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Sample records for prenatal tobacco smoke

  1. Prenatal parental tobacco smoking, gene specific DNA methylation, and newborns size: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I. Both (Marieke); N.H. van Mil (Nina); C.P. Tolhoek (Catharina P.); L. Stolk (Lisette); P.H.C. Eilers; M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); B.T. Heijman (Bastiaan); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); A. Hofman (Albert); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Deleterious effects of prenatal tobacco smoking on fetal growth and newborn weight are well-established. One of the proposed mechanisms underlying this relationship is alterations in epigenetic programming. We selected 506 newborns from a population-based prospective birth co

  2. Prenatal Versus Postnatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Intensive Care Use in Children Hospitalized With Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michelle D; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Mowad, Eugene; Dunn, Michelle; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    Among children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we examined the associations between in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, and risk of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged bronchiolitis. For 3 consecutive years, from November 1, 2007 until March 31, 2010, site teams collected data from participating families, including information about prenatal maternal smoking and postnatal tobacco exposure. Analyses used chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable logistic regression. Among 2207 enrolled children, 216 (10%) had isolated in utero exposure to maternal smoking, 168 (8%) had isolated postnatal tobacco exposure, and 115 (5%) experienced both. Adjusting for age, sex, race, birth weight, viral etiology, apnea, initial severity of retractions, initial oxygen saturation, oral intake, and postnatal tobacco exposure, children with in utero exposure to maternal smoking had greater odds of being admitted to the ICU (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.00). Among children with in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with additional postnatal tobacco exposure had a greater likelihood of ICU admission (aOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.37) compared to children without postnatal tobacco smoke exposure (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.04). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy puts children hospitalized with bronchiolitis at significantly higher risk of intensive care use. Postnatal tobacco smoke exposure may exacerbate this risk. Health care providers should incorporate this information into counseling messages. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  4. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health in Russian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Sergey V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the child's later asthma or chronic respiratory symptoms and to our knowledge no studies have elaborated respiratory infections and allergies in this context. Objective To assess the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on respiratory health of Russian school children. Methods We studied a population of 5951 children (8 to12 years old from 9 Russian cities, whose parents answered a questionnaire on their children's respiratory health, home environment, and housing characteristics. The main health outcomes were asthma, allergies, chronic respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections. We used adjusted odds ratios (ORs from logistic regression analyses as measures of effect. Results Prenatal exposure due to maternal smoking had the strongest effects on asthma (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.19–5.08, chronic bronchitis (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08–1.96 and respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.90–1.89. The associations were weaker for exposure during early-life (adjusted ORs 1.38/1.27/1.15 respectively and after 2 years of age (adjusted ORs 1.45/1.34/1.18 compared to prenatal exposure and the weakest or non-existent for current exposure (adjusted ORs 1.05/1.09/1.06. Upper respiratory infections were associated more strongly with early-life exposure (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.42 than with prenatal (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.01 or current exposure (adjusted OR1.05, 95% CI 0.92–1.20. The risk of allergies was also related to early life exposure to tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.42. Conclusion Adverse effects of tobacco smoke on asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic respiratory symptoms are strongest when smoking takes place during pregnancy. The relations are weaker for exposure during early-life and after 2

  5. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  6. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  7. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts.

  8. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  9. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

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    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  10. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure...

  11. Adverse health effects of prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure on children

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    W. Hofhuis (Ward); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); P.J.F.M. Merkus (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractParents who choose to smoke are possibly not aware of, or deny, the negative effects of passive smoking on their offspring. This review summarises a wide range of effects of passive smoking on mortality and morbidity in children. It offers paediatricians, obstetricians,

  12. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure...... cycle, the fecundability odds ratio for smoking women exposed in utero was 0.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.91) compared with unexposed nonsmokers. Fecundability odds ratio for nonsmoking women exposed in utero was 0.70 (95% CI 0.48-1.03) and that for female smokers not exposed in utero was 0.......67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Exposure in utero was also associated with a decreased fecundability odds ratio in males (0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97), whereas present smoking did not reduce fecundability significantly. It seems advisable to encourage smoking cessation prior to the attempt to conceive as well...

  13. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  14. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-16

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  15. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

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    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  16. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  17. The Complexity of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

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    Perfetti TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and tobacco smoke are both complex mixtures. We previously reported 8430 unique chemical components identified in these complex mixtures but two years later our updated number was 8889. Addition of unlisted isomers raised these numbers to 8622 and 9081, respectively. Our previous number of 4994 identified tobacco components is now 5229; our previous number of 5315 identified tobacco smoke components is now 5685. An operational definition of a complex mixture is as follows: A complex mixture is a characterizable substance containing many chemical components (perhaps thousands in inexact proportions.

  18. The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Adoption Scale: evaluating the diffusion of a tobacco treatment innovation to a statewide prenatal care program and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Cleary, Sean; Ramiah, Kalpana; Clark, Jeannie; Abroms, Lorien; Davis, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    When a new patient education program is being considered for adoption by a public health agency, it is essential to determine provider perceptions of its acceptability for routine use. In 2007, the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Perinatal Program, Right From The Start (RFTS), decided to adopt the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program. RFTS is a statewide perinatal home visitation initiative delivered by designated care coordinators (DCCs). The authors developed the SCRIPT Adoption Scale (SAS) in the absence of a valid instrument to assess the perceived attributes of a tobacco treatment innovation among the RFTS DCC population. They evaluated the validity of the five constructs of the Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model in an organization (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability) to predict SCRIPT use. After reviewing the literature and developing draft SAS forms, 2 expert panel reviews established the face and content validity of a 43-item SAS. It was administered to 90% (85/90) of the RFTS DCC population. Psychometric analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of a 28-item scale. All 28 items had factor loadings greater than 0.40 (range = 0.43-0.81). All SAS subscales were strongly correlated, r = 0.51 to 0.97, supporting the convergent validity of a 5-factor SAS. There was a significant association between the DCC SAS score and DCC SCRIPT Program Implementation Index supporting the SAS convergent (construct) validity (r = 0.38). The SAS internal consistencyr = 0.93 and stabilityr = 0.76. Although 2 specific subscales need to be improved, the SAS can be adapted by prenatal care programs to measure the attributes of adoption of new, evidence-based patient education and counseling methods.

  19. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  20. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf—plants native to Asia—that may be tied with colorful string at one or both ends. Bidis can be flavored—such as chocolate, cherry, or mango—or unflavored. Flavored bidis, however, ...

  1. Prenatal tobacco exposure influences cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants

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    Verhagen, Elise A.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.; Keating, Paul; van den Berg, Paul P.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to determine the influence of prenatal tobacco exposure on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that as a result of vasoconstriction caused by prenatal tobacco exposure r(c)SO(2) wou

  2. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  4. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  5. Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos contributes to an increased yield of acidic constituents in the smoke. The increased nitrogenous component of Burley tobacco leads to a more alkaline smoke and one enriched in oxides of nitrogen. A quantitative elucidation of the relationship between tobacco type and smoke composition from literature results is complicated by the large number of variables influencing smoke composition which are generally unspecified in the reports. Smokes from cigaretts containing straight Burley and straight Bright tobaccos are compared based on analytical results from this laboratory. With few exceptions, smoke composition is often influenced more by processing variables and agronomic practices than by general tobacco ''type.'' 6 tables.

  6. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Joya; Cristina Manzano; Airam-Tenesor Álvarez; Maria Mercadal; Francesc Torres; Judith Salat-Batlle; Oscar Garcia-Algar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. I...

  7. Book Review: The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

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    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is highly recommended as an indispensable reference source for tobacco and smoke chemists as well as other scientists involved in the study of tobacco and its products. The compilation of proper chemical names, common names, Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No., and structures is alone worth the purchase price.

  8. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila

    2011-02-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and

  9. Arsenic Speciation in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke

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    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the metals found in cured tobacco and mainstream cigarette smoke. Levels of arsenic in modern filtered cigarette smoke range from sub-ppm to a few tens of ppms. To enable accurate smoke toxicity assessment on arsenic in cigarette smoke, it is desirable to establish its chemical forms in addition to total quantities because different arsenic compounds possess different toxicological potentials.

  10. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians.

  12. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  13. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    OpenAIRE

    Soule, Eric K.; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due t...

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Jong Hee; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  15. Tobacco smoking and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Kuźmicka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the problem of tobacco smoking in the context of quality of life. The aim of the study was to make a synthetic review of scientific research conducted all over the world, which assessed the potential influence of tobacco smoking on health related quality of life. Additionally, the paper reviews the Polish literature concerning comprehending and defining “quality of life”, especially in medical sciences. Meta-analysis was a research method. Descriptions of research findings were divided into two parts: using SF-36 questionnaire (the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire and using other questionnaires. From the review of scientific research results that tobacco smoking doesn’t influence health related quality of life in an unequivocal manner. Most of the studies showed better assessment of quality of life in non-smokers than in smokers. Improved quality of life was observed among those, who gave up smoking compared to those who continued smoking, but not all researchers demonstrated such a relationship. Research concerning influence of passive smoking on quality of life in individuals inhaling tobacco smoke for example at home, work or in places to eat wasn’t carried out so far. There is a need to do more longitudinal research on quality of life in smokers, passive smokers and among those, who successfully broke the habit to better understand the role of smoking in subjective perceived quality of life.

  16. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

  17. Associations of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring hyperactivity: causal or confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K. M.; Smith, G. Davey; Susser, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and hyperactivity remains controversial. To mitigate limitations of prior studies, we used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a historical sample where smoking during pregnancy was common. Method Data were drawn from a longitudinally followed subsample of the Child Health and Development Study (n = 1752), a population-based pregnancy cohort ascertained in 1961–1963 in California. Maternal prenatal smoking was common (33.4%). Maternal and paternal smoking patterns were assessed at three time points by mother report. Hyperactivity was assessed at the mean of age of 10 years based on mother report to a personality inventory. Results Unadjusted, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with offspring hyperactivity [β = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.33] and, to a similar degree, when the father smoked (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.07–0.30). After adjustment, maternal smoking remained robustly predictive of offspring hyperactivity (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09–0.40) but father smoking was not (β = 0.02, 95% CI −0.20 to 0.24). When examined among the pairs matched on propensity score, mother smoking was robustly related to offspring hyperactivity whether the father smoked (β = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03–0.49) or did not smoke (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04–0.57). By number of cigarettes, associations with hyperactivity were present for 10–19 and 20+ cigarettes per day among mothers. Conclusions In a pregnancy cohort recruited in a time period in which smoking during pregnancy was common, we document associations between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring hyperactivity. Novel approaches to inferring causality continue to be necessary in describing the potential adverse consequences of prenatal smoking exposure later in life. PMID:23676207

  18. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  19. [Polonium: the radioactive killer from tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Among all carcinogenic substances contained in tobacco smoke, Polonium 210 (Po-210), with a half-life of 138 days, is one of the most dangerous, by exerting a devastating, chronic, slow and progressive carcinogenesis activity. The main source of Po-210 in tobacco is represented by fertilizers (polyphosphates) containing radium-226 (Ra-222) which decades to plumb 210 (Pb-210). Through the thricomes Pb-210 is concentrated in the tobacco leaves, where it turns to Po-210, which at the cigarette combustion temperature (800-900 degrees C) reaches the gaseous state and it is absorbed by the micro particles released into tobacco smoke. Thus, smoke becomes radioactive in both its gaseous and corpuscular components and reaches the airways, where, particularly at the branches level and together with other substances, it exerts its carcinogenic activity, especially in those subjects with impaired respiratory mucosal clearance. The carcinogenic risk/one year lifetime of a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day is equivalent to that of undertaking 300 chest x-rays. It is calculated that Po-210 may be independently responsible of 4 lung cancers every 10,000 smokers. During cigarette's combustion, tobacco smoke is also released in the air, contributing to serious health risks for those exposed to passive smoke.

  20. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.

  1. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  2. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  3. Lipidomics of tobacco leaf and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Melissa N; Yoshimura, Yuta; t'Kindt, Ruben; Ortiz, Alexia; Masugi, Eri; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Sandra, Koen

    2016-03-25

    Detailed lipidomics experiments were performed on the extracts of cured tobacco leaf and of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). Following automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractionation of the lipid extracts, over 350 lipids could be annotated. From a large-scale study on 22 different leaf samples, it was determined that differentiation based on curing type was possible for both the tobacco leaf and the CSC extracts. Lipids responsible for the classification were identified and the findings were correlated to proteomics data acquired from the same tobacco leaf samples. Prediction models were constructed based on the lipid profiles observed in the 22 leaf samples and successfully allowed for curing type classification of new tobacco leaves. A comparison of the leaf and CSC data provided insight into the lipidome changes that occur during the smoking process. It was determined that lipids which survive the smoking process retain the same curing type trends in both the tobacco leaf and CSC data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  6. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille K; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2016-01-01

    studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL -1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7...

  7. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman M; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals with hazardous adverse effects on almost every organ in the body of smokers as well as of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There has been increasing interest in the effects of passive smoking on the health of children. In order to detect the magnitude of passive smoking in children, parental questionnaires, measuring nicotine and cotinine body levels, and evaluating expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, have been used. Passive smoking causes respiratory illness, asthma, poor growth, neurological disorders, and coronary heart diseases. Herein, we focused on the deleterious influences of passive smoking on immunity and liver. Besides, its effects on the concentrations of various biomarker levels related to the oxidant/antioxidant status were considered. Understanding these effects may help clinicians to counsel parents on smoking cessation and smoke exposure elimination. It may also help to develop interventions to improve the health of children. This review potentially demonstrated some nutraceuticals with a promising role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases.

