gotten. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and clinically and histologically observed to determine any enamel disorders. hypomineralization was observed in every single sample of the tetracyclic and amoxicillin treated group 100 mg/kg, meanwhile only 50% from the group administered with 50 mg/kg amoxicillin showed this histological disorder. the side effect caused by amoxicillin on dental enamel was doses dependent.

  17. Buspirone before prenatal stress protects against adverse effects of stress on emotional and inflammatory pain-related behaviors in infant rats: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Otellin, Vladimir A; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2011-10-24

    Prenatal stress strengthens tonic pain and provokes depression. The serotoninergic system is involved in these processes. We recently showed that maternal buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, protects against the adverse effects of in utero stress on depression and pain in adult rat offspring. Using a similar maternal treatment with buspirone, we focus here on the infant stage, which is important for the correction of prenatal abnormalities. Maternal buspirone before restraint stress during the last week of pregnancy decreased the time of immobility in the forced swim test in the infant offspring. Prenatal stress increased formalin-induced pain in the second part of the time-course of the response to formalin in males of middle infancy but in the first part of the response in males of late infancy. The effect was reversed by maternal buspirone. Pain dominated in males of both middle and late infancy but the time-course of formalin pain in infant females revealed a slower development of the processes. The results show that the time-course of formalin-induced pain in infant rats reacts to prenatal stress in an age-dependent and sexually dimorphic manner. Our finding of opposite influences of prenatal stress and buspirone before prenatal stress on formalin-induced pain during the interphase indicates that functional maturity of the descending serotonergic inhibitory system occurs in late infancy males (11-day-olds), and 5-HT1A receptors participate in this process. The data provide evidence that maternal treatment with buspirone prior to stress during pregnancy alleviates depression-like and tonic pain-related behaviors in the infant offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to toluene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    Development and neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to toluene (CAS 108-88-3) were studied after exposing pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) to 1800 ppm of the solvent for 6 h daily on days 7-20 of gestation. Body weights of exposed offspring were lower until day 10 after parturition. Neurobehavio...

  1. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Swaab, Dick F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2016-01-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  2. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the

  3. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of

  4. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the mineralisation of bones in ... folic acid deficiency, in particular at pregnancy; thus inflicting severe skeletal ... or 'catch-up' growth was displayed in the ethanol plus folate treated rats.

  6. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ashleigh L; Solowij, Nadia; Babic, Ilijana; Huang, Xu-Feng; Weston-Green, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C) (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12 per group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12 per group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory, and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (psocial interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.

  7. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  8. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on sexual motivation in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Mara Aparecida P; Marthos, Gabriela Cristina P; Oliveira, Liliane Gibram M; Figueiredo, Eduardo Costa; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre; Vilela, Fabiana Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy adversely affects prenatal and postnatal growth and increases the risk of behavioral deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to a moderate dose of alcohol on sexual motivation during adulthood. Rats were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams a liquid diet containing 25% ethanol-derived calories on days 6 through 19 of gestation. The controls consisted of pair-fed dams (receiving an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% ethanol-derived calories) and dams with ad libitum access to a liquid control diet. The sexual motivation of offspring was evaluated during adulthood. The results revealed that the male and female pups of dams treated with alcohol exhibited reduced weight gain, which persisted until adulthood. Both male and female adult animals from dams that were exposed to alcohol showed a reduction in the preference score in the sexual motivation test. Taken together, these results provide evidence of the damaging effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sexual motivation responses in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new phenomenon in the prenatal effects of harmful agents: total system teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filyushkin, I.V.; Ignatov, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of the mechanism of induction of minor teratogenic effects were performed. Theoretical analysis of the mechanism of minor teratogenesis have utilized reliable facts, well established concepts of biomedical science, and also categories and language of the theory of complex systems. To check theoretical statement in the experiments 889 baby rats were obtained. Of them, 487 were prenatally irradiated with 2 Gy of gamma rays and 402 were nonirradiated controls. Indices of the CNS development indices of the immunity status development and indices of the endocrine development were studied along the course of postnatal development of prenatally irradiated rats comparatively to controls, with loading test also being used, such as sensitization with allogeneic protein, immobilization stress and acute irradiation. A mechanism through which prenatal exposure to radiation and any other agent affecting physical embryonic development leads to congenital CNS deficiencies is found theoretically and confirmed in animal experiment. In the frame of this mechanism, the ultimate effect of prenatal exposure to a deleterious agent is the distortion of the structure of the neuroimmunoendocrine regulation of a postnatal organism in the direction of the excessive development of is endocrine component and the (ontogenetically) successive coadaptive under development of nervous and immune components. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Behavioural effects of prenatal exposure to carbon disulphide and to aromatol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Szeberényi, J M; Ungváry, G; Kiss, A

    1985-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of prenatal organosolvent inhalation were studied in rats, because of the expectation that a developing organism may be more sensitive than the adult to the induction of functional deficits. The aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to the new organosolvent mixture, Aromatol, and the well known neurotoxic carbon disulphide, would impair reflex ontogeny or produce neurobehavioural dysfunctions in the offspring. Development of gait, motor coordination, and activity, avoidance learning and swimming were tested in the offspring of CFY rat mothers, exposed to CS2 inhalation (0, less than 10, 700 and 2000 mg/m3) and to Aromatol (0, 600, 1000 and 2000 mg/m3) on days 7-15 gestation. Prenatal CS2 inhalation induced dose related perinatal mortality of pups. Eye opening and the auditory startle were retarded. There were immature gait, motor incoordination, diminished open field activity and altered behavioural patterns on day 21 and 36 but they were nearly age-appropriate on day 90. As signs of disturbed learning ability, there were diminished performance and lengthened latency of the conditioned avoidance response, related to the concentrations administered. Contrary to expectations, prenatal Aromatol inhalation had no effect on maturation of gait, behaviour patterns, or learning ability.

  12. Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental Enrichment And ... Prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) has been proven to positively affect but ... Conclusion: The negative-positive prenatal effect could contribute to altered ...

  13. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  14. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  15. MATERNAL INTERACTION QUALITY MODERATES EFFECTS OF PRENATAL MATERNAL EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS ON GIRLS' INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; De Bruijn, Anouk T C E; Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; Van Baar, Anneloes L

    2017-09-01

    The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of prenatal feelings of anxiety and depression, or the "low-exposed group" (n = 50), consisting of mothers with normal levels of depressive or anxious symptoms during pregnancy. When the children (49 girls, 47 boys) were 23 to 60 months of age (M = 39.0, SD = 9.6), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, ), and mother-child interaction quality during a home visit was rated using the Emotional Availability Scales. There were no differences in mother-child interaction quality between the prenatally exposed and low-exposed groups. Girls exposed to high prenatal emotional symptoms showed more internalizing problems, if maternal interaction quality was less optimal. No significant effects were found for boys. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Effects of Group Prenatal Care on Food Insecurity during Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Frongillo, Edward A; Picklesimer, Amy H; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    This study compared the effects of group to individual prenatal care in late pregnancy and early postpartum on (1) women's food security and (2) psychosocial outcomes among food-insecure women. We recruited 248 racially diverse, low-income, pregnant women receiving CenteringPregnancy™ group prenatal care (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124) to complete surveys in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and early postpartum, with 84 % completing three surveys. Twenty-six percent of group and 31 % of individual care participants reported food insecurity in early pregnancy (p = 0.493). In multiple logistic regression models, women choosing group versus individual care were more likely to report food security in late pregnancy (0.85 vs. 0.66 average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p = 0.052) in intention-to-treat models. Group participants were more likely to change perceptions on affording healthy foods and stretching food resources. Group compared to individual care participants with early pregnancy food insecurity demonstrated higher maternal-infant attachment scale scores (89.8 vs. 86.2 points for individual care, p = 0.032). Group prenatal care provides health education and the opportunity for women to share experiences and knowledge, which may improve food security through increasing confidence and skills in managing household food resources. Health sector interventions can complement food assistance programs in addressing food insecurity during pregnancy.

  17. Differential control of central cardiorespiratory interactions by hypercapnia and the effect of prenatal nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Gui; Griffioen, Kathleen J S; Wang, Xin; Dergacheva, Olga; Kamendi, Harriet; Gorini, Christopher; Bouairi, Euguenia; Mendelowitz, David

    2006-01-04

    Hypercapnia evokes a strong cardiorespiratory response including gasping and a pronounced bradycardia; however, the mechanism responsible for these survival responses initiated in the brainstem is unknown. To examine the effects of hypercapnia on the central cardiorespiratory network, we used an in vitro medullary slice that allows simultaneous examination of rhythmic respiratory-related activity and inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission to cardioinhibitory vagal neurons (CVNs). Hypercapnia differentially modulated inhibitory neurotransmission to CVNs; whereas hypercapnia selectively depressed spontaneous glycinergic IPSCs in CVNs without altering respiratory-related increases in glycinergic neurotransmission, it decreased both spontaneous and inspiratory-associated GABAergic IPSCs. Because maternal smoking is the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and prenatal nicotine exposure is proposed to be the link between maternal smoking and SIDS, we examined the cardiorespiratory responses to hypercapnia in animals exposed to nicotine in the prenatal and perinatal period. In animals exposed to prenatal nicotine, hypercapnia evoked an exaggerated depression of GABAergic IPSCs in CVNs with no significant change in glycinergic neurotransmission. Hypercapnia altered inhibitory neurotransmission to CVNs at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. Although the results obtained in this study in vitro cannot be extrapolated with certainty to in vivo responses, the results of this study provide a likely neurochemical mechanism for hypercapnia-evoked bradycardia and the dysregulation of this response with exposure to prenatal nicotine, creating a higher risk for SIDS.

  18. Reproductive and genetic effects of continuous prenatal irradiation in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The stem germ cells of the prenatal pig are highly vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing irradiation. This study was conducted to determine whether sensitivity to killing was also marked by a sensitivity to mutation and how prenatal depletion of the germ-cell population affects reproductive performance. Germ-cell populations were reduced by continuously irradiating sows at dose rates of either 0.25 or 1.0 rad/day for the first 108 days of gestation. The prenatally irradiated boars were tested for sperm-producing ability, sperm abnormalities, dominant lethality, reciprocal translocations, and fertility. Prenatally irradiated females were allowed to bear and nurture one litter, then tested for dominant lethality in a second litter; germ cell survival and follicular development were assessed in their serially sectioned ovaries. Sperm production was not significantly affected in the 0.25-rad boars, but boars irradiated with 1.0 rad per day produced sperm at only 17% of the control level. Incidence of defective sperm was 4.9% and 11.1% in the 0.25 and 1.0 groups, respectively. Four of the 1.0-rad boars were infertile, but prenatal irradiation apparently caused neither dominant lethality nor reciprocal translocations in fertile males. Number of oocytes was reduced to 66 +/- 7% of control in the 0.25-rad gilts, but reproductive performance was unaffected and no dominant lethality was observed. Only 7 +/- 1% of the oocytes survived in the 1.0-rad group. Reproductive performance was normal for the first litter, but four of the 23 sows tested were infertile at the second litter and a significant incidence of dominant lethality was observed

  19. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P G; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Meyer, Urs; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. To estimate the independent and joint effects of exposure to prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma on the risk of schizophrenia. Danish nationwide registers were linked in this prospective cohort study. We used survival analysis to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were adjusted for age and calendar period and stratified by sex. A total of 979701 persons born between 1980 and 1998 were followed up from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2013, with 9656 having a hospital contact for schizophrenia. Females exposed to prenatal infection had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.30-2.00), but not males (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.28). Peripubertal trauma was associated with increased risk in both sexes. Males, however, had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia after exposure to both prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma (IRR: 2.85, 95% CI: 2.32-3.51), with significant interaction between infection and peripubertal trauma on the multiplicative scale (P = .007). Our study demonstrated for the first time that prenatal infection and psychological trauma in peripubertal life can act in synergy to increase the risk of schizophrenia, with a potentially stronger susceptibility in males. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cerebral impact of prenatal irradiation by 131I: an experimental model of clinical neuroradioembryological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talko, V V; Loganovsky, K M; Drozd, I P; Tukalenko, Ye V; Loganovska, T K; Nechayev, S Yu; Masiuk, S V; Prokhorova, Ye M

    2017-12-01

    Human brain in prenatal period is a most vulnerable to ionizing radiation body structure. Unlike atomic bombings or radiological interventions in healthcare leading at most to external irradiation the intensive internal exposure may occur upon nuclear reactor accidents followed by substantial release and fallout of radioactive 131I. The latter can lead to specific neuroradioembryological effects. To create an experimental model of prenatal cerebral radiation effects of 131I in human and to determine the experimental and clinical neuroradioembryological effects.Study object. The neuroradioembryological effects in Vistar rats exposed to 131I in prenatal period. Nervous system status and mental status in 104 persons exposed to ionizing radiation in utero due to the ChNPP accident and the same in 78 not exposed subjects. Experimental i.e. behavioral techniques, including the spontaneous locomotive, exploratory activity and learning ability assessment, clinical i.e. neuropsychiatric, neuro and psychometric, neuropsychological, neurophys iological methods, both with dosimetric and statistical methods were applied. Intrauterine irradiation of Wistar rats by 131I was simulated on a model of one time oral 27.5 kBq radionu clide administration in the mid gestation period (0.72±0.14 Gy fetal thyroid dose), which provides extrapolation of neuroradioembryological effects in rats to that in humans exposed to intrauterine radiation as a result of the Chornobyl catastrophe. Abnormalities in behavioral reactions and decreased output of conditioned reflex reactions identified in the 10 month old rats suggest a deterioration of cerebral cognition in exposed animals. Specific cog nitive deficit featuring a disharmonic intellectual development through the relatively decreased verbal intelligence versus relative increase of nonverbal one is remained in prenatally exposed persons. This can indicate to dysfunc tion of cortical limbic system with especial involvement of a dominant

  1. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  3. Morphological and functional alterations in adult boar epididymis: Effects of prenatal and postnatal administration of flutamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacka Katarzyna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic cross-talk between epididymal cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. To date, no information is available regarding possible impact of anti-androgens on the proteins involved in the gap junctional communication within the boar epididymis. Thus, a question arised whether prenatal or postnatal exposure to an anti-androgen flutamide alters the expression of gap junction protein - connexin43 (Cx43 and androgen receptor (AR expression in the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis and leads to delayed effects on morphology and function of adult pig epididymis. Methods First two experimental groups received flutamide prenatally on gestational days 20-28 and 80-88 (GD20 and GD80 and further two groups were exposed to flutamide postanatally on days 2-10 and 90-98 after birth (PD2 and PD90. Epididymides were collected from adult boars. Routine histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of Cx43 and AR were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Both analyses were supported by quantitative approaches to demonstrate the variations of the expression levels following the treatment. Apoptotic cells were identified using TUNEL assay. Results Histological examination revealed differences in epididymal morphology of flutamide-exposed boars when compared to controls. Scarce spermatic content were seen within the corpus and cauda lumina of GD20, PD2 and PD90 groups. Concomitantly, frequency of epididymal cell apoptosis was significantly higher (p p p p Conclusions The region-specific alterations in the epididymis morphology and scarce spermatic content within the lumina of the corpus and cauda indicate that flutamide can induce delayed effects on the epididymal function of the adult boar by decrease in AR protein levels that results in altered androgen signaling. This may cause disturbances in androgen-dependent processes including Cx43

  4. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexy...

  6. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  7. The Effect of Local Smokefree Regulations on Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Karla S; Abouk, Rahi

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.

  8. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass...

  10. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  12. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  13. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  14. Effect of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on inhibitory control: neuroimaging results from a 25-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance. To clarify the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (hereafter referred to as prenatal smoking) on the neural circuitry of response inhibition and its association with related behavioral phenotypes such as ADHD and novelty seeking in the mother's offspring. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the offspring at 25 years of age during a modified Eriksen flanker/NoGo task, and voxel-based morphometry was performed to study brain volume differences of the offspring. Prenatal smoking (1-5 cigarettes per day [14 mothers] or >5 cigarettes per day [24 mothers]) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were determined using standardized parent interviews at the offspring's age of 3 months and over a period of 13 years (from 2 to 15 years of age), respectively. Novelty seeking was assessed at 19 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental postnatal smoking, psychosocial and obstetric adversity, maternal prenatal stress, and lifetime substance abuse. A total of 178 young adults (73 males) without current psychopathology from a community sample followed since birth (Mannheim, Germany) participated in the study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging response, morphometric data, lifetime ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking. Participants prenatally exposed to nicotine exhibited a weaker response in the anterior cingulate cortex (t168 = 4.46; peak Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = -2, y = 20, z = 30; familywise error [FWE]-corrected P = .003), the right inferior frontal gyrus (t168 = 3.65; peak MNI

  15. Comparison of the effects of radiation and hyperthermia on prenatal retardation of brain growth of guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, R.A.; Edwards, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    On day 21 of pregnancy guinea-pigs were exposed to hyperthermia or #betta# radiation. The effects on prenatal growth and especially brain growth of offspring were compared. Doses of 0.04-0.99 Gy of radiation produced a dose-dependent and irreversible reduction of brainweight in the offspring, but had little effect on body weight. Treatment with hyperthermia resulting in maternal temperatures of 41.8-43.9 0 C after exposure in a heated incubator for an hour also produced a dose-related micrencephaly in the offspring. Comparison of the two agents showed that a dose increment of 0.525 Gy of radiation produced a deficit in brain weight equivalent to an elevation of 1 0 C in maternal temperature. Using this guinea-pig brain weight assay system a threshold was detected of between 0.05 and 0.10 Gy for retardation of brain growth. (author)

  16. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    awareness through education and counseling during pregnancy. The Effectiveness of ... level was lower, but no difference was observed in duration of the first and .... conducted evaluating the effect of both individual and group antenatal ...

  17. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of prenatal mindfulness training on depressive symptom severity through 18-months postpartum: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Roubinov, Danielle; Bush, Nicole R; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Vieten, Cassandra; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy E; Epel, Elissa

    2018-02-28

    We examined whether prenatal mindfulness training was associated with lower depressive symptoms through 18-months postpartum compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A controlled, quasi-experimental trial compared prenatal mindfulness training (MMT) to TAU. We collected depressive symptom data at post-intervention, 6-, and 18-months postpartum. Latent profile analysis identified depressive symptom profiles, and multinomial logistic regression examined whether treatment condition predicted profile. Three depressive symptom severity profiles emerged: none/minimal, mild, and moderate. Adjusting for relevant covariates, MMT participants were less likely than TAU participants to be in the moderate profile than the none/minimal profile (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03-0.54, p = .005). Prenatal mindfulness training may have benefits for depressive symptoms during the transition to parenthood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  20. Effectiveness of Bacterial Vaginosis Screening Program in Routine Prenatal Care and Its Effect on Decrease of Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Mashoufi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is determined by changes in microbial ecosystem of vagina and is considered as a preventable risk factor for preterm delivery. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of bacterial vaginosis screening program in routine prenatal care and its effect on decreasing preterm labor.   Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 474 pregnant women at gestational stage between 2007 and 2008. The participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention group and control group. Screening was performed in intervention group with Amsel's criteria (3 of 4 needed for diagnosis. Positive cases were given clindamycin cream (2% for one week. The outcome of the delivery was assessed in both groups afterward. Data were analyzed by SPSS11 software using descriptive statistics.   Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding pregnancy rank, wanted and unwanted pregnancy, insufficient weight gain, mother vaccination and complication of pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis was observed in 17 out of 216 (8% in the intervention group and then treated. Prevalence of preterm delivery in the intervention and control groups were 3 (1.4% and 12 (4.7%, respectively. The relative risk was protective (RR: 0.3, DR: 0.033, NNT: 30.   Conclusion: Screening and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women could significantly decrease the rate of preterm delivery.

  1. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-03-13

    The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the

  2. The developmental neurobehavioral effects of fenugreek seeds on prenatally exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalki, Loubna; Bennis, Mohamed; Sokar, Zahra; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2012-01-31

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (L.)), is a medicinal plant whose seeds and leaves are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine. Consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida. In previous work we have shown that exposure of pregnant mice to aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (AEFS) leads to reduced litter size, intrauterine growth retardation, and malformations. However, there have been no studies to date of its longer-term neurobehavioral effects. We investigated these effects in prenatally exposed mice. Pregnant females were exposed to 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day AEFS, by gavage, for the whole period of gestation. Pups body weight was measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day of age. Behavior of progeny was evaluated three weeks after birth using the open field, the rotarod test and the continuous alternation task by the T-maze. At 28 postnatal day age, brain of progeny was removed and cut for histological evaluation. The progeny of exposed mice displayed reduced body weight at birth (1000 mg/kg group: 27%; 500 mg/kg group: 32%) and reduced brain weight (10% in both treated groups). Both males and females mice prenatally exposed to AEFS displayed a significant decrease in the locomotor activity, in the boli deposits during the open field test and in motor coordination. These results seem to show that exposure to AEFS induces a depressive effect in the offspring. Assessment on a continuous alternation T-maze test showed a significant reduction in successful spontaneous alternations in males and females but only in the 1000 mg/kg group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure of mice to high dose of fenugreek seeds causes growth retardation and altered neurobehavioral performance in the post-weaning period in both male and female. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... of action. Dams inhaled 20 mg/m(3) of diesel exhaust particle standard reference material 2975 (SRM2975) or clean air for 1h/day on day 7-19 during pregnancy. Male offspring were killed on day 170 after birth. The dams that had inhaled SRM2975 delivered offspring, which in adulthood had reduced daily sperm...

  5. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  6. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transgenerational effects of prenatal bisphenol A on social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Goldsby, Jessica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made endocrine disrupting compound used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. It is found in plastic bottles, canned food linings, thermal receipts and other commonly used items. Over 93% of people have detectable BPA levels in their urine. Epidemiological studies report correlations between BPA levels during pregnancy and activity, anxiety, and depression in children. We fed female mice control or BPA-containing diets that produced plasma BPA concentrations similar to concentrations in humans. Females were mated and at birth, pups were fostered to control dams to limit BPA exposure to gestation in the first generation. Sibling pairs were bred to the third generation with no further BPA exposure. First (F1) and third (F3) generation juveniles were tested for social recognition and in the open field. Adult F3 mice were tested for olfactory discrimination. In both generations, BPA exposed juvenile mice displayed higher levels of investigation than controls in a social recognition task. In F3 BPA exposed mice, dishabituation to a novel female was impaired. In the open field, no differences were noted in F1 mice, while in F3, BPA lineage mice were more active than controls. No impairments were detected in F3 mice, all were able to discriminate different male urine pools and urine from water. No sex differences were found in any task. These results demonstrate that BPA exposure during gestation has long lasting, transgenerational effects on social recognition and activity in mice. These findings show that BPA exposure has transgenerational actions on behavior and have implications for human neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. © 2013.

  8. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  9. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  10. The Effect of Centering Pregnancy versus Traditional Prenatal Care Models on Improved Adolescent Health Behaviors in the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Gylynthia; Chhatre, Gayatri; Darolia, Renuka; Tefera, Eshetu; Damle, Lauren; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    To determine if the CenteringPregnancy model of prenatal care improves maternal health behaviors in adolescent pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective chart review comparing 150 pregnant adolescents who received prenatal care between 2008 to 2012 with CenteringPregnancy to those receiving care in traditional prenatal care models with either multiprovider or single-provider visits. Outcome measures included weight gain during pregnancy, compliance to prenatal care appointments, infant feeding method, postpartum follow up and contraceptive use postpartum. A χ(2) analysis was used to compare outcomes between the 3 groups at a 2-tailed α of .05. Fifty individuals were evaluated in each group. Adolescents in the CenteringPregnancy group were more likely to comply with prenatal and postpartum visits and to meet the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy than were adolescents in either multiprovider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) or single-provider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) groups. The CenteringPregnancy group was also more likely to solely breastfeed compared with adolescents in the multiprovider group (40.0% vs 20.0%, P = .03) and include breastfeeding in addition to bottle-feeding compared with both multiprovider (32.0% vs 14.0%, P = .03) and single-provider (32.0% vs 12.0%, P = .03) patient groups. Additionally, the CenteringPregnancy group had increased uptake of long-acting reversible contraception and were less likely to suffer from postpartum depression. CenteringPregnancy Prenatal Care program aids in compliance to prenatal visits, appropriate weight gain, increased uptake of highly effective contraception, and breastfeeding among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal and Postnatal Mother-to-Child Transmission of Acculturation's Health Effects in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Thayer, Zaneta M; Ramos, Isabel F; Meskal, Sarah J; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2018-04-02

    Hispanic Americans consistently exhibit an intergenerational increase in the prevalence of many noncommunicable chronic physical and mental disorders. We review and synthesize evidence suggesting that a constellation of prenatal and postnatal factors may play crucial roles in explaining this trend. We draw from relevant literature across several disciplines, including epidemiology, anthropology, psychology, medicine (obstetrics, neonatology), and developmental biology. Our resulting model is based on evidence that among women, the process of postmigration cultural adjustment (i.e., acculturation) is associated, during pregnancy and after delivery, with psychological and behavioral states that can affect offspring development in ways that may alter susceptibility to noncommunicable chronic disease risk in subsequent-generation Hispanic Americans. We propose one integrated process model that specifies the biological, behavioral, psychological, and sociocultural pathways by which maternal acculturation may influence the child's long-term health. We synthesize evidence from previous studies to describe how acculturation among Hispanic American mothers is associated with alterations to the same biobehavioral systems known to participate in the processes of prenatal and postnatal developmental programming of disease risk. In this manner, we focus on the concepts of biological and cultural mother-to-child transmission across the prenatal and postnatal life phases. We critique and draw from previous hypotheses that have sought to explain this phenomenon (of declining health across generations). We offer recommendations for examining the transgenerational effects of acculturation. A life course model with a greater focus on maternal health and well-being may be key to understanding transgenerational epidemiological trends in minority populations, and interventions that promote women's wellness may contribute to the elimination or reduction of health disparities.