  8. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking r

  9. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  10. [Tobacco smoking treatment strategy in COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula; Mendes, Berta

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the most important ways of improving the prognosis of COPD patients. Based on currently available evidence professional health workers should take a proactive and continuous role with smokers, motivating them to stop smoking and providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. The treatment should include pharmacotherapy in addition to behavioural support and should be part of management of the patient's chronic respiratory condition, as the COPD National Prevention and Treatment Programme recommends. Respiratory physicians and other professional health workers should receive training to ensure they have the necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to undertake these initiatives or to refer the smokers to a suitable qualified specialist. In the near future specialised smoking units should provide specific support, promote training, improve research and awareness and establish tobacco control measures in hospitals and primary health care centres.

  11. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  12. [Etiology, epidemiology, biology. Tobacco use and smoking in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, G

    2008-10-01

    Since 1976, France improved its anti tobacco legislation and regulation with the help of the Non-governmental organizations under the umbrella of the Alliance Against Tobacco. Since then were implemented a total ban of tobacco advertising (1991), a total ban of smoking in enclosed public and work places (2006), a high taxation of tobacco products, strong media campaigns to de normalize smoking and tobacco products, improved availability, accessibility and affordability of treatments of tobacco dependence. Since 1991, the number of cigarettes smoked per adult was halved.

  13. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  14. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  15. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those...

  16. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  17. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  18. In-utero exposure to maternal smoking is not linked to tobacco use in adulthood after controlling for genetic and family influences: a Swedish sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Mina; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven; Magnusson, Cecilia; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with regular tobacco use in offspring, but findings are not consistent and confounding from genetic and environmental factors have not fully been taken into account. A comparison between siblings discordant for prenatal smoking exposure adjusts for confounding by shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) factors. We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of regular smoking or snus (Swedish moist smokeless tobacco) use in young adult offspring, using a population based matched cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,538 randomly sampled same-sex sibling pairs, discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 19-27 years old, participating in a survey conducted in Sweden 2010-2011. Lifetime and current history of tobacco use was self-reported in the survey, and information about maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used to calculate odds ratios, hazard ratios, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of exposure-discordant siblings did not reveal significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and lifetime or current daily tobacco use, intensity of use, or time to onset of daily tobacco use. These findings suggest that the previously reported higher risks of tobacco use in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, compared with offspring of non-smoking mothers, were likely due to confounding from genetic or environmental factors.

  19. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group.

  20. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking pr

  1. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period--the first month of life--carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs…

  2. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  4. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  5. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  6. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  7. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  8. Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Walley, Susan C; Groner, Judith A; Nelson, Kevin E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco dependence starts in childhood. Tobacco exposure of children is common and causes illness and premature death in children and adults, with adverse effects starting in the womb. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians should screen for use of tobacco and other nicotine delivery devices and provide anticipatory guidance to prevent smoking initiation and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians need to be aware of the different nicotine delivery systems marketed and available.Parents and caregivers are important sources of children's tobacco smoke exposure. Because tobacco dependence is a severe addiction, to protect children's health, caregiver tobacco dependence treatment should be offered or referral for treatment should be provided (such as referral to the national smoker's quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW). If the source of tobacco exposure cannot be eliminated, counseling about reducing exposure to children should be provided.Health care delivery systems should facilitate the effective prevention, identification, and treatment of tobacco dependence in children and adolescents, their parents, and other caregivers. Health care facilities should protect children from tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco promotion. Tobacco dependence prevention and treatment should be part of medical education, with knowledge assessed as part of board certification examinations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian

    Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

  10. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  11. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  12. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  13. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P

    2007-12-01

    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  14. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  15. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  16. Tobacco smoking and hand eczema - is there an association?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors have been suggested for hand eczema. This systematic review evaluates the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically on the association between smoking and hand eczema. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE...... databases were searched up to 27 January 2015 for articles on the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema, including human studies in English and German only. Experimental studies, studies on tobacco allergy, case reports, reviews and studies on second-hand smoking were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty...... articles were included. Among studies in occupational settings, three of seven found a statistically significant positive association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema prevalence rate, as did four of eight population-based studies. The association was stronger for studies in occupational settings...

  17. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R(2) = 0.61-0.98, p smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  18. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tobacco smoking during pregnancy and risk of adverse behaviour in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dürr, Dorte Wiwe; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Christensen, Line Høgenhof

    2015-01-01

    pregnant women. When the children were from five to nine years of age, the parents assessed the child's behaviour using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: Overall, smoking in pregnancy was not associated with a higher probability of adverse behaviour assessed by the total SDQ score......OBJECTIVES: This study examines associations between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking and adverse behaviour in the offspring. METHODS: We included 1016 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine (526 from Greenland and 490 from Ukraine). Serum cotinine measurements were used to identify smoking....... However, in the crude analysis smoking was associated with a higher mean difference of SDQ-total score. In Greenland the SDQ-total mean difference (MD) was (MD (95% CI)=1.31 points (0.42; 2.19)) and in Ukraine (MD (95% CI)=0.18 points (-1.2; 0.91)), whereas the adjusted mean differences were statistically...

  20. Are genetic variants for tobacco smoking associated with cannabis involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T; Kapoor, Manav; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Edenberg, Howard J; Schuckit, Marc; Brooks, Andrew; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Saccone, Nancy; Tischfield, Jay; Bierut, Laura J

    2015-05-01

    Cannabis users are highly likely to also be tobacco cigarette smokers and a proportion of this comorbidity is attributable to shared genetic influences. Three large meta-analyses of genomewide association studies (GWAS) of tobacco smoking have identified multiple genomewide significant (psmoking and with cannabis involvement in an independent sample. Eleven SNPs associated with cigarettes per day (CPD), ever versus never smoking and current smoking/smoking cessation at psmoking measures in 2716 European-American subjects from the Study of Addictions Genes and Environment (SAGE) and with lifetime and current cannabis use and DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence. Cannabis use and tobacco smoking correlated at 0.54. Rs16969968 in CHRNA5 (and its proxy, rs1051730 in CHRNA3) and rs1451240, a proxy for rs13280604 in CHRNB3, were associated with CPD after Bonferroni correction (psmoking initiation, as in the original meta-analysis and also with lifetime cannabis use. Associations with cannabis involvement were no longer significant upon adjustment for the tobacco smoking measures. The modest associations between cannabis involvement and SNPs for tobacco smoking were not independent of the comorbidity between tobacco and cannabis involvement. Larger samples of individuals might be required to articulate the specific genetic architecture of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

  2. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-11-09

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies.

  3. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  4. Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

    2009-02-01

    Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested.

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  6. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  7. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H; Primack, Brian A

    2010-06-01

    Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07-0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500-999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan.

  8. Peers, tobacco advertising, and secondhand smoke exposure influences smoking initiation in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n  =  57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.

  9. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  11. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    ,000 in women) are caused annually by active smoking, yielding a total of 16,000 new cases each year around the turn of the century. This implies that 14% (19% in men and 9% in women) of all incident cancers in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused by active tobacco smoking. In comparison...

  12. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  13. The Effects of a Minimum Cigarette Purchase Age of 21 on Prenatal Smoking and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of US public health policies is to reduce costly adverse birth outcomes to which prenatal smoking is a crucial contributor. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of a minimum cigarette purchase age of 21 implemented in the state of Pennsylvania on prenatal smoking and infant health. Using a regression discontinuity method, it shows this smoking age of 21 reduces the prenatal daily cigarette consumption by 15 percent and lowers the incidence of low birth weight infants by ...

  14. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr.) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by ...

  15. Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0 years vs 14.2–21.1 years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5 h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

  16. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries.

  17. [THE LEVEL OF BENZ(A)PIREN IN TOBACCO SMOKE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurabashvili, D; Parulava, G; Shanidze, L; Kikalishvili, B; Nikolaishvili, M

    2016-05-01

    The medical problems of the environmental pollution with products of tobacco smoke are relatively known. The question of separate components of tobacco smoke, factors such a puff-volume, rate, distance, frequency, length of butt in the environment air is not well understand and should further be investigated. It is shown the dependence of the process on the following factors: physic-chemical parameters of atmospheric environment, brand of tobacco product, activity of smoking process. We aimed to determine the dependence of benz(a)pirene in the air samples of tobacco smoke in the distance of 2,0; 4,0 and 6,0m. from lighting cigarette after puff-by puff. Cigarettes were machine-smoked and the total particulate matter was collected (1,0m3) in room, having no air filtration and substances were analysed and identified by gashromatography. The condacted quantitative and qualitative analyses show, that distance of exposition from burning cigarette can change the volume of benz(a)pirene. In the result of pyrolitic and photochemical reactions in tobacco smoke at certain air space temperature new structures can be formed with high toxity and cancerogenity. The dominant transformation process is reaction with photochemically-produced radicals, which produced benz(a)piren as a minor product. Additional factors effecting indoor concentrations include location and ventilation condition time. Ultrafine particle and benz(a)piren deposition and smoking behavior were observed. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time (3, 5 and 10 minute) on a puff-by-puff. Our data show that smoking pastime can change the structure and volume of component of tobacco smoke. The level of benz(a)piren in air samples was evaluated as the main background index of cigarette smoke toxity in relatively small room, having no air filtration system. This question still needs to be explained. It would be interesting to investigate of tobacco smoke components in lung tissue after the

  18. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  19. The effect of tobacco smoke on oxytocin concentrations and selected oxidative stress parameters in plasma during pregnancy and post-partum - an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierala, M; Merritt, T A; Mazela, J; Jablecka, K; Miechowicz, I; Marszalek, A; Florek, E

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious threat to life and health of society. Among the most vulnerable to the toxic effects of tobacco smoke are foetuses and newborns. The objective of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke exposure on oxytocin levels and biochemical oxidative stress parameters during pregnancy and after birth in an experimental model. In the experiment, exposure to tobacco smoke of gravid and non-gravid rats was monitored. A reliable biomarker of exposure - cotinine - was used in the process and it was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, which ensured high analytical accuracy and precision. Determination of oxytocin was performed by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of selected oxidative stress parameters: total protein concentration, uric acid, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, protein S-nitrosylation and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke was a lower medium body mass of rat foetuses and pups. Oxidative stress during pregnancy, additionally intensified by tobacco smoke exposure, led to adaptive changes in properties of plasmatic antioxidant barriers. Moreover, the disturbance of oxidoreductive balance by tobacco smoke affects oxytocin fluctuations, what was observed in this study during lactation period. Therefore, women who smoke may breastfeed their children less frequently and for a shorter period.

  20. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  1. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.

  3. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  4. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M Lynn; Yauk, Carole L

    2011-08-02

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker.

  5. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  6. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  7. Prenatal smoking exposure and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD: a finnish nationwide population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Petteri; Chudal, Roshan; Talati, Ardesheer; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S.; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is commonly associated with a wide spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity. The association between smoking and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD has remained understudied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring ADHD, and test whether the smoking-ADHD associations are stronger when ADHD is accompanied by oth...

  8. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities' ability to carry out enforcement. Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.

  9. Tobacco industry opposition to designating environmental tobacco smoke through E-codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This manuscript examines the public policy importance of 1993, United States Department of Health and Human Services actions to require doctors and hospitals to report a new external cause of injury code or E-code for environmental tobacco smoke related to causes of death such as lung cancer and severe heart disease. Methods included a qualitative archival analysis of all previously internal tobacco industry documents, pertinent newspaper and magazine articles, Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights database, and pertinent websites regarding environmental tobacco smoke and E-codes from 1993 to 1998. The E-code has continued to the present because of scientific and administrative recognition that environmental tobacco smoke is conclusively linked to illness and death. The industry argued that the E-code was unnecessary because of costs to business and no conclusive scientific evidence linking environmental tobacco smoke with pulmonary and cardiovascular deaths. This regulatory action based on current scientific evidence and medical decision-making contradicts the industry's claim that no deaths are conclusively associated with environmental tobacco smoke.

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  11. Deviant smooth pursuit in preschool children exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco affects integrative visuomotor capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Konijnenberg, Carolien; Sarfi, Monica

    2013-12-01

    Although an increasing number of children are born to mothers in opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), little is known about the long-term effects of these opioids. Previous studies suggest an association between prenatal OMT exposure and difficulties in eye movement control. Also, the effects of tobacco smoking on eye movements have been reported. The present study examined the influence of eye movements, i.e. smooth pursuit, on visuomotor capabilities in children of smoking mothers in OMT. The study comprised a 2 (OMT versus contrast group) × 2 (slow versus fast smooth pursuit) between-subject factorial design. The cognitive developmental research unit at the University of Oslo, Norway. Participants were 26 4-year-old children of tobacco-smoking women in OMT and 23 non-exposed 4-year-old children, with non-smoking mothers, matched by gender and age. Eye movements and smooth pursuit were recorded using a Tobii 1750 eyetracker. Visuomotor functions were examined by Bender test. The OMT group tracked slowly moving objects with smooth pursuit in a similar manner to their non-exposed peers. When fast smooth pursuit was measured, the OMT group of children tracked the object more slowly than the contrast group, P = 0.02, ηp(2) = 0.11. A regression analysis showed that fast smooth pursuit predicted children's performance on a visuomotor task, R(2) = 0.37. Impaired eye-tracking skills in 4-year-old children exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and tobacco prenatally could inhibit the development of some cognitive functions in later life. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances, several of which are known to cause cancer in humans or animals. EPA has concluded that exposure to secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer in adults who do not smoke. EPA estimates ...

  13. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  14. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, K; Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2008-08-01

    Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face to face in November 2007. Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% thought that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living in a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters of respondents believing that these companies definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal cigarettes. The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

  15. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts.

  16. Does acute tobacco smoking prevent cue-induced craving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Barrett, Sean P

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation aids appear to be limited in their ability to prevent craving triggered by exposure to smoking-associated stimuli; however, the extent to which cue-induced cravings persist following denicotinized or nicotine-containing tobacco smoking is not known. Thirty (17 male) ⩾12-hour abstinent dependent smokers completed two sessions during which they smoked a nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarette. Instructions regarding the nicotine content of the cigarette varied across sessions, and all participants were exposed to a neutral cue followed by a smoking cue after cigarette consumption. Craving was assessed before and after cigarette consumption and cue exposure. Reduced intentions to smoke were associated with both nicotine expectancy (pcraving was uniquely associated with nicotine administration (pcraving regardless of nicotine expectancy or administration (p-valuesappear to contribute to craving reduction associated with acute tobacco smoking, neither smoking-related nicotine administration nor expectation prevents increases in craving following exposure to smoking-associated stimuli. These findings suggest that cue-induced craving may be resistant to various pharmacological and psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p'swaterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p'swaterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (pwaterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks.

  18. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Lun Ellis Hon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful.

  19. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  20. [Smoking among women--strategies for fighting the tobacco epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Adam; Polańska, Kinga; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Kaleta, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that-globally 250 million women and 1 billion men smoke every day. Unfortunately the prevalence of smoking among women is continuing to increase and it is expected to rise from 12% noted in the first decade of this century to 20% in 2025. Women are as vulnerable as men to the dangers of tobacco and additionally the tobacco smoking can cause also female-specific cancer, respiratory diseases and can increase the risk poor pregnancy outcome. There are various recommendations from the World Health Organization which include the need for governments to introduce tobacco control strategies which are sensitive to gender. Efforts should be taken not only to sustain the downward trend in male smoking but also on reversing the levels of smoking in girls and women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing recommendations developed by WHO with more specific focus on promotion of gender specific action which can lead to decreasing in the prevalence of female smoking.

  1. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  2. Is the smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke negligible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the adverse effect of passive smoking exposure among active smokers, probably due to the unproven assumption that the dose of toxic compounds that a smoker inhales by passive smoke is negligible compared to the dose inhaled by active smoke. Methods In a controlled situation of indoor active smoking, we compared daily benzo(apyrene (BaP dose, estimated to be inhaled by smokers due to the mainstream (MS of cigarettes they have smoked, to the measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS they inhaled in an indoor environment. For this aim, we re-examined our previous study on daily personal exposure to BaP of thirty newsagents, according to their smoking habits. Results Daily BaP dose due to indoor environmental contamination measured inside newsstands (traffic emission and ETS produced by smoker newsagents was linearly correlated (p = 0.001 R2 = 0.62 with estimated BaP dose from MS of daily smoked cigarettes. In smoker subjects, the percentage of BaP daily dose due to ETS, in comparison to mainstream dose due to smoked cigarettes, was estimated with 95% confidence interval, between 14.6% and 23% for full flavour cigarettes and between 21% and 34% for full flavour light cigarettes. Conclusions During indoor smoking, ETS contribution to total BaP dose of the same smoker, may be not negligible. Therefore both active and passive smoking exposures should be considered in studies about health of active smokers.

  3. The effects of second-hand and direct exposure to tobacco smoke on asthma and lung function in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager, Ira B

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smoking still is quite common in many parts of the world. In parallel, exposure to second-hand smoke continues to be common despite declines in smoking in developed countries and despite evidence of serious health effects in infants and children. This paper focuses on the effects of second-hand and direct exposure (personal smoking) on the respiratory health of adolescents, in particular effects on the occurrence of asthma and on lung function. Published data indicate that, in addition to whatever effects direct and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure have on the occurrence of asthma and impaired levels and growth of lung function in adolescents, there is an underlying alteration in the prenatal and early postnatal development of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the lung that contribute substantially to these deficits. These developmental effects may be important contributors to the future risks for impaired pulmonary function.

  4. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested...... with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass...... indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding....

  5. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  6. Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Noella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. Methods Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS and its follow-up survey, the Tobacco Callback Survey, were used to assess determinants of having ever attempted to quit smoking and attempted to quit smoking in the past 12 months. All analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Among 3,560 current smokers, 41.5% reported having tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months while 83.4% reported having ever tried to quit. Having a history of a tobacco-related medical condition was significantly associated with both recent (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.41 [Confidence Interval 1.19–1.65] and lifetime quit attempts (AOR 1.43 [1.15–1.79]. Greater nicotine dependence and being advised by a physician to quit smoking were also positively associated with lifetime quit attempts. Receipt of healthcare provider advice to quit smoking in the past 12 months and a strong belief that quitting following a long history of regular smoking would not result in health benefits and belief that there are health benefits to quitting smoking were associated with lifetime quit attempts. Conclusion Targeted smoking cessation interventions are needed for smokers with selected medical conditions and with high nicotine dependence. The importance of physician advice in encouraging individuals to quit is further highlighted.

  7. Practices related to tobacco sale, promotion and protection from tobacco smoke exposure in restaurants and bars in Kampala before implementation of the Uganda tobacco control Act 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Kadobera, Daniel; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Nyamurungi, Kellen Namusisi; Gravely, Shannon; Robertson, Lindsay; Guwatudde, David

    2017-01-01

    The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law. This was a cross-sectional study that used an observational checklist to guide observations. Assessments were: whether an establishment allows for tobacco products to be smoked on premises, offer of tobacco products for sale, observation of tobacco products for sale, tobacco advertising posters, illuminated tobacco advertisements, tobacco promotional items, presence of designated smoking zones, no-smoking signs and posters, and observation of indoor smoking. Managers of establishments were also asked whether they conducted tobacco product sales promotions within establishments. Data were collected in May 2016, immediately prior to implementation of the smoke-free and TAPS laws. Of the 218 establishments in the study, 17% (n = 37) had no-smoking signs, 50% (n = 108) allowed for tobacco products to be smoked on premises of which, 63% (n = 68) had designated smoking zones. Among the respondents in the study, 33.3% (n = 72) reported having tobacco products available for sale of which 73.6% (n = 53) had manufactured cigarettes as the available tobacco products. Eleven percent (n = 24) of respondents said they conducted tobacco promotion within their establishment while 7.9% (n = 17) had promotional items given to them by tobacco companies. Hospitality establishments in

  8. Medicine students and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szumska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although medicine students express positive attitudes toward providing lifestyle counseling, they require more instruction in many areas of health behavior in order to be helpful to their patients. The presented study included the students' questionnaires analysis regarding their lifestyle and exposure to tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to examine students' exposure to chosen xenobiotics by determination of selected biomarkers in urine samples, which underlay the basis for exposure assessment towards tobacco smoke. Materials and Methods: The investigated group consisted of first- and second-year medicine students from the Silesian Medical University (N = 133. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey was compared with the results of chosen biomarkers determined in urine samples. The analyses of the main nicotine metabolites were carried out firstly with use of ELISA, followed by the TLC technique with densitometry. Results: According to questionnaires, every third student examined was exposed to passive smoking. The mean concentration of the main nicotine metabolites determined by ELISA in urine samples of smoking students was 1293.52±396.70 μg/g creatinine. The results of the TLC analysis in the group of smoking students were as follows: for cotinine - 523.10±68.10 μg/g creatinine and for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine - 653.81±62.30 μg/g creatinine. Conclusions: Medicine students, regardless of their area of study, are a highly-exposed part of the population to tobacco smoke, not only actively but also passively. Tobacco smoke exposure can be assessed by ELISA as a screening method as well as by more specific TLC technique with densitometry.

  9. Seminars in Tobacco Science: Terms used for Exposure to Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker RR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smoking Behaviour Sub Group of the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA was set up in 1996 with the aims of reviewing information relevant to smoking behaviour, publishing the reviews, identifying gaps in information and suggesting suitable studies. So far three reviews have been published by members of the sub group (1-3 and other reviews are in progress. One aspect of the subject that has become apparent to the sub group is that terms are used inconsistently in various papers on smoking behaviour. We therefore propose that the following terms and their definitions are used in the future.

  10. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... microl plasma. Information was obtained on the number of days with ETS exposure during the first year of life, the smoking habits of the parents, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the home. All three parentally reported indices of ETS exposure were significantly associated...

  11. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-02-01

    To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  13. Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-11-05

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS, also known as hookah, shisha, narghile, and many other names) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation by the consumer. As the number of waterpipe smokers is rising rapidly, there is growing concern over the use of WTS, particularly as there has been a widely held misconception that WTS is free from health hazards. In reality, it is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes on both a short- and long-term basis. Hence, it is desirable to develop advanced techniques for surveillance, intervention, and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the production and use of waterpipe tobacco. This review is written to survey the types and extent of pollutants released from its use and their potential health risks. A review of the present regulation guidelines is also included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  15. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  16. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  17. [Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, P; Strunk, M

    2010-02-01

    The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low.

  18. [Consequences of tobacco smoking on lung cancer treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C; Rivera, S; Fabre, E; Pricopi, C; Le Pimpec-Barthes, F; Riquet, M

    2016-04-01

    In France, in 2010, tobacco induced 81% of deaths by lung cancer corresponding to about 28,000 deaths. Continued smoking after diagnosis has a significant impact on treatment. In patients with lung cancer, the benefits of smoking cessation are present at any stage of disease. For early stages, smoking cessation decreases postoperative morbidity, reduces the risk of second cancer and improves survival. Previous to surgery, smoking cessation of at least six to eight weeks or as soon as possible is recommended in order to reduce the risk of infectious complications. Tobacco could alter the metabolism of certain chemotherapies and targeted therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors of the EGF receptor, through an interaction with P450 cytochrome. Toxicity of radiations could be lower in patients with lung cancer who did not quit smoking before treatment. For patients treated by radio-chemotherapy, overall survival seems to be better in former smokers but no difference is observed in terms of recurrence-free survival. For advanced stages, smoking cessation enhances patients' quality of life. Smoking cessation should be considered as full part of lung cancer treatment whatever the stage of disease.

  19. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  20. Tobacco smoking and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James

    2012-11-27

    Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs.

  1. [Tobacco: sacred and profane as regards smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Bosco

    2009-01-01

    Blowing smoke was a sacred habit among the American Indian people in Brazil at the arrival of the first Europeans. That remains a practice of prevention and recovery among the remote people of Amazon and Rio Negro. Addiction to smoking was propagated by Nicot in Europe for the pleasure it procures but it became such real plague of the modern society that every country has to struggle against its given attractive image of a way of life.

  2. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: an emerging health crisis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10-20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread.

  3. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction.

  4. [Tobacco smoking among girls in Poland between 1998 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous researches referring to tobacco smoking among girls in Poland. Unfortunately comparing their results and trends tracking is prevented by methodological differences, such as: sample selection, use of different research tools, way of conducting researches and analyzing their results. In this paper, on the basis of data collected from periodical studies conducted in Poland in the years 1998-2009 on the representative samples of adolescents, the estimation of tobacco smoking frequency among girls at the age of 15-18 years in Poland was performed. Moreover, the general trend referring to smoking among this group was analyzed. In this article the results were used form such a research projects as: HBSC (Heath Behavior in School-aged Children. A WHO Cross-national Collaborative Study); ESPAD (The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) and "Mokotowskie Research", leaded by Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Intrauterine Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Sharron; Priest, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy are linked to a host of deleterious effects on the pregnancy, fetus, and infant. Health outcomes improve when women quit smoking at any time during the pregnancy. However, the developing heart is vulnerable to noxious stimuli in the early weeks of fetal development, a time when many women are not aware of being pregnant. Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defects. Research shows an association between maternal tobacco exposure, both active and passive, and congenital heart defects. This article presents recent evidence supporting the association between intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure in the periconceptional period and congenital heart defects and discusses clinical implications for practice for perinatal and neonatal nurses.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Dental Practitioners: Prevalence and Health Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Alnazzawi, Ahmad; Shoqair, Noora; Al-Shayyab, Mohammad H; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence, practice, and the associated health perceptions among dental practitioners have not been previously reported. This study aims to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners and to evaluate their awareness of health hazards of waterpipe smoking, particularly the adverse effects on oral health. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among dental practitioners. Surveyed dental practitioners practiced dentistry in the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, a city in the Central-Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the study was conducted during March 2015. The questionnaire consisted of questions on demographic data, history and practices of tobacco use, and perceptions toward the health hazards of smoking. Dentists were approached at their work places and invited to participate. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample's demographic and smoking characteristics, while cross-tabulation and chi-square test were used to determine the statistical significance of association between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). One hundred dental practitioners participated in the survey, with 55 males and 45 females. Twenty-six percent indicated that they were waterpipe smokers. Male gender and cigarette smoking were the only factors to be significantly associated with waterpipe smoking (P = 0.008 and P = 0.000, respectively). Most participants stated that waterpipe smoking is harmful to health, and the most commonly reported health hazard was respiratory disease, which was reported by 81% of participants. Prevalence of waterpipe smoking among dental practitioners is comparable to adult populations but lower than younger populations of university students. Health awareness of dental practitioners regarding waterpipe smoking was judged to be insufficient.