  12. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  13. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurocognitive correlates of inhibitory control success and failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed  >  Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on focused attention in toddlers during free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J W; Hans, S L

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this study were: (1) to determine if 24-month-old children exposed to opioids show decreased focused attention during free play compared with children of the same age who were not prenatally exposed; (2) to identify medical and social risk factors other than drug exposure that are related to focused attention; and (3) to determine if mothers' teaching ability had an effect on attention. Focused attention was rated during a 3-minute free play session for 30 toddlers who were methadone-exposed and for 44 comparison toddlers. The mother teaching the child to use a toy was also rated separately from the free play session. There was no difference in focused attention of 24 month olds during free play based only on prenatal exposure. Despite group differences in medical and social risk factors, only maternal IQ was significantly related to focused attention. Maternal instruction was strongly related to focused attention and mediated the effects of maternal IQ on attention.

  15. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality in Chinese pregnant women: the mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Fang, Yueyan; Li, Ping

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, and to determine whether resilience plays a mediating role in the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality among pregnant women. Two hundred and thirty-one pregnant women in their second trimester participated in the study. They completed questionnaires, including: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS), and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10). A structural equation model was used to analyze the relationships among prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, with resilience as a mediator. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively associated with sleep quality in pregnant women (p relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality, and the mediation effect ratio was 22.0% (p stress; however, the protective factor for sleep quality was resilience. This finding could provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention strategies with which to improve sleep quality in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  18. Ionizing radiation and the conceptus: neurophysiologic effects of prenatal X-radiation on offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of the literature precedes the presentation of a radiation behavioral teratology study. The various types of radiation and the units of measure used in radiation biology are discussed. The concept of the radiation-induced teratogenic ''triad'' of growth retardation, malformation, and death is presented. A discussion of stage- and dose-dependent sensitivity to prenatal irradiation is followed by an introduction to behavioral teratology as a new interdisciplinary area of investigation, emphasizing postnatal psychophysiologic analyses of the effects of prenatal exposure. In the present study, rats were exposed to an acute dosage level of 0.6 Gy (60 RAD) X-radiation on day 9 or 17 of gestation. The neonates were given five neonatal reflex tests, observed for the appearance of four physiologic markers, and, as young adults, subjected to three of six behavioral tests. The irradiated offspring exhibited retarded postnatal growth and altered reflex and behavioral activity. These results indicate that irradiation at a dosage level which does not cause overt morphologic malformations at birth does result in altered postnatal growth and psychophysiologic development

  19. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: reproductive experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    A cohort of singleton black human females exposed to diagnostic x-ray in utero and controls matched by parity, hospital of birth and birthdate have been followed to ages 25 to 30 years in Baltimore, Maryland. The search for possible effects of prenatal irradiation has focused on health, growth, development, and reproductive experience of exposed and control women. This paper reports findings related to reproductive experience. From an original data set of 1458 matched exposed-control pairs of women, questionnaire responses were received from 1109 exposed and 1124 control women including 852 each from pairs in which both the exposed and control woman responded. After careful search for alternative explanations of the findings, the authors concluded that females exposed in utero to low doses of x-ray (probably 1 to 5 rads) had significant increases in their rates of early onset of menses, births at age 15 years or less, numbers of living children, stillbirths, and sterilizing operations by their mid-twenties. These findings are compatible with animal studies in which prenatal irradiation kills many oocytes, but accelerates the development of remaining cells to stages more closely correlated with fertility. Although these animals subsequently became sterile, this cannot be tested in the current study because significantly more of the irradiated women have had surgical sterilizations

  20. Gendered Peer Involvement in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Effects of Prenatal Androgens, Gendered Activities, and Gender Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Bryk, Kristina; McHale, Susan

    2018-05-01

    A key question in understanding gender development concerns the origins of sex segregation. Children's tendencies to interact with same-sex others have been hypothesized to result from gender identity and cognitions, behavioral compatibility, and personal characteristics. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to time spent with boys and girls, and how that gendered peer involvement was related to sex-typed activities and gender identity and cognitions. We studied 54 girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure: 40 girls with classical CAH (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical CAH (NC-CAH) exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Home interviews and questionnaires provided assessments of gendered activity interests and participation, gender identity, and gender cognitions. Daily phone calls over 7 days assessed time spent in gendered activities and with peers. Girls with both C-CAH and NC-CAH interacted more with girls than with boys, with no significant group differences. The groups did not differ significantly in gender identity or gender cognitions, but girls with C-CAH spent more time in male-typed activities and less time in female-typed activities than did girls with NC-CAH. Time spent with girls reflected direct effects of gender identity/cognitions and gender-typed activities, and an indirect effect of prenatal androgens (CAH type) through gender-typed activities. Our results extend findings that prenatal androgens differentially affect gendered characteristics and that gendered peer interactions reflect combined effects of behavioral compatibility and feelings and cognitions about gender. The study also shows the value of natural experiments for testing hypotheses about gender development.

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Huanhuan; Liang, Qianhong; Knibbs, Luke D; Ren, Meng; Li, Changchang; Bao, Junzhe; Wang, Suhan; He, Yiling; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Xuemei; Zhao, Qingguo; Huang, Cunrui

    2018-06-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on pregnant women is a concern in China. However, little is known about the association between air pollution and preeclampsia and the potential modifying effects of meteorological conditions have not been assessed. This study aimed to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution on preeclampsia, and to explore whether temperature and humidity modify the effects. We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 1.21 million singleton births from the birth registration system in Shenzhen, China, between 2005 and 2012. Daily average measurements of particulate matter air temperature (T), and dew point (T d ) were collected. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate associations between air pollution and preeclampsia during the first and second trimesters, and during the entire pregnancy. In each time window, we observed a positive gradient of increasing preeclampsia risk with increasing quartiles of PM 10 and SO 2 exposure. When stratified by T and T d in three categories (95th percentile), we found a significant interaction between PM 10 and T d on preeclampsia; the adverse effects of PM 10 increased with T d . During the entire pregnancy, there was a null association between PM 10 and preeclampsia under T d   95th percentile. We also found that air pollution effects on preeclampsia in autumn/winter seasons were stronger than those in the spring/summer. This is the first study to address modifying effects of meteorological factors on the association between air pollution and preeclampsia. Findings indicate that prenatal exposure to PM 10 and SO 2 increase preeclampsia risk in Shenzhen, China, and the effects could be modified by humidity. Pregnant women should limit air pollution exposure, particularly during humid periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  3. Childhood Maltreatment History, Posttraumatic Relational Sequelae, and Prenatal Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Design A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Setting Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. Participants This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Methods Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. Conclusion When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or have used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. PMID:23772546

  4. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome : preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  5. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome: preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  6. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  7. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.L.; Inouye, M.; Kiyono, S.; Shibagaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 100 rads of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were sham-irradiated on the same gestation day. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched, standard colony, and impoverished conditions for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. All the prenatally X-irradiated rats were microcephalic: their mean cerebral wet weight was 15.5% less than controls. The effect of X-irradiation was not significant in error scores and running times, whereas the effect of environment was significant in these items; initial and total error scores and running times were decreased in enriched groups compared to impoverished groups in controls as well as in X-irradiated animals

  8. Some effects of prenatal exposure to d-amphetamine sulfate and phenobarbital on developmental neurochemistry and on behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, J W; Middaugh, L D

    1975-01-01

    Amphetamine. Prenatal intraperitoneal injection of d-amphetamine sulfate (5 mg/kg) produces decreases in the levels of catecholamines in the brain the day of birth and increases on day 30. Open-field activity from days 12 to 31 was higher for the group of animals injected with amphetamine or saline if scores were totaled across all test days. At day 75 the offspring of amphetamine-injected mothers exhibited altered open-field behavior. The effects were not observed with subcutaneous injection regardless of the dose used (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg). The lowest subcutaneous dose decreases neonatal viability. Phenobarbital. Prenatal intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital (80 mg/kg) resulted in decreased litter size, increases mortality, and decreased amounts of nucleic acid and protein in the brains of surviving offspring. Behavioral deficits associated with response perseveration could be demonstrated at 60 days in the mice prenatally exposed to this dosage. Subcutaneous injections of phenobarbital to pregnant mice at 80 and 40 mg/kg, but not 20 mg/kg, doses increased neonatal mortality. Mature animals prenatally exposed to 40 mg/kg phenobarbital have altered open-field behavior and differ from control animals on a passive avoidance task. Mature offspring prenatally exposed to the 20 or 40 mg/kg dose also responded less than controls on an operant task requiring an increasing number of responses per reinforcement. These studies suggest that prenatal exposure to phenobarbital has in some way altered the animals' reactivity to stimualtion.

  9. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  10. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  11. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  12. Effect of a web-based positive psychology intervention on prenatal well-being : A case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corno, Giulia; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Espinoza, Macarena; Herrero, Rocío; Molinari, Guadelupe; Carrillo, Alba; Drossaert, Constance; Baños, Rosa Maria

    Background Detrimental effects of women’s negative feelings during pregnancy have been extensively examined and documented, but research on the influence of positive feelings and protective factors on their prenatal mental health is scarce. Evidence from the positive psychology field has shown that

  13. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  14. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  15. Prenatal zinc prevents communication impairments and BDNF disturbance in a rat model of autism induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Bernardi, Maria M; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS),which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induced autistic-like behavior. No effective treatment yet exists for autism. Therefore, we used our rat model to test a possible treatment for autism.We selected zinc as the prenatal treatment to prevent or ease the impairments induced by LPS because LPS induces hypozincaemia.Materials and methods:We evaluated the effects of LPS and zinc on female reproductive performance. Communication,which is impaired in autism,was tested in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were determined because it has been considered an autism important biomarker.Key findings: Prenatal LPS exposure reduced offspring number and treatment with zinc prevented this reduction.Moreover, pups that were prenatally exposed to LPS spent longer periods without calling their mothers, and posttreatment with zinc prevented this impairment induced by LPS to the same levels as controls. Prenatal LPS also increased BDNF levels in adult offspring, and posttreatment with zinc reduced the elevation of BDNF to the same levels as controls.Significance: BDNF hyperactivity was also found in several studies of autistic patients. Together with our previous studies, our model of prenatal LPS induced autistic-like behavioral, brain, and immune disturbances. This suggests that it is a valid rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc prevented reproductive, communication, and BDNF impairments.The present study revealed a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc administration for the prevention of autism with regard to the BDNF pathway.

  16. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  17. Delayed neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to MeHg in the cerebellum of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Delgado, Jeferson; Mingori, Moara Rodrigues; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Pureur, Regina Pessoa; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2018-03-01

    Human fetuses and neonates are particularly vulnerable to methylmercury (MeHg)-induced brain damage and are sensitive even to low exposure levels. Previous work of our group evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg causes cognitive and behavioral alterations and disrupt hippocampus signaling. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of gestational exposure of rats to MeHg at low doses (1 or 2 mg/kg) on parameters of redox imbalance and key signaling pathways in the cerebellum of their offspring. Pregnant females received MeHg (treated group) or 0.9% saline water (control group) by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 (GD5) until parturition and analyzes were proceed in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups. We found increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels as well as decreased SH content in pups prenatally exposed to 2 mg/kg MeHg. In addition, misregulated SOD/catalase activities supported imbalanced redox equilibrium. We found decreased GSK3β(Ser9) phosphorylation, suggesting activation of this enzyme and dephosphorylation/inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways. Increased PKAα catalytic subunit could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated c-Raf(Ser259) and downregulated MAPK pathway. In addition, we found raised levels of the Ca 2+ -dependent protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B). We also found preserved immunohistochemical staining for both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NeuN in MeHg-exposed pups. Western blot analysis showed unaltered levels of BAX/BCL-XL, BAD/BCL-2 and active caspase 3. Together, these findings support absence of reactive astrocytes, neuronal damage and apoptotic cell death in the cerebellum of MeHg treated pups. The present study provides evidence that prenatal exposure to MeHg leads to later redox imbalance and disrupted signaling mechanisms in the cerebellum of 30-day-old pups potentially predisposing them to long-lasting neurological impairments in CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Prenatal exposure to mercury and longitudinally assessed fetal growth: Relation and effect modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Guxens, Mònica; Basterretxea, Mikel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Lertxundi, Aitana; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Llop, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population. To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth. Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project. Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were measured by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Size at and growth between these points were assessed by standard deviation (SD) scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood. Associations were investigated by linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic, environmental, nutritional - including four seafood groups - and lifestyle-related variables in each sub-cohort. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Effect modification by sex, seafood intake and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentration was assessed. Geometric mean of cord blood T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. All the estimates of the association between prenatal Hg and growth from 0 to 12 weeks showed reductions in SD-scores, which were only statistically significant for BPD. A doubling of cord blood T-Hg was associated with a 0.58% reduction in size of BPD at week 12 (95% confidence interval -CI-: - 1.10, - 0.07). Size at week 34 showed estimates suggestive of a small reduction in EFW, i.e., a doubling of T-Hg levels was associated with a reduction of 0.38% (95% CI: - 0.91, 0.15). An interaction between PCB153 and T-Hg was found, with statistically significant negative associations of T-Hg with AC and EFW in late pregnancy among participants with PCB153 below the median. Exposure to mercury during pregnancy was associated with early reductions in BPD. Moreover, an antagonism with

  19. Effects of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure: From Minamata Disease to Environmental Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Itai, Takaaki; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Methylmercury, the causative agent of Minamata disease, can easily penetrate the brain, and adult-type Minamata disease patients showed neurological symptoms according to the brain regions where the neurons, mainly in the cerebrum and cerebellum, were damaged. In addition, fetuses are exposed to methylmercury via the placenta from maternal fish consumption, and high-level exposure to methylmercury causes damage to the brains of infants. Typical patients with fetal-type Minamata disease (i.e., serious poisoning caused by in utero exposure to methylmercury) were born during the period of severe methylmercury pollution in 1955-1959, although they showed no abnormality during gestation nor at delivery. However, they showed difficulties in head control, sitting, and walking, and showed disturbances in mental development, these symptoms that are similar to those of cerebral palsy, during the growth periods after birth. The impaired development of fetal-type Minamata disease patients was one of the most tragic and characteristic feature of Minamata disease. In this review, we first summarize 1) the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure in Minamata disease. Then, we introduce the studies that were conducted mainly by Sakamoto et al. as follows: 2) a retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury pollution in Minamata area using preserved umbilical cord methylmercury, 3) decline in male sex ratio observed in Minamata area, 4) characteristics of hand tremor and postural sway in fetal-type Minamata disease patients, 5) methylmercury transfer from mothers to infants during gestation and lactation (the role of placenta), 6) extrapolation studies using rat models on the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on the human brain, and 7) risks and benefits of fish consumption.

  20. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  1. Effect on school performance of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    As a part of the continuing assessment of the effects on the developing embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation, the school performances of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and a suitable comparison group have been studied. In this report, the changes in performance in seven school subjects according to dose are compared under the T65DR dosimetry heretofore used by ABCC-RERF, and the new dosimetry (DS86) installed in 1986. Those survivors with school performance records but without T65DR doses, or not exposed in utero, or without school records are excluded. Thus, the T65DR study group consists of 1,090 children, including 14 clinically diagnosed cases of mental retardation. The findings can be summarized as follows: Damage to the 8-15 week fetal brain appears to be lincarly related to the fetal absorbed dose, as judged by the simple regression of average school performance score on dose. This is so for both the T65DR study group and the DS86 sample with or without the 14 cases of retardation. Damage to the fetus exposed at 16-25 weeks after fertilization appears similar to that seen in the 8-15 week group. Canonical and multiple correlations also show a highly significant relationship of exposure 8-15 weeks and 16-25 weeks after fertilization to achievement in school. This trend is stronger, however, in the earliest years of schooling. In the groups exposed within 0-7 weeks following fertilization, or 26 or more weeks after fertilization, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on scholastic performance. These results parallel those previously found in prenatally exposed survivors with respect to achievement in standard intelligence tests in childhood. (author)

  2. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  3. Effects of continuous low-dose prenatal irradiation on neuronal migration in mouse cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo-Taguchi, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Yuji; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Fushiki, Shinji; Kinoshita, Chikako.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of continuous exposure to γ-rays during corticogenesis on the migration of neuronal cells in developing cerebral cortex. Pregnant mice were injected with 0.5 mg of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 14 of gestation to label cells in the S phase. The mice were then exposed to 137 Cs γ-rays (dose rates of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.94 Gy/day) continuously for 3 days. Brains from 17-day-old embryos and from offspring at 3 and 8 weeks after birth were processed immunohistochemically to track the movements of BrdU-labeled cells. Comparative analyses of the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells in the cerebral cortex revealed that the migration of neurons was delayed during the embryonic period in mice irradiated at 0.94 Gy/day, in 3-week-old mice, there was a significant difference in the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells in the cerebral cortex between the mice irradiated prenatally and control, and in 8-week-old mice, there were no differences in the distribution pattern of BrdU-labeled cells between control and animals irradiated with 0.1 and 0.3 Gy/day. In contrast, in the animals irradiated with 0.94 Gy/day, the significant difference in the distribution pattern of the labeled cells relative to control was maintained. These results suggest that the migration of neuronal cells in mouse cerebral cortex is disturbed by continuous prenatal irradiation at low-dose and some modificational process occurred during the postnatal period. (author)

  4. Effect of portfolio assessment on student learning in prenatal training for midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Moafi, Farnoosh

    2011-01-01

    The tendency to use portfolios for evaluation has been developed with the aim of optimizing the culture of assessment. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of using portfolios as an evaluation method on midwifery students' learning and satisfaction in prenatal practical training. In this prospective cohort study, all midwifery students in semester four (n=40), were randomly allocated to portfolio and routine evaluation groups. Based on their educational goals, the portfolio groups prepared packages which consisted of a complete report of the history, physical examinations, and methods of patient management (as evaluated by a checklist) for women who visited a prenatal clinic. During the last day of their course, a posttest, clinical exam, and student satisfaction form were completed. The two groups' mean age, mean pretest scores, and their prerequisite course that they should have taken in the previous semester were similar. The mean difference in the pre and post test scores for the two groups' knowledge and comprehension levels did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The average scores on questions in Bloom's taxonomy 2 and 3 of the portfolio group were significantly greater than those of the routine evaluation group (P=0.002, P=0.03, respectively). The mean of the two groups' clinical exam scores was significantly different. The portfolio group's mean scores on generating diagnostic and therapeutic solutions and the ability to apply theory in practice were higher than those of the routine group. Overall, students' satisfaction scores in the two evaluation methods were relatively similar. Portfolio evaluation provides the opportunity for more learning by increasing the student's participation in the learning process and helping them to apply theory in practice.

  5. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of cerebral cortex: I. Neuronal generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes profound disruptions in the development of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effect of in utero ethanol exposure on the generation of neurons was determined. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet in which ethanol constituted 37.5% of the total caloric content (Et) or pair-fed an isocaloric control diet (Ct) from gestational day (GD) 6 to the day of birth. The time of origin of cortical neurons was determined in the mature pups of females injected with [3H]thymidine on one day during the period from GD 10 to the day of birth. The brains were processed by standard autoradiographic techniques. Ethanol exposure produced multiple defects in neuronal ontogeny. The period of generation was 1-2 days later for Et-treated rats than for rats exposed prenatally to either control diet. Moreover, the generation period was 1-2 days longer in Et-treated rats. The numbers of neurons generated on a specific day was altered; from GD 12-19 significantly fewer neurons were generated in Et-treated rats than in Ct-treated rats, whereas after GD 19 more neurons were born. The distribution of neurons generated on a specific day was disrupted; most notable was the distribution of late-generated neurons in deep cortex of Et-treated rats rather than in superficial cortex as they are in controls. Cortical neurons in Et-treated rats tended to be smaller than in Ct-treated rats, particularly early generated neurons in deep cortex. The late-generated neurons in Et-treated rats were of similar size to those in Ct-treated rats despite their abnormal position in deep cortex. Neurons in Ct-treated rats tended to be rounder than those in Et-treated rats which were more polarized in the radial orientation

  6. Effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentration on the third month's weight and blood pressure in wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereidoun, H.

    2009-01-01

    In utero alterations in fluid and electrolyte endocrine systems may result in permanent effects on offspring. A low sodium intake during prenatal life jeopardizes growth in young rats, prenatal high-salt diet in Sprague-Dawley rats caused an increase in MAP at postnatal day 30. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure in Wistar rat. This study was performed at the Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran, over a period from 1998 to 2003. Six groups of rat, 1 male and 5 female in each group were exposed to 0.5, 1, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2 percent of salt concentrations during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation period, another test group consumed distilled water and control group used Isfahan tap water, other living conditions for all groups were similar. Exposure to different salt concentrations on the third month's weight and blood pressure was evaluated. Prenatal exposure to 0.5 and 1% salt concentrations gives birth to more alive and healthy infants, and third month's weight increased significantly, but blood pressure was not influenced significantly. Salt concentrations higher than 1% increased the maternal and infant mortality rate and blood pressure significantly, but some concentrations decreased third month's weight significantly. Level of dietary salt during intrauterine development can influence on the number of alive and healthy infants, birth weight, third month' weight and blood pressure significantly. There is no need to introduce a salt restricted diet in prenatal care, a balanced diet in sodium during pregnancy is recommended, high salt diet creates harmful effect. (author)

  7. Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use

  8. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  9. Body Mass Index at 3 Years of Age: Cascading Effects of Prenatal Maternal Depression and Mother-Infant Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Moore, Elizabeth S

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of mothers' prenatal depression on parenting during infancy, ensuing childhood regulation, and body mass index (BMI) at age 3 years. The sample (N = 284) included teen mothers (n = 157), adult mothers with low education (n = 69), and adult mothers with high education (n = 58), and their first-born children. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally through self-report; observational methods and self-report were used to assess mothers' parenting at 4, 6, and 8 months and children's regulation at 18, 24, and 30 months of age. Child BMI was measured at 36 months of age in the laboratory. Structural equation modeling supported mediating processes such that mothers who reported more depressive symptoms prenatally exhibited less positive parenting during infancy. In turn, less positive parenting predicted lower levels of child regulation during toddlerhood, which predicted higher child BMIs at 36 months of age, even after controlling for infant birth weight and concurrent maternal BMI. Models comparing groups (teen mothers, adult low-educated mothers, and adult-high educated mothers) indicated mean differences in maternal depression, parenting, and child regulation, but similar patterns of prediction across groups. The present study provides evidence of cascading psychosocial processes beginning prenatally and continuing through infancy, toddlerhood, and into early childhood. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early onset obesity in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of married women's beliefs about gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Zhang, Qiaoli; Yang, Li; Ye, Jianli; Lv, Mentao

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of married women's beliefs regarding gender equity on their use of prenatal and delivery care in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces. In this survey, 1029 women aged from 15 to 69 years, living in rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces, and married, answered a questionnaire designed to collect information on their demographic characteristics, reproductive history (number of pregnancies, level of prenatal care, and mode and place of delivery), and beliefs regarding gender equity. We quantified "belief in gender equity" based on responses to 7 specific statements and graded the responses according to a system scoring the strength of the overall belief (a total score ≥19, strong; 15-18, moderate; and ≤14, weak). Only 34.3% of the women demonstrated strong convictions about gender equity. Even after adjusting for education and ethnicity, the percentage of women who received consistent prenatal care and were delivered at a maternity facility was highest among those scoring 19 or higher, and the reverse was true for women scoring 14 or less. Overall, women in China's rural Xinjiang and Anhui provinces do not hold strong convictions about gender equity. There was a positive correlation between belief in gender equity and use of prenatal and delivery care. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of different strategies in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome: cost effectiveness analysis of computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Gagné, Geneviève; Bujold, Emmanuel; Douillard, Daniel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Reinharz, Daniel; Rousseau, François

    2009-02-13

    To assess and compare the cost effectiveness of three different strategies for prenatal screening for Down's syndrome (integrated test, sequential screening, and contingent screenings) and to determine the most useful cut-off values for risk. Computer simulations to study integrated, sequential, and contingent screening strategies with various cut-offs leading to 19 potential screening algorithms. The computer simulation was populated with data from the Serum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study (SURUSS), real unit costs for healthcare interventions, and a population of 110 948 pregnancies from the province of Québec for the year 2001. Cost effectiveness ratios, incremental cost effectiveness ratios, and screening options' outcomes. The contingent screening strategy dominated all other screening options: it had the best cost effectiveness ratio ($C26,833 per case of Down's syndrome) with fewer procedure related euploid miscarriages and unnecessary terminations (respectively, 6 and 16 per 100,000 pregnancies). It also outperformed serum screening at the second trimester. In terms of the incremental cost effectiveness ratio, contingent screening was still dominant: compared with screening based on maternal age alone, the savings were $C30,963 per additional birth with Down's syndrome averted. Contingent screening was the only screening strategy that offered early reassurance to the majority of women (77.81%) in first trimester and minimised costs by limiting retesting during the second trimester (21.05%). For the contingent and sequential screening strategies, the choice of cut-off value for risk in the first trimester test significantly affected the cost effectiveness ratios (respectively, from $C26,833 to $C37,260 and from $C35,215 to $C45,314 per case of Down's syndrome), the number of procedure related euploid miscarriages (from 6 to 46 and from 6 to 45 per 100,000 pregnancies), and the number of unnecessary terminations (from 16 to 26 and from 16 to 25 per 100

  12. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  13. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  14. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...

  15. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of prenatal stress on fetal and child development: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graignic-Philippe, R; Dayan, J; Chokron, S; Jacquet, A-Y; Tordjman, S

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have examined effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and fetal development, especially on prematurity and birthweight, and more recently long-term effects on child behavioral and emotional development. These studies are reviewed and their limitations are discussed with regard to definitions (including the concepts of stress and anxiety), stress measurements, samples, and control for confounds such as depression. It appears necessary to assess individual stress reactivity prospectively and separately at each trimester of pregnancy, to discriminate chronic from acute stress, and to take into consideration moderator variables such as past life events, sociocultural factors, predictability, social support and coping strategies. Furthermore, it might be useful to examine simultaneously, during but also after pregnancy, stress, anxiety and depression in order to understand better their relationships and to evaluate their specific effects on pregnancy and child development. Finally, further research could benefit from an integrated psychological and biological approach studying together subjective perceived stress and objective physiological stress responses in pregnant women, and their effects on fetal and child development as well as on mother-infant interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Prenatal Stress and Social Enrichment: Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-17

    whom I am eternally grateful. The first person is my coach and mentor, Neil E. Grunberg, Ph.D. There is no one who knows the " sport " of training...reported that prenatally stressed male rats actually showed a demasculinization and feminization of their sexual behavior. If female rats show a...masculinization in response to prenatal stress and males show a feminization , then the current findings could be viewed in the context of femaleS

  18. Effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptoms on adopted child HPA regulation: independent and moderated influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Reiss, David

    2013-05-01

    This study used a prospective adoption design to investigate effects of prenatal and postnatal parent depressive symptom exposure on child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and associated internalizing symptoms. Birth mother prenatal symptoms and adoptive mother/father postnatal (9-month, 27-month) symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory in a sample of 192 families as part of the Early Growth and Development adoption Study. Child morning/evening cortisol levels and child symptoms of internalizing disorders (according to mother/father report on the Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed at 54 months, and birth mother diurnal cortisol was measured at 48 months postnatal. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test main effects and interactions of parents' symptoms predicting child cortisol, controlling for birth mother cortisol. Prenatal exposure to birth mother symptoms predicted lower child cortisol (main effect), as did postnatal exposure to adoptive parent symptoms (interaction effects). Adoptive mother 9-month symptoms exacerbated cortisol-lowering effects of both concurrent paternal symptoms and later (27-month) maternal symptoms, and the effect of birth mother cortisol. Lower child cortisol, in turn, was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms. Implications are discussed with respect to the intergenerational transmission of depression risk.