  7. Month-wise estimates of tobacco smoking during pregnancy for the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Anthony, James C

    2015-05-01

    The timing of prenatal exposure to tobacco cigarette smoking can be crucial for the developing fetus. Pushing the field beyond prior pregnancy trimester-focused smoking estimates, we estimated month-specific prevalence proportions for tobacco cigarette smoking among pregnant and non-pregnant women of the United States, with consideration of tobacco dependence (TD) as well. In advance, we posited that pregnancy onset might prompt smoking cessation in early months, before the end of the 1st trimester, and that TD might account for sustained smoking in later months, especially months 8-9, when there are added reasons to quit. Estimates are from the 2002-2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health Restricted-Data Analysis System (R-DAS), with large nationally representative samples of US civilians, including 12-44 year old women (n ~ 70,000) stratified by pregnancy status and month of pregnancy, with multi-item assessment of TD as well as recently active smoking. Age was held constant via the Breslow-Day indirect standardization approach, a methodological detail of potential interest to other research teams conducting online R-DAS analyses. Among 12-44 year old women in Month 1 of pregnancy, as well as non-pregnant women, just over one in four was a recently active smoker (26-27 %), and approximately one-half of these smokers qualified as a TD case (52 %). Corresponding estimates for women in Month 3 were 17.6 % and two-thirds, respectively, lending some support for our advance hypotheses. Nonetheless, our a priori TD hypothesis about Months 8-9 seems to be contradicted: an increased concentration of TD among smokers surfaced early in pregnancy. Evidence of a possible ameliorative pregnancy effect on smoking prevalence as well as TD's effect on smoking persistence might be seen quite early in pregnancy. Substitution of a month-specific view for the traditional trimester view sheds new light on how pregnancy might shape smoking behavior before the end of trimester 1

  8. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

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    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  9. Allergic Sensitization, Rhinitis and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adults.

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    Josef Shargorodsky

    Full Text Available Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population.Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20-85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested.Almost half of the population (43% had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.00-2.00. The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44-4.23. There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01.Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization.

  10. Catalytic Reduction of NO and NOx Content in Tobacco Smoke

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    Cvetkovic N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NO content in mainstream tobacco smoke, a new class of catalyst based on Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized. The effectiveness of the new catalyst (degree of reduction and specific catalytic ability was tested both by adding Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite directly to the tobacco blend and by addition to the filter. We have determined that adding the catalyst to the tobacco blend does not cause any changes in the physical, chemical or organoleptic properties of the cigarette blend. But, the addition reduces the yield of nitrogen oxides while having no influence on nicotine and “tar” content in the tobacco smoke of the modified blend. The catalyst addition increases the static burning rate (SBR. The changes in the quantity of NO and NOmay be explained by changes in burning conditions due to the increase of Oobtained from catalytic degradation of NO and NO, and adsorptive and diffusive properties of the catalyst. The changes in mainstream smoke analytes are also given on a puff-by-puff basis.

  11. Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, A; Machado, A P; Barros, H

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal, information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between smoking and the characteristics evaluated. Overall, 35.8% students had never smoked, 39.4% had tried it ("experimental" smokers) but were not smokers, 3.3% were former smokers, 6.6% occasional smokers, and 14.9% regular smokers. The mean age for starting smoking was 13.4 +/- 2.1 years for males and 13.4 +/- 1.6 years for females. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among males than females, but the difference was not significant. Male students were significantly more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day than were females. The prevalence of smoking was significantly associated with the following variables: being aged > 12 years; having parents who had attended school for academic performance (OR = 1.74 for one or two failures and OR = 2.27 for more than two failures at school); and consumption of coffee (OR = 2.90), alcohol (OR = 3.53), or illicit drugs (OR = 6.69). The prevalence of smoking among adolescents increased with age. There is therefore a need for school-based tobacco prevention programmes which also deal with family influences on smoking.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

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    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  13. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

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    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  14. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu.

  15. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A rando

  17. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. PUBMED search using: (("waterpipe" or "narghile" or "arghile" or "shisha" or "goza" or "narkeela" or "hookah" or "hubble bubble")) AND ("dependence" or "addiction"). Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

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    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

  19. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  20. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  1. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-07-01

    This study assesses the validity of hair nicotine as a biomarker for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Although most biomarkers of tobacco-smoke exposure have a relatively short half-life, hair nicotine can measure several months of cumulative SHS exposure. A cross-sectional study of hospitality-industry workers. Hair samples were obtained from 207 bar and restaurant workers and analyzed by the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method. Self-reported tobacco use and sources of SHS exposure were assessed. Higher hair-nicotine levels were associated with more cigarettes smoked per day among smokers and a greater number of SHS-exposure sources among nonsmokers. Number of SHS exposure sources, gender, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and type of establishment predicted hair-nicotine levels. Hair nicotine is a valid measure of SHS exposure. It may be used as an alternative biomarker to measure longer term SHS exposure.

  2. An international review of tobacco smoking among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic international review of tobacco smoking habits among medical students. Particular attention was paid to countries where smoking rates have been historically well-documented in local journals, but were less often included in larger international review articles. The methodology involved a search of relevant medical subject headings, after which the reference lists of journal papers were also examined to find additional publications. A total of 66 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. The most common countries previously studied included India, the United States, Australia, Japan, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Overall, our review suggests that the prevalence of smoking among medical students varies widely amongst different countries and also between male and female students within the same areas. Consistently low smoking rates were found in Australia and the United States, while generally high rates were reported in Spain and Turkey. Given their important future role as exemplars, more effective measures to help reduce tobacco smoking among medical students are clearly needed worldwide.

  3. A systematic review of tobacco smoking among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to systematically and critically evaluate the large number of academic publications which have investigated tobacco smoking among nursing students in recent years. It was performed as a state-of-the-art examination of all modern literature published in peer-reviewed, English-language journals since 1990. Although smoking appears to be fairly common among nursing students, its prevalence and distribution varies widely depending on the country of study and time period during which the research was undertaken. Although there is some evidence to suggest that smoking rates increase by year of study in the nursing course, not all research has shown a clear association in this regard. Similarly, the value of anti-smoking interventions for nursing students appears to be limited, based on currently available information. Given these conflicting issues, further research which helps to ascertain why student nurses do not wish to give up their habit is clearly needed both locally and internationally. The development of an international smoking questionnaire may also be useful to help standardize future research on tobacco usage among this vulnerable demographic.

  4. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  5. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  6. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

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    Hwang Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02, but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87. Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children.

  7. Predictors of tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Palipudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To examine predictors of current tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco use among the adult population in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS in Bangladesh consisting of 9,629 adults aged ΃15 years. Differences in and predictors of prevalence for both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were analyzed using selected socioeconomic and demographic characteristics that included gender, age, place of residence, education, occupation, and an index of wealth. Results: The prevalence of smoking is high among males (44.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.5-47.0 as compared to females (1.5%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1, whereas the prevalence of smokeless tobacco is almost similar among both males (26.4%, 95% CI: 24.2-28.6 and females (27.9%, 95% CI: 25.9-30.0. Correlates of current smoking are male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 41.46, CI = 23.8-73.4, and adults in older age (ORs range from 1.99 in 24-35 years age to 5.49 in 55-64 years age, less education (ORs range from 1.47 in less than secondary to 3.25 in no formal education, and lower socioeconomic status (ORs range from 1.56 in high wealth index to 2.48 in lowest wealth index. Predictors of smokeless tobacco use are older age (ORs range from 2.54in 24-35 years age to 12.31 in 55-64 years age, less education (ORs range from 1.44 in less than secondary to 2.70 in no formal education, and the low (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.0-1.7 or lowest (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.1-1.9 socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Implementation of tobacco control strategies needs to bring special attention on disadvantaged group and cover all types of tobacco product as outlined in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and WHO MPOWER to protect people′s health and prevent premature death.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of ...... weekly smoking across European countries. Only tobacco price seemed to be adequate decreasing smoking prevalence among boys, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.......INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15......-year-old boys and girls among 29 European countries varies according to socioeconomic group. METHODS: Data were used from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2005/2006 comprising 50,338 adolescents aged 15 years from 29 European countries. Multilevel logistic...

  9. DNA and protein adducts in human tissues resulting from exposure to tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, David H.; Venitt, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of genotoxic carcinogens that form adducts with DNA and protein in the tissues of smokers. Not only are these biochemical events relevant to the carcinogenic process, but the detection of adducts provides a means of monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke. Characterization of smoking-related adducts has shed light on the mechanisms of smoking-related diseases and many different types of smoking-derived DNA and protein adducts have been identified. Such approaches...

  10. Role of tobacco smoking in hangover symptoms among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Piasecki, Thomas M; Howland, Jonathan; Richardson, Alison E

    2013-01-01

    Although hangover results from excessive alcohol consumption, the specific pathways through which hangover symptoms arise have not been elucidated. Research on predictors of hangover sensitivity may provide clues about such mechanisms. The present study investigated whether tobacco smoking on days of heavy drinking affects next-day hangover incidence and severity. The study drew on diary data from a study on smoking and drinking among 113 students at a midwestern university in the United States. Participants completed a daily, web-based, 26-item survey for 8 weeks to assess prior-day alcohol and tobacco use as well as current-day hangover symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the hypothesis that amount of smoking is related to hangover, controlling for amount of alcohol consumed, sex, and other individual characteristics. Analyses were conducted after selecting only days with alcohol consumption levels that typically elicit hangover, then repeated on lighter drinking days for comparison. Validity of the hangover items was checked by comparing reports after such heavy drinking days with days of lighter drinking. Across all possible person-days, 92% of daily reports were obtained. When selecting only events where an estimated blood alcohol concentration of 110 mg/dl was attained, smoking significantly increased the odds of hangover incidence and hangover severity while controlling for number of drinks consumed and sex. Additional analyses controlling for age first smoked regularly, frequency of drug use, type of drug involvement, or smoking status resulted in findings that were unchanged. Smoking more on heavy drinking days affects hangover sensitivity and severity, possibly because of acute pharmacological effects.

  11. Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…

  12. Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…

  13. Reigniting tobacco ritual: waterpipe tobacco smoking establishment culture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary V; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E; Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith; Primack, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2008-12-01

    It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends.

  15. A Systematic Review on the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Promotion on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. Aim and Methods: We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Results: Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose–response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. Conclusions: The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. PMID:25173775

  16. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François,; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Marc C. Willemsen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling u...

  17. Evaluation informs coalition programming for environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this formative evaluation was to establish baseline data for informing a community coalition's strategic planning in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk reduction. The coalition had chosen 3 targeted settings for ETS risk reduction: restaurants, childcare facilities, and government buildings. The evaluation methodology involved telephone interviews (restaurants, n = 805; governmental buildings, n = 258) and mailed surveys (childcare facilities, n = 1,142). Data on county residents and businesses were used for comparison purposes and were analyzed from the Nebraska Social Climate Survey (2001; n = 558). Evaluation baseline findings showed that licensed childcare facilities were more ETS knowledgeable, less ETS tolerant, and more smoke-free than restaurants. Residents were more bothered by ETS than what restaurant proprietors perceived. The majority of governmental buildings were not smoke-free. Conclusions were that community health nurse evaluators can provide coalitions with formative evaluative data to inform strategic planning and increase the likelihood of effective program interventions for community impact on ETS.

  18. [Anti-smoking education for tobacco-free society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ryuzo

    2013-03-01

    The Science Council of Japan handed a proposal entitled "For the establishment of tobacco-free society" to the Japanese government in 2008, demanding stronger policy implementation. Among the 7 demands, top priority was placed on"education for improvement of knowledge on health risks of smoking". Ample scientific evidences have proven the health hazards that smoking causes directly and indirectly, which, however, are not well acknowledged among Japanese people, leaving Japan an underdeveloped country in terms of smoke-free society. More education is indispensable in schools and by mass media such as TV. The government must allocate more budgets for the education and advertisements, and, if unsuccessful, should request NHK, which collects mandatory TV reception fees akin to broadcast tax, to assume this task.

  19. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  20. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  1. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  2. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  3. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  4. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  5. The Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking in Patients With Diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Albaroodi, K.A.I.; Syed Sulaiman, S.A.; A. A. Shafie; Awaisu, A.; Lajis, R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread evidence has demonstrated the negative effects of tobacco smoking in patients with diabetes. Although many studies have explored the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the general population, data are lacking regarding its prevalence in a specific population with a chronic disease such as diabetes.Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among patients with diabetes in Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional surv...

  6. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas.

  7. Comparison between the mainstream smoke of eleven RYO tobacco brands and the reference tobacco 3R4F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marcilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 11 commercial roll-your-own (RYO tobacco brands sold in Spain and the reference tobacco 3R4F have been smoked and several components of the mainstream tobacco smoke have been analyzed. Cigarettes were prepared using commercial tubes, and were smoked under smoking conditions based on the ISO 3308. The gaseous and condensed fractions of the smoke from RYO brands and 3R4F have been analyzed and compared. RYO tobaccos, as opposed to 3R4F, present lower amounts of condensed products in the traps than in the filters. In general, RYO tobaccos also provide lower yields of most of the compounds detected in the gas fraction. The yield of CO is between 15.4 and 20.4 mg/cigarette. In most of the cases studied, RYO tobaccos deliver higher amounts of nicotine than the 3R4F tobacco. On average, the yield of the different chemical families of compounds appearing in the particulate matter retained in the cigarette filters tends to be around three times higher than those obtained from 3R4F, whereas similar values have been obtained in the particulate matter retained in the traps located after the filters. It can be concluded that RYO tobaccos are not less hazardous than the reference tobacco, which may be contrary to popular belief.

  8. Opioid Use and Tobacco Smoking in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rheumatic diseases are chronic diseases, which may be associated with severe and debilitating pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of tobacco and opioid use among rheumatic patients. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 1042 patients referred to a major rheumatology clinic of Kerman city, in south east of Iran, were interviewed. Patients were divided into seven groups of disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (330 persons osteoarthritis (313 persons, systemic lupus erythematosus (149 persons, back pain (146 persons, spondyloarthropathies (62 persons, Behcet’s disease (25 persons, and scleroderma (17 persons. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, disease-related variables (e.g. duration of disease, the severity of pain on the VAS scale and use of opioids and tobacco based on self-reporting. Results The mean age of the patients was 49.3 ± 15.0 years and mean disease duration in the whole sample was 7.1 ± 5.1 years. Opium consumption was reported by 104 persons (9.9%, codeine, by 185 persons (17.7%, cigarette smoking by 49 persons (4.7% and waterpipe smoking by 34 persons (3.3%. Conclusions In this study, codeine consumption is the most frequently used substance. The consumption of opium is not much different from the general population. Also, the rate of cigarette and waterpipe smoking was less than that in the general population. The prevalence of opium use and tobacco smoking was higher in men than in women. There was no significant relationship between type of rheumatic diseases, disease-related variables, and substance use.

  9. Beliefs about tobacco industry (mal)practices and youth smoking behaviour: insight for future tobacco control campaigns (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Sparks, Robert; Kirsh, Victoria A

    2006-06-01

    To examine how student beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to occasional and regular smoking among 9th to 12th graders. These findings can provide insight for developing new tobacco industry denormalization messages for youth smoking populations. Cross-sectional data were collected from 14,767 grade 9 to 12 students attending 22 secondary schools within one Public Health Region of Canada using the Tobacco Module of School Heath Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Logistic regression analyses were used to determine if different beliefs about tobacco companies were able to differentiate never smokers from occasional smokers, and occasional smokers from regular smokers. Occasional and regular smoking behaviour was significantly related to student beliefs about tobacco companies doing good things in the community, manipulating young people to think smoking is cool, advertising to youth, and using athletes and sports sponsorships to get young people to smoke. This study identified that beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to youth smoking behaviour. In order to address the unique needs of smoking youth, discussions for future tobacco industry denormalization campaigns should consider messages tailored to focus on corporate social responsibility, sport and cultural event sponsorship and industry manipulation.

  10. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes.

  11. Exposure to tobacco smoke among adults in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Palipudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS at home, in workplace, and in various public places in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Data from 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted in Bangladesh was analyzed. The data consists of 9,629 respondents from a nationally representative multi-stage probability sample of adults aged 15 years and above. Exposure to second-hand smoke was defined as respondents who reported being exposed to tobacco smoke in the following locations: Indoor workplaces, homes, government building or office, health care facilities, public transportation, schools, universities, restaurants, and cafes, coffee shops or tea houses. Exposure to tobacco smoke in these places was examined by gender across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups that include age, residence, education and wealth index using SPSS 17.0 for complex samples. Results: The study shows high prevalence of SHS exposure at home and in workplace and in public places. Exposure to SHS among adults was reported high at home (54.9% (male-58.2% and female-51.7%, in workplace (63% (male-67.8% and female-30.4%, and in any public place (57.8% (male-90.4% and female-25.1% 30 days preceding the survey. Among the public places examined exposure was low in the educational institutions (schools-4.3% and health care facilities (5.8%; however, exposure was high in public transportation (26.3%, and restaurants (27.6%. SHS exposure levels at home, in workplace and public places were varied widely across various socioeconomic and demographic sub-groups. Conclusions: Exposure was reported high in settings having partial ban as compared to settings having a complete ban. Following the WHO FCTC and MPOWER measures, strengthening smoke-free legislation may further the efforts in Bangladesh towards creating and enforcing 100% smoke-free areas and educating the public about the dangers of SHS. Combining these efforts can have a complementary effect on

  12. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  13. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  14. Tobacco advertising and coverage of smoking and health in women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, F

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the extent of tobacco advertising and the coverage of smoking and health in all Irish produced women's magazines for 1989-93. There were 805 pieces in 402 magazines of which 684 (85%) were tobacco advertisements, 48 (5.7%) were new briefs; 27 (3.4%) were advice columns; 16 (2%) were feature articles; 15 (1.9%) were health promotion advertisements dealing with smoking and pregnancy; 10 (1.2%) were letters and 5 (0.61%) were editorials. Topics covered by the 106 articles on smoking were: smoking cessation-43 (40.6%); general health issues 35 (33%); smoking in pregnancy-4 (3.8%) and passive smoking 17 (16%). Of the 106 articles, 4 were negative about measures to control smoking. Four cigarette brands accounted for 70% of the advertisements. No tobacco advertisement carried the warning that "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" or "Smoking kills". The 385002 cm2 of space devoted to tobacco advertising and negative messages about the dangers of tobacco and health represents 1.95% of total magazine space and is 14.5 times greater than the 26575 cm2 of positive messages about the dangers of smoking. That these magazines advertise tobacco without adequately covering the harmful effects of tobacco would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in their stated concern for women's health and lends further strength to the principle of a total ban on all tobacco advertising.

  15. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  16. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

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    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  17. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  18. COPD phenotypes in biomass smoke- versus tobacco smoke-exposed Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Pat G; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Sansores, Raul H; Alva, Luis F; McDougall, Jill E; Sin, Don D; Paré, Peter D; Müller, Nestor L; Silva, C Isabela S; Rojas, Carlos E; Coxson, Harvey O

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesised that biomass smoke exposure is associated with an airway-predominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotype, while tobacco-related COPD is associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype. In this cross-sectional study, female never-smokers with COPD and biomass exposure (n=21) and female ex-cigarette smokers with COPD without biomass exposure (n=22) completed computed tomography (CT) at inspiration and expiration, pulmonary function, blood gas, exercise tolerance, and quality of life measures. Two radiologists scored the extent of emphysema and air trapping on CT. Quantitative emphysema severity and distribution and airway wall thickness were calculated using specialised software. Women in the tobacco group had significantly more emphysema than the biomass group (radiologist score 2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.001; emphysema on CT 27% versus 19%, p=0.046; and a larger size of emphysematous spaces, p=0.006). Women in the biomass group had significantly more air trapping than the tobacco group (radiologist score 2.6 and 1.5, respectively; p=0.02) and also scored lower on the symptom, activities and confidence domains of the quality of life assessment and had lower oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise (p<0.05). Biomass smoke exposure is associated with less emphysema but more air trapping than tobacco smoke exposure, suggesting an airway-predominant phenotype.

  19. Epilepsy and tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Omar; Vuilleumier, Frédéric; Perneger, Thomas; Despland, Paul-Andre; Maeder, Malin; Héritier-Barras, Anne-Chantal; Vulliemoz, Serge; Seeck, Margitta; Rossetti, Andrea O; Picard, Fabienne

    2016-10-01

    There is little data concerning the prevalence of smoking in the population of people with epilepsy. The present study addresses this aspect in a sample of 429 unselected adults with epilepsy living in French-speaking Switzerland. The criterion of at least one cigarette per day for the past 6 months was used to define the status of "current" smoker. The questionnaires included questions about the type of epilepsy and tobacco consumption and were prospectively filled by attending neurologists in the presence of their patient, ensuring a reliable diagnosis of epilepsy. Data were compared with those of the "Tabakmonitoring" data collection, which gives annually detailed information about tobacco use habits in the Switzerland's population according to the different linguistic regions. Among patients suffering from epilepsy, the prevalence of current smoking was 32.1 % (28.8 % among women and 35 % among men), while the prevalence of smoking was 19.0 % in the general population in French-speaking Switzerland in the same period [OR 2.0, confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5, p < 0.001]. The subgroup of patients with epilepsy suffering from idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy had the highest prevalence of smoking: 44.3 versus 27.8 % in the other types of epilepsy-p = 0.03. Epilepsy appears significantly correlated to smoking. The possible causal relationship, such as common genetic susceptibility to epilepsy and to nicotine addiction, indirect comorbidity through stress or depression associated with epilepsy, beneficial effect of nicotine on epilepsy, still remains unclear and deserves further studies.

  20. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to intelligence quotient in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Natalia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Exposure to tobacco smoke at home happens in 29-69% of children globally and 43% of Indonesian children. Smoke exposure during the developmental stage may affect cognitive abilities, as measured by intelligence quotient (IQ. There have been few studies conducted on the correlation of tobacco smoke exposure to IQ. This is the first study of this type in Indonesia. Objectives To assess the correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and IQ in preschool children and to assess the correlation between serum cotinine levels and IQ in preschool children exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Tuminting district, Manado in January - May 2011. Subjects were collected by random sampling of 3-5 year-old children. In our study, 35 children were deemed to have been exposed to tobacco smoke by serum cotinine > 0.05 ng/ml and 25 children were deemed to not have been exposed to tobacco smoke (cotinine < 0.05 ng/ml. Results were analyzed by t-test and simple correlation analysis using SPSS version 17 software with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results There was a statistically significant difference in IQ between the two groups, with mean IQ of 106.54 in the group exposed to tobacco smoke and mean IQ of 109.36 in the group not exposed to tobacco smoke (P=0.01. The mean serum cotinine level in the group with tobacco smoke exposure was 1.77 ng/mL. There was no correlation between the mean level of cotinine and mean IQ in this group (r = -0.19 and P=0.14. Conclusions The mean IQ in the group with tobacco smoke exposure was lower than that of the group not exposed to tobacco smoke. There was no correlation between mean serum cotinine level and mean IQ. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:106-10].

  2. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  3. Smoke free health care: an organisational change to increase effective intervention for tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Annie M; van Beurden, Eric K; Dart, Gavin S; Barrack, Cecily M; Mitchell, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the NSW Health Smoke Free Workplace Policy directed that grounds of health sites would become smoke free, in addition to the existing policy requiring smoke-free buildings. This was one of the first attempts by any health service to exclude tobacco entirely from health sites. This task required the adoption of evidence-based management of tobacco dependence and changing the culture of smoking in the health service. There were many barriers to implementation.

  4. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    OpenAIRE

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disea...

  5. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  6. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  7. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Environmental tobacco smoke has been consistently linked to negative health outcomes, especially in children, including an increased susceptibility to infections. Cigarette smoking has a depressive effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Serum cotinine is a marker of exposure to smoke. Objective To determine the association between serum cotinine and interferon-γ (IFN-γ levels in children with household tobacco smoke exposure. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Tumumpa and Singkil Districts of Manado, Indonesia, from February to May 2012. Subjects were collected by consecutively sampling of healthy children aged 1-3 years who came to the integrated health posts. Seventy-four children were recruited and consisted of two groups of 37 subjects each, the tobacco smoke exposure group and the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. Blood specimens were collected from all subjects for laboratory blood tests of cotinine and IFN-γ levels. Results were analyzed by T-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis with a P<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results There was no significant correlation between serum cotinine and interferon-γ levels in the tobacco smoke exposure group. However, the interferon-γ level in the tobacco smoke exposure group was significantly lower than that of the non-tobacco smoke exposure group (P<0.0001. Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:287-90.].

  8. Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n = 81) and in-depth interviews (n = 38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large.

  9. Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking on infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2008-03-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) and tobacco smoke products (TSPs) are recognised global risks for human health. The present article reviews the causal role of SHS and TSPs for respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Several studies have shown an effect of TSPs exposure during pregnancy upon lung function in the newborn infant and of SHS on symptoms and lung function after birth. From 1997 to 1999 a set of systematic reviews concerning the relationship between second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory health in children was published in Thorax by Cook and Strachan, covering hundreds of published papers. The evidence for a causal relationship between SHS exposure and asthmatic symptoms and reduced lung function is quite strong, whereas the evidence related to the development of allergy is much weaker. There is recent evidence relating to an interaction between TSP exposure and genetic ploymorphisms, demonstrating that certain individuals are more susceptible to the effect of TSP exposure on lung health. In the present review, an overview is given for the effects of TSP exposure and SHS upon lung health in children, with a focus on infants and young children. There is a need for intervention to reduce TSP exposure in young children, by educating parents and adolescents about the health effects of TSP exposure. Recent legislation in many European countries related to smoking in the workplace is of great importance for exposure during pregnancy. Studies are needed to identify possible critical periods for TSPs to induce harmful effects upon lung health in young children and on environment-gene interactions in order to prevent harm.

  10. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Known most commonly in the U.S. as "hookah," waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. A cross-sectional sample of 3770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of pro- and anti-tobacco advertising on nonsmoking adolescents' intentions to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Diane M; Hills, Nancy K; Thompson, Pamela J; Moscicki, Anna Barbara

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effects of pro- and anti-tobacco advertising on nonsmoking adolescents' intention to smoke in a single cohort. All ninth graders at seven public high schools were invited to participate in a study on adolescent tobacco use; 59.0% participated (n = 1229; active positive parental consent required). Adolescents who self-identified as never having smoked even a puff of a cigarette (n = 512) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions on intention to smoke in the near future and tobacco advertising. Independent variables used to predict intention included exposure to, recognition of, and receptivity and attitudes toward pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco advertising. Potential confounding variables included gender, race/ethnicity, smoking influences (adult household members, siblings, and friends), socioeconomic status, stress, and depression. Data analysis used logistic regression. 50.5% female, average age 14.9 +/- 0.4 years old at baseline, and varied race. Those variables found to be significant predictors of intention to smoke included: (positive, or increased intention) recognition of brand of favorite advertisement, willingness to use or wear tobacco-branded products, stress, and having friends who smoke and (negative, or decreased intention) agreement with anti-tobacco advertising and having a live-in father who smokes. Although anti-tobacco advertising has a protective effect, it was unable to counteract the effects of pro-tobacco advertising in the same cohort. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003

  13. Perception and knowledge on health risks by waterpipe tobacco-smoking tourists in a night spot of Bangkok, Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prutipinyo, Chardsumon; Bhatt, Nitin; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2013-01-01

    To identify the perception level, and knowledge level of health risks due to waterpipe tobacco smoking, and knowledge about prohibition of waterpipe tobacco smoking, of foreign tourists in Thailand...