  19. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  20. Enzymatic method for the sensitive demonstration of postnatal effects caused by prenatal X-irradiation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, L.W.D.; Schmahl, W.G.; Kriegel, H.

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the activities (per gram of wet tissue) of mouse brain acetylcholinesterase and Na, K-ATPase, with respect to the effects brought about by a prenatal X-ray dose. Pregnant NMRI mice received an X-ray dose of 0.24, 0.49, 0.95 or 1.9 Gy each on the 12th day of gestation. Investigations on the offspring were performed on the day of birth and the postnatal days 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 23, 34, 48 and 64, respectively. The brain weights were reduced by the X-ray treatment dose - dependently and without recovery. This was well discernible after 0.24 Gy and reached about 40% reduction after 1.9 Gy. There were significant differences between irradiated and control enzyme activities on most of the days examined. On the 48th postnatal day both enzymes' activities were thoroughly elevated after 0.24 and 0.49 Gy. This could be reproduced in another test series with 0.49 Gy, but vanished when enzyme activities were related to the brain protein contents. As a more reliable parameter of the developmental age brain weights were compared to the corresponding enzyme activities. (orig./MG)

  1. Bystander effects, adaptive response and genomic instability induced by prenatal irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian [Institute for Science and Ethics, University Duisburg-Essen, Auf dem Sutan 12, D-45239 Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: streffer.essen@t-online.de

    2004-12-02

    The developing human embryo and fetus undergo very radiosensitive stages during the prenatal development. It is likely that the induction of low dose related effects such as bystander effects, the adaptive response, and genomic instability would have profound effects on embryonic and fetal development. In this paper, I review what has been reported on the induction of these three phenomena in exposed embryos and fetuses. All three phenomena have been shown to occur in murine embryonic or fetal cells and structures, although the induction of an adaptive response (and also likely the induction of bystander effects) are limited in terms of when during development they can be induced and the dose or dose-rate used to treat animals in utero. In contrast, genomic instability can be induced throughout development, and the effects of radiation exposure on genome instability can be observed for long times after irradiation including through pre- and postnatal development and into the next generation of mice. There are clearly strain-specific differences in the induction of these phenomena and all three can lead to long-term detrimental effects. This is true for the adaptive response as well. While induction of an adaptive response can make fetuses more resistant to some gross developmental defects induced by a subsequent high dose challenge with ionizing radiation, the long-term effects of this low dose exposure are detrimental. The negative effects of all three phenomena reflect the complexity of fetal development, a process where even small changes in the timing of gene expression or suppression can have dramatic effects on the pattern of biological events and the subsequent development of the mammalian organism.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduces the effects of excitatory amino acids in the rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.

    1989-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion during pregnancy can lead to the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a disorder marked by learning disabilities. A rat model of FAS was used by introducing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a liquid diet containing 35% ethanol-derived calories (E), while a second group was pair-fed an isocaloric liquid diet without ethanol (P). A third group of pregnant dams received ad libitum lab chow (C). At parturition, pups from the E and P groups were cross fostered by C mothers and all groups received lab chow. During adulthood, male offspring were sacrificed and hippocampal and prefrontal cortical slices were prelabeled with [3H]inositol. Phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis was determined by measuring the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates in the presence of LiCl in response to activation of various excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. In hippocampal slices, ibotenate- and quisqualate-induced PI hydrolysis was reduced in E compared to P and C animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis, evident in P and C animals, was completely abolished in the hippocampus of E animals. In contrast, in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, this inhibitory effect of NMDA prevailed even in the E animals. The evidence suggests that prenatal ethanol exposure alters the activity of EAA receptors in the hippocampal generation of 2nd messengers

  3. Investigating Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Toxic Metals in Newborns: Challenges and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Monica D; Fry, Rebecca C; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggest that epigenetic alterations can greatly impact human health, and that epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs) may be particularly relevant in responding to environmental toxicant exposure early in life. The epigenome plays a vital role in embryonic development, tissue differentiation and disease development by controlling gene expression. In this review we discuss what is currently known about epigenetic alterations in response to prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) and lead (Pb), focusing specifically on their effects on DNA methylation. We then describe how epigenetic alterations are being studied in newborns as potential biomarkers of in utero environmental toxicant exposure, and the benefits and challenges of this approach. In summary, the studies highlighted herein indicate how epigenetic mechanisms are impacted by early life exposure to iAs and Pb, and the research that is being done to move towards understanding the relationships between toxicant-induced epigenetic alterations and disease development. Although much remains unknown, several groups are working to understand the correlative and causal effects of early life toxic metal exposure on epigenetic changes and how these changes may result in later development of disease.

  4. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhavsky, B Ya; Lebedko, O A; Belolubskaya, D S

    2008-08-01

    The effects of histochrome on the severity of delayed effects of prenatal exposure to lead nitrate were studied in the rat brain. Exposure of pregnant rats to lead nitrate during activation of free radical oxidation reduced activity of NADH- and NADPH-dehydrogenases in cortical neurons of their 40-day-old progeny, reduced the number of neurons in a visual field, increased the number of pathologically modified neurons, and stimulated rat motor activity in an elevated plus-maze. Two intraperitoneal injections of histochrome in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before and after lead citrate challenge attenuated the manifestations of oxidative stress and prevented the changes in some morphological and histochemical parameters of the brain, developing under the effect of lead exposure.

  6. Effects of prenatal caffeine exposure on glucose homeostasis of adult offspring rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Wang, Gui-hua; Pei, Lin-guo; Zhang, Li; Shi, Chai; Guo, Yu; Wu, Dong-fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological evidences show that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR offspring also present glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after maturity. We have previously demonstrated that PCE induced IUGR and increased susceptibility to adult metabolic syndrome in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of PCE on glucose homeostasis in adult offspring rats. Pregnant rats were administered caffeine (120 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) from gestational days 11 to 20. PCE offspring presented partial catch-up growth pattern after birth, characterizing by the increased body weight gain rates. Meanwhile, PCE had no significant influences on the basal blood glucose and insulin phenotypes of adult offspring but increased the glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin section and β cell sensitivity to glucose in female progeny. The insulin sensitivity of both male and female PCE offspring were enhanced accompanied with reduced β cell fraction and mass. Western blotting results revealed that significant augmentation in protein expression of hepatic insulin signaling elements of PCE females, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt), was also potentiated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PCE reduced the pancreatic β mass but increased the glucose tolerance in adult offspring rats, especially for females. The adaptive compensatory enhancement of β cell responsiveness to glucose and elevated insulin sensitivity mainly mediated by upregulated hepatic insulin signaling might coordinately contribute to the increased glucose tolerance.

  7. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE): insights into FASD using mouse models of PAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Berardino; Weinberg, Joanne; Hicks, Geoffrey G

    2018-04-01

    The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and many others showing few or no overt signs of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models, variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration, and gestational timing of exposure to alcohol can all be controlled in a way that is not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse models of PAE and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioral phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes. Analysis of these data should provide a valuable tool for researchers wishing to choose the PAE model best suited to their research questions or to investigate established PAE models for FASD comorbidities. It should also allow recognition of patterns linking gestational timing, dosage, and duration of PAE, such as recognizing that binge alcohol exposure(s) during early gestation can lead to severe FASD outcomes. Identified patterns could be particularly insightful and lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying FASD.

  9. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Hypoxia on Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype in Heterozygous Reeler Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hypoxia (PHX) is a well-known environmental factor implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the long-term effects of PHX on schizophrenia-related neuroplasticity are poorly understood. Using behavioral tasks, MRI imaging, and biochemical studies, we examined the long-term effects of PHX in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM; mice deficient for reelin, a candidate gene for schizophrenia). PHX at E17 failed to induce any significant deficits in prepulse inhibition, spatial memory, anxiety-like behavior, or blood flow in wild type (WT) and HRM at 6 months of age. However, PHX induced a significant increase in frontal cortex volume in WT whereas the higher frontal cortical volume found in HRM was significantly reduced by PHX. A significant decrease in reelin levels was observed in frontal cortex of WT and HRM and hippocampus of HRM following PHX. In addition, PHX induced significant reductions in hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. Although no significant effect of PHX was observed in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in frontal cortex and hippocampus of WT and HRM, serum VEGF levels were found higher in HRM following PHX. Moreover, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels were significantly lower in frontal cortex of WT and HRM and hippocampus of HRM following PHX. We found a significant reduction in serum corticosterone levels of PHX-treated WT mice. These findings suggest that future experiments addressing gene-environment interaction in schizophrenia should consider age-dependent effects of the environmental factor, in addition to the specificity of the gene of interest.

  12. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  13. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  14. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  15. Effects of continuous prenatal γ radiation on the pig and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, B.H.; Martin, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    Little is known of the effects of continuous low-level irradiation applied prenatally to the long-lived mammal. As compared with the rodent, developmental events are protracted in long-lived species and consequently are at risk longer. Estimation of radiation risk to man therefore requires data from animals in which developmental events are similarly protracted. Pigs were irradiated continuously for the first 108 days of their 112-day gestation period at rates of 20, 9, 3 and 1.5 R per 22-hour day. Six pregnant gilts and six controls were employed at each dose rate. Foetal doses were 7, 3, 1 and 0.5 rad/d. Neither the health of the gilt nor the number of live births was affected by any exposure. Postnatal viability was also unaffected. Radiation effects on growth and organic development were assayed at birth, 70 and 150 days of age. Body weight and growth were unaffected by dose rates of 3 rad/d or less; and other than the gonad, only the weight of the brain was affected by 3 rad/d. At 1 rad/d or less only gonadal weight was reduced. The most spectacular finding at doses of 7 and 3 rad/d was sterility in both sexes. Following 1 rad/d, germ-cell number was reduced to 5% and 2% of control in the female and male, respectively. At 0.5 rad/d/, germ cells were reduced to 43% of control in the female and 11% of control in the male. In contrast to the pig, 7 rad/d reduced the germ-cell population of male and female rats to only 49% and 35% of control, respectively, and 1 rad/d produced no apparent effect in either sex. It appears, therefore, that interspecific differences in the response to continuous γ radiation are large and that the germ cell is the most labile cell type. (author)

  16. Differential effects of chronic ingestion of tritiated water on prenatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1990-01-01

    Female rats were given tritiated drinking water (3 microCi/ml) from 30 days before mating up to and throughout pregnancy. At this low dose, the course and the outcome of pregnancy were normal. The differences between newborn body and cerebral weights of the treated rats and those of control animals were on the borderline of significance. In contrast, cerebral DNA and cerebral protein were highly significantly lower. In 30-35% of the treated population the DNA and protein values were more than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean values for the control population. Thus the number of the progeny of the mothers exposed to tritiated water that were considered to have outstandingly low levels of DNA and protein was 14-17 times greater than in the control group. The irradiated population also had 3-5% of severely affected individuals with cerebral DNA and protein values more than 2 SD below the mean of the experimental population. However, even in this irradiated population, a certain number of individuals did not show the effects of radiation as indicated by DNA and protein values that were not lower than the mean values of the control population. These animals may represent those individuals in which normal (control) populations would have cerebral DNA and protein levels well above the average (by 1 to 2 SD), but here, because of prenatal irradiation, were about average. If so, this lack of effect of irradiation cannot be caused by protection against radiation. However, at present, a differential repair mechanism of protection in those animals (or their mothers) that showed little or no effect of irradiation cannot be excluded

  17. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  18. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  19. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and early experience on home-cage and open-field activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, H K; Opitz, B; Werner, R; Clausing, P

    1996-01-01

    -C57BL/6 mice were intubated from gestational day 14-18 twice daily with 1.58 g/kg ethanol, 4.2 g/kg sucrose, or remained untreated. Offspring of ethanol treated or lab chow control groups were raised either by group-housed dams and weaned on postnatal day (PND) 28 or by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Offspring of the sucrose control group were raised by individually housed dams and weaned on PND 21. Groups did not differ in pup weight or litter size. Offspring were assessed for home-cage activity (PND 36-38) and open-field behavior (PND 40-42). Mice prenatally exposed to ethanol showed increased activity in their home cages, whereas open-field behavior was generally not different from that of control groups. Conversely, different preweaning rearing conditions had affected open-field behavior, but not home-cage activity. In conclusion, home-cage behavior was a sensitive paradigm for detecting hyperactivity subsequent to a relatively low dose of prenatal ethanol in mice, and communal nesting/late weaning vs. individual nesting/ standard weaning may be a useful preweaning environmental manipulation to study possible modifications of prenatal neurobehavioral effects.

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  1. Are there any remarkable effects of prenatal exposure to food colourings on neurobehaviour and learning process in rat offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Ilhan, Ilter; Kulac, Esin; Gultekin, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been discussed to have adverse effects on cognition and behaviour in children. In this study, our aim was to assess the probable side effects of prenatal exposure to colouring food additives on neurobehaviour and spatial learning process. We administered 'no observable adverse effect levels' (NOAELs) of common used AFCAs as a mixture (erythrosine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubine and Indigotine) to female rats before and during gestation and tested their effects on spatial working memory and behaviour in their offspring. Effects of AFCAs on spatial working memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural and locomotor effects by open-field and forced-swim tests. Prenatal exposure to commonly used AFCAs had no adverse effects on spatial working memory; however, assessment of interaction of sex and AFCAs on 'latency to locate the visible platform', which was used as a measure of motivation, showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05) on female rats. In addition, AFCAs caused an increase in anxiolytic like effect in the open-field test (P < 0.05) and an increase in mobility time (P < 0.05) in the forced-swim test. We also detected a significant interaction of sex and AFCAs on forced-swim test parameters (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that prenatal exposure to NOAELs of AFCAs resulted in implicit adverse effects that caused an increase in motility and a decrease in motivation and anxiety in offspring in sex-related manner.

  2. The effect of ketogenic diet in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Baronio, Diego; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar Dos Santos; Gottfried, Carmem

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and by restricted repetitive behaviors and interests. Its etiology is still unknown, but different environmental factors during pregnancy, such as exposure to valproic acid (VPA), are associated with high incidence of ASD in children. In this context, prenatal exposure to VPA in rodents has been used as a reliable model of ASD. Ketogenic diet (KD) is an alternative therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy; however, the effects of this approach in ASD-like behavior need to be evaluated. We conducted a behavioral assessment of the effects of KD in the VPA model of autism. Pregnant animals received a single-intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg VPA, and their offspring were separated into four groups: (1) control group with standard diet (C-SD), (2) control group with ketogenic diet (C-KD), (3) VPA group with standard diet (VPA-SD), and (4) VPA group with ketogenic diet (VPA-KD). When compared with the control group, VPA animals presented increased social impairment, repetitive behavior and higher nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, the VPA group fed with KD presented improvements in social behavior. These mice displayed higher scores in sociability index and social novelty index when compared with the SD-fed VPA mice. VPA mice chronically exposed to a KD presented behavioral improvements; however, the mechanism by which KD improves ASD-like features needs to be further investigated. In conclusion, the present study reinforces the potential use of KD as a treatment for the core deficits of ASD.

  3. The neurotoxic effects of prenatal gabapentin and oxcarbazepine exposure on newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisgin, Zuleyha; Ayas, Bulent; Nyengaard, Jens R; Ercument Beyhun, N; Terzi, Yuksel

    2017-10-05

    Teratogenicity is a problematic issue for pregnant women because of X-ray radiation, drugs, and genetic and unknown variables. First-generation antiepileptic drugs (AED) like valproic acid are well-known teratogens for developing fetuses. However, their usage is necessary in order to prevent maternal seizures. The underlying mechanism of birth defects associated with AED exposure remains unclear and information about the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to AED is still limited. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) are second-generation AED. It still remains unclear how much these drugs are safe during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate whether any neurotoxic effect of OXC and GBP in utero exposure on the developing brain. Eighteen pregnant Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. The first group was exposed to OXC at 100 mg/kg/day, the second to GBP at 50 mg/kg/day, and third to saline (0.9% NaCl) at 1.5 ml/day between the first and the fifth days of gestation. The same procedure was applied at the same dosages between the 6th and the 15th days of gestation for the 2nd three groups. Five female offspring (total n = 30, 45 days old) were taken from each group and stereological methods were applied in order to analyze the total and dopaminergic neuron number of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The result is that the OXC and GBP exposure at different gestational periods may not give rise to congenital malformation and it appears that the GBP exposure during the organogenesis period proliferatively affects the total number of neurons.

  4. Effect on school performance of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-01

    As a part of the continuing assessment of the effects on the developing embryonic and fetal brain of exposure to ionizing radiation, the school performances of prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and a suitable comparison group have been studied. In this report, the changes in performance in seven school subjects according to dose are compared under the T65DR dosimetry heretofore used by ABCC-RERF, and the new dosimetry (DS86) installed in 1986. Those survivors with school performance records but without T65DR doses, or not exposed in utero, or without school records are excluded. Thus, the T65DR study group consists of 1,090 children, including 14 clinically diagnosed cases of mental retardation. DS86 tissue doses are not yet available on 161 individuals, mostly those with T65DR doses less than 0.10 Gy. The DS86 sample thus involves 929 children (85.2 %) of the T65DR study group and includes the same 14 severely mentally retarded persons. The findings can be summarized as follows: Damage to the 8 - 15 week fetal brain appears to be linearly related to the fetal absorbed dose, as judged by the simple regression of average school performance score on dose. This is so for both the T65DR study group and the DS86 sample with or without the 14 cases of retardation. Damage to the fetus exposed at 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization appears similar to that seen in the 8 - 15 week group. Canonical and multiple correlations also show a highly significant relationship of exposure 8 - 15 weeks and 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization to achievement in school. This trend is stronger, however, in the earliest years of schooling. In the groups exposed within 0 - 7 weeks following fertilization, or 26 or more weeks after fertilization, there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on scholastic performance. (author)

  5. Lipid spectrum of the newborn rats' blood at the radioactive and chemical effects in the prenatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzan, Kh.

    1998-01-01

    The radioactive and chemical factors used in complex or separately during the prenatal period in the experiment induce ambiguous effects on the lipid metabolism in blood plasma and erythrocytes of newborn rats. The chemicals cause more significant changes in the blood plasma lipid metabolism than the radioactive irradiation does. Being used combined the radioactive and chemical factors do not increase each other's effect- their effects have opposite directions. The radiochemical exposure induce more significant shifts in the lipid spectrum in erythrocytic membranes than the separate factors

  6. Maternal interaction quality moderates effects of prenatal maternal emotional symptoms on girls’ internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; de Bruijn, A.; van Bakel, H.J.A.; Wijnen, H.; Pop, V.J.M.; van Baar, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of

  7. Maternal Interaction Quality Moderates Effects of Prenatal Maternal Emotional Symptoms on Girls’ Internalizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce; De Bruijn, Anouk T.c.e.; van Bakel, Hedwig J.A.; Wijnen, Hennie A.a.; Pop, Victor J.m.; van Baar, Anneloes

    2017-01-01

    The role of mother–infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioralproblems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the “exposed group” (n = 46), consisting of mothers withhigh levels of

  8. The effects of prenatal education intervention on unwed prospective adolescent fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westney, O E; Cole, O J; Munford, T L

    1988-05-01

    This study assesses the impact of a prenatal education program dealing with human sexuality, pregnancy, prenatal care, labor, delivery, and infant and child care on the unwed expectant adolescent father. It also assesses the relationship between the father's knowledge in these areas and his supportive behaviors toward the adolescent mother and the expected infant. The 28 black 15-18-year-old adolescent males who volunteered to participate in the study were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 13). Each was pretested (T-1) with Form A of a 75-item prenatal questionnaire, and posttested (T-2) with Form B of the same instrument after an intervention for the experimental group, or 4 weeks after the initial assessment for the comparison group. Findings suggest significant gains in knowledge for the experimental group at T-2 versus T-1 with regard to 1) pregnancy and prenatal care, and 2) infant development and child care. The data also suggest that fathers who were more informed tended to report more supportive behaviors toward the mother and the infant.

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and social integration: an effect of prenatal sex hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, P.; Davidson, M. W.; Haim, D. A.; Carcelli, S.; Fowler, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2017), s. 476-489 ISSN 2050-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : social networks * digit ratio * prenatal and rogens Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics

  10. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Burse, Virlyn W.

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  11. Effect of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five pregnant Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 Gy X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation to determined if prenatal X-irradiation would result in alterations in postnatal growth or growth rate. The mothers delivered their offspring, and the litters were reduced to a maximum of eight per litter on the second postnatal day. The 336 offspring were weighed weekly from day 3 until day 86, at which time they were killed, an autopsy was performed, and selected organs were removed and weighed. Postnatal growth rates did not differ significantly in irradiated offspring compared to sham irradiated animals. Irradiation on the 9th day, at any of the 3 dosage levels, did not result in significant differences in weekly weight. Weekly weight remained significantly lower due to irradiation on the 17th day of gestation. The gonadal weight ratio was significantly reduced in males irradiated on the 9th day. There were not other statistically significant changes in organ weight or organ/body weight ratios due to these levels of prenatal X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of pregnancy. These results indicate that low level prenatal X-irradiation, on the 17th day of rat gestation, causes prenatal growth retardation, evident at birth, which is not recuperable postnatally. Exposure to x-radiation at this time, however, does not affect the rate at which offspring grow during postnatal life. Offspring are smaller because they never fully recover from the original radiation-induced prenatal growth retardation

  12. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Longo, Carmelinda; A Fried, Peter; Cameron, Ian; M Smith, Andra

    2014-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a 2-Back working memory task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants with more prenatal nicotine exposure demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve verbal working memory including the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe and the cingulate gyrus. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure contributes to altered neural functioning during verbal working memory that continues into adulthood. Working memory is critical for a wide range of cognitive skills such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning. Thus, these findings highlight the need for continued educational programs and public awareness campaigns to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain development in mice after prenatal irradiation: Modes of effect manifestation; dose-response-relationships and the RBE of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konermann, G.

    1986-01-01

    Postnatal effect manifestation in the CNS after exposures during advanced prenatal stages of development is due to both the prolonged period of neurogenesis and its complexity. Apart from acute proliferative effects, examples of two types of long-term effects in the brains of prenatally exposed mice are represented. Namely, persistent structural damage, and, fluctuating responses during the histochemical and biochemical brain maturation. Structural effects following X-ray exposure are quantified on the basis of data for diameter diminution of the cortical plate, corpus callosum and fimbria hippocampi. The studies include computerized micro-videoanalysis of neuronal branching defects. Continuous extension of exposure levels to doses as low as 0.05 Gy give evidence for the existence of thresholds for these types of structural damage in the vicinity of exposures to 0.1 Gy. The effects following X-ray exposures are partly compared with corresponding effects after neutron exposures. Our studies on postnatal maturation disturbances include proliferative responses, myelin formation, as well as the determination of different biochemical parameters (ATP, myelin-proteins, Na + /K + -balance). From our experimental findings we are able to stress the special significance of neurogenetical long-term effects for risk estimates in man. (orig.)

  14. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  15. Biological effects after prenatal irradiation (embryo and fetus) ICRP Publication 90 Approved by the Commission in October 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J

    2003-06-01

    In its 1990 recommendations, the ICRP considered the radiation risks after exposure during prenatal development. This report is a critical review of new experimental animal data on biological effects and evaluations of human studies after prenatal radiation published since the 1990 recommendations. Thus, the report discusses the effects after radiation exposure during pre-implantation, organogenesis, and fetogenesis. The aetiology of long-term effects on brain development is discussed, as well as evidence from studies in man on the effects of in-utero radiation exposure on neurological and mental processes. Animal studies of carcinogenic risk from in-utero radiation and the epidemiology of childhood cancer are discussed, and the carcinogenic risk to man from in-utero radiation is assessed. Open questions and needs for future research are elaborated. The report reiterates that the mammalian embryo and fetus are highly radiosensitive. The nature and sensitivity of induced biological effects depend upon dose and developmental stage at irradiation. The various effects, as studied in experimental systems and in man, are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the findings in the report strengthen and supplement the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP.

  16. Prenatal androgenization of female mice programs an increase in firing activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons that is reversed by metformin treatment in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Alison V; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2011-02-01

    Prenatal androgenization (PNA) of female mice with dihydrotestosterone programs reproductive dysfunction in adulthood, characterized by elevated luteinizing hormone levels, irregular estrous cycles, and central abnormalities. Here, we evaluated activity of GnRH neurons from PNA mice and the effects of in vivo treatment with metformin, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is commonly used to treat the fertility disorder polycystic ovary syndrome. Estrous cycles were monitored in PNA and control mice before and after metformin administration. Before metformin, cycles were longer in PNA mice and percent time in estrus lower; metformin normalized cycles in PNA mice. Extracellular recordings were used to monitor GnRH neuron firing activity in brain slices from diestrous mice. Firing rate was higher and quiescence lower in GnRH neurons from PNA mice, demonstrating increased GnRH neuron activity. Metformin treatment of PNA mice restored firing activity and LH to control levels. To assess whether AMPK activation contributed to the metformin-induced reduction in GnRH neuron activity, the AMPK antagonist compound C was acutely applied to cells. Compound C stimulated cells from metformin-treated, but not untreated, mice, suggesting that AMPK was activated in GnRH neurons, or afferent neurons, in the former group. GnRH neurons from metformin-treated mice also showed a reduced inhibitory response to low glucose. These studies indicate that PNA causes enhanced firing activity of GnRH neurons and elevated LH that are reversible by metformin, raising the possibility that central AMPK activation by metformin may play a role in its restoration of reproductive cycles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin β-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G,N(G-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3, and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA. In contrast, tubulin α-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment.