  14. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  15. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  16. Tobacco smoking is associated with DNA methylation of diabetes susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Symen; Steenaard, Rebecca V.; Peters, Marjolein J.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Bonder, Marc J.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Dehghan, Abbas

    Tobacco smoking, a risk factor for diabetes, is an established modifier of DNA methylation. We hypothesised that tobacco smoking modifies DNA methylation of genes previously identified for diabetes. We annotated CpG sites available on the Illumina Human Methylation 450K array to diabetes genes

  17. Tobacco smoking is associated with DNA methylation of diabetes susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ligthart (Symen); R.V. Steenaard (Rebecca); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.J. Bonder (Marc); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Dehghan (Abbas); B.T. Heijman (Bastiaan); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); R. Jansen; L. Franke (Lude); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R. Pool (Reńe); J. van Dongen (Jenny); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.M. van Greevenbroek; C.D.A. Stehouwer (Coen D.A.); C.J. van der Kallen; C.G. Schalkwijk (Casper); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); E.F. Tigchelaar (Ettje F.); P. Eline Slagboom; M. Beekman (Marian); J. Deelen (Joris); D. van Heemst (Diana); J.H. Veldink (Jan); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Mila Jhamai; M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); H. Eka; D. Suchiman; M. Verkerk (Marijn); R. van der Breggen (Ruud); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); N. Lakenberg (Nico); H. Mei (Hailiang); M. van Iterson; M. Van Galen (Michiel); J.J. Bot (Jan); P. van 't Hof (Peter); P. Deelen (Patrick); I. Nooren (Irene); H. Moed (Heleen); M. Vermaat (Martijn); D.V. Zhernakova (Dasha V.); R. Luijk (René); M.J. Bonder (Marc Jan); F. van Dijk (F.); W. Arindrarto (Wibowo); S.M. Kielbasa (Szymon M.); M. Swertz (Morris); E.W. van Zwet (Erik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Tobacco smoking, a risk factor for diabetes, is an established modifier of DNA methylation. We hypothesised that tobacco smoking modifies DNA methylation of genes previously identified for diabetes. Methods: We annotated CpG sites available on the Illumina Human

  18. Tobacco smoking is associated with DNA methylation of diabetes susceptibility genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ligthart (Symen); R.V. Steenaard (Rebecca V.); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.J. Bonder (Marc Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Dehghan (Abbas); B.T. Heijman (Bastiaan); P.A.C. 't Hoen (Peter); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); R. Jansen; L. Franke (Lude); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); R. Pool (Reńe); J. van Dongen (Jenny); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.M. van Greevenbroek; C.D.A. Stehouwer (Coen D.A.); C.J. van der Kallen; C.G. Schalkwijk (Casper); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); E.F. Tigchelaar (Ettje F.); P. Eline Slagboom; M. Beekman (Marian); J. Deelen (Joris); D. van Heemst (Diana); J.H. Veldink (Jan); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); P. Mila Jhamai; M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); H. Eka; D. Suchiman; M. Verkerk (Marijn); R. van der Breggen (Ruud); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); N. Lakenberg (Nico); H. Mei (Hailiang); M. van Iterson; M. Van Galen (Michiel); J.J. Bot (Jan); P. van 't Hof (Peter); P. Deelen (Patrick); I. Nooren (Irene); H. Moed (Heleen); M. Vermaat (Martijn); D.V. Zhernakova (Dasha V.); R. Luijk (René); M.J. Bonder (Marc Jan); F. van Dijk (F.); W. Arindrarto (Wibowo); S.M. Kielbasa (Szymon M.); M. Swertz (Morris); E.W. van Zwet (Erik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Tobacco smoking, a risk factor for diabetes, is an established modifier of DNA methylation. We hypothesised that tobacco smoking modifies DNA methylation of genes previously identified for diabetes. Methods: We annotated CpG sites available on the Illumina Human Methylat

  19. DNA adducts in human tissues:biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs,...

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  3. Oxidation of carotenoids by heat and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, John S; Contreras, Janice E; Siems, Werner G; Van Kuijk, Frederik J G M

    2004-01-01

    The stability to autoxidation of the polar carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, was compared to that of the less polar carotenoids, beta-carotene and lycopene at physiologically or pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of 2 and 6 microM, after exposure to heat or cigarette smoke. Three methodological approaches were used: 1) Carotenoids dissolved in solvents with different polarities were incubated at 37 and 80 degrees C for different times. 2) Human plasma samples were subjected to the same temperature conditions. 3) Methanolic carotenoid solutions and plasma were also exposed to whole tobacco smoke from 1-5 unfiltered cigarettes. The concentrations of individual carotenoids in different solvents were determined spectrophotometrically. Carotenoids from plasma were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Carotenoids were generally more stable at 37 than at 80 degrees C. In methanol and dichloromethane the thermal degradation of beta-carotene and lycopene was faster than that of lutein and zeaxanthin. However, in tetrahydrofuran beta-carotene and zeaxanthin degraded faster than lycopene and lutein. Plasma carotenoid levels at 37 degrees C did not change, but decreased at 80 degrees C. The decrease of beta-carotene and lycopene levels was higher than those for lutein and zeaxanthin. Also in the tobacco smoke experiments the highest autoxidation rates were found for beta-carotene and lycopene at 2 microM, but at 6 microM lutein and zeaxanthin depleted to the same extent as beta-carotene. These data support our previous studies suggesting that oxidative stress degrade beta-carotene and lycopene faster than lutein and zeaxanthin. The only exception was the thermal degradation of carotenoids solubilized in tetrahydrofuran, which favors faster breakdown of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin.

  4. Social gradients in responsiveness to messages on children's tobacco smoke exposure

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    Khakimova, Luiza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health communication campaigns aimed to diminish morbidity and mortality caused by smoking are expected to impact a complicated causal pathway starting from attracting the attention of the target audience, increasing knowledge, changing behaviors, and finishing with a lower risk of death at the end. The purpose of this pilot study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the posters covering issues related to tobacco smoke exposure of small children and to explore who are those people who pay more attention to the posters. METHODS: Observation was conducted in the underground carriages in Kazan city, Russian Federation, where posters were placed on the walls. Registered characteristics of passengers included whether the passenger was looking at the poster (outcome; gender, age, clothing of the passenger, whether a passenger is accompanied by somebody else and communicates with this person, whether a passenger holds gadgets, books or newspapers, whether a passenger looks at the screen of the monitor in the carriage. Some of the posters were also discussed in interviews. RESULTS: The proportion of those who paid attention to the poster was on average 19%, ranging from 13% to 25%. The only variable associated with the outcome was passenger's clothing considered as a proxy for SES collapsed into three categories: (1 poorly dressed, (2 commonly dressed, (3 well-dressed. All the posters where this association was found were covering prenatal and little children's secondhand smoke exposure. CONCLUSION: This pilot study has generated a hypothesis, which can be used and tested in further social marketing campaigns. Lower SES passengers were paying more attention to the posters than those better off. If mothers of small children who live in families of low SES with smoking fathers or grandfathers are the primary target group for addressing this problem, metro could be the proper place for such campaigns.

  5. The Risk of Hypertension and Other Chronic Diseases: Comparing Smokeless Tobacco with Smoking

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    Ankit Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.

  6. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

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    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  7. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke Directed Toward Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems: More Than Just Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of compounds in addition to nicotine, a known neuroteratogen. We evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of tobacco smoke extract (TSE) administered to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week. We simulated nicotine concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers, and compared TSE with an equivalent dose of nicotine alone, and to a 10-fold higher nicotine ...

  8. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  9. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  10. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  12. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  13. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

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    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  14. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease–causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease–causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:24133855

  15. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  16. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  17. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  18. The need to protect children from second-hand tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sinead

    2004-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke has serious effects on health--particularly that of children. Voluntary measures to protect people from exposure to second-hand smoke in public places have failed. This paper argues that legislation is needed to ban smoking in public places.

  19. "Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to "accommodate" smokers as an alternative to smoke-free policies developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid-1990s in Latin America. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT "social reports", news reports and tobacco control legislation. Since the mid-1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke-free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke-free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second-hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

  20. [Relationship between tobacco smoke and dental caries in school children at the Valencian Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajosa García, Smara; Llena Puy, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Recently, it has focused the role of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the etiology of dental caries, so we plan to evaluate the association between environmental tobacco smoke inhalation and caries experience in 10-15-years-old children. A transversal descriptive study was designed. Carried out in the Primary Dentistry Unit. 9th Health Department. Valencian Country (Spain). 380 children random sample was selected (following the inclusion criteria). Each participant was clinically explored, then answered a self-administered opinion test about contact with tobacco smoke. DMF-T and df-t indexes and their components, plaque and gingival indexes, contact with tobacco smoke frequency (at home or not), own opinion about tobacco effects and present or future tobacco consumption. Children living with smokers at home showed a decayed teeth average of 1,9 ± 2,34, while those not living with smokers had 1,03 ± 1,46 ( p<0,001). df and DMF average indexes for children exposed and not exposed to tobacco smoke were 0,27 ± 0,78 (df)and 1,62 ± 2,21 (DMF) and 0,10 ± 0,47 (df) and 0,92 ± 1,40 (DMF) respectively (p=0,039 y p<0,001). In our study conditions, coexistence with environmental tobacco smoke is associated with a higher caries prevalence in both deciduous and permanent dentitions in 10-15-years-old children.

  1. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemsen Marc C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking, and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = −.25; p = .21. Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48. The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18. The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03. Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006. Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures

  2. [Socio-demographic factors and tobacco smoking among the Rzeszow's collage students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.

  3. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The impact of tobacco smoke exposure on wheezing and overweight in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Kevalas, Rimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure, education level, and preschool children's wheezing and overweight. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort--1,489 4-6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04-4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76-7.21, accordingly). The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  5. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 4–6-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 4–6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  6. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence...

  7. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica E; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...

  8. Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  9. Trends in Tobacco Smoking among Czech School-aged Children from 1994 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to examine trends in tobacco consumption among the Czech school-age population. METHODS: For the analysis, data from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children project, conducted between 1994 and 2014 were used. Trends in tobacco smoking were determined...... separately for boys and girls, applying the binary logistic regression with survey period as an independent variable for the smoking status. RESULTS: The analysis showed that there have been significant changes in adolescent tobacco smoking for the recent 20 years. While the share of current school...

  10. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  11. Prenatal smokeless tobacco effects on the rat fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R B; Shanfeld, J; Mullet, D; Cole, J; Paulson, J O

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the development and bone ossification of the Sprague Dawley rat fetus at known nicotine blood levels. Dams were intubated with the ST extract three times daily on gestational days (GD) 6-18 with one of the following: ST equivalent to either 1.33 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-1), 6 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-2), or equal amounts of distilled water (sham-treated controls). Parallel groups of rats were used for nicotine-blood-level determinations. Dams were killed on GD 19, fetuses and placentas were weighed, and resorptions, deaths, and/or malformations were noted. Two thirds of the fetuses were further examined by Wilson's method, and the remaining one third was stained and cleared for skeletal examinations. Mean plasma nicotine levels, determined in a parallel group of nonpregnant/pregnant rats, were 220.4/283.3 ng/ml in the STD-1 group and 869.1/846.3 ng/ml in the STD-2 group. At these ST dosages, weight gain of dams was reduced in comparison with sham-treated controls (P effects of ST at the low dose are minimal, whereas the high ST dose resulted in significant growth retardation and decreased ossification levels (P < .05).

  12. Tobacco Smoking and the Resting Maternal Brain: A Preliminary Study of Frontal EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Haley E.; Von Mohr, Mariana; Potenza, Marc N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Rutherford, Helena J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking has been attributed to a wide range of detrimental health consequences for both women and their children. In addition to its known physical health effects, smoking may also impact maternal neural responses and subsequent caregiving behavior. To begin investigating this issue, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine resting neural oscillations of tobacco-smoking mothers (n = 35) and non-smoking mothers (n = 35). We examined seven EEG frequency bands recorded from frontal electrode sites (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma). While no between-group differences were present in high-frequency bands (alpha2, beta, gamma), smokers showed greater spectral power in low-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1) compared to non-smokers. This increased power in low-frequency bands of tobacco-smoking mothers is consistent with a less aroused state and may be one mechanism through which smoking might affect the maternal brain and caregiving behavior. PMID:27354838

  13. Tobacco Smoking and the Resting Maternal Brain: A Preliminary Study of Frontal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Haley E; Von Mohr, Mariana; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Rutherford, Helena J V

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco smoking has been attributed to a wide range of detrimental health consequences for both women and their children. In addition to its known physical health effects, smoking may also impact maternal neural responses and subsequent caregiving behavior. To begin investigating this issue, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine resting neural oscillations of tobacco-smoking mothers (n = 35) and non-smoking mothers (n = 35). We examined seven EEG frequency bands recorded from frontal electrode sites (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma). While no between-group differences were present in high-frequency bands (alpha2, beta, gamma), smokers showed greater spectral power in low-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1) compared to non-smokers. This increased power in low-frequency bands of tobacco-smoking mothers is consistent with a less aroused state and may be one mechanism through which smoking might affect the maternal brain and caregiving behavior.

  14. Smoking prevalence, attitudes, and confidence about tobacco roles among Australian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Raoul A; Cholowski, Krystyna; Tzelepis, Flora; Stojanovski, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    This study identified major challenges to be addressed before student nurses can achieve their full potential in providing effective and comprehensive smoking cessation interventions. Smoking behaviors were assessed among undergraduate nursing students. In addition, students' attitudes, confidence levels, and support for extra training in tobacco control were examined. A nonprobability sample of 381 students at an Australian university was surveyed. The consent rate was 81%. Prevalence of current smoking was 21%. In the regression analysis, age group was the only statistically significant predictor of smoking status. Over one third (36%) did not endorse the nonsmoking exemplar role of their future profession. Most (60%) did not support the concept of routine smoking cessation intervention. Students who were smokers had significantly higher tobacco control confidence levels than nonsmokers. Smoking-related variables did not differ between students in different years of the course. Improved tobacco control training is needed at undergraduate level.

  15. A Genetic Instrumental Variables Analysis of the Effects of Prenatal Smoking on Birth Weight: Evidence from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven F.; Moreno, Lina M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen; Lie, Rolv T.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature showing the detrimental effects of prenatal smoking on birth and childhood health outcomes. It is somewhat unclear, though, whether these effects are causal or reflect other characteristics and choices by mothers who choose to smoke that may also affect child health outcomes or biased reporting of smoking. In this paper, we use genetic markers that predict smoking behaviors as instruments in order to address the endogeneity of smoking choices in the production of birth and childhood health outcomes. Our results indicate that prenatal smoking produces more dramatic declines in birth weight than estimates that ignore the endogeneity of prenatal smoking, which is consistent with previous studies with non-genetic instruments. We use data from two distinct samples from Norway and the US with different measured instruments and find nearly identical results. The study provides a novel application that can be extended to study several behavioral impacts on health, social and economic outcomes. PMID:21845925

  16. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a "probably human carcinogen" monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland. The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg. The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 - 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day. Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  17. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  18. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  19. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children's motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status...... of smoking exposure in comparison with self-report. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, is associated with maternal interview based assessment of motor development in infancy (age at crawling, standing-up and walking) and motor skills at young...... school age (assessed by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07)). METHOD: In 2002-2004, 1,253 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine were included in the INUENDO birth cohort. The participating women filled in questionnaires and 1,177 provided blood samples, which were...

  20. Seeing, Wanting, Owning: The Relationship between Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Smoking Susceptibility in Young People

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Feighery; Dina L. G. Borzekowski; Caroline Schooler; June Flora

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking. Design...

  1. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  2. Free radicals in tobacco smoke – analytical approach and biomedical significanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Kośmider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, i.e. atoms or groups of atoms containing one or more unpaired electrons, are significant constituents of tobacco smoke that contribute to its toxic properties. Radicals are generated during complex pyrolysis and combustion reactions in burning a cigarette cone. It has been shown that some free radicals found in tobacco smoke have relatively long half-time life (over 5 mins. We have reviewed modern analytical methods used for identification and quantitative analysis of free radicals in tobacco smoke, particularly the electron paramagnetic resonance combined with a spin-trapping approach. We also discussed the role of free radicals in etiology of respiratory and cardiovascular conditions among smokers. Finally, we reviewed biochemical mechanisms of various pathological conditions, including disturbances in lipid peroxidation, activity modification of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and level high density lipoprotein, hyperactivity to substance P, and inactivation of neutral endopeptidase, that are thought to be contributed by free radicals from tobacco smoke.

  3. Association between tobacco smoking and response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor treatment in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Glintborg, Bente; Hetland, Merete Lund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and disease activity, treatment adherence and treatment responses among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) initiating the first tumour necrosis factor α inhibitor therapy (TNFi) in routine care. METHODS: Observational cohort...

  4. Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindström, Martin; Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ... and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account...

  5. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-05-01

    To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. A total of 4384 adolescents age 11-15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be

  6. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  7. Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

    2015-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3%). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed.

  8. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  9. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  10. Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Schmid, Holger; Clays, Els

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. DESIGN: Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study...... at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. SETTING: Twenty-nine European countries. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 25 599 boys and 26 509 girls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported regular smoking defined as at least weekly smoking...... vending machines) = -0.372, P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS: For boys, some of the currently recommended tobacco control policies may help to reduce smoking prevalence. However, the model is less suitable for girls, indicating gender differences in the potential efficacy of smoking policies. Future research should...

  11. Behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke among bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-09-01

    This study explores the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) on bar and restaurant workers. Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study of 105 bar and restaurant workers. Hair nicotine, self-reported SHS exposure, smoking status, symptoms of nicotine exposure after being exposed to a smoky environment, and nicotine dependence were assessed. Nonsmokers reporting four or more symptoms of nicotine exposure had higher hair nicotine levels than those reporting less than four symptoms. Nonsmokers with higher hair nicotine levels were 2.2 times more likely to report 4 or more behavioral symptoms. Self-reported secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and hair nicotine were not predictive of nicotine dependence among smokers. Nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke may have important behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. This study provides further evidence for the importance of prohibiting smoking in hospitality venues to protect the health of workers.

  12. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

  13. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J V; Bialous, S A; Glantz, S A

    2002-06-01

    To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.

  14. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    OpenAIRE

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S.; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments.

  15. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  16. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  17. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  18. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p social media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  19. Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Guilherme O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex. The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001 and umbilical artery (P = 0.001, and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450. These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is

  20. Surfactant protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sofie L.; Tan, Qihua; Holst, René;

    2014-01-01

    Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The associat......Variation in Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage...... or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in non...... with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive...

  1. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  2. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  3. Preliminary evidence for the interaction of the oxytocin receptor gene (oxtr) and face processing in differentiating prenatal smoking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Estabrook, Ryne; O'Brien, T Caitlin; Pine, Daniel S; Burns, James L; Jacob, Suma; Cook, Edwin H; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal smoking cessation has been described as an empathic action "for the baby," but this has not been empirically demonstrated. We capitalized on a genetically-characterized extant dataset with outstanding measurement of prenatal smoking patterns and maternal face processing data (as an indicator of empathy) to test this hypothesis, and explore how empathy and smoking patterns may be moderated by a genetic substrate of empathy, the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Participants were 143 Caucasian women from the East Boston family study with repeated prospective reports of smoking level, adjusted based on repeated cotinine bioassays. Salivary DNA and face processing (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2) were assessed 14 years later at an adolescent follow-up of offspring. Two-thirds of participants reported smoking prior to pregnancy recognition. Of these, 21% quit during pregnancy; 56% reduced smoking, and 22% smoked persistently at the same level. A significant interaction between face processing and OXTR variants previously associated with increased sensitivity to social context, rs53576GG and rs2254298A, was found (β = -.181; p = .015); greater ability to identify distress in others was associated with lower levels of smoking during pregnancy for rs53576(GG)/rs2254298(A) individuals (p = .013), but not for other genotypes (p = .892). Testing this "empathy hypothesis of prenatal smoking cessation" in larger studies designed to examine this question can elucidate whether interventions to enhance empathy can improve prenatal smoking cessation rates.

  4. Influences of tobacco advertising exposure and conduct problems on smoking behaviors among adolescent males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.

  5. Urinary tobacco smoke-constituent biomarkers for assessing risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-01-15

    Tobacco-constituent biomarkers are metabolites of specific compounds present in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Highly reliable analytic methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed for quantitation of these biomarkers in both urine and blood specimens. There is substantial interindividual variation in smoking-related lung cancer risk that is determined in part by individual variability in the uptake and metabolism of tobacco smoke carcinogens. Thus, by incorporating these biomarkers in epidemiologic studies, we can potentially obtain a more valid and precise measure of in vivo carcinogen dose than by using self-reported smoking history, ultimately improving the estimation of smoking-related lung cancer risk. Indeed, we have demonstrated this by using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in urine samples collected from smokers many years before their development of cancer versus those in their smoking counterparts without a cancer diagnosis. The following urinary metabolites were associated with lung cancer risk, independent of smoking intensity and duration: cotinine plus its glucuronide, a biomarker of nicotine uptake; 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); and r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results provide several possible new directions for using tobacco smoke-constituent biomarkers in lung cancer prevention, including improved lung cancer risk assessment, intermediate outcome determination in prevention trials, and regulation of tobacco products.

  6. Influence of Tobacco Additives on the Chemical Composition of Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Additives used in tobacco product manufacturing are currently in the focus of public discussions with regard to potentially increased consumer health risks on account of certain additives. In addition, a few additives are suspected to enhance the addictiveness of tobacco products. In 2006, the German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BundesministeriumfuerErnaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz, BMELV commissioned a research project intended to provide support for the evaluation of additives and their influence on the composition and properties of cigarette mainstream smoke. In this paper the results of the study are reported. Different amounts of glycerol, cocoa powder and sucrose were added to the tobacco of two kinds of filter-ventilated King size test cigarettes with ‘tar’ levels of 6 mg and 10 mg per cigarette. The tobacco of the test cigarettes consisted of a commercially available blend made of Virginia, Burley and Oriental tobaccos. Machine smoking was performed according to the applicable ISO smoking regimen. Various smoke components, which are suspected to be harmful for health, were determined in mainstream smoke. Increasing levels of sucrose were correlated with an increase of the amount of formaldehyde but not of acetaldehyde in the mainstream smoke of the test cigarettes. In cigarettes with different levels of added glycerol no substantial change in smoke composition was observed. The addition of cocoa powder to tobacco resulted in a decrease of tobaccospecific N-nitrosamines in mainstream smoke. The results obtained in this study can be used as evidence for the toxicological evaluation aimed at approving or banning specific additives for tobacco product manufacturing.

  7. Associations between initial water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use and subsequent cigarette smoking: results from a longitudinal study of US adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne E; Primack, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non-cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non-cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. Among baseline non-cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current

  8. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  9. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  10. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  11. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  12. Out smoking on the big screen: tobacco use in LGBT movies, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Clapp, Justin A; Blosnich, John R

    2014-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have significantly higher smoking prevalence than heterosexual people in the U.S.A. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Tobacco use in movies has a substantial influence on tobacco use behaviours, particularly among youth. Yet, no research has examined tobacco use in movies for LGBT audiences or containing LGBT characters. We identified 81 U.S. movies from 2000 to 2011 with a theatre release and with LGBT themes or characters. We then selected a random sample of these movies (n=45) for quantitative content analysis to examine the proportion of movies with depictions of tobacco use and the number of occurrences of tobacco use. Tobacco use was depicted in 87% (95% CI 80% to 94%) of movies with an average of four occurrences of tobacco use per hour (95% CI 3 to 5). Only 15% (95% CI 8% to 23%) of movies and 3% of all depictions of tobacco use conveyed any harms of tobacco use. Viewers of movies with LGBT themes or characters are exposed, on average, to one depiction of tobacco use for every 15 min of movie run-time. As a major component of the entertainment media environment, movies may contribute to smoking among LGBT people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Out smoking on the big screen: Tobacco use in LGBT movies, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Agnew-Brune, Christine B.; Clapp, Justin A.; Blosnich, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have significantly higher smoking prevalence than heterosexual people in the United States. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Tobacco use in movies has a substantial influence on tobacco use behaviours, particularly among youth. Yet, no research has examined tobacco use in movies for LGBT audiences or containing LGBT characters. Methods We identified 81 U.S. movies from 2000–2011 with a theatre release and with LGBT themes or characters. We then selected a random sample of these movies (n = 45) for quantitative content analysis to examine the proportion of movies with depictions of tobacco use and the number of occurrences of tobacco use. Results Tobacco use was depicted in 87%(95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%–94%) of movies with an average of 4 occurrences of tobacco use per hour (95% CI: 3–5). Only 15% (95% CI: 8%–23%) of movies and 3% of all depictions of tobacco use conveyed any harms of tobacco use. Conclusions Viewers of movies with LGBT themes or characters are exposed, on average, to one depiction of tobacco use for every 15 minutes of movie run-time. As a major component of the entertainment media environment, movies may contribute to smoking among LGBT people. PMID:24277775

  14. Altered reward processing in adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Mennigen, Eva; Ripke, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    Higher rates of substance use and dependence have been observed in the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Animal studies indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine alters the development of brain areas related to reward processing, which might be a risk factor for substance use and addiction later in life. However, no study has examined the effect of maternal smoking on the offspring's brain response during reward processing. To determine whether adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking differ from their nonexposed peers in the response of the ventral striatum to the anticipation or the receipt of a reward. An observational case-control study. Data were obtained from the IMAGEN Study, a European multicenter study of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and emotional reactivity in adolescents. The IMAGEN sample consists of 2078 healthy adolescents (age range, 13-15 years) recruited from March 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, in local schools. We assessed an IMAGEN subsample of 177 adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and 177 nonexposed peers (age range, 13-15 years) matched by sex, maternal educational level, and imaging site. Response to reward in the ventral striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatally exposed adolescents, we observed a weaker response in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation (left side, F = 14.98 [P < .001]; right side, F = 15.95 [P < .001]) compared with their nonexposed peers. No differences were found regarding the responsivity of the ventral striatum to the receipt of a reward (left side, F = 0.21 [P = .65]; right side, F = 0.47 [P = .49]). The weaker responsivity of the ventral striatum to reward anticipation in prenatally exposed adolescents may represent a risk factor for substance use and development of addiction later in life. This result highlights the need for education and preventive

  15. A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco.

  16. The impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke on hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Osinubi, Omowunmi Y

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use has a substantial impact on hospitality industry employees because of the disproportionate prevalence of smoking among these workers and because of the high levels of secondhand smoke to which they are exposed. The severity of this impact is evidenced by the high mortality rates observed among hospitality industry workers from diseases related to tobacco smoke exposure. Several states and localities have begun to enact laws to protect these workers from secondhand smoke exposure. Such policies seem to be effective in reducing exposure and improving health among these workers without causing any adverse impact on business. Occupational clinicians can play a significant role in protecting the health of hospitality workers by supporting laws to create smoke-free workplaces, including bars and restaurants, and promoting smoking cessation in these worksites.

  17. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  18. Smoking behaviour and attitudes of Hungarian Roma and non-Roma population towards tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László; Easterling, Douglas; Rogers, Todd

    2011-10-01

    To assess the smoking status and support for tobacco control policies among the Roma minority compared with the non-Roma population in Hungary. A cross-sectional survey was delivered among Roma minority and local non-Roma population; 83 Roma and 126 non-Roma people were interviewed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were applied to compare Roma and non-Roma populations. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher and the support for tobacco control measures was significantly lower in the Roma population. This effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward tobacco control was explained somewhat, but not completely, by the Roma group's higher rate of smoking and lower level of education. Tobacco control policies are a proven strategy for denormalizing smoking and discouraging initiation. This strategy has important potential for Roma communities because of their high rates of tobacco use. However, this study shows that the Roma are resistant the efforts to limit smoking. Changing these attitudes will require targeted public health interventions that take into account not only the lower educational levels of the Roma, but also their cultural beliefs regarding tobacco.