  18. Effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on child IQ at 4 and 8 years in a UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Kordas, Katarzyna; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2017-09-01

    The association between childhood exposure to lead (Pb) and deficits in cognitive function is well established. The association with prenatal exposure, however, is not well understood, even though the potential adverse effects are equally important. To evaluate the association between low prenatal exposure to lead and IQ in children, to determine whether there were sex differences in the associations, and to evaluate the moderation effect of prenatal Pb exposure on child IQ. Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC (n=4285) and from offspring at age 30 months (n=235) were analysed for Pb. Associations between prenatal blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) and child IQ at age 4 and 8 years (WPPSI and WISC-III, respectively) were examined in adjusted regression models. There was no association of prenatal lead exposure with child IQ at 4 or 8 years old in adjusted regression models, and no moderation of the association between child B-Pb and IQ. However, there was a positive association for IQ at age 8 years in girls with a predicted increase in IQ (points) per 1μg/dl of: verbal 0.71, performance 0.57, total 0.73. In boys, the coefficients tended to be negative (-0.15, -0.42 and -0.29 points, respectively). Prenatal lead exposure was not associated with adverse effects on child IQ at age 4 or 8 years in this study. There was, however, some evidence to suggest that boys are more susceptible than girls to prenatal exposure to lead. Further investigation in other cohorts is required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on follicular recruitment, depletion of follicular reserve, and ovarian morphology in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter; Steckler, Teresa L; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess programs an array of adult reproductive disorders including luteinizing hormone excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, polycystic ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction, culminating in early reproductive failure. Polycystic ovarian morphology originates from enhanced follicular recruitment and follicular persistence. We tested to determine whether prenatal testosterone treatment, by its androgenic actions, enhances follicular recruitment, causes early depletion of follicular reserve, and disrupts the ovarian architecture. Pregnant sheep were given twice-weekly injections of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatizable androgen, from Days 30 to 90 of gestation. Ovaries were obtained from Day-90 and Day-140 fetuses, and from 10-mo-old females during a synchronized follicular phase (n = 5-9 per treatment). Stereological techniques were used to quantify changes in ovarian follicle/germ cell populations. Results revealed no differences in numbers of oocytes and follicles between the three groups on Fetal Day 90. Greater numbers of early growing follicles were found in prenatal testosterone- and DHT-treated fetuses on Day 140. Increased numbers of growing follicles and reduced numbers of primordial follicles were found in 10-mo-old, prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not in those treated with DHT. Antral follicles of prenatal testosterone-treated females, but not those treated with DHT, manifested several abnormalities, which included the appearance of hemorrhagic and luteinized follicles and abnormal early antrum formation. Both treatment groups showed morphological differences in the rete ovarii. These findings suggest that increased follicular recruitment and morphologic changes in the rete ovarii of prenatal testosterone-treated females are facilitated by androgenic programming, but that postpubertal follicular growth, antral follicular disruptions, and follicular depletion largely

  20. The effect of prenatal and intrapartum care on the stillbirth rate among women in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Karen; Belete, Zelalem; Kinfu, Hirut; Tadesse, Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed; Atnafu, Habtamu

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether community-based prenatal and intrapartum care in Ethiopia results in a lower stillbirth rate. Between May and December 2014, a randomly selected sample of women in northern and eastern Ethiopia who had delivered a neonate in the preceding 12months completed a face-to-face survey about their experiences of maternal services and the fetal outcome for each delivery. The stillbirth rates among women delivering at home and at health facilities were compared. Overall, 4442 women completed surveys. Stillbirth was reported by 42 (1.7%) of the 2437 women who had received prenatal care and 53 (2.8%) of the 1921 women who did not receive prenatal care (P=0.01). The stillbirth rate was similar among women who delivered in a health center (27/1417 [1.9%]), in a hospital (6/126 [4.8%]), and at home (62/2725 [2.3%]; P=0.13). However, women experiencing an intrapartum emergency were twice as likely to deliver in a health facility (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 2.2-3.0). Satisfaction with health-center care was moderately good (median score 77.5/100). The stillbirth rate was reduced among women receiving prenatal care, although delivering in a health facility did not reduce the risk of stillbirth. Improving the quality of health-center care could lead to their planned use for childbirth, which might reduce stillbirth rates. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of prenatal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonism on postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkar, Prajakta S.; Anderson, Cherie R.; Ferry, Christina H.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work indicates that PPARα is required for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced postnatal lethality resulting from prenatal exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that relatively modest activation of PPARα during prenatal development will cause postnatal lethality, similar to that observed with PFOA, a relatively low affinity PPARα agonist. Female wild-type and Pparα-null mice were mated overnight with males of the same genotype. The presence of a copulatory plug on the morning after mating was indicative of pregnancy and considered gestation day (GD) 0. Plugged female mice were fed either a control diet or one containing clofibrate (0.5%) or Wy-14,643 (0.005%) until GD18 or until parturition. Mice were examined on GD18 or on postnatal day (PND) 20 following the prenatal exposure period. Dietary administration of clofibrate or Wy-14,643 did not affect maternal weight or weight gain, the average number of implantations, the percentage of litter loss, the average number of live/dead fetuses, average crown-rump length, or the average fetal weight on GD18 in either genotype. An increase in relative maternal liver weight and elevated expression of PPARα target genes in maternal and fetal livers on GD18 were observed, indicative of PPARα-dependent changes in both the maternal and fetal compartments. However, no defects in postnatal development were observed by either clofibrate or Wy-14,643 in either genotype by PND20. These results demonstrate that relatively low level activation of PPARα by clofibrate or Wy-14,643 during prenatal development does not cause postnatal lethality.

  2. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.

  3. Project ice storm : effects of prenatal stress on children's physical, cognitive and behavioral development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPlante, D.P.; King, S.; Brunet, A. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ice storm in the winter of 1998 left three million people in Quebec without power for as long as 40 days. This study recruited 224 women who were pregnant during the storm or who became pregnant within 3 months after the storm. The study examined the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in an effort to fill gaps in literature regarding prenatal stress and increased risks and to assist in the development of preventive interventions for pregnant women who have experienced stress or trauma. Natural disaster studies provide good opportunities to study the effects of PNMS, as effects are random across large numbers of women and can be assessed independently of the pregnant women's own personality traits. The study examined whether there was an effect of the timing and severity of the ice storm on perinatal outcomes and later health; intellectual and linguistic functioning at two and a half and five years of age; behavioural and attention problems at four and five and a half years of age and physical features. The study concluded that pregnant women are a risk group and need proper interventions as children experienced delays or deficiencies in several key developmental areas. tabs., figs.

  4. Prune-belly syndrome: case series and review of the literature regarding early prenatal diagnosis, epidemiology, genetic factors, treatment, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Ida, Vito; Alessandro, Ventura; Bonasoni, Maria Paola

    2013-02-01

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by deficient abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformation, and in males, cryptorchidism and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome might be due to severe bladder outlet obstruction or to abdominal muscle deficiency secondary to a migrational defect of the lateral mesoblast between weeks 6 and 7 of pregnancy. The current review of the medical record reports a special focus on epidemiology, genetic factors, early prenatal diagnosis clusters, treatment, and prognosis of PBS.

  5. Effects of In utero environment and maternal behavior on neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations in a mouse model of prenatal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Y; Canneva, F; Funke, R; Frey, S; Distler, J; von Hörsten, S; Freitag, C M; Kratz, O; Moll, G H; Solati, J

    2016-11-01

    Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma exposure during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of affective disorders in children. To investigate the mechanisms by which prenatal trauma and/or maternal PTSD affect brain development and behavior we established a mouse model of prenatal traumatic (PT) experience based on the application of an electric foot shock to C57Bl/6N female mice on the gestational day 12 during their pregnancy. The model is based on a previously validated animal model of PTSD. We found high anxiety levels and poor maternal care along with reduced serum prolactin and increased corticosterone levels in dams following maternal trauma (MT). PT-pups were born smaller and stayed smaller throughout their life. We show increased time and frequency of ultrasonic calls in PT-pups when separated from the mothers on the postnatal day (PND) 9. Cross-fostering experiments reveal lower anxiety levels in PT pups raised by healthy mothers as compared to trauma-naive pups raised by MT-dams. Importantly, the combination of prenatal trauma and being raised by a traumatized mother leads to: (1) the highest corticosterone levels in pups, (2) longest USV-call time and (3) highest anxiety levels in comparison to other experimental groups. Our data indicates a distinct change in maternal care following MT which is possibly associated with trauma-induced decrease in prolactin levels. Furthermore, we show that maternal behavior is crucial for the development of the offspring anxiety and specific aspects in maternal care overwrite to a significant extend the effects of in utero and postnatal environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1254-1265, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Recep; Tumkaya, Levent; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Yilmaz, Adnan; Şahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) produced by mobile phones on the renal development of prenatal rats. Histopathological changes and apoptosis in the kidneys, together with levels of urea, creatinine and electrolyte in serum were determined. A total of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were stained for caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K+ level (p0.05). Our study shows that the electromagnetic waves propagated from mobile phones have harmful effects on the renal development of prenatal rats.

  7. Effect of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to HTO (tritiated water) on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats were studied by determination of multiple parameters. Methods: Pregnant adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, of which 3 groups were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by one single intraperitoneal injection on the 13th day of gestation. Offspring of these rats received cumulative doses of 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy utero, respectively, and were observed for the appearance of three physiologic markers (eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (surface righting, negative geotaxis) and sensuous function (auditory startle), movement and coordination functions and activity (forelimb hanging, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditional reflex). Results: Results for most parameters in the 0.044 and 0.088 Gy groups were different significantly from those in the controls and for most parameters a dose-dependent effect was found. Conclusion: Offspring of rats having received prenatal low dose irradiation from HTO showed delayed growth and abnormal neurobehavior

  8. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = −1.714 (−3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (−0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

  10. The couple context of pregnancy and its effects on prenatal care and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2009-11-01

    The couple context of pregnancy and newborn health is gaining importance with the increase in births to unmarried couples, a disproportionate number of which were not intended. This study investigates the association of early prenatal care, preterm birth, and low birth weight with the couple relationship context, including partners' joint intentions for the pregnancy, their marital status at conception, and the presence of relationship problems during pregnancy. Data are drawn from the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, a representative study of births in 2001. The sample is composed of parents residing together with their biological child at the time the child is 9 months old, where both the mother and father completed the self-report interview (N = 5,788). Couple-level multivariate logistic regression models, weighted to account for the complex sampling design, were used in the analysis. Risk of inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth was increased when partners did not share intentions or when neither partner intended the pregnancy. Couples were at additional risk of inadequate prenatal care when the pregnancy was conceived nonmaritally and when the mother did not tell the father about the pregnancy, particularly when neither partner intended the pregnancy. The risk of premature birth was particularly high when the partners were unmarried and either or both did not intend the pregnancy. The couple context of pregnancy is important for a healthy pregnancy and birth. When the partner is present, practitioners and programs should maintain a focus on the couple, and researchers should make every effort to include the father's own perspective.

  11. The effect of prenatal support on birth outcomes in an urban midwestern county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Dresang, Lee T; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Buckingham, William R; Leavitt, Judith W

    2012-12-01

    In Dane County, Wisconsin, the black-white infant mortality gap started decreasing from 2000 and was eliminated from 2004 to 2007. Unfortunately, it has reappeared since 2008. This paper examines risk factors and levels of prenatal care to identify key contributors to the dramatic decline and recent increase in black infant mortality and extremely premature birth rates. This retrospective cohort study analyzed approximately 100,000 Dane County birth, fetal, and infant death records from 1990 to 2007. Levels of prenatal care received were categorized as "less-than-standard," "standard routine" or "intensive." US Census data analysis identified demographic and socioeconomic changes. Infant mortality rates and extremely premature ( birth rates were main outcome measures. Contributions to improved outcomes were measured by calculating relative risk, risk difference and population attributable fraction (PAF). Mean income and food stamp use by race were analyzed as indicators of general socioeconomic changes suspected to be responsible for worsening outcomes since 2008. Risk of extremely premature delivery for black women receiving standard routine care and intensive care decreased from 1990-2000 to 2001-2007 by 77.8% (95% CI = 49.9-90.1%) and 57.3% (95% CI = 27.6-74.8%) respectively. Women receiving less-than-standard care showed no significant improvement over time. Racial gaps in mean income and food stamp use narrowed 2002-2007 and widened since 2008. Prenatal support played an important role in improving black birth outcomes and eliminating the Dane County black-white infant mortality gap. Increasing socioeconomic disparities with worsening US economy since 2008 likely contributed to the gap's reappearance.

  12. Sex-Specific Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress: Implications for Mammalian Developmental Programming During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyansky, Y.; Moyer, E. L.; Oijala, E.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    During adaptation to the microgravity environment, adult mammals experience stress mediated by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. In our previous studies of pregnant rats exposed to 2-g hypergravity via centrifugation, we reported decreased corticosterone and increased body mass and leptin in adult male, but not female, offspring. In this study, we utilized Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress to simulate the stressors of spaceflight by exposing dams to different stressors. Stress response modulation occurs via both positive and negative feedback in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex resulting in the differential release of corticosterone (CORT), a murine analog to human cortisol.

  13. Effect of tritium (tritium water) on prenatal and postnatal development of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Yagova, A.

    1983-01-01

    Female rats were injected intraperitoneally on the first day after their fecundation with 3,7 kBq/g b.w. tritium water - activity which under these conditions does not increase prenatal death rate. The postnatal development of the born alive was traced in respect to the lethality rate and growth rate (mean bodily weight in dynamics up to the 60-th day p.p.) and compared with that of the offsprings from the control group. It was shown that the used activity tritium water during the initial stages of embryonic development does not result in deviations from the norm. (authors)

  14. Control Prenatal

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    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  15. Effect of prenatal and postnatal microwave exposures on relative activity of SDH of brain and liver in newborn mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huai; Yao Gengdong; Zhou Shiyun

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 3 GHz pulse microwave at 8 mW/cm 2 (SAR 3.0-3.5 mW/g) and part of their offspring were irradiated at 1 mW/cm 2 . The effects on the mitochondria marker enzyme SDH of brain and liver in the newborn mice were observed. SDH was quanlitatively determined by microspectrophotometry. The results show that a decrease in the relative activity of SDH in brain was induced by either prenatal or postnatal microwave exposure (p < 0.01). The greatest decrease in the relative activity of SDH occurred in the offspring exposed both prenatally and postnatally. The similar but less changes in the activity of SDH occurred in liver of these mice. The results indicate that the brain SDH is a sensitive index to observe the subtle metabolic alterations which can not be detected using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures. It is suggested that pregnant women should be protected from high power density microwave exposure

  16. Genetic effects in children exposed in prenatal period to ionizing radiation after the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Ye I; Vdovenko, V Yu; Misharina, Zh A; Kolos, V I; Mischenko, L P

    2016-12-01

    To study the genetic effects in children exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident accounting the total radiation doses and equivalent radiation doses to the red bone marrow. Incidence of minor developmental anomalies was studied in children exposed to radiation in utero (study group) and in the control group (1144 subjects surveyed in total). Cytogenetic tests using the method of differential G-banding of chromosomes were conducted in 60 children of both study and control groups (10-12-year-olds) and repeatedly in 39 adolescents (15-17-year-olds). A direct correlation was found between the number of minor developmental anomalies and fetal dose of radiation, and a reverse one with fetal gestational age at the time of radiation exposure. Incidence of chromosomal damage in somatic cells of 10-12-year-old children exposed prenatally was associated with radiation dose to the red bone marrow. The repeated testing has revealed that an increased level of chromosomal aberrations was preserved in a third of adolescents. The persons exposed to ionizing radiation at prenatal period should be attributed to the group of carcinogenic risk due to persisting increased levels of chromosome damage. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  17. Effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on physical activity level in late pregnancy and the first year postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Sanda

    Full Text Available Despite documented health benefits for mother and baby, physical activity (PA-level tends to decline in pregnancy. Overweight/obese and physically inactive women are two selected groups at increased risk of pregnancy complications. Thus, efficient strategies to maintain or increase PA-level in pregnancy and the postpartum period, especially among these women, are warranted. This secondary analysis examined the effect of a prenatal lifestyle-intervention on PA-level in late pregnancy and the first year postpartum, with subanalysis on initially physically active versus inactive and normal-weight versus overweight/obese women.The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD randomized controlled trial included healthy primiparous women with singleton pregnancies and body mass index (BMI ≥19 kg/m2 assigned to an intervention group, n = 303 (twice weekly group-exercises and dietary counseling or a control group, n = 303 (standard prenatal care. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form was used to assess PA-levels at inclusion (mean gestational week (GW 16, GW 36, and six and 12 months postpartum.At GW 36, a positive intervention-effect with a significant between-group difference in total PA-level compared to time of inclusion was found for the total group (530 MET-min/week, p = 0.001 and the subgroups of normal-weight (533 MET-min/week, p = 0.003 and initially active women (717 MET-min/week, p<0.001. Intervention-effect was dependent on exercise-adherence among overweight/obese and inactive women. Compared to time of inclusion, the intervention groups maintained total PA-level at GW 36, while total PA-level decreased in the control groups. The PA-levels increased postpartum, but with no significant differences between the randomization groups.The NFFD prenatal combined lifestyle intervention had a significant effect on TPA-level in late pregnancy among women entering pregnancy normal-weight or physically active, thereby preventing the

  18. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

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    Linglin Xie

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. The study aims to answer whether maternal undernutrition by protein restriction affects the ATM M1 or M2 phenotype under postnatal high fat diet in F1 offspring. Using a rat model of prenatal low protein (LP, 8% protein diet followed by a postnatal high fat energy diet (HE, 45% fat or low fat normal energy diet (NE, 10% fat for 12 weeks, we investigated the effects of these diets on adiposity, programming of the offspring ATM phenotype, and the associated inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Fat mass in newborn and 12-week old LP fed offspring was lower than that of normal protein (20%; NP fed offspring; however, the adipose tissue growth rate was higher compared to the NP fed offspring. While LP did not affect the number of CD68+ or CD206+ cells in adipose tissue of NE offspring, it attenuated the number of these cells in offspring fed HE. In offspring fed HE, LP offspring had a lower percentage of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs, whose abundancy was correlated with the size of the adipocytes. Noteworthy, similar to HE treatment, LP increased gene expression of IL-6 within ATMs. Two-way ANOVA showed an interaction of prenatal LP and postnatal HE on IL-6 and IL-1β transcription. Overall, both LP and HE diets impact ATM phenotype by affecting the ratio of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs and the expression of IL-6.

  19. GENDER SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO VERY LOW-LEAD LEVELS: THE PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY IN THREE-YEAR OLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Skarupa, Anita; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-level of prenatal lead exposure measured in the cord blood (1.67µg/dL) compared with the lowest quartile of exposure (beta coeff. = −6.2, p = 0.002), but the effect in girls was insignificant (beta coeff = −0.74, p = 0.720). The average deficit of cognitive function in the total sample over the first three years of life (GEE model) associated with higher prenatal lead exposure was also significant (beta coeffici...

  20. Effect of prenatal exposure to diagnostic radiation on childhood physical and intellectual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yumei; Yao Jiaxiang

    1992-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation has been conducted on 1026 prenatally X-ray irradiated children aged from four to seven years in Beijing, Shanghai and Changchun, and 1191 controls of the same age, sex, and birth hospitals. The absorbed doses to fetus range from 11.75 to 42.70 mGy. The results show that there is no significant difference between the two groups in body height, weight and head circumference, and the parameters in the exposed group are all above the normal mean values except for three subgroups who have their height within half a standard deviation below the normal. On intelligence test, the exposed group achieves a slightly lower mean score than that of the control (t = 2.21, P<0.05). But the difference of the distributions of test scores in both groups is not significant, and logistic analysis of confounding factors rules out a consequential role of prenatal radiation in inducing mental retardation. The possible causes of lower I.Q. in the exposed group and the relationship of gestational age to I.Q. are discussed

  1. Effects of prenatal brain irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovsky, K.N.; Repin, V.S.; Bomko, M.A.; Pott-Born, R.

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of 154 children born between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987 to mothers who had been evacuated from Pripyat to Kiev, and 143 classmates from Kiev were examined. Individual dose reconstruction of the children exposed in utero was carried out considering internal and external exposure. Prenatal equivalent brain doses were 19.2 ± 11.3 mSv and 0.8 ± 0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4 ± 631.8.1 mSv and 44.5 ± 43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. There were 20 children from Pripyat town (13.2%) who had been exposed in utero to thyroid doses >1 Sv. The prenatally exposed children show significantly more diseases of the nervous system and mental disorders. Among mothers of the exposed group of children with the neuropsychiatric disorders there are much more depression and somatization, as well as mental disorders

  2. Effects of pre-natal X-ray exposure on learning behaviour of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Faber, U.; Budny, T.

    1983-01-01

    The authors investigated whether prenatal X-raying affects the learning behaviour of mice. For this purpose they irradiated mice of strain C57BL/6Ffm with 130 r at different points of the fetal phase. Unirradiated mice served as controls. The animals underwent two learning test series of 14 days each teaching them optical signs. The results of the test series show a distinctly inferior learning ability in the animals exposed to pre-natal irradiation as compared to unirradiated controls. The extent of the reduction of the learning ability depends on the stage of the pregnancy at the time of X-ray exposure. The greatest difference as compared to non-irradiated mice occurred in the animals irradiated at the earliest stage (13th/14th day of pregnancy). The results of the other test groups (15th/16th and 17th/18th day of pregnancy) exhibited less distinct, but still significant differences to the controls. Exposure at the latest period (17th/18th day) coincided with the smallest difference. (orig./MG) [de

  3. The effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on glucose metabolism: results of the Norwegian Fit for Delivery randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagedal, Linda R; Vistad, Ingvild; Øverby, Nina C; Bere, Elling; Torstveit, Monica K; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Pripp, Are; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-06-02

    The effectiveness of prenatal lifestyle intervention to prevent gestational diabetes and improve maternal glucose metabolism remains to be established. The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized, controlled trial studied the effect of a combined lifestyle intervention provided to a general population, and found significantly lower gestational weight gain among intervention participants but no improvement in obstetrical outcomes or the proportion of large infants. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of the NFFD intervention on glucose metabolism, including an assessment of the subgroups of normal-weight and overweight/obese participants. Healthy, non-diabetic women expecting their first child, with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m 2 , age ≥ 18 years and a singleton pregnancy of ≤20 gestational-weeks were enrolled from healthcare clinics in southern Norway. Gestational weight gain was the primary endpoint. Participants (n = 606) were individually randomized to intervention (two dietary consultations and access to twice-weekly exercise groups) or control group (routine prenatal care). The effect of intervention on glucose metabolism was a secondary endpoint, measuring glucose (fasting and 2-h following 75-g glucose load), insulin, homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and leptin levels at gestational-week 30. Blood samples from 557 (91.9%) women were analyzed. For the total group, intervention resulted in reduced insulin (adj. Mean diff -0.91 mU/l, p = 0.045) and leptin levels (adj. Mean diff -207 pmol/l, p = 0.021) compared to routine care, while glucose levels were unchanged. However, the effect of intervention on both fasting and 2-h glucose was modified by pre-pregnancy BMI (interaction p = 0.030 and p = 0.039, respectively). For overweight/obese women (n = 158), intervention was associated with increased risk of at least one glucose measurement exceeding International Association of

  4. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  5. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...

  7. Effect of a prenatal lifestyle intervention on physical activity level in late pregnancy and the first year postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagedal, Linda Reme; Haakstad, Lene Annette Hagen; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite documented health benefits for mother and baby, physical activity (PA)-level tends to decline in pregnancy. Overweight/obese and physically inactive women are two selected groups at increased risk of pregnancy complications. Thus, efficient strategies to maintain or increase PA-level in pregnancy and the postpartum period, especially among these women, are warranted. This secondary analysis examined the effect of a prenatal lifestyle-intervention on PA-level in late pregnancy and the first year postpartum, with subanalysis on initially physically active versus inactive and normal-weight versus overweight/obese women. Method The Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) randomized controlled trial included healthy primiparous women with singleton pregnancies and body mass index (BMI) ≥19 kg/m2 assigned to an intervention group, n = 303 (twice weekly group-exercises and dietary counseling) or a control group, n = 303 (standard prenatal care). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form was used to assess PA-levels at inclusion (mean gestational week (GW) 16), GW 36, and six and 12 months postpartum. Results At GW 36, a positive intervention-effect with a significant between-group difference in total PA-level compared to time of inclusion was found for the total group (530 MET-min/week, p = 0.001) and the subgroups of normal-weight (533 MET-min/week, p = 0.003) and initially active women (717 MET-min/week, ppregnancy among women entering pregnancy normal-weight or physically active, thereby preventing the downward trend typically seen during pregnancy. Intervention-effect among overweight/obese and physically inactive women was, however, dependent on exercise-adherence. Long-term intervention-effect was not observed in the postpartum period. PMID:29176762

  8. The effects of prenatal sound stress on the spatial learning and memory of rat's male offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Numerous evidences indicate that various environmental stresses during pregnancy affect physiological behavior of the offspring. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of noise stress during prenatal period of rats on spatial learning and memory and plasma corticostrone level in postnatal life."n"nMethods: Three groups of pregnant rats were given daily noise stress with durations of two and/ or four hours in last week of pregnancy period. The fourth group was left unstressed. The male offspring from the unstressed and different stressed groups were assigned as controls and stressed groups. The animals were introduced to a spatial task in Morris water maze 4 trials/day for five consecutive days. The probe test was performed on the 5th day of the experiment. The delay in findings and the distance passed to locate the target platform were assessed as the spatial learning. "n"nResults: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to noise stress for two and/ or four hours a day, leads to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the postnatal animals. The plasma level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups of rats markedly matched with their behavioral function. Prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise stress revealed no effects on the offsprings' behavior and plasma corticostrone level."n"nConclusion: Based on our study results, it seems that applied range of stress which is executed through the noise stress could increase the plasma corticostrone level and

  9. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D Gernand

    Full Text Available Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396 and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1 in cord plasma (n = 325. Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD BMI was 19.5 (2.4 kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41 kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction; and among women with height <145 cm, insulin was higher by 59% (95% CI: 3, 115%; p = 0.05 for interaction in the MM vs. IFA group. Maternal hPL and cord blood insulin and IGF-1 were positively, and IGFBP-1 was negatively, associated with birth weight z score and other measures of birth size (all p<0.05. IGF-1 was inversely associated with gestational age (p<0.05, but other growth factors were not associated with gestational age or preterm birth. Prenatal MM supplementation had no overall impact on intrauterine growth factors. MM supplementation altered some growth factors differentially by maternal early pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470.