  19. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns exposed to maternal cigarette smoke (CS in utero have an increased risk of developing chronic diseases, cancer, and acquiring decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Although the literature reports many deleterious effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the fetus, the molecular alterations and mechanisms of action are not yet clear. Smoking may act directly on nuclear DNA by inducing mutations or epigenetic modifications. Recent studies also indicate that smoking may act on mitochondrial DNA by inducing a change in the number of copies to make up for the damage caused by smoking on the respiratory chain and lack of energy. In addition, individual genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in determining the effects of smoking during development. Furthermore, prior exposure of paternal and maternal gametes to cigarette smoke may affect the health of the developing individual, not only the in utero exposure. This review examines the genetic and epigenetic alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA associated with smoke exposure during the most sensitive periods of development (prior to conception, prenatal and early postnatal and assesses how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development.

  20. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Amirreza; Schwartz, Deborah H; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity. To examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. The Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. A total of 378 adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years; Tanner stage 4 and 5 of sexual maturation), half of whom were exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking (mean [SD], 11.1 [6.8] cigarettes/d). Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall (percentage of energy intake consumed as fat). Body adiposity was measured with anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. Volumes of key brain structures involved in reward processing, namely the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Exposed vs nonexposed subjects exhibited a higher total body fat (by approximately 1.7 kg; P = .009) and fat intake (by 2.7%; P = .001). They also exhibited a lower volume of the amygdala (by 95 mm3; P fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (r = -0.15; P = .006). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala.

  1. CLINOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ORAL MUCOSA OF PATIENTS HAVING TOBACCO SMOKING HABBIT

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    Avanindra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco was introduced into Europe in the late 15th century. Portuguese traders introduced it to India in late 16th or early 17th century. Since then, tobacco use has spread with remarkable rapidity, into all sections of people. Now tobacco is used in different forms out of which some are in form of smoking like cigarette, bidi whereas some are smokeless e.g., chewing, application over the teeth & the gingiva. Among tobacco habituated Indian population, about 70% are in the smoking form.1 Passive smoking is also a significant health hazard. There is a vital role of dental practitioners in identifying individuals at risk of mucosal disease, the importance of public education about the risk factors, and the necessity for counseling patients with precancerous lesions on avoiding further risk.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study clinico-pathological & cytological changes in oral mucosal cells of people with the habit of smoking tobacco by using exfoliative cytology and PAP stain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The oral exfoliative cytology smears are taken from 60 person (30 smoking habit & 30 control from the oral pathology department of K M Shah Dental College & Hospital. The smears are spread on the glass slide and are fixed with 95% ethyl alcohol. The slides are stained with papanicolaou stain and observed under microscope. RESULTS: The result showed that the anucleated cells (Precancerous feature are increased in patient with smoking habit as compared to control group. Anucleated cells are highest in oral sub mucous fibrosis group of patients

  2. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Zyoud, Sa’ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W.; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specif...

  3. Predictors of continuous tobacco smoking in a clinical cohort study of Danish laryngeal cancer patients smoking before treated with radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pia Krause; Tolstrup, Janne S; Olsen, Maja H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients who are smokers when starting cancer therapy continue smoking despite evidence of tobacco smoking as a risk factor for poor treatment response and secondary primary cancers. Small samples and inconsistent results in previous studies warrant further research.......21, 95% CI 1.23-3.98) and living alone (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.13-2.14) were associated with increased risk of continuous smoking during treatment. Similar findings were found two months and one year after radiotherapy, however, no association with living alone (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.73-1.59) at the one......-year follow-up. Tumor stage and the average number of cigarettes smoked per day before radiotherapy were not associated with being a continuous smoker. CONCLUSION: Younger patients, who had an early smoking initiation, a poor performance status, low income and lived alone, were most likely to continue smoking...

  4. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales

  5. Drugs on the internet, part III: tobacco and smoking on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melissa; Montagne, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the types of tobacco- and smoking-related websites that are available on the Internet. The search terms used were nicotine, tobacco, and cigarette. These terms were searched in the engines Google and Yahoo as well as video-sharing website YouTube and analyzed based on the search engine results pages (SERPs) that were produced. The results returned the following categories of websites: health information and news, smoking cessation, product ads/sales, history of tobacco and smoking, prosmoking/pleasure, smoking prevention/control, and miscellaneous. Results showed fluctuations in the number of search engine results by search term and date. There also was variable quality and availability of informative resources for Internet users due to lack of quality control criteria and regulation.

  6. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  7. Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T

    2008-08-01

    Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals' perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents' subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more 'antismoking' if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms.

  8. Do Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Cigarette Smoking Extend to Smokeless Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Bunn, Janice Y; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Less research has been conducted characterizing the relationship between SES and risk of using of other tobacco products. The present study examined SES as a risk factor for smokeless tobacco (ST) use in a US nationally representative sample, utilizing data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Odds were generated for current cigarette smoking and ST use among adults (≥18 years) based on SES markers (educational attainment, income, blue-collar employment, and unemployment) after controlling for the influence of demographics and other substance dependence. Odds of current cigarette smoking increased as a graded, inverse function of educational attainment as well as lower income and being unemployed. Odds of current ST use also increased as a function of lower educational attainment, although not in the linear manner seen with cigarette smoking. Odds of ST use but not cigarette smoking also increased with blue-collar employment. In contrast to patterns seen with cigarette smoking, ST use did not change in relation to income or unemployment. Markers of SES are significantly associated with odds of cigarette smoking and ST use, but which indicators are predictive and the shape of their relationship to use differs across the two tobacco products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezakova, K.; Pires, J. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is one of the greatest sources of indoor particles, which has been linked with serious health effects. Consequently, there has been a widespread interest in analysing tobacco related indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, the majority of performed studies focused on bulk chemical composition of tobacco related PM, but the knowledge of individual tobacco smoke particles is still limited. Therefore, more information on PM should be provided, namely concerning morphological and chemical characterisation of individual particles. Aiming to further understand the impact of tobacco smoke on human health, this work studied the influence of tobacco smoke on chemical and morphological characteristics of PM 10 and PM 2.5, collected at one site influenced by smoking and at one reference (non-smoking) site. Chemical and morphological characteristics of 4000 individual particles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray microanalysis (by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer - EDS). Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify different particle groups that occurred in PM, aiming the identification of the respective emission sources. The results showed that tobacco smoke influenced the characteristics of both fine and coarse particles, this influence being stronger for fine fraction. The abundance of particles associated with tobacco smoke was 27% and 5% for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, respectively; as expected, those particles were not identified in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 of the reference (non-smoking) site. The results showed that at both sites PM was also influenced by outdoor sources. For PM 2.5-10, outdoor particles essentially originated from natural sources accounting for 35% and 15% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively. For PM 2.5, outdoor particles account for 38% and 29% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively; these particles showed considerable contribution (13% and 17%) from anthropogenic sources (mainly from

  10. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  11. Prenatal Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Brain Morphology: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Franken, Ingmar H A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Lahey, Benjamin B; White, Tonya

    2016-06-15

    Cannabis use during pregnancy has been associated with negative behavioral outcomes and psychopathology in offspring. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure as a result of maternal cannabis use. In this prospective study, we investigated the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and brain morphology in young children. We matched 96 children prenatally exposed to tobacco only (without cannabis) with 113 unexposed control subjects on the basis of age and gender and subsequently selected 54 children exposed to prenatal cannabis (mostly combined with tobacco exposure). These children (aged 6 to 8 years) were part of a population-based study in the Netherlands, the Generation R Study, and were followed from pregnancy onward. We assessed brain volumetric measures and cortical thickness in magnetic resonance imaging scans using FreeSurfer. We performed vertexwise analyses in FreeSurfer and linear regression analyses adjusting for relevant covariates using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Prenatal cannabis exposure was not associated with global brain volumes, such as total brain volume, gray matter volume, or white matter volume. However, prenatal cannabis exposure was associated with differences in cortical thickness: compared with nonexposed control subjects, cannabis-exposed children had thicker frontal cortices. Prenatal tobacco exposure compared with nonexposed control subjects was associated with cortical thinning, primarily in the superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. Our findings suggest an association between prenatal cannabis exposure and cortical thickness in children. Further research is needed to explore the causal nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C Fang

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE in public multi-unit housing (MUH is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear.We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD 0.02 ng/ml and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng. Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine.Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively. Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml, with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%. TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25, while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161, a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6% compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4% (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3 (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%.Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  13. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  14. Beliefs and perceptions toward quitting waterpipe smoking among cafe waterpipe tobacco smokers in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgan, Saif M; Marhoon, Zaid A; Whitford, David L

    2013-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of waterpipe smoking worldwide, but still a paucity of information on perceptions toward quitting waterpipe use. We set out to establish the beliefs and perceptions of café waterpipe smokers toward quitting waterpipe smoking in the Kingdom of Bahrain. A cross-sectional study. A random sample of 20 of 91 cafés serving waterpipe tobacco in Bahrain was taken. A questionnaire was administered in each café to 20 participants aged 18 and above. Three hundred eighty participants completed questionnaires from waterpipe smokers. Eighty-four percent of participants were Bahraini and 71% had a university degree. Mean age was 28.9 years. Average age of waterpipe smoking initiation was 20.3 years. The majority of waterpipe users chose flavored tobacco. Sixty-one percent smoked waterpipe tobacco daily with a mean smoking time of 2.6hr/day. Seventy-two percent considered waterpipe tobacco as harmful as or more harmful than cigarettes, but 67% considered cigarettes as more addictive. Eighty-two percent stated that they could quit waterpipe at any time, but only 40% were interested in quitting. Interest in quitting smoking was related to 4 variables: a physician mentioning the need to quit smoking, being non-Bahraini, having a family with a hostile attitude toward waterpipe smoking, and not considering oneself "hooked" on waterpipe tobacco. Waterpipe smokers in Bahrain cafés are frequent and high users. Health professionals must consider waterpipe smoking in all consultations and health promotion messages. A partnership between health professionals and disapproving members of families may be an effective strategy in encouraging waterpipe smokers to quit.

  15. Health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychareun Vanphanom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

  16. [Response of the tobacco industry to the creation of smoke-free environments in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Presman, Sabrina; Gigliotti, Analice; Muggli, Monique; Hurt, Richard

    2010-04-01

    To document the response of the tobacco industry to the regulation of smoking in public places in Brazil starting in 1996. The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) and the British American Tobacco (BAT) Company Documents (bat.library.ucsf.edu/) were searched. The following key words were used: Brasil/Brazil; Souza Cruz; fumo passivo, tabagismo passivo/passive smoking; fumo de segunda mão/secondhand smoking; convivência em harmonia/courtesy of choice; along with the names of institutions, politicians, and individuals associated with tobacco control. We also searched the websites of cigarette manufacturers and hospitality industry organizations and businesses, news websites, and online newspapers and magazines. The search was limited to the period from 1995 to 2005. The text of the first law restricting smoking in Brazil (no. 9 294, of 1996) benefited the industry by stating that smokers and nonsmokers could share the same space provided that specific areas were designated as smoking and nonsmoking. As in other countries, the tobacco industry established partnerships with hotel, bar, and restaurant associations to prevent the passing of laws creating 100% smoke-free environments, as recommended by the World Health Organization. However, local state and city laws in major cities and states (such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) have been successful in ensuring the creation of 100% smoke-free places. It is essential that Brazil recognize the damage caused by smoking and revise its federal law regulating smoking in closed environments. The knowledge concerning the strategies employed by the industry may be useful for politicians and health care professionals to prepare arguments opposing measures that can be detrimental to public health.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  19. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  20. Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV

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    Mark L. Rubinstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Overall, 144 (38.7% self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9% of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1 mg/dL; P<0.01 and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P=0.03. There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent.

  1. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high.

  2. Waterpipe smoking: analysis of the aroma profile of flavored waterpipe tobaccos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Jens; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2013-10-15

    In the last years the habit of smoking waterpipes has spread worldwide, especially among young people and emerged as global health issue. Although research is now under way for no less than 40 years in the field of waterpipe smoking, in comparison to cigarette smoking there is still insufficient knowledge on the real composition and the toxicity of the smoke inhaled and the resulting levels of exposure against particular hazardous ingredients. In most cases for waterpipe smoking a highly flavored tobacco called "moassel" is used. However, the number, quantity and toxicity of the added flavorings are widely unknown. In this study the static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) was used to identify 79 volatile flavor compounds present in waterpipe tobacco. Among these eleven compounds were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that waterpipe tobacco contains high amounts of the fragrance benzyl alcohol as well as considerable levels of limonene, linalool and eugenol, all of which are known as being allergenic in human skin. The proposed SHS-GC-MS method has been validated and found to be accurate, simple and characterized by low limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.016 to 4.3 µg/g tobacco for benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, respectively. The identification and characterization of waterpipe tobacco ingredients indeed reveals crucial for the assessment of potential health risks that may be posed by these additives in smokers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A descriptive analysis of relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

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    Nauck Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as assessed by urinary cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (CCR, and to describe the CCR over seven days among infants at home. Methods A convenience sample of 27 households was drawn. Each household had to have at least one daily tobacco smoker and one child up to three years of age. Over a seven-day period, urine samples were obtained from the child daily. To examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking and infants' daily CCR, generalized estimating equation (GEE analysis was used. Results The data revealed that infants from households with indoor smoking had higher CCRs than infants in households with outdoor smoking. CCRs were higher in girls than in boys. Older infants had lower CCRs than younger infants. Smoking outside the home versus inside the home, infant's gender, and infants' age accounted for 68% of the variance in CCR in a GEE data analysis model. No increase or decrease of CCR