  10. The effect of prenatal radiation exposure on the developing human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently reported dose responses in prenatally exposed Japanese bomb survivors for severe mental retardation (SMR), reduced intelligence, and reduced levels of school performance, are compared. The characteristics of, and differences between, severe and mild mental retardation in man are critically important for such comparisons. The meaning of linearity of dose response is not identical for these different forms of damage. When findings on tissue changes in the brain and in functional tests of irradiated experimental animals are taken into account, the dose response for SMR would be expected to have a threshold as is found using DS86 dosimetry. The dose responses for IQ and for school performance seem doubtfully valid: their underlying assumptions need re-examination. (author)

  11. Radiation effects on pre-natal development and their radiological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The evidence relating to pre-natal radiation exposure and the subsequent occurrence of malformations and cancer suggests that the overall risk lies in the range 0 to 1 cases per 1000 irradiated by one rad in utero in the first four months of pregnancy. The natural level of occurrence of serious handicaps in average pregnancies is at least 30 times higher. Is the much lower probability of radiation-induced harm sufficiently high to justify (a) concern when a woman who has been irradiated is found to have been pregnant at that time, or (b) the maintenance of restrictions on medical uses of ionizing radiation in women in the reproductive age, such as the ten day rule. (author)

  12. Attenuated Effects of Bile Acids on Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in a Male Mouse Model of Prenatal Undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Huijuan; Sales, Vicencia M.; Wolf, Ashley R.; Subramanian, Sathish; Matthews, Tucker J.; Chen, Michael; Sharma, Aparna; Gall, Walt; Kulik, Wim; Cohen, David E.; Adachi, Yusuke; Griffin, Nicholas W.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Isganaitis, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BAs) in offspring mice. Because BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and

  13. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  14. Regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutations and effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the regional and ethnic distribution of beta thalassemia mutation and the effect of consanguinity in patients referred for prenatal diagnosis of beta b-thalassemia and to target the high risk population for screening. A total of 499 couples were referred to Gentec Lab., Lahore, from all over Pakistan for prenatal diagnosis of b-thalassemia. After counseling, chorionic villus sampling was done between 10-16 weeks of gestation. DNA analysis was done by Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) for type of mutation in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Ethnicity, race and consanguineous relationship of parents was determined.b-thalassemia was prevalent in Punjabis (60.7%) followed by Saraikees (25.5%). Castewise it was most frequent in Rajputs followed by Jatts, Arain, Sheikhs and Pathans. 56.7% of the couples were first cousins and 19.8% were relatives. The commonest mutations were Frameshift 8-9 (Fr8-9) 33.5%, Intervening Sequence 1-5 (IVS 1-5) 17.2%, Fr4142 - 8%, IVS 1-1 - 5.2%, Deletion 619 (Del 619) 4.2% and Codon 5 (Cd 5) - 4.2%. In samples sent for analysis, 53.1% turned out to be carriers (trait), 25.3% were diseased (thalassemia major) and 21.6% were normal. P-value of all results was less than 0.001. In this series, the highest frequency was found in Punjabi Rajputs. The commonest mutation was Fr 8-9. Most parents were first cousins. Premarital thalassemia carrier testing can effectively reduce the disease. (author)

  15. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Developmental Programming: Prenatal Testosterone Excess and Insulin Signaling Disruptions in Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome often manifest insulin resistance. Using a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome-like phenotype, we explored the contribution of androgen and insulin in programming and maintaining disruptions in insulin signaling in metabolic tissues. Phosphorylation of AKT, ERK, GSK3beta, mTOR, and p70S6K was examined in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of control and prenatal testosterone (T)-, prenatal T plus androgen antagonist (flutamide)-, and prenatal T plus insulin sensitizer (rosiglitazone)-treated fetuses as well as 2-yr-old females. Insulin-stimulated phospho (p)-AKT was evaluated in control and prenatal T-, prenatal T plus postnatal flutamide-, and prenatal T plus postnatal rosiglitazone-treated females at 3 yr of age. GLUT4 expression was evaluated in the muscle at all time points. Prenatal T treatment increased mTOR, p-p70S6K, and p-GSK3beta levels in the fetal liver with both androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer preventing the mTOR increase. Both interventions had partial effect in preventing the increase in p-GSK3beta. In the fetal muscle, prenatal T excess decreased p-GSK3beta and GLUT4. The decrease in muscle p-GSK3beta was partially prevented by insulin sensitizer cotreatment. Both interventions partially prevented the decrease in GLUT4. Prenatal T treatment had no effect on basal expression of any of the markers in 2-yr-old females. At 3 yr of age, prenatal T treatment prevented the insulin-stimulated increase in p-AKT in liver and muscle, but not in adipose tissue, and neither postnatal intervention restored p-AKT response to insulin stimulation. Our findings provide evidence that prenatal T excess changes insulin sensitivity in a tissue- and development-specific manner and that both androgens and insulin may be involved in the programming of these metabolic disruptions. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. The Effect of Dosage, Gestational Age and Splenectomy on Anti-IgM Interception of Prenatal B-cell Development in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. McCullagh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of a single bolus of anti-IgM antibody to foetal lambs early in pregnancy produces prolonged B-cell depletion. The present study investigated this depletion by examining the effect, on B-cell development in the ileal Peyer's patches, of varying the timing and dosage of antibody administration and by supplementing anti-IgM with surgical splenectomy. The capacity of a 1 mg bolus of anti-IgM to deplete Peyer's patches of B cells was lost if its administration was deferred until two thirds of the way through pregnancy, but persisted beyond this time if weight-adjusted doses were used. Splenectomy of the foetus performed at an earlier age failed to extend the age at which a 1 mg dose of antibody remained effective. As the concentration of murine immunoglobulin in foetal serum was greatly reduced after 21 days, it is inferred that ongoing suppression of B-cell development is not dependent on the continued presence of murine immunoglobulin. The enduring nature of suppression could be attributable to a limited period during which differentiation of B cells from stem cells normally occurs, although further studies will be needed to investigate this and other possible explanations for the effect of anti-IgM treatment on prenatal B-cell development in sheep.

  18. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  19. The effect of the timing of prenatal exposure to x-irradiation on Purkinje cell numbers in rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, T.; Satriotomo, I.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kuma, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Gu

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to X-irradiation is known to cause various deleterious consequences. We have examined the effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the development of the cerebellum. Wistar rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy X-irradiation either on the 14, 15 or 16th day of gestation (E14, E15, E16). Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. At seven postnatal weeks of age, male rats were deeply anesthetized and killed by intracardiac perfusion with 2.5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The unbiased stereological procedure known as the fractionator method was used to estimate the total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Body and cerebellar weights from E14 and E15, but not E16 irradiated rats showed significant deficits compared to control animals. Rats irradiated on E16 and control rats had about 285,100 - 304,800 Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. There was no significant difference between these values. However, E14 and E15 irradiated animals had about 117,500 and 196,300 Purkinje cells, respectively. These estimates were significantly different from those observed in both control and E16 irradiated rats. Given that the phase of division of Purkinje cell progenitors is mainly between E14-E15 and the phase of differentiation and migration is between E16-E20, it is concluded that the vulnerable period of the Purkinje cells to X-irradiation closely overlaps the phase of division of progenitors

  20. Kikiskawâwasow - prenatal healthcare provider perceptions of effective care for First Nations women: an ethnographic community-based participatory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T; Bruno, Grant; Montour, Margaret; Roasting, Matilda; Lightning, Rick; Rain, Patricia; Graham, Bonny; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-08-11

    Pregnant Indigenous women suffer a disproportionate burden of risk and adverse outcomes relative to non-Indigenous women. Although there has been a call for improved prenatal care, examples are scarce. Therefore, we explored the characteristics of effective care with First Nations women from the perspective of prenatal healthcare providers (HCPs). We conducted an ethnographic community-based participatory research study in collaboration with a large Cree First Nations community in Alberta, Canada. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 12 prenatal healthcare providers (HCPs) that were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to qualitative content analysis. According to the participants, relationships and trust, cultural understanding, and context-specific care were key features of effective prenatal care and challenge the typical healthcare model. HCPs that are able to foster sincere, non-judgmental, and enjoyable interactions with patients may be more effective in treating pregnant First Nations women, and better able to express empathy and understanding. Ongoing HCP cultural understanding specific to the community served is crucial to trusting relationships, and arises from real experiences and learning from patients over and above relying only on formal cultural sensitivity training. Consequently, HCPs report being better able to adapt a more flexible, all-inclusive, and accessible approach that meets specific needs of patients. Aligned with the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, improving prenatal care for First Nations women needs to allow for genuine relationship building with patients, with enhanced and authentic cultural understanding by HCPs, and care approaches tailored to women's needs, culture, and context.

  1. Association of testicular undescent induced by prenatal flutamide treatment with thickening of the cremaster muscle in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Toyota, Naoji; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims:  Previously, in cryptorchid rats, which were induced by prenatal exposure to flutamide, we found a thickening of the cremaster muscle. This study was undertaken to quantify the increase of the cremaster muscle thickness in the cryptorchid rats, and to examine its possible relationship with the proliferation of muscle cells. Methods:  To obtain cryptorchid rats, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with flutamide (100 mg/kg per day) during gestational days 16–17. Serial sections of the scrotum, containing the testis and cremaster muscle, were prepared from the control and cryptorchid rats that were 2–6 weeks of age, and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for morphometry, or stained with antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to analyze the cell proliferation ability. Results:  The thickened cremaster muscle was always associated with cryptorchid testis and, in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism, the cremaster muscle of the contralateral (descended testis) side exhibited normal thickness. The average thickness of the affected cremaster muscle was 0.80 and 1.89 mm at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, although that of the normal muscle was 0.28 and 0.33 mm at the same time period, respectively. Conclusion:  Our results showed that the cremaster muscle of the cryptorchid rats was significantly thicker than that of the control rats. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a thickened cremaster muscle contained many PCNA‐positive nuclei even at 4 weeks of age, in contrast to the control, which had only a few positive nuclei. Our present study indicates that continuous proliferation of the muscle cells associated with cryptorchid testis increases the thickness of cremaster cells in rats exposed to flutamide prenatally. (Reprod Med Biol 2003; 2: 109–113) PMID:29699173

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  3. Studies concerning the effects of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and adult behaviour in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine pregnant Wistar strain rats were sham irradiated or given a 0.1 or 0.2 Gy exposure of X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. Twenty-seven were killed at term for teratologic analysis. The remaining mothers raised their young. At 60 days of age the 252 offspring were randomly assigned three of six tests: open field, swimming, hanging, activity wheel, water T-maze, or conditioned avoidance response. Male offspring exposed at the 0.2 Gy level exhibited retarded growth only during the first few weeks of postnatal life. Female offspring exposed on the 17th day to 0.2 Gy X-radiation were growth retarded throughout the test period. Postnatal growth rates were not significantly different between the irradiated and control groups. There were no significant alterations in adult behaviour due to prenatal X-irradiation. There were sex differences in activity wheel and forelimb hanging performance, unrelated to radiation exposure. These results indicate that prenatal low level X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation dose not result in significant alterations in rat adult behavioural performance but prenatal growth retardation persists postnatally. Growth may be a more sensitive indicator of the effects of prenatal exposure than postnatal behaviour. (author)

  4. Antihistamine medication may alleviate negative effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on lung function in children. Birth cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  6. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Effect of prenatal methadone and ethanol on opioid receptor development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.A.; Braun, R.L. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The current literature shows that the offspring of female rats exposed to methadone or ethanol display similar neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and suggests that these drugs may be operating through a common mechanism. If this hypothesis is true, their effect on the endogenous opioid systems should be qualitatively similar. In this study virgin females were treated with methadone or 10% ethanol oral solution starting prior to conception and continued throughout gestation. When the offspring had reached 15 or 30 days of age they were sacrificed, the brain was removed and prepared for opioid receptor binding studies. ({sup 3}H)DAGO and ({sup 3}H)DADLE were used as ligands for the mu and delta receptors, respectively. These studies show significant treatment-related differences in both the number of mu and delta binding sites as well as in apparent receptor affinity. Significant sex- and age-related differences between treatments were also observed. These data show that methadone and ethanol, while manifesting some similar neurochemical and behavioral effects, have unique effects on opioid receptor binding, suggesting that they may be acting by different mechanisms.

  8. Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral deficits and alterations in hippocampal BDNF induced by prenatal exposure to morphine in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, A; Sadeghzadeh, J; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Mohammadkhani, R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal morphine exposure throughout pregnancy can induce a series of neurobehavioral and neurochemical disturbances by affecting central nervous system development. This study was designed to investigate the effects of an enriched environment on behavioral deficits and changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels induced by prenatal morphine in rats. On pregnancy days 11-18, female Wistar rats were randomly injected twice daily with saline or morphine. Offspring were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. They were subjected to a standard rearing environment or an enriched environment on PNDs 22-50. On PNDs 51-57, the behavioral responses including anxiety and depression-like behaviors, and passive avoidance memory as well as hippocampal BDNF levels were investigated. The light/dark (L/D) box and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for the study of anxiety, forced swimming test (FST) was used to assess depression-like behavior and passive avoidance task was used to evaluate learning and memory. Prenatal morphine exposure caused a reduction in time spent in the EPM open arms and a reduction in time spent in the lit side of the L/D box. It also decreased step-through latency and increased time spent in the dark side of passive avoidance task. Prenatal morphine exposure also reduced immobility time and increased swimming time in FST. Postnatal rearing in an enriched environment counteracted with behavioral deficits in the EPM and passive avoidance task, but not in the L/D box. This suggests that exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence period alters anxiety profile in a task-specific manner. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced hippocampal BDNF levels, but enriched environment significantly increased BDNF levels in both saline- and morphine-exposed groups. Our results demonstrate that exposure to an enriched environment alleviates behavioral deficits induced by prenatal morphine exposure and up-regulates the decreased levels of BDNF

  9. Long term effects of prenatal and postnatal airborne PAH exposures on ventilatory lung function of non-asthmatic preadolescent children. Prospective birth cohort study in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camann, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5 and 9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25-75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37 ng/m(3)) amounted to 53 mL (p=0.050) and the deficit of FEF25-75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m(3)) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25-75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m(3)) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71 mL, p=0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL AIRBORNE PAH EXPOSURE ON VENTILATORY LUNG FUNCTION OF NON-ASTHMATIC PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN KRAKOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Camman, David; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal and postnatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is associated with depressed lung function in non-asthmatic children. The study sample comprises 195 non-asthmatic children of non-smoking mothers, among whom the prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in pregnancy. At the age of 3, residential air monitoring was carried out to evaluate the residential PAH exposure indoors and outdoors. At the age of 5 to 8, children were given allergic skin tests for indoor allergens; and between 5–9 years lung function testing (FVC, FEV05, FEV1 and FEF25–75) was performed. The effects of prenatal PAH exposure on lung function tests repeated over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) model for the relevant covariates. No association between FVC with prenatal PAH exposure was found; however for the FEV1 deficit associated with higher prenatal PAH exposure (above 37ng/m3) amounted to 53 mL (p = 0.050) and the deficit of FEF25–75 reached 164 mL (p=0.013). The corresponding deficits related to postnatal residential indoor PAH level (above 42 ng/m3) were 59 mL of FEV1 (p=0.028) and 140 mL of FEF25–75 (p=0.031). At the higher residential outdoor PAH level (above 90 ng/m3) slightly greater deficit of FEV1 (71mL, p = 0.009) was observed. The results of the study suggest that transplacental exposure to PAH compromises the normal developmental process of respiratory airways and that this effect is compounded by postnatal PAH exposure. PMID:25300014

  11. Effect of a prenatal nutritional intervention program on initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger-Leblanc, Gisèle; Rioux, France M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate initiation and duration of breastfeeding of infants born to mothers who participated in the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) program. Factors affecting the initiation and the early cessation of breastfeeding were also explored. Twenty-five pregnant women participating in the ECI program completed this prospective study. At 36 weeks' gestation, a questionnaire was administered to assess socioeconomic status, intention to breastfeed and breastfeeding experience. When the infants were three and six months of age, feeding practices were assessed with a questionnaire. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 62.5%. At one and three months postpartum, exclusive breastfeeding rates were 39% and 4%, respectively. At six months, none of the women was exclusively breastfeeding. Primiparity, prenatal classes, having been breastfed and intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with breastfeeding initiation. Father's education, intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation, no water or formula given to the infant during hospitalization and higher maternal hemoglobin level at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. The rate of initiation and duration of breastfeeding for ECI participants were low. To achieve successful interventions, it is important to target modifiable factors known to influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding within this population.

  12. Fetal sex modifies effects of prenatal stress exposure and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstock, Tamar; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Glasser, Saralee; Anteby, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, poor fetal development and poor birth outcomes. Fetal sex has also been shown to affect the course of pregnancy and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fetal sex modifies the association between continuous exposure to life-threatening rocket attack alarms and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the exposed group was comprised of 1846 women exposed to rocket-attack alarms before and during pregnancy. The unexposed group, with similar sociodemographic characteristics, delivered during the same period of time at the same medical center, but resided out of rocket-attack range. Multivariable models for each gender separately, controlling for possible confounders, evaluated the risk associated with exposure for preterm births (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age and small head circumference (HC). In both univariable and multivariable analyses exposure status was a significant risk factor in female fetuses only: PTB (adj. OR = 1.43; 1.04-1.96), LBW (adj. OR = 1.41; 1.02-1.95) and HC stress.

  13. Effect of E-learning on primigravida women's satisfaction and awareness concerning prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Bahadoran, Parvin; Fahami, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    E-learning, in addition to promotion of patients' level of awareness, causes a more efficient way to increase patient-personnel interaction and provision of patients' educational content. In a quasi-experimental study, 100 primigravida women, referring to Navab Safavi health care center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, were selected through convenient sampling. The subjects received education via E-learning or booklet education methods for four weeks. Questionnaire of satisfaction with the awareness of prenatal care was completed by both groups before and 4-6 weeks after education. Data were analyzed by student t-test and paired t-test through SPSS with a significance level of P E-learning and control groups, respectively (P = 0.034). E-learning can cause an increase in the level of primigravida women's satisfaction and awareness. Therefore, conducting such education, as an efficient learning method, is recommended as it needs less time, has lower costs, and does not need any special equipment.

  14. Gender specific differences in neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to very low-lead levels: the prospective cohort study in three-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Skarupa, Anita; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2009-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between very low-level of prenatal lead exposure measured in the cord blood (cognitive deficits in the course of the first three years of life. The accumulated lead dose in infants over the pregnancy period was measured by the cord blood lead level (BLL) and cognitive deficits were assessed by the Bayley Mental Development Index (MDI). The study sample consisted of 457 children born to non-smoking women living in the inner city and the outlying residential areas of Krakow. The relationship between prenatal lead exposure and MDI scores measured at 12, 24 and 36 months of age and adjusted to a set of important covariates (gender of child, maternal education, parity, breastfeeding, prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke) was evaluated with linear multivariate regression, and the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) longitudinal panel model. The median of lead level in cord blood was 1.21 microg/dL with the range of values from 0.44 to 4.60 microg/dL. Neither prenatal BLL (dichotomized by median) nor other covariates affected MDI score at 12 months of age. Subsequent testing of children at 24 months of age showed a borderline significant inverse association of lead exposure and mental function (beta coefficient=-2.42, 95%CI: -4.90 to 0.03), but the interaction term (BLL x male gender) was not significant. At 36 months, prenatal lead exposure was inversely and significantly associated with cognitive function in boys (Spearman correlation coefficient=-0.239, p=0.0007) but not girls (r=-0.058, p=0.432) and the interaction between BLL and male gender was significant (beta coefficient=-4.46; 95%CI: -8.28 to -0.63). Adjusted estimates of MDI deficit in boys at 36 months confirmed very strong negative impact of prenatal lead exposure (BLL>1.67 microg/dL) compared with the lowest quartile of exposure (beta coefficient=-6.2, p=0.002), but the effect in girls was insignificant (beta coefficient=-0

  15. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development. Articles were included if: a) they were observational studies published in English; b) the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c) cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d) the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e) exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline) (January, 1990-March, 2014). We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form. Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes. Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  16. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to hydoxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitenhuis, C.; Cenijn, P.C.; Velzen, M. van; Gutleb, A.C.; Legler, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lilienthal, H. [Heinrich Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. Neurobehavioural Toxicology, Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Brouwer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Possible human health effects from low-level exposure to environmental chemicals are an issue that has attracted much attention. Environmental compounds that may play a role are those that may disrupt endocrine function. Organohalogen compounds, and in particular their hydroxylated metabolites, show a striking resemblance to steroid hormones.The main objective of this research is to investigate comparative pathways of early life-stage exposure and long-term effects for several classes of organohalogens, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and flame retardants, polybrominated bisphenols and -diphenylethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites. Due to their prevalence in human plasma, the hydroxylated PCB metabolites 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187, as well as 6-OH-BDE47 and 2,4,6- tribromophenol, were selected as test compounds. BDE 47 has been included as a test compound due to its relatively high levels in the environment and biota, whereas tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was selected because of its high volume production. The in vivo studies involved prenatal exposure of rats to test compounds during critical stages of gonadal development and were focussed on low dose effects. Several endpoints were investigated, including endocrine (thyroid and sex steroid hormones) effects, developmental landmarks, sexual and neurobehavioural development. Blood plasma and tissue levels of test compounds were analysed to determine transplacental transfer of (hydroxylated) organohalogens.

  18. Effects of prenatal hypoxia on schizophrenia-related phenotypes in heterozygous reeler mice: a gene × environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2014-08-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Although prenatal hypoxia is a potential environmental factor implicated in schizophrenia, very little is known about the consequences of combining models of genetic risk factor with prenatal hypoxia. Heterozygous reeler (haploinsufficient for reelin; HRM) and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to prenatal hypoxia (9% oxygen for two hour) or normoxia at embryonic day 17 (E17). Behavioral (Prepulse inhibition, Y-maze and Open field) and functional (regional volume in frontal cortex and hippocampus as well as hippocampal blood flow) tests were performed at 3 months of age. The levels of hypoxia and stress-related molecules such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2/Flk1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were examined in frontal cortex and hippocampus at E18, 1 month and 3 months of age. In addition, serum VEGF and corticosterone levels were also examined. Prenatal hypoxia induced anxiety-like behavior in both HRM and WT mice. A significant reduction in hippocampal blood flow, but no change in brain regional volume was observed following prenatal hypoxia. Significant age and region-dependent changes in HIF-1α, VEGF, Flk1 and GR were found following prenatal hypoxia. Serum VEGF and corticosterone levels were found decreased following prenatal hypoxia. None of the above prenatal hypoxia-induced changes were either diminished or exacerbated due to reelin deficiency. These results argue against any gene-environment interaction between hypoxia and reelin deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of oral, subchronic cadmium administration on fertility prenatal and postnatal progeny development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, B.; Stetkiewicz, I.; Sitarek, K.; Szymczak, W.

    1983-12-01

    Cadmium chloride was administered by gavage to female rats 5 days a week for 5 weeks, then during mating and gestation periods at doses of 0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg Cd/kg/day. Treatment with cadmium neither affected the survival and fertility of females, nor produced overt fetotoxic effects. Fetal cadmium concentration was not related to the level of exposure. Litter size, body weight gain and viability of offspring during 2 months after parturition were similar in all groups. The exploratory locomotor activity of 2-month-old males and females born to rats given 0.4 and 4 mg Cd/kg/day was significantly reduced. The progeny of cadmium-treated females showed decreased performance in the rotarod test. In general, the degree of behavioral impairment was dose-related.

  20. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. (Department of Pathology, Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbh Muechen, Neuherberg (West Germany))

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  1. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U.

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern

  2. Sex-specific effects of prenatal and postnatal nutritional conditions on the oxidative status of great tit nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M; Costantini, D; Tschirren, B

    2015-01-01

    The early life period is characterized by fast growth and development, which can lead to high reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Young animals thus have to balance their investment in growth versus ROS defence, and this balance is likely mediated by resource availability. Consequently resources transferred prenatally by the mother and nutritional conditions experienced shortly after birth may crucially determine the oxidative status of young animals. Here, we experimentally investigated the relative importance of pre- and early postnatal nutritional conditions on the oxidative status of great tit nestlings (Parus major). We show that resources transferred by the mother through the egg and nutritional conditions encountered after hatching affect the oxidative status of nestling in a sex-specific way. Daughters of non-supplemented mothers and daughters which did not receive extra food during the early postnatal period had higher oxidative damage than sons, while no differences between sons and daughters were found when extra food was provided pre- or postnatally. No effect of the food supplementations on growth, fledging mass or tarsus length was observed, indicating that female nestlings maintained their investment in growth at the expense of ROS defence mechanisms when resources were limited. The lower priority of the antioxidant defence system for female nestlings was also evidenced by lower levels of specific antioxidant components. These results highlight the important role of early parental effects in shaping oxidative stress in the offspring, and show that the sensitivity to these parental effects is sex-specific.

  3. Prenatal treatment of mosaic mice (Atp7a mo-ms) mouse model for Menkes disease, with copper combined by dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Koteja, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in infants caused by mutations in the gene ATP7A which encodes a copper (Cu) transporter. Defects in ATP7A lead to accumulated copper in the small intestine and kidneys and to copper deficiencies in the brain and the liver. The copper level...... and 18 with a combination of CuCl(2) (50 mg/kg) and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) (280 mg/kg) leads to an increase in survival to about 76±25.3 days, whereas treatment with CuCl(2) alone (50 mg/kg) only leads to survival for about 21 days ±5 days. These copper-DMDTC treated mutants showed an improved...... locomotor activity performance and a gain in body mass. In contrast to treatment with CuCl(2) alone, a significant increase in the amount of copper was observed in the brain after prenatal copper-DMDTC treatment as well as a decrease in the amount of accumulated copper in the kidney, both leading towards...

  4. Effects of melatonin on prenatal dexamethasone-induced epigenetic alterations in hippocampal morphology and reelin and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Chun-Chung; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Chang, Kow-Aung; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure causes brain damage in adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Melatonin has been shown to have beneficial effects in compromised pregnancies. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle (VEH) or dexamethasone between gestation days 14 and 21. The programming effects of prenatal dexamethasone exposure on the brain were assessed at postnatal days (PND) 7, 42, and ∼120. Melatonin was administered from PND21 to the rats exposed to dexamethasone, and the outcome was assessed at ∼PND120. In total, there were four groups: VEH, vehicle plus melatonin (VEHM), prenatal dexamethasone-exposure (DEX), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus melatonin (DEXM). Spatial memory, gross hippocampal morphology, and hippocampal biochemistry were examined. Spatial memory assessed by the Morris water maze showed no significant differences among the four groups. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed that all rats with prenatal dexamethasone exposure (DEX + DEXM) exhibited increased T2-weighted signals in the hippocampus. There were no significant differences in the levels of mRNA expression of hippocampal reln, which encodes reelin, and GAD1, which encodes glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, at PND7. At both PND42 and ∼PND120, reln and GAD1 mRNA expression levels were decreased. At ∼PND120, melatonin restored the reduced levels of hippocampal reln and GAD1 mRNA expression in the DEXM group. In addition, melatonin restored the reln mRNA expression levels by (1) reducing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) mRNA expression and (2) reducing the binding of DNMT1 and the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) to the reln promoter. The present study showed that prenatal dexamethasone exposure induced gross alterations in hippocampal morphology and reduced the levels of hippocampal mRNA expression of reln and GAD1. Spatial memory was unimpaired. Thus, melatonin had a beneficial effect in restoring hippocampal reln m

  5. OGT-related mitochondrial motility is associated with sex differences and exercise effects in depression induced by prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Wang, Hongmei; Xue, Xiangli; Xia, Jie; Liu, Jiatong; Qi, Zhengtang; Ji, Liu

    2018-01-15

    Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has been found to trigger abnormal behaviors and deleterious neurological effects on offspring both in animals and in humans. The sex differences in depression have been replicated in numerous studies across cultures, persisting throughout the reproductive years. As an X-linked gene in rodents and in humans, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) may provide a novel perspective for the sex differences in depression. In the last third of pregnancy (gestational day 14-21), rats were subcutaneously administered either 0.13mg/kg dexamethasone-21-phosphate disodium salt (0.1mg/kg DEX) or vehicle (0.9% saline) once a day for 7 days. Adolescent (4 weeks) offspring were then trained in a swimming program or not. Here we found that adult offspring rats exposed to DEX prenatally exhibited sex-specific depression-like behaviors, males being more vulnerable than females. Swimming exercise ameliorated the above-mentioned depressive syndromes, which may be a compensatory effect for male disadvantage suffering from prenatal stress. Furthermore, the effects of prenatal DEX exposure and swimming exercise on depression were associated with OGT-related mitochondrial motility, including PINK1/Parkin pathway and AKT/GSK3β pathway. Representative kymographs of mitochondrial motility were not detected and no causal effects were obtained by OGT gene overexpression or gene knockout in this study. Our results provide a new perspective for better understanding sex differences and exercise effects in depression and may offer new mechanism-based therapeutic targets for depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental aspects of anandamide: ontogeny of response and prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride, E; Mechoulam, R

    1996-02-01

    Recent breakthroughs in cannabinoid research, including the identification of two cannabinoid receptors (CB receptors) and a family of endogenous ligands, the anandamides, may shed new light on the sequelae of pre- and perinatal exposure to cannabinoid receptor ligands and enable the experimental manipulation of the endogenous ligand in the developing organism. In the present study we examined the behavioural response to anandamide (ANA) in developing mice from day 13 into adulthood. We observed that depression of ambulation in an open field and the analgetic response to ANA are not fully developed until adulthood. In a separate set of experiments, we administered five daily injections of ANA (SC, 20 mg/kg) during the last trimester of pregnancy. No effects on birth weight, litter size, sex ratio and eye opening were detected after maternal ANA treatment. Further, no effects on open field performance of the offspring were observed until 4 weeks of age. However, from 40 days of age, a number of differences between the prenatal ANA and control offspring were detected. Thus, the offspring from ANA-treated dams showed impaired responsiveness to a challenge with ANA or delta 0-THC expressed as a lack of immobility in the ring test for catalepsy, hypothermia and analgesia. On the other hand, without challenge, they exhibited a spontaneous decrease in open field activity, catalepsy, hypothermia and a hypoalgetic tendency. These data suggest that exposure to excessive amounts of ANA during gestation alters the functioning of the ANA-CB receptor system. Further experiments investigating responsivity of the immune system suggest an increased inflammatory response to arachidonic acid, and enhanced hypothermic response to lipopolysaccharide in prenatally treated offspring. The results are discussed in relation to other manipulations of the maternal milieu, especially prenatal stress. It is concluded that alterations induced by prenatal exposure to ANA, cannabinoids and other

  7. Effects of prenatal 60Co irradiation on postnatal neural, learning, and hormonal development of the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Knight, C.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the effects of 0, 50, and 100 rad of 60 Co administered prenatally on postnatal development of neuromuscular coordination, visual discrimination learning, spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity, plasma cortisol, and somatometric growth rates of diurnal squirrel monkeys from birth to 90 days. In terms of accuracy, completeness, and time required for performance of reflexes and neuromuscular coordination, the performance of 50- and 100-rad offspring was less accurate and poorly coordinated and required more time for completion to that of controls. In visual orientation, discrimination, and reversal learning, the percentage correct responses of the 50- and 100-rad offspring were significantly lower than those of controls. Spontaneous light-dark stabilimeter activity of 50- and 100-rad offspring was significantly higher in the dark session than that of controls. Plasma cortisol was significantly higher in 100-rad infants than in controls. Comparisons of somatometric growth rates indicated that postnatal head circumference, crown-rump length, and to a lesser extent body weight increased at significantly slower rates in 50- and 100-rad offspring. These findings should provide essential information for formulating and carrying out multivariate behavioral, biochemical, and morphometric assessments of low-dose effects on the brain of primate offspring within demonstrable dose-response curves

  8. The effectiveness of introducing Group Prenatal Care (GPC) in selected health facilities in a district of Bangladesh: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ali, Nausad; Ahmed, Sayem; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A M; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

    2017-01-31

    Despite high rates of antenatal care and relatively good access to health facilities, maternal and neonatal mortality remain high in Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of the intervention namely Group Prenatal Care (GPC) on utilization of standard number of antenatal care, post natal care including skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries instead of usual care. The study is quasi-experimental in design. We aim to recruit 576 pregnant women (288 interventions and 288 comparisons) less than 20 weeks of gestational age. The intervention will be delivered over around 6 months. The outcome measure is the difference in maternal service coverage including ANC and PNC coverage, skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries between the intervention and comparison group. Findings from the research will contribute to improve maternal and newborn outcome in our existing health system. Findings of the research can be used for planning a new strategy and improving the health outcome for Bangladeshi women. Finally addressing the maternal health goal, this study is able to contribute to strengthening health system.

  9. Impact of prenatal antimicrobial treatment on fetal brain damage due to autogenous fecal peritonitis in Wistar rats: A Histomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neylane Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate brain neuronal density in newborn rats whose mothers were subjected to fecal peritonitis and compare findings between rats born to mothers treated and not treated with antimicrobials. Methods: Peritonitis was induced with a 10% fecal suspension (4mL/kg in 2 pregnant rats. Of these, 1 received antimicrobial treatment 24 hours after peritonitis induction: moxifloxacin and dexamethasone plus 2 mL of the inner bark of the Schinus terebinthifolius raddi extract. One pregnant rat underwent no intervention and served as a control. Results: The newborn brains of rats born to mothers with fecal peritonitis were significantly smaller and of less firm consistency. Brain neuronal density was lower in the untreated group than in the control and treated groups (P<0.01. Conclusions: Untreated peritonitis caused brain damage in the offspring, which was averted by effective early antimicrobial treatment. This approach may provide an early avenue for translation of such therapy in humans. Keywords: peritonitis, brain injuries, rats

  10. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In addition, because sex differences in progesterone negative feedback and neurokinin B are due to the influence of testosterone (T) during fetal life, we determined whether prenatal T exposure would mimic sex differences in KNDy cells. Adult rams had nearly half the number of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus as did females, but the percentage of KNDy cells colocalizing progesterone receptors remained high in both sexes. Prenatal T treatment also reduced the number of dynorphin, neurokinin B, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the female arcuate nucleus; however, the number of kisspeptin cells remained high and at levels comparable to control females. Thus, sex differences in kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus, unlike that of dynorphin and neurokinin B, are not due solely to exposure to prenatal T, suggesting the existence of different critical periods for multiple peptides coexpressed within the same neuron. In addition, the imbalance between inhibitory (dynorphin) and stimulatory (kisspeptin) neuropeptides in this subpopulation provides a potential explanation for the decreased ability of progesterone to inhibit GnRH neurons in prenatal T-treated ewes.

  11. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    López, Jaime Octavio; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  13. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Preconception Care and Prenatal Care What is preconception care? Preconception care is the ... improve the health of your child. What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care a woman ...

  14. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  15. Effects of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on offspring substance use in multiplex, alcohol-dependent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose β radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan.

    1995-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic β-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or γ-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs

  17. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose {beta} radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Zhou Xiangyan

    1995-06-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with {beta}-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic {beta}-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or {gamma}-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs.

  18. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p time in EPM open arms: p time to complete BW: p < .05). Hence, combined prenatal stressors exert non-additive effects on locomotion, exploration and balance control, but induce greater anxiety through additive effects. Terminal plasma ACTH concentration was increased by prenatal stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects

  19. Efecto del retardo prenatal de crecimiento y la subnutrición postnatal en el crecimiento craneofacial / Craneofacial effect of prenatal growth retardation and postnatal undernutrition in craniofacial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Luna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar en animales con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC el efecto de la subnutrición proteico-calórica lactacional y postlactacional sobre la morfología craneofacial, particularizando en el crecimiento de los componentes funcionales neural y facial. Ratas Wistar fueron divididas en los grupos: Control, RPC (inducido por ligamiento parcial de ambas arterias uterinas el día 15 de gestación y Sham-operado (con igual técnica quirúrgica que RPC aunque sin ligamiento de las arterias. A su vez, el grupo RPC se dividió en: (a crías lactantes de madres con nutrición normal y a partir del destete alimentadas ad-libitum y (b crías lactantes de madres con restricción alimentaria del 25% y a partir del destete alimentadas con el 50% de lo consumido por un animal control. Se tomaron radiografías a las edades 1, 21, 42, 63 y 84 y se midieron longitud, ancho y altura de los componentes neural y facial. Se calcularon los índices volumétricos neural y facial y morfométrico neurofacial. Se aplicaron ANOVA y pruebas post-hoc y se calcularon diferencias porcentuales entre medias. Los resultados permitieron concluir que el estrés primario ocurrido durante la vida intrauterina resulta crítico en lo inmediato y en la vida postnatal, ya que aun mediando normonutrición postnatal el retardo de crecimiento perdura. Además, cuando al estrés prenatal le continúa restricción nutricional postnatal los efectos adversos son aditivos provocando retardo del crecimiento aún mayor. Finalmente, mientras que el componente neural es más resistente a las deficiencias nutricionales, el facial presenta mayor plasticidad, hecho que se evidencia en cambios de forma. Palabras clave: crecimiento craneofacial; desnutrición pre y postnatal; craneometría funcional    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of protein-calorie malnutrition during lactation and post-lactation on craniofacial morphology in intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR

  20. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  2. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  3. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals

  4. Corticosterone mediates some but not other behavioural changes induced by prenatal stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, S; Bejar, C; Schorer-Apelbaum, D; Weinstock, M

    2011-02-01

    The effect of daily varied stress from days 13-21 of gestation in Wistar rats was investigated by tests of learning and memory and anxiogenic behaviour in the 60-day-old offspring of both sexes. Prenatal stress decreased the anogenital distance in males at 1 day of age. Anxiogenic behaviour in the elevated plus maze was seen in prenatally-stressed rats of both genders. There was no significant gender difference in the rate of spatial learning in the Morris water maze but prenatal stress only slowed that of males. In the object recognition test with an inter-trial interval of 40 min, females but not males, discriminated between a familiar and novel object. Prenatal stress did not affect object discrimination in females but feminised that in males. Maternal adrenalectomy with replacement of basal corticosterone levels in the drinking fluid prevented all of the above effects of prenatal stress in the offspring. To mimic the peak corticosterone levels and time course of elevation in response to stress, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) was injected twice (0 and 30 min) on days 13-16 and once on days 17-20 of gestation to adrenalectomised mothers. This treatment re-instated anxiogenic behaviour similar to that induced by prenatal stress, indicating that it is mediated by exposure of the foetal brain to raised levels of corticosterone. However, steroid administration to adrenalectomised dams did not decrease anogenital distance, feminise object recognition memory or slow spatial learning in their male offspring. The findings indicate that other adrenal hormones are necessary to induce these effects of prenatal stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The effects of pre-natal-, early-life- and indirectly-initiated exposures to maximum adversities on the course of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Levav, Itzhak; Yoffe, Rinat; Pugachova, Inna

    2014-09-01

    The effects of pre-natal-, early-life- and indirectly-initiated exposures to protracted maximum adversity on the course of schizophrenia are unknown. To compare the aforementioned Holocaust directly exposed subgroups with an indirectly exposed subgroup on the course of schizophrenia. The study population were: Israeli Jews in-uterus or born in Nazi-occupied or dominated European nations by the end of the persecution of the Jews, who were alive in 1950, and who had a last discharge diagnosis of schizophrenia in the Israel National Psychiatric Case Registry by 2013 (N=4933). The population was disaggregated into subgroups who (1) migrated after WWII and who had (1a) pre-natal (n=584, 11.8%) and (1b) early-life (n=3709, 75.2%) initiated exposures to the maximum adversities of the Holocaust, and (2) indirectly exposed individuals to the Holocaust who migrated before the Nazi-era persecution begun (n=640, 13%). Recurrent event survival analyses were computed to examine the psychiatric re-hospitalization risk of the study subgroups, unadjusted and adjusted for age of onset of the disorder and sex. The pre-natal initiated exposure subgroup had a significantly (pPoland-born individuals, the years 1922 and 1935; and followed at least 10 years and to the year 2000. Pre-natal initiated exposure to the maximal adversity of the holocaust constitutes a consistent risk factor for a worse course of schizophrenia, a possible byproduct of neurodevelopment disruptions induced by maternal stress and/or famine and/or infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  7. The effectiveness of adolescent-specific prenatal interventions on improving attendance and reducing harm during and after birth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibingana-Ahimbisibwe, Brenda; Katabira, Catherine; Mpalampa, Lena; Harrison, Roger A

    2016-08-18

    Adolescent pregnancy has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including pre-term birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and perinatal death. To systematically review the effect of adolescent-specific interventions on reducing PTB, LBW, and perinatal death and increasing prenatal care attendance. Possible studies for inclusion were identified by a comprehensive search of OvidSP MEDLINE (limits: humans, 1990-present), EMBASE (limits: humans, 1990-2015), Popline and Global Health Database from the World Health Organisation (WHO) and PubMed International scientific databases, and references of identified articles were searched from 1990 to present. All types of controlled studies of prenatal interventions were exclusive to adolescents and at least one of the outcomes of interest. Investigators identified relevant studies and entered the data in a pro forma. Data were summarised as forest plots and narrative synthesis. Twenty-two studies (three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), four prospective cohort studies, nine retrospective cohort studies, five case controls and one natural experiment) were included with all but one study being carried out in higher-income countries. Seven of the 16 studies reporting on PTB found a statistically significant reduction in PTB rates between adolescent-specific prenatal care (intervention) and non-age specific prenatal care odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) ranged from OR: 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03-0.83) to OR: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.45-0.78). Nine of the 12 studies reported statistically significant higher mean prenatal attendance rates among the intervention group compared to controls (ranging from a mean number of visits of 14.3 vs. 10.7 pbirth rate but their effect on perinatal death is uncertain. There is a distinct lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions for adolescents living in low-middle income countries, despite having the majority of adolescent pregnancies, and associated risk of harm. No high

  8. Prenatal Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (m TORC1) Inhibition by Rapamycin Treatment of Pregnant Mice Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Alters Postnatal Cardiac Growth, Morphology, and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Maria; Fiedler, Saskia; Jux, Christian; Thierfelder, Ludwig; Drenckhahn, Jörg-Detlef

    2017-08-04

    Fetal growth impacts cardiovascular health throughout postnatal life in humans. Various animal models of intrauterine growth restriction exhibit reduced heart size at birth, which negatively influences cardiac function in adulthood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates nutrient and growth factor availability with cell growth, thereby regulating organ size. This study aimed at elucidating a possible involvement of mTORC1 in intrauterine growth restriction and prenatal heart growth. We inhibited mTORC1 in fetal mice by rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams in late gestation. Prenatal rapamycin treatment reduces mTORC1 activity in various organs at birth, which is fully restored by postnatal day 3. Rapamycin-treated neonates exhibit a 16% reduction in body weight compared with vehicle-treated controls. Heart weight decreases by 35%, resulting in a significantly reduced heart weight/body weight ratio, smaller left ventricular dimensions, and reduced cardiac output in rapamycin- versus vehicle-treated mice at birth. Although proliferation rates in neonatal rapamycin-treated hearts are unaffected, cardiomyocyte size is reduced, and apoptosis increased compared with vehicle-treated neonates. Rapamycin-treated mice exhibit postnatal catch-up growth, but body weight and left ventricular mass remain reduced in adulthood. Prenatal mTORC1 inhibition causes a reduction in cardiomyocyte number in adult hearts compared with controls, which is partially compensated for by an increased cardiomyocyte volume, resulting in normal cardiac function without maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Prenatal rapamycin treatment of pregnant dams represents a new mouse model of intrauterine growth restriction and identifies an important role of mTORC1 in perinatal cardiac growth. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used

  10. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan. A study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibenholt Anni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181. Methods Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m3 aerosolized powder (1.7·106 n/cm3; peak-size: 97 nm on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2 with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test. Conclusion Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development.

  12. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan). A study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Jackson, Petra; Jensen, Keld A; Sloth, Jens J; Löschner, Katrin; Larsen, Erik H; Birkedal, Renie K; Vibenholt, Anni; Boisen, Anne-Mette Z; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2010-06-14

    Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181). Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m(3) aerosolized powder (1.7.10(6) n/cm(3); peak-size: 97 nm) on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test). Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development.

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to single-wall carbon nanotubes on reproductive performance and neurodevelopment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivani, Saeed; Karimi, Isaac; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Syedmoradi, Leila

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes with extraordinary properties may become a novel drug and gene delivery tool in nanomedicine; however, insufficient information is available regarding their biosafety. Therefore, this work was performed to study the effect of prenatal exposure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on reproductive and neurobehavioral endpoints in mice. Thirty pregnant female mice were assigned to three groups (n = 10 for each group). The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 or 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of SWCNTs suspended in 1 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) on gestational days 0 and 3. The control group was injected i.p. with an equal volume of PBS. The neurobehavioral ontogeny of pups was evaluated using a modified Fox battery. A decrease in litter size on postnatal day 2 was observed in the group treated with 10 mg/kg b.w. of SWCNTs whereas no significant differences between groups were observed in any other parameters. The behavioral development of pups did not show significant differences during growth except for the surface righting reflex, which showed significant delay compared to control in the group treated with 1 mg/kg b.w. SWCNTs. Moreover, exposed offspring (10 mg/kg b.w. SWCNTs) displayed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze; however, other ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open field test) did not show behavioral changes in the experimental groups. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated small changes in offspring sensory and motor development following exposure to SWCNTs and support the idea that SWCNT risk assessment merits further investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Prenatal maternal effects on body condition score, female fertility, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Brotherstone, S; Coffey, M P

    2007-07-01

    In this study, maternal effects were described as age of dam at first and second calving, first-lactation body condition score (BCS) of the dam during gestation, and milk yield of the dam. The impact of these effects on first-lactation daughter BCS, fertility, and test-day milk yield was assessed. The effect of milk yield of dam on daughter 305-d yield in the latter's first 3 lactations was also investigated. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in daughter traits accounted for by maternal effects was calculated. Dams calving early for the first time (18 to 23 mo of age) had daughters that produced 4.5% more first-lactation daily milk, had 7% higher BCS, and had their first service 3 d earlier than cows whose dams calved late (30 to 36 mo). However, daughters of dams that calved early had difficulties conceiving as they needed 7% more inseminations and had a 7.5% higher return rate. Cows from second calvings of relatively young (36 to 41 mo) dams produced 6% more first-lactation daily milk, had 2% higher BCS, and showed a significantly better fertility profile than cows whose dams calved at a late age (47 to 55 mo). High maternal BCS during gestation had a favorable effect on daughter BCS, nonreturn rate, and number of inseminations per conception. However, it was also associated with a small decrease in daughter daily milk yield. Changes in dam BCS during gestation did not affect daughter performance significantly. Maternal effects of milk yield of the dam, expressed as her permanent environment during lactation, adversely affected daughter 305-d milk, fat, and protein yield. However, although the effect was significant, it was practically negligible (<0.3% of the mean). Finally, overall maternal effects accounted for a significant proportion of the total phenotypic variance of calving interval (1.4 +/- 0.6%) and nonreturn rate (1.1 +/- 0.5%).

  15. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-Free DNA-Based Non-invasive Prenatal Screening for Common Aneuploidies in a Canadian Province: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshimyumukiza, Léon; Beaumont, Jean-Alexandre; Duplantie, Julie; Langlois, Sylvie; Little, Julian; Audibert, François; McCabe, Christopher; Gekas, Jean; Giguère, Yves; Gagné, Christian; Reinharz, Daniel; Rousseau, François

    2018-01-01

    Yearly, 450 000 pregnant Canadians are eligible for voluntary prenatal screening for trisomy 21. Different screening strategies select approximately 4% of women for invasive fetal chromosome testing. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using maternal blood cell-free DNA could reduce those invasive procedures but is expensive. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of NIPT strategies compared with conventional strategies. This study used a decision analytic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 13 prenatal screening strategies for fetal aneuploidies: six frequently used strategies, universal NIPT, and six strategies incorporating NIPT as a second-tier test. The study considered a virtual cohort of pregnant women of similar size and age as women in Quebec. Model data were obtained from published sources and government databases. The study predicted the number of chromosomal anomalies detected (trisomies 21, 13, and 18), invasive procedures and euploid fetal losses, direct costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Of the 13 strategies compared, eight identified fewer cases at a higher cost than at least one of the remaining five strategies. Integrated serum screening with conditional NIPT had the lowest cost, and the cost per case detected was $63 139, with a 90% reduction of invasive procedures. The number of cases identified was improved with four other screening strategies, but with increasing of incremental costs per case (from $61 623 to $1 553 615). Results remained robust, except when NIPT costs and risk cut-offs varied. NIPT as a second-tier test for high-risk women is likely to be cost-effective as compared with screening algorithms not involving NIPT. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the effects of a prenatal or postnatal irradiation of 150 rads in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, H.; Pasquier, C.

    Pregnant females and newborn rats were exposed to a gamma irradiation of 150 rads. The stage of gestation at the time of irradiation varied from 14 to 21 days. The newborn rats were irradiated at 0, 1 and 2 days of age. The effect of irradiation of foetus and newborn rats depends on the age of the animal at the time of irradiation. This effect was specially important at the beginning of the foetal life. Neonatal mortality, growth of body weight and adult brain development were investigated. A modification of germ cell radiosensitivity during the period studied, was emphasized [fr

  18. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    was noted, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 40% [22% – 73%], p = 0.3%. We found no change in MMC birth rate after introduction of folic acid supplementation, IRR = 121% [81% – 181%], p = 36%. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no effect of introducing national folic acid recommendations when...

  19. Effect of prenatal and postnatal photoperiod on spermatogenic development in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus sungorus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; van Eerdenburg, F. J.; de rooij, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the pre- and postnatal daylength on the start of spermatogenesis and further testicular development from day 4 up to day 127 was investigated in Djungarian hamsters. Hamsters were either gestated under long (16 h light:8 h dark) photoperiod and reared under long or short (4 h light:20

  20. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  1. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C.; Horcher, Ernst; Schöpf, Veronika; Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  2. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  3. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and social integration: an effect of prenatal sex hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Branas-Garza, Pablo; Davidson, Michael W.; Haim, Dotan A.; Carcelli, Shannon; Fowler, James H.

    2017-01-01

    The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens (measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D) shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which m...

  4. Individual and combined effects of maternal anemia and prenatal infection on risk for schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Philip R; Meyer, Urs; Mortensen, Preben B

    2016-04-01

    Maternal iron deficiency and infection during pregnancy have individually been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring, but possible interactions between the two remain unidentified thus far. Therefore, we determined the individual and combined effects of maternal infection during pregnancy and prepartum anemia on schizophrenia risk in the offspring. We conducted a population-based study with individual record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Hospital Register, and the Central Danish Psychiatric Register. In a cohort of Danish singleton births 1,403,183 born between 1977 and 2002, 6729 developed schizophrenia between 1987 and 2012. Cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received a diagnosis of anemia at any time during the pregnancy. Maternal infection was defined based on infections requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Maternal anemia and infection were both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in unadjusted analyses (1.45-fold increase for anemia, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82; 1.32-fold increase for infection, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48). The effect of maternal infection remained significant (1.16-fold increase, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Combined exposure to anemia and an infection increased the effect size to a 2.49-fold increased schizophrenia risk (95% CI: 1.29-4.27). The interaction analysis, however, failed to provide evidence for multiplicative interactions between the two factors. Our findings indicate that maternal anemia and infection have additive but not interactive effects, and therefore, they may represent two independent risk factors of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Combined Prenatal Ethanol and Prenatal Stress Exposures on Markers of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Miranda C.; Porch, Morgan W.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress can each cause long-lasting deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and disrupt learning and memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these perturbations following a learning event are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress exposure, either alone or in combination, on the cytosolic expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) protein and the synaptosomal expression o...

  6. Behavioural effects in rats after prenatal exposure to dearomatized white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    in the offspring were investigated using a test battery including assessment of physical development, reflex ontogeny, motor function, motor activity and, learning and memory. No significant effects were recorded on motor function and the activity in Open Field. In the initial learning period (age 1 month......), the performance in a Morris water maze was similar in exposed and control animals. When testing for memory at the age of 2 months, the exposed male offspring used more time to locate the hidden platform. After platform relocation, impaired cognitive function was revealed in the exposed females. At the age of 5...

  7. Caring for Our Future: The Content of Prenatal Care. A Report of the Public Health Service Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes effective approaches for enhancing maternal, infant, and family outcomes based on the scientific and systematic assessment of the content of prenatal care conducted by the Public Health Service's Expert Panel on the Content of Prenatal Care. The range of risks, both medical and psychosocial, that the prenatal care provider…

  8. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: mortality and morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and long-term studies of humans exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and after birth show that these exposures increase the risk of cancer in childhood and in later life. A possible life-shortening effect has also been reported. This study followed to their mid-twenties 1458 women exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and 1458 matched, unexposed controls in Baltimore, Maryland, and obtained responses from over 100 women in each group. Information about general health and specific diseases was obtained from questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained through family members and death certificates. Mortality rates were slightly higher among exposure. Exposed women reported poor general health significantly more often than controls. Specific diseases occurred similarly in the two groups, although exposed women reported more epilepsy or fits, more ovarian tumors, and more high blood pressure. These strong correlation between weight and high blood pressure and the heavier weights of exposed women seemed to account for this difference. In summary, these matched exposed and control women, followed to their mid-twenties, experienced similar rates of morbidity and mortality. Radiation-induced cancers and life-shortening effects, if any, might not become evident until older ages

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to nanoparticles titanium dioxide and carbon black on female germline DNA stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in humans. Air pollution may also adversely affect pregnancy outcome and the integrity of sperm cells DNA. Animal studies have shown that inhalation of air particulates can induce mutations...... in premeiotic sperm cells. The investigation of potential mutagenic risk is of outmost importance, as it may lead to cancer. Furthermore, heritable mutations may be passed on to descendents and thereby pose a permanent genetic risk to the population. The nanosized fraction of particulate air pollution has...... are needed. Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci in mice are sensitive markers of mutagenic effects resulting from environmental exposures; Studies on adult mice have revealed that while particulate air pollution induced ESTR mutations in premeiotic sperm cells, the female germline was not affected...

  10. Long-term effects of prenatal diagnostic x-rays on childhood physical and intellectual development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumei Hu; Jiaxiang Yao

    1994-01-01

    A long-term follow-up study has been conducted on the physical and intellectual development of 1026 children exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1191 non-exposed controls in Beijing, Shanghai and Changchun. The fetal absorbed doses ranged from 11.75 to 42.70 mGy. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in body height, weight and head circumference compared by standard deviations of individual measured parameters from local normal means. The mean score of an intelligence test in the exposed group was slightly lower than that in the control group with a statistically significant difference. However, the residual radiation effects on IQ were no longer significant on the Hotelling T 2 -test and Student's t-test when confounding factors were identified and taken into account by backward stepwise regression analyses. (author)

  11. Effect of prenatal phenytion exposure on the apical ectodermal ridges of chick wing buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, F.; Raza, S.; Shafique, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of sodium phenytoin on the development of the apical ectodermal ridges (AER) in chick wing buds. Study Design: Laboratory based case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Department of Anatomy located at the Regional Center of College of Physicians and Surgeons Islamabad Pakistan, from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. Material and Methods: Sixty fertilized chicken eggs of 'Egyptian fayoumi' breed were selected and divided into two subgroups, experimental and control, each having 30 eggs. A single dose of 3.5 mg sodium phenytoin was injected in each egg of the experimental subgroup while controls were administered same volume of normal saline. The embryos were extracted 96 hours (day 4) after incubation. Histological sections were cut at 5 micro m thickness and stained with Feulgen Nuclear and Light Green to measure the maximum thickness of the apical ectodermal ridges. The number of cells and mitoses in each ridges were also counted. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between experimental and control subgroups regarding the maximum thickness and number of cells in the apical ectodermal ridge but there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of mitoses in the experimental ridges. Conclusion: The study shows that sodium phenytoin exerts an inhibitory effect on the apical ectodermal ridges of developing limbs evident by the decreased number of mitoses in the AER of wing buds of experimental chick embryos making it a potential target site for limb teratogenicity associated with its maternal intake during pregnancy. (author)

  12. Effect of prenatal gamma irradiation on the different gestation days on mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, R.; Uma Devi, P.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a single local (abdomen) exposure of 50 cGy gamma radiation on days 1.5 to 17.5 post coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on 18th day of gestation and the fetuses were dissected out and examined for mortality, growth retardation, sex ratio, changes in body weight and length, head length and width, brain weight and incidence of microphthalmia. Preimplantation exposures (days 1.5 and 3.5 p.c.) resulted in a significant increase in embryonic and fetal mortality, while exposure during the postimplantation period (days 5.5 to 12.5 p.c.) produced a significant increase in the number of growth retarded fetuses. A high incidence of growth retarded fetuses was also observed by irradiation at the late fetal period (17.5 days p.c.). Brain weight was significantly affected by exposure on some days during all the three phases of development, i.e. preimplantation (3.5 days p.c.), mager organogenesis (9.5 to 12.5 days p.c.) and fetal (14.5 and 17.5 days p.c.) periods, though the period of sensitiveness was larger during organogenesis period. Eye development was sensitive to radiation effect mainly during the late organogenesis (9.5 to 12.5 days p.c.). It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of mouse embryos to radiation lethality at low dose is confirmed to the preimplantation period, while growth retardation is a prominent effect of irradiation at the early postimplantation embryos. The late organogenesis, especially from 9.5 to 12.5 days p.c. appears to be a particularly sensitive period in the development of brain and eye, though the sensitivity of brain may continue during the fetal life. (author). 9 refs

  13. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  15. Effects of prenatal low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on rat hippocampus neurons. Electrophysiological and neuro behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1997-01-01

    Pregnent Wistar rats were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) on day 13 of gestation so that for their offsprings, the absorbed doses were estimated to be 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy. The influence of HTO to the morphology and number of hippocampus pyramidal neurons and the maximum electric current of Ca 2+ in neurons was observed for the in-vitro-cultured hippocampus of new-born rats and the learning and memory behaviours were assessed by the electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and the condition reflex test for young rats. The results show that prenatal exposure to HTO in a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy can cause a reduction in number of neurons in hippocampus cultured in vitro, and that the electric current of Ca 2+ tends to decline with cumulative dose increasing, with the significant decrease in offsprings prenatally exposed to HTO in dose of 0.264 Gy. The results of electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and condition reflex test indicate that for young rats prenatally exposed to HTO, a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy could induce damage in their learning and memory behaviours

  16. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females. II. Growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M B; Tonascia, J

    1981-09-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low doses of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term follow-up studies of 1458 human females exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional follow-up revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947-1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correctly among exposed and control mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factor rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women.

  17. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low dosage of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term followup study of 1458 human females exposed in-utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight, and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in-utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional followup revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947 to 1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correlated among exposed and controlled mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factors rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women

  18. Long-term effects of prenatal X ray on development and fertility of human females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.; Merz, T.

    1976-01-01

    This continuing epidemiologic study investigates possible effects of X-ray exposure during foetal life on the subsequent development and fertility of human females and on their offspring. The study population comprises 1458 females exposed in utero to maternal diagnostic X ray such as pelvimetry, and 1458 unexposed controls matched by hospital of birth, parity, race and birthdate (1947-1952). Phase I of the study showed a 10-15% increase in fertility in young exposed women, based on ascertainment of live births and foetal deaths registered in Baltimore City. This statistically significant difference (p=0.011) remained after adjustment for differences between exposed and control women in economic, social and medical factors. Phase II of the study, a direct follow-up of exposed control pairs of women now aged 22-28, continues to show more total pregnancies among exposed women. Exposed-in-utero women had 15% more total pregnancies than controls in 1960-1969, and 7% more in 1970-1975. Exposed and control women are similar in number of siblings, number of children wanted, contraceptive use, and frequency of therapeutic abortion. Other findings suggest possible exposed-control differences in growth, development and behaviour. Exposed women have completed fewer grades of school, have poorer general health, more menstrual problems, more of certain diseases and accidents, and are heavier for height than controls. (author)

  19. Developmental and behavioral effects of prenatal primidone exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, W J; Alexander, T D; Loftus, J T

    1996-12-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered primidone (PRM) by oral gavage on gestation days 8-17 in doses of 0.40, and 80 mg/kg. Although these doses of PRM did not produce significant differences in litter size, birth weight, mortality, date of attainment of developmental landmarks or measures of preweaning reflex and motor development, there were a number of significant differences that developed as the animals approached and entered adulthood. When tested as adults, the 80 mg/kg male rats showed a deficit in the performance of an eight-arm radial maze task. These same animals showed a significant reduction in open field activity when tested as adults. In addition, both male and female PRM-treated animals showed reduced body weights at different periods corresponding to onset of sexual maturation during development. These findings are consistent with the larger body of literature reporting on the neurobehavioral teratology of phenobarbital, including its ability to produce lesions in the hippocampus and endocrine dysfunction resulting in reproductive deficits. These results suggest that PRM produces its adverse effects as a result of its metabolism to phenobarbital, which in turn affects the limbic system.

  20. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  1. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  2. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  3. What effects can be expected of prenatal ethanol exposure in pregnant mice and their offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Grinfeld

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of chronic alcohol consumptionin pregnant mice and their offspring. Methods: Twenty eight femaleC57BL/6J pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matchedgroups. One group received a high protein ad libitum liquid dietcontaining 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories, from gestation day 5to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containingisocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin. On postnatal day 6 thepups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the60th day of life. On postnatal day 60, the males of the two groups(control and ethanol were randomly assigned into 4 subgroupswhich were injected subcutaneously either with neurotoxin 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine or vehicle control.Seven days after the injection the subjects were weighed,sacrificed, and their brains were removed and processed forimmunohistochemistry and neuronal counting by stereologicalmethods. Results: The number of pups from the ethanol dietmothers was significantly smaller compared with the control group(3.54 ± 0.45 and 6.5 ± 0.42 respectively; p < 0.01, in addition ofincreased neonatal mortality and teratogeny, like gastroschisis.Decreased number of pups was observed among the male offspringof the ethanol diet mothers (1.54 ± 0.31 and 2.87 ± 0.48; p < 0.05.The brains of the ethanol diet group that received either the toxinor solvent showed a significantly decreased number ofdopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra asrelated to the control group that received the solvent. An increasednumber of reactive astrocytes was observed in the striatum ofsubjects of the alcohol/diet group injected with the toxin.Conclusions: Data showed that gestational alcoholism has animportant role in teratogeny as well as modifying the nigrostriataldopaminergic system of the mice offspring.

  4. Developmental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Uterus of Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Schönfelder

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA, which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERβ and beta (ERα, because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERα and ERβ distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced. ERβ expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERβ expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of ERα and ERβ.

  5. Prenatal Care in Combination with Maternal Educational Level Has a Synergetic Effect on the Risk of Neonatal Low Birth Weight: New Findings in a Retrospective Cohort Study in Kunshan City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Ming; Shen, Yue-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW) risk. Methods Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS) from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257), whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530), and the LBW risk displayed a ‘U-shape’ curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002) using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve’s bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥13 visits were 0.92 (0.82–1.03), 0.50 (0.38–0.66), 0.62 (0.47–0.82), and 0.99 (0.61–1.60), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be

  6. Prenatal care in combination with maternal educational level has a synergetic effect on the risk of neonatal low birth weight: new findings in a retrospective cohort study in Kunshan City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Dai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by

  7. The fetal programming effect of prenatal smoking on Igf1r and Igf1 methylation is organ- and sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17.5) and neonatal (D3) mouse offspring. By further comparing female versus male, lung versus liver, or fetal versus neonatal time point, our results demonstrate that CpG site-specific aberrant methylation patterns sex-dependently vary per organ and time point. Moreover, PSE reduces gene expression of Igf1r and Igf1, dependent on organ, sex, and offspring's age. Our results indicate that PSE may be a source of organ-specific rather than general systemic fetal programming. This is exemplified here by gene promoter methylation and mRNA levels of Igf1r and Igf1, together with a sex- and organ-specific naturally established correlation of both parameters that is affected by prenatal smoke exposure. Moreover, the comparison of fetuses with neonates suggests a CpG site-dependent reversibility/persistence of PSE-induced differential methylation patterns.

  8. Cumulative effects of prenatal-exposure to exogenous chemicals and psychosocial stress on fetal growth: Systematic-review of the human and animal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Sen, Saunak; Zeise, Lauren; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2017-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal stress or environmental chemical exposures on fetal growth are well described, yet their combined effect remains unclear. To conduct a systematic review on the combined impact and interaction of prenatal exposure to stress and chemicals on developmental outcomes. We used the first three steps of the Navigation Guide systematic review. We wrote a protocol, performed a robust literature search to identify relevant animal and human studies and extracted data on developmental outcomes. For the most common outcome (fetal growth), we evaluated risk of bias, calculated effect sizes for main effects of individual and combined exposures, and performed a random effects meta-analysis of those studies reporting on odds of low birthweight (LBW) by smoking and socioeconomic status (SES). We identified 17 human- and 22 animal-studies of combined chemical and stress exposures and fetal growth. Human studies tended to have a lower risk of bias across nine domains. Generally, we found stronger effects for chemicals than stress, and these exposures were associated with reduced fetal growth in the low-stress group and the association was often greater in high stress groups, with limited evidence of effect modification. We found smoking associated with significantly increased odds of LBW, with a greater effect for high stress (low SES; OR 4.75 (2.46-9.16)) compared to low stress (high SES; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.53-2.48)). Animal studies generally had a high risk of bias with no significant combined effect or effect modification. We found that despite concern for the combined effects of environmental chemicals and stress, this is still an under-studied topic, though limited available human studies indicate chemical exposures exert stronger effects than stress, and this effect is generally larger in the presence of stress.

  9. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  10. Oscillatory bands, neuronal synchrony and hippocampal function: implications of the effects of prenatal choline supplementation for sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Williams, Christina L; Meck, Warren H

    2008-10-27

    Choline supplementation of the maternal diet has long-term facilitative effects on spatial and temporal memory processes in the offspring. To further delineate the impact of early nutritional status on brain and behavior, we examined effects of prenatal-choline availability on hippocampal oscillatory frequency bands in 12 month-old male and female rats. Adult offspring of time-pregnant dams that were given a deficient level of choline (DEF=0.0 g/kg), sufficient choline (CON=1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP=3.5 g/kg) in their chow during embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were implanted with an electroencephalograph (EEG) electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in combination with an electromyograph (EMG) electrode patch implanted in the nuchal muscle. Five consecutive 8-h recording sessions revealed differential patterns of EEG activity as a function of awake, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep states and prenatal choline status. The main finding was that SUP rats displayed increased power levels of gamma (30-100 Hz) band oscillations during all phases of the sleep/wake cycle. These findings are discussed within the context of a general review of neuronal oscillations (e.g., delta, theta, and gamma bands) and synchronization across multiple brain regions in relation to sleep-dependent memory consolidation in the hippocampus.

  11. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  12. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier

  13. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poses no physical risks for you or your baby. While prenatal cell-free DNA screening might cause anxiety, it might help you avoid the need for more invasive tests, treatment or monitoring during your pregnancy. Keep in mind, however, that ...

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeng Cho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia (CPEH is a rare condition. CPEH can cause important clinical problems such as gastric volvulus, hematemesis, vomiting, failure to thrive, and respiratory distress, it requires early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In this paper, we describe a case of CPEH that was suspected in a prenatal ultrasound. Postnatal upper gastrointestinal contrast series confirmed a CPEH with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. An emergency operation was performed. The stomach was reduced, the hiatal defect was repaired by crural approximation, and a Nissen fundoplication was done. The prenatal diagnosis of CPEH is unusual, but prenatal detection is important because it allows planned neonatal surgery before the onset of complications and reduces long-term morbidity. Keywords: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia, Antenatal diagnosis, Gastric volvulus

  15. Differential effectiveness of placebo treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Karin; Fässler, Margrit; Rücker, Gerta

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE When analyzing results of randomized clinical trials, the treatment with the greatest specific effect compared with its placebo control is considered to be the most effective one. Although systematic variations of improvements in placebo control groups would have important implications...... relevant sources through February 2012 and contacted the authors to identify randomized clinical trials on the prophylaxis of migraine with an observation period of at least 8 weeks after randomization that compared an experimental treatment with a placebo control group. We calculated pooled random-effects...... and sham surgery are associated with higher responder ratios than oral pharmacological placebos. Clinicians who treat patients with migraine should be aware that a relevant part of the overall effect they observe in practice might be due to nonspecific effects and that the size of such effects might differ...

  16. Association between Prenatal and Postnatal Psychological Distress and Toddler Cognitive Development: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Kingston

    Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.

  17. Prenatal Co 60-irradiation effects on visual acuity, maturation of the fovea in the retina, and the striate cortex of squirrel monkey offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordy, J.M.; Brizzee, K.R.; Young, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, foveal striate cortex depth increased significantly from 1400 μm to 1650 μm by 90 days, whereas prenatal 100 rad exposure resulted in a significant reduction of foveal striate cortex thickness at 90 days of age. From birth to 90 days, cell packing density decreased, whereas overall neuropil density increased in both control and 100 rad exposed offspring. Regarding the effects of prenatal radiation on Meynert cells, there was a significant difference in the time course of early postnatal spine frequency reduction on apical dendrites of Meynert cells, particularly in laminae V and IV. It seems possible that the significant differences in the time course of perinatal increases and subsequent decreases of spines and synapses on such pyramidal neurons as Meynert cells in the deep layers of the striate cortex may play an important role in the development of binocular acuity. Future follow-up studies will be essential from 90 days to 1 and 2 years to determine the extent of recovery from, and persistence of visual acuity impairments in relation to structural alterations in the foveal projection of the retino-geniculo-striate system of diurnal primates. (orig./MG)

  18. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... too. By Mayo Clinic Staff The goal of prenatal care is to ensure that you and your baby ...

  20. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's position. By Mayo Clinic Staff Prenatal care is an important part of a healthy pregnancy, ...

  1. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  2. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  4. Describing treatment effects to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxey, Annette; O'Connell, Dianne; McGettigan, Patricia; Henry, David

    2003-11-01

    To examine the impact of different presentations of equivalent information (framing) on treatment decisions faced by patients. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted. English language publications allocating participants to different frames were retrieved using electronic and bibliographic searches. Two reviewers examined each article for inclusion, and assessed methodological quality. Study characteristics were tabulated and where possible, relative risks (RR; 95% confidence intervals) were calculated to estimate intervention effects. Thirty-seven articles, yielding 40 experimental studies, were included. Studies examined treatment (N = 24), immunization (N = 5), or health behavior scenarios (N = 11). Overall, active treatments were preferred when outcomes were described in terms of relative rather than absolute risk reductions or number needed to treat. Surgery was preferred to other treatments when treatment efficacy was presented in a positive frame (survival) rather than a negative frame (mortality) (relative risk [RR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 1.64). Framing effects were less obvious for immunization and health behavior scenarios. Those with little interest in the behavior at baseline were influenced by framing, particularly when information was presented as gains. In studies judged to be of good methodological quality and/or examining actual decisions, the framing effect, although still evident, was less convincing compared to the results of all included studies. Framing effects varied with the type of scenario, responder characteristics, scenario manipulations, and study quality. When describing treatment effects to patients, expressing the information in more than one way may present a balanced view to patients and enable them to make informed decisions.

  5. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  6. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on under-five mortality and stunting: Analysis of data from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat, with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MINIMat interventions remain cost-effective in view of both favourable (decreased under-five-years mortality and unfavourable (increased stunting outcomes.Pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, where food insecurity still is prevalent, were randomized to early (E or usual (U invitation to be given food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μg of folic acid. E reduced stunting at 4.5 years compared with U, MMS increased stunting at 4.5 years compared with Fe60, while the combination EMMS reduced infant mortality compared with UFe60. The outcome measure used was disability adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden that combines years of life lost due to premature mortality (under five-year mortality and years lived with disability (stunting. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated using cost data from already published studies.By incrementing UFe60 (standard practice to EMMS, one DALY could be averted at a cost of US$24.When both favourable and unfavourable outcomes were included in the analysis, early prenatal food and multiple micronutrient interventions remained highly cost effective and seem to be meaningful from a public health perspective.

  8. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Austria: Prenatal screening for prevention is cost-saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Andrea-Romana; Kasper, David C; Sawers, Larry; Walter, Evelyn; Hayde, Michael; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2017-07-01

    Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario. We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including pediatric long-term follow-up until May 2013. We constructed a decision-analytic model to compare lifetime societal costs of prenatal screening with lifetime societal costs estimated in a No-Screening scenario. We included costs of treatment, lifetime care, accommodation of injuries, loss of life, and lost earnings that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario and compared them with the actual costs of screening, treatment, lifetime care, accommodation, loss of life, and lost earnings. We replicated that analysis excluding loss of life and lost earnings to estimate the budgetary impact alone. Our model calculated total lifetime costs of €103 per birth under prenatal screening as carried out in Austria, saving €323 per birth compared with No-Screening. Without screening and treatment, lifetime societal costs for all affected children would have been €35 million per year; the implementation costs of the Austrian program are less than €2 million per year. Calculating only the budgetary impact, the national program was still cost-saving by more than €15 million per year and saved €258 million in 17 years. Cost savings under a national program of prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection and treatment are

  9. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  10. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  11. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between...... these factors while controlling for the effects of current smoking in young adulthood. METHODS This cross-sectional study (1996-2006) included 3486 Danish men (median age: 19 years), participating in a semen-quality study. Data were obtained from questionnaires, physical examinations, semen analyses...... and assessments of reproductive hormones. The main outcome measures were markers of pubertal onset, BMI, reproductive hormones and semen variables. RESULTS Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with earlier onset of puberty (e.g. early pubic hair development in 25.2 versus 18.9% of unexposed subjects...

  12. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  13. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Ogura, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ayumi; Hayashi, Sakurako; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

  14. The effects of differential prenatal and postnatal social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Terman, C R

    1975-05-01

    We compared the influence of different social enviroments on sexual maturation of young prairie deermice. Between 12 and 48 hr after parturition, one-half of a litter from a population was exchanged with one-half of a litter from a bisexual pair. In each situation the remaining half-litter served as controls for the exchange procedure. The testes and vesicular weights of population-reared males were significantly larger than those of males reared by bisexual pairs, irrespective of prenatal enviroment. Generally, population-reared females also had larger reproductive organs than those reared by bisexual pairs, although these differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the adrenal weights of males or females, but females reared by bisexual pairs had larger absolute and relative adrenals than females reared in populations.

  15. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  16. Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammen, Rachelle L; Cohen, Joyce K; Meeker, Tracy L; Crane, Maria M; Amara, Rama R; Hicks, Sakeenah L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Ethun, Kelly F

    2018-05-15

    Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams. Whether this higher incidence of infantile tetanus is due to a higher incidence of trauma among subordinate animals or is a stress-induced impairment of maternal antibody protection is unknown. Studies in other NHP species suggest that chronic exposure to social stressors interferes with the receptor-mediated transplacental transfer of IgG. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic stress associated with social subordination impairs prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity in breeding female rhesus macaques. Subjects included 26 high- and 26 low-ranking adult female rhesus macaques that were nearly 5 or 10 y after their initial immunization and their nonimmunized infants. We hypothesized that infants born to subordinate dams that were nearly 10 y after immunization would have the lowest infant-to-dam antibody ratios and thus would be at greatest risk for infection. Results revealed no significant intergroup differences in infant antitetanus IgG levels. However, infant-to-dam IgG ratios against tetanus were significantly lower among subordinate animals compared with dominant macaques, after accounting for the number of years since the dam's initial vaccination. In addition, higher maternal hair cortisol levels predicted lower infant-to-dam tetanus toxoid IgG ratios. Together, these findings suggest that chronic social stress in female rhesus macaques may hamper the prenatal transfer of

  17. The effect of a decision aid on informed decision-making in the era of non-invasive prenatal testing : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Van Den Berg, Michelle; Faas, Brigitte Hw; Feenstra, Ilse; Hageman, Michiel; Van Vugt, John Mg; Bekker, Mireille N.

    2016-01-01

    Early in pregnancy women and their partners face the complex decision on whether or not to participate in prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Several studies show that the majority of pregnant women currently do not make informed decisions regarding prenatal testing. As the range

  18. Ultrasonographic features of prenatal testicular torsion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ağaçayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prenatal testicular torsion (PNTT is rarely observed,it is an important condition that can cause bilateralvanishing testis. Generally, PNTT cases observed asextravaginal torsion and treatment is emergency surgicalop-eration. In this article, 39 week presented a case diagnosedin the prenatal testicular torsion. PNTT diagnosiswas confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography and emergencysurgery was performed. Extravaginal left testiculartorsion gangrene and necrosis of the testis was observedin the operation. Left orchiectomy was performed andintrauter-ine ultrasonographic diagnosis was found to becorrect.Key words: Testicular torsion, prenatal diagnosis, features,ultrasonography

  19. Mitigating the Effects of Poverty and Crime: The Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Programme for Children Who Were Developmentally Delayed and Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Gonzalez, Antonio; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the long-term impact on participation in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) for children (n = 54) who were developmentally delayed and prenatally exposed to cocaine. By identifying a group of programme graduates from a high crime/high poverty neighbourhood in Miami-Dade County using ArcGIS 10.2 software, a…

  20. Prenatal cocaine increases striatal serotonin innervation without altering the patch/matrix organization of intrinsic cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A M; Keller, R W

    1993-08-20

    The effect of prenatal cocaine on the anatomical development of the striatum was examined. The distribution and density of dopaminergic innervation of the striatum of animals exposed to cocaine during the second and third week of gestation was not noticeably different from prenatally saline-injected or untreated controls at any age. The patch/matrix organization of the striatum also appeared unaltered: neurons exhibiting dense substance P staining were localized to patches that overlapped dopamine terminal patches early in development, and enkephalin- and calbindin-immunoreactive neurons were found segregated to the matrix. Histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase also revealed no differences between prenatally cocaine-treated and control brains. Whereas prenatal cocaine treatment failed to modify the basic compartmental organization of the striatum, it did lead to a hyperinnervation of serotonin-immunoreactive fibers which developed slowly after birth. Thus prenatal exposure to cocaine is capable of altering the ingrowth of serotonergic projections to the striatum while producing no change in the organization of neurons intrinsic to the striatum.

  1. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  2. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  3. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  4. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Berry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS, might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother’s body weight and offspring’s weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females and in the central nervous system (males. Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important

  5. Administration of the Antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine in Pregnant Mice Has Long-Term Positive Effects on Metabolic and Behavioral Endpoints of Male and Female Offspring Prenatally Exposed to a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Bellisario, Veronica; Panetta, Pamela; Raggi, Carla; Magnifico, Maria C; Arese, Marzia; Cirulli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests the consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy to model maternal obesity and the associated increase in oxidative stress (OS), might act as powerful prenatal stressors, leading to adult stress-related metabolic or behavioral disorders. We hypothesized that administration of antioxidants throughout gestation might counteract the negative effects of prenatal exposure to metabolic challenges (maternal HFD feeding during pregnancy) on the developing fetus. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD for 13 weeks (from 5-weeks of age until delivery) and were exposed to the N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) antioxidant from 10-weeks of age until right before delivery. Body weight of the offspring was assessed following birth, up to weaning and at adulthood. The metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile of the adult offspring was tested at 3-months of age. Prenatal HFD increased mother's body weight and offspring's weight at the time of weaning, when administered in conjunction with NAC. In females, NAC administration reduced high levels of leptin resulting from prenatal HFD. Prenatal NAC administration also resulted in greater glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity while increasing adiponectin levels, as well as increasing exploratory behavior, an effect accompanied by reduced plasma corticosterone levels in response to restraint stress. Analysis of glutathione levels in the hypothalamus and in brown adipose tissue indicates that, while HFD administration to pregnant dams led to reduced levels of glutathione in the offspring, as in the male hypothalamus, NAC was able to revert this effect and to increase glutathione levels both in the periphery (Brown Adipose Tissue, both males and females) and in the central nervous system (males). Overall, results from this study indicate that the body redox milieu should be tightly regulated during fetal life and that buffering OS during pregnancy can have important long

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of methymalonic aciduria and homocystinuria cblC type using DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Zappu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type is the most frequent inborn error of vitamin B12. CblC patients present with a heterogeneous clinical picture.To date, the early prenatal diagnosis of MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type is performed by determination of methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine (Hcy in amniotic fluid supernatant. In this paper we report a case of prenatal diagnosis, using genetic analysis, of MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type in an at risk couple. Direct sequencing analysis of the amplified products of chorionic villi biopsy extracted DNA showed normal sequence in the fetal DNA. Mutation analysis of the MMACHC gene is more cost-effective and less time-consuming than the biochemical approach. Early prenatal treatment may have an impact on the long-term complications associated with cblC disease. Future studies with the aim of determining the long-term benefits of daily parenteral OHCbl started soon after conception in at risk mothers should be considered. In this context early prenatal diagnosis could determine whether therapy needs to be continued.

  7. Follow-up of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Lenz, K; Rabol, A

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous experience with prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis, we found that the primary indications for surgical intervention should be symptoms or functional impairment of the hydronephrotic kidney. Nonoperative management of neonates without symptoms and with normal function...... of the affected kidney was proposed. However, the strategy of treatment after prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis is still controversial. We studied 28 consecutive children with suspected unilateral pelviureteral junction obstruction and a normal contralateral kidney. The overall follow-up period varied between 2...

  8. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  9. Visual evoked potentials in children prenatally exposed to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to methylmercury can cause both neurobehavioral deficits and neurophysiological changes. However, evidence of neurotoxic effects within the visual nervous system is inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete statistical adjustment for beneficial nutritional factors. We evaluated t...

  10. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  11. Chronic allopurinol treatment during the last trimester of pregnancy in sows: effects on low and normal birth weight offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise T Gieling

    Full Text Available Low-birth-weight (LBW children are born with several risk factors for disease, morbidity and neonatal mortality, even if carried to term. Placental insufficiency leading to hypoxemia and reduced nutritional supply is the main cause for LBW. Brain damage and poor neurological outcome can be the consequence. LBW after being carried to term gives better chances for survival, but these children are still at risk for poor health and the development of cognitive impairments. Preventive therapies are not yet available. We studied the risk/efficacy of chronic prenatal treatment with the anti-oxidative drug allopurinol, as putative preventive treatment in piglets. LBW piglets served as a natural model for LBW. A cognitive holeboard test was applied to study the learning and memory abilities of these allopurinol treated piglets after weaning. Preliminary analysis of the plasma concentrations in sows and their piglets suggested that a daily dose of 15 mg.kg(-1 resulted in effective plasma concentration of allopurinol in piglets. No adverse effects of chronic allopurinol treatment were found on farrowing, birth weight, open field behavior, learning abilities, relative brain, hippocampus and spleen weights. LBW piglets showed increased anxiety levels in an open field test, but cognitive performance was not affected by allopurinol treatment. LBW animals treated with allopurinol showed the largest postnatal compensatory body weight gain. In contrast to a previous study, no differences in learning abilities were found between LBW and normal-birth-weight piglets. This discrepancy might be attributable to experimental differences. Our results indicate that chronic prenatal allopurinol treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy is safe, as no adverse side effects were observed. Compensatory weight gain of treated piglets is a positive indication for the chronic prenatal use of allopurinol in these animals. Further studies are needed to assess the possible

  12. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  13. Alterations in immune responses in prenatally irradiated dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nold, J.B.; Benjamin, S.A.; Miller, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Immunologic responses were studied in beagle dogs following prenatal (35 days gestation) irradiation to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on the developing immune system. Each dog received 1.5 Gy 60 Co gamma irradiation or sham irradiation. Prenatally irradiated dogs exhibited a significant reduction in primary humoral antibody responses to inoculated sheep red blood cells, a T-dependent antigen, and a concurrent decrease in T-helper lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood at 3 to 4 months of age. Similarly, irradiated fetuses have been shown to have defects in epitheliostromal development of the thymus. It is suggested that the postnatal immunologic deficits may relate to the prenatal thymic injury

  14. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants on children's development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Rauh, V.A.; Xie, J.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Mailman School for Public Health

    2008-05-15

    Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead, and mercury are released by combustion of coal and other fossil fuels. In the present study we evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to these pollutants and child development measured by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. The study was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major source of ambient PAHs and also contributed lead and mercury to the air. In a cohort of nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between March 2002 and June 2002, we measured levels of PAH-DNA adducts, lead, and mercury in umbilical cord blood. PAH-DNA adducts (specifically benzo(a)pyrene adducts) provided a biologically relevant measure of PAH exposure. We also obtained developmental quotients (DQs) in motor, adaptive, language, and social areas. Decrements in one or more DQs were significantly associated with cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts and lead, but not mercury. Increased adduct levels were associated with decreased motor area DQ (p = 0.043), language area DQ (p = 0.059), and average DQ (p = 0.047) after adjusting for cord lead level, environmental tobacco smoke, sex, gestational age, and maternal education. In the same model, high cord blood lead level was significantly associated with decreased social area DQ (p = 0.009) and average DQ (p = 0.038). The findings indicate that exposure to pollutants from the power plant adversely affected the development of children living in Tongliang.

  16. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  17. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  18. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on state/trait anxiety in full-term pregnancy and its influence on childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R

    2018-04-01

    Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were

  19. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment What's in this article? Hair Loss Skin Problems ...

  20. Modifying effects of maternal Hb concentration on infant birth weight in women receiving prenatal iron-containing supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Mei, Zuguo; Li, Hongtian; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Jianmeng; Serdula, Mary K

    2016-02-28

    Concerns have been raised about the benefits of Fe-containing supplements on infant birth weight among women with normal/high Hb levels at baseline. Thus far, no clinical trials have examined whether the effects of prenatal Fe-containing supplements on birth weight vary by maternal Hb levels. We compared the effects of Fe-folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) with folic acid (FA) supplements on birth weight among pregnant women with mild/no anaemia or high Hb levels. A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2006-2009. In total, 18 775 pregnant women with mild/no anaemia (145 g/l) baseline Hb levels, IFA and MMN supplements increased birth weight by 91·44 (95% CI 3·37, 179·51) g and 107·63 (95% CI 21·98, 193·28) g (PHb concentration. In conclusion, the effects of Fe-containing supplements on birth weight depended on baseline Hb concentrations. The Fe-containing supplements improved birth weight in women with very high Hb levels before 20 weeks of gestation.

  1. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and cons...

  2. Melatonin attenuates prenatal dexamethasone-induced blood pressure increase in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-04-01

    Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term cognitive and cardiac outcomes after prenatal exposure to chemotherapy in children aged 18 months or older: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amant, F.; Calsteren, K. van; Halaska, M.J.; Gziri, M.M.; Hui, W.; Lagae, L.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Kapusta, L.; Calster, B. van; Wouters, H; Heyns, L.; Han, S.N.; Tomek, V.; Mertens, L.; Ottevanger, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy for the treatment of maternal cancers during pregnancy has become more acceptable in the past decade; however, the effect of prenatal exposure to chemotherapy on cardiac and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring is still uncertain. We aimed to record the general

  4. Group Prenatal Care Attendance: Determinants and Relationship with Care Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Grilo, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B; Novick, Gina; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Group prenatal care results in improved birth outcomes in randomized controlled trials, and better attendance at group prenatal care visits is associated with stronger clinical effects. This paper's objectives are to identify determinants of group prenatal care attendance, and to examine the association between proportion of prenatal care received in a group context and satisfaction with care. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of pregnant adolescents (n = 547) receiving group prenatal care in New York City (2008-2012). Multivariable linear regression models were used to test associations between patient characteristics and percent of group care sessions attended, and between the proportion of prenatal care visits that occurred in a group context and care satisfaction. Results Sixty-seven groups were established. Group sizes ranged from 3 to 15 women (mean = 8.16, SD = 3.08); 87 % of groups enrolled at least five women. Women enrolled in group prenatal care supplemented group sessions with individual care visits. However, the percent of women who attended each group session was relatively consistent, ranging from 56 to 63 %. Being born outside of the United States was significantly associated with higher group session attendance rates [B(SE) = 11.46 (3.46), p = 0.001], and women who received a higher proportion of care in groups reported higher levels of care satisfaction [B(SE) = 0.11 (0.02), p prenatal care as possible in a group setting, as well as value-based reimbursement models and other incentives to encourage more widespread adoption of group prenatal care.

  5. An optimised procedure for prenatal ethanol exposure with determination of its effects on central nervous system connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbriccoli, A; Carretta, D; Santarelli, M; Granato, A; Minciacchi, D

    1999-01-01

    We describe the protocol set-up to investigate an experimental model of foetal alcohol syndrome in the rat. The protocol has been devised to expose specific cell populations of the central nervous system to ethanol during their neurogenesis and has been applied to the study of diencephalo-telencephalic connections. We were able to demonstrate specific permanent changes of the adult thalamo-cortical circuitry. Our protocol can be applied to study other aspects of central nervous system-ethanol interactions, such as neurotransmitter and receptor patterns. It can also represent a useful tool to test the effects of different diets to prevent nutritional deficiencies and the efficacy of drug treatments to prevent foetal alcohol syndrome. We have shown in fact that ethanol-induced thalamo-cortical alterations are partially prevented by concurrent administration of acetyl-L-carnitine. Finally, the present protocol can be used to investigate the effects of ethanol exposure on the development of different brain structures. To this purpose, the gestational period for ethanol exposure must be chosen according to the peak of neurogenesis for the investigated structure.

  6. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will discuss the importance of proper nutrition and prenatal vitamins. Your first prenatal visit is a good time to discuss exercise, sex during pregnancy and other lifestyle issues. You might also discuss your work environment and the use of medications during pregnancy. If ...

  7. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  9. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad.

  10. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  11. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 'junk food' diet on offspring food preferences and fat deposition can be mitigated by improved nutrition during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Vithayathil, M; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to a maternal junk food (JF) diet in utero and during the suckling period has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable food and increase the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether the effects of prenatal exposure to JF could be ameliorated by cross-fostering offspring onto dams consuming a standard rodent chow during the suckling period. We report here that when all offspring were given free access to the JF diet for 7 weeks from 10 weeks of age, male offspring of control (C) or JF dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams (C-JF, JF-JF), exhibited higher fat (C-C: 12.3 ± 0.34 g/kg/day; C-JF: 14.7 ± 1.04 g/kg/day; JF-C: 11.5 ± 0.41 g/kg/day; JF-JF: 14.0 ± 0.44 g/kg/day; P food intake, had increased fat mass as percentage of body weight (C-C: 19.9 ± 1.33%; C-JF: 22.8 ± 1.57%; JF-C: 17.4 ± 1.03%; JF-JF: 22.0 ± 1.0%; P food preferences in females and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in males can be prevented by improved nutrition during the suckling period.

  12. Evaluation of neuroprotection by melatonin against adverse effects of prenatal exposure to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug during peripheral nerve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Kaplan, Suleyman; Kalkan, Serpil; Sutcu, Mustafa; Ulkay, M Basak; Esener, O Burak

    2015-04-01

    The potential ability of melatonin to protect against impairment of the fetal peripheral nerve system due to maternal consumption of diclofenac sodium (DS) was investigated. Eighty-four pregnant rats were divided into seven groups: control (CONT), saline administered (PS), DS administered (DS), DS with low-dose melatonin administered (DS+MLT10), DS with high-dose melatonin administered (DS+MLT50), low-dose melatonin administered (MLT10), and high-dose melatonin administered (MLT50). After the pregnancy, six male newborn rats from each group were sacrificed at 4 and 20 weeks of age. Their right sciatic nerves were harvested, and nerve fibers were evaluated using stereological techniques. Mean numbers of myelinated axons, axon cross-section areas and the mean thickness of the myelin sheet were estimated. Four-week-old prenatally DS-exposed rats had significantly fewer axons, a smaller myelinated axonal area, and a thinner myelin sheath compared to CONT group (pmelatonin at both doses significantly increased axon numbers, only a high dose of melatonin increased the diameter of those axons (pmelatonin prophylaxis can prevent these effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  14. Some behavioral aspects of adult rats irradiated prenatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekovishcheva, O.Yu.; Blagova, O.E.; Borovitskaya, A.E.; Evtushenko, V.I.; Khanson, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the effects of prenatal irradiation on the behavior of rats. The experiments were performed on 42 eighteen month old rats of both sexes. Eight of the males and thirteen females had been irradiated prenatally. The results of this experiment indicated that in general, the activation of behavior, the appearance of aggression and the increase in chaos along with the presence of behavior poses were typical of the suppressed condition of the prenatal irradiated animal. Also, among prenatally irradiated animals, there was a greater degree of anxiety, a slow rate of adjustment to unfamiliar situations and unfriendly relationships between animals of the same sex. These results were compared with the results of behavioral experiments on irradiated adult rats

  15. Current approaches on non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal genomics, transcriptomics, personalized fetal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Günel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in molecular genetics improved our knowledge on fetal genome and physiology. Novel scientific innovations in prenatal diagnosis have accelerated in the last decade changing our vision immensely. Data obtained from fetal genomic studies brought new insights to fetal medicine and by the advances in fetal DNA and RNA sequencing technology novel treatment strategies has evolved. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis found ground in genetics and the results are widely studied in scientific arena. When Lo and colleges proved fetal genetic material can be extracted from maternal plasma and fetal DNA can be isolated from maternal serum, the gate to many exciting discoveries was open. Microarray technology and advances in sequencing helped fetal diagnosis as well as other areas of medicine. Today it is a very crucial prerequisite for physicians practicing prenatal diagnosis to have a profound knowledge in genetics. Prevailing practical use and application of fetal genomic tests in maternal and fetal medicine mandates obstetricians to update their knowledge in genetics. The purpose of this review is to assist physicians to understand and update their knowledge in fetal genetic testing from maternal blood, individualized prenatal counseling and advancements on the subject by sharing our experiences as İstanbul University Fetal Nucleic Acid Research Group.

  16. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  17. Prenatal VPA exposure and changes in sensory processing by the superior colliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eDendrinos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Disorders involving dysfunctional sensory processing are characterized by an inability to filter sensory information, particularly simultaneously arriving multimodal inputs. We examined the effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA, a teratogen linked to sensory dysfunction, on the behavior of juvenile and adult rats, and on the anatomy of the superior colliculus, a critical multisensory integration center in the brain. VPA-exposed rats showed deficits in colliculus-dependent behaviors including startle response, prepulse inhibition and nociceptive responses. Some deficits reversed with age. Stereological analyses revealed that colliculi of VPA-treated rats had significantly fewer parvalbumin-positive neurons, a subset of GABAergic cells. These results suggest that prenatal VPA treatment affects the development of the superior colliculus and leads to persistent anatomical changes evidenced by aberrant behavior in tasks that require sensory processing.

  18. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  19. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  20. Does prenatal care benefit maternal health? A study of post-partum maternal care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on prenatal care focus on its effects on infant health, while studying less about the effects on maternal health. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance claims data in Taiwan in a recursive bivariate probit model, this study examines the impact of adequate prenatal care on the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization during the first 6 months after birth. The results show that adequate prenatal care significantly reduces the probability of post-partum maternal hospitalization among women who have had vaginal delivery by 43.8%. This finding suggests that the benefits of prenatal care may have been underestimated among women with vaginal delivery. Timely and adequate prenatal care not only creates a positive impact on infant health, but also yields significant benefits for post-partum maternal health. However, we do not find similar benefits of prenatal care for women undergoing a cesarean section. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination Begins in the Womb: Evidence of Sex- Selective Prenatal Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Prashant; Lakdawala, Leah K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates whether boys receive preferential prenatal treatment in a setting where son preference is present. Using micro health data from India, we highlight sex-selective prenatal investments as a new channel via which parents practice discriminatory behavior. We find that mothers visit antenatal clinics and receive tetanus…

  2. Facilitators of prenatal care access in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Myers, Carole R; Schorn, Mavis N

    2014-12-01

    There are many providers and models of prenatal care, some more effective than others. However, quantitative research alone cannot determine the reasons beneficial models of care improve health outcomes. Perspectives of women receiving care from effective clinics can provide valuable insight. We surveyed 29 women receiving care at a rural, Appalachian birth center in the United States with low rates of preterm birth. Semi-structured interviews and demographic questionnaires were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis of manifest content. Insurance was the most common facilitator of prenatal access. Beneficial characteristics of the provider and clinic included: personalized care, unrushed visits, varied appointment times, short waits, and choice in the type and location of care. There is a connection between compassionate and personalized care and positive birth outcomes. Women were willing to overcome barriers to access care that met their needs. To facilitate access to prenatal care and decrease health disparities, healthcare planners, and policy makers need to ensure all women can afford to access prenatal care and allow women a choice in their care provider. Clinic administrators should create a welcoming clinic environment with minimal wait time. Unrushed, woman-centered prenatal visits can increase access to and motivation for care and are easily integrated into prenatal care with minimal cost. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Prenatal Protein Malnutrition on Long-Term Potentiation and BDNF Protein Expression in the Rat Entorhinal Cortex after Neocortical and Hippocampal Tetanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55–60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  4. Effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on long-term potentiation and BDNF protein expression in the rat entorhinal cortex after neocortical and hippocampal tetanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alejandro; Burgos, Héctor; Mondaca, Mauricio; Barra, Rafael; Núñez, Héctor; Pérez, Hernán; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Olivares, Ricardo; Valladares, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of the protein content from 25 to 8% casein in the diet of pregnant rats results in impaired neocortical long-term potentiation (LTP) of the offspring together with lower visuospatial memory performance. The present study was aimed to investigate whether this type of maternal malnutrition could result in modification of plastic capabilities of the entorhinal cortex (EC) in the adult progeny. Unlike normal eutrophic controls, 55-60-day-old prenatally malnourished rats were unable to develop LTP in the medial EC to tetanizing stimulation delivered to either the ipsilateral occipital cortex or the CA1 hippocampal region. Tetanizing stimulation of CA1 also failed to increase the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the EC of malnourished rats. Impaired capacity of the EC of prenatally malnourished rats to develop LTP and to increase BDNF levels during adulthood may be an important factor contributing to deficits in learning performance having adult prenatally malnourished animals.

  5. BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF CHRONIC NIMODIPINE TREATMENT ON BEHAVIORAL DYSFUNCTIONS OF AGED RATS EXPOSED TO PERINATAL ETHANOL TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARKEL, E; FELSZEGHY, K; LUITEN, PGM; NYAKAS, C

    1995-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure were assessed in adult (5-month), aged (24-month), and senescent (30-month) rats on non-aggressive intermale social behavior, and on black-white discrimination and spatial learning behaviors. Furthermore, the effects of chronic

  6. The impact of prenatal care on birthweight: the case of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R Todd; Triunfo, Patricia

    2006-11-01

    This study analyzes prenatal care and birthweight in Uruguay. These data are unique since they represent a population of urban, poor women who gave birth in a health care system that provides both prenatal and obstetric care free of charge. This study finds a positive effect of increased prenatal care use on birthweight and evidence of bias in OLS estimates, similar to studies that use US data. The results highlight the usefulness of existing methodologies for estimating the effect of prenatal care on birthweight and the importance of extending these methodologies to data from countries other than the US. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iszatt, N.; Stigum, H.; Verner, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    prenatal and postnatal effects. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). METHODS: We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p...... growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p'-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels....

  8. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal antioxidant intakes in pregnancy, and child temperament at age 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.

  9. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  10. Prenatal and Postpartum Care Disparities in a Large Medicaid Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Natasha; Jarlenski, Marian; Kelley, David

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Pennsylvania's maternal mortality, infant mortality, and preterm birth rates rank 24th, 35th, and 25th in the country, and are higher among racial and ethnic minorities. Provision of prenatal and postpartum care represents one way to improve these outcomes. We assessed the extent of disparities in the provision and timeliness of prenatal and postpartum care for women enrolled in Pennsylvania Medicaid. Methods We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of representative samples of women who delivered live births from November 2011 to 2015. Our outcomes were three binary effectiveness-of-care measures: prenatal care timeliness, frequency of prenatal care, and postpartum care timeliness. Pennsylvania's Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) were required to submit these outcomes to the state after reviewing administrative and medical records through a standardized, validated sampling process. We assessed for differences in outcomes by race, ethnicity, region, year, and MCO using logistic regression. Results We analyzed data for 12,228 women who were 49% White, 31% Black/African American, 4% Asian, and 15% Hispanic/Latina. Compared to Black/African American women, white and Asian women had higher odds of prenatal and postpartum care. Hispanic/Latina women had higher frequency of prenatal care than non-Hispanic women. Pennsylvania's Southeast had lower prenatal care and Northwest had lower postpartum care than other regions. Prenatal care significantly decreased in 2014 and increased in 2015. We observed differences between MCOs, and as MCO performance diminished, racial disparities within each plan widened. We explored hypotheses for observed disparities in secondary analyses. Conclusions for Practice Our data demonstrate that interventions should address disparities by race, region, and MCO in equity-promoting measures.

  11. Playfulness and prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie

    2014-08-01

    South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  13. African American women and prenatal care: perceptions of patient-provider interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L

    2015-02-01

    Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system

  15. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  16. Tavaborole, a Novel Boron-Containing Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis: II. Prenatal and Postnatal Developmental Toxicity and Maternal Function Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravino, Vic; Coronado, Dina; Lanphear, Cheryl; Hoberman, Alan; Chanda, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Tavaborole is a topical antifungal agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The effects of tavaborole on gestation, parturition (delivery, labor), offspring development, and survival during the perinatal and postnatal periods were assessed in mated female rats. Females (F0 generation) were administered single daily oral (gavage) doses of 15, 60, or 100 mg/kg/d from gestation day 6 through lactation day 20. The females were allowed to deliver naturally and rear their offspring until lactation day 21, at which time the F0 females were euthanized. One male and female from each litter were selected (F1 generation) and retained for assessments, including growth, neurobehavior, fertility, and their ability to produce an F2 generation. Reproductive and offspring parameters were determined for the F1 and F2 generations, as applicable. F1 females and F2 pups were euthanized on postnatal day 7. In the F0 females, decreased activity was observed in the 100 mg/kg/d dose group. Excess salivation was observed in the 60 and 100 mg/kg/d dose groups (slight to moderate), however, this finding was not considered adverse. There were no tavaborole-related effects on the growth, viability, development, neurobehavioral assessments, or reproductive performance of the F1 generation. Survivability and mean body weight of the F2 pups were unaffected. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal toxicity (F0 generation) was 60 mg/kg/d, based on the decreased activity observed in the 100 mg/kg/d dose group. The NOAEL for the offspring effects was ≥100 mg/kg/d, based on the lack of test article-related changes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Associations of government health expenditures, the supply of health care professionals, and country literacy with prenatal care use in ten West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yhenneko J; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Brunner Huber, Larissa R; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-03-01

    Social and health care context may influence prenatal care use. We studied associations of government health expenditures, supply of health care professionals, and country literacy rates with prenatal care use in ten West African countries, controlling for individual factors. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys (n = 58,512) and random effect logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of having any prenatal care and adequate prenatal care. Each percentage increase in the literacy rate was associated with 4% higher odds of having adequate prenatal care (p = .029). Higher literacy rates among women may help to promote adequate prenatal care.

  18. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Developmental Programming: Excess Weight Gain Amplifies the Effects of Prenatal Testosterone Excess On Reproductive Cyclicity—Implication for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    Sheep exposed to testosterone (T) during early to midgestation exhibit reproductive defects that include hypergonadotropism, functional hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and anovulatory infertility, perturbations similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obesity increases the severity of the phenotype in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. To determine whether prepubertal weight gain would exaggerate the reproductive disruptions in prenatal T-treated sheep, preg...

  20. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; van Rooij, Daan; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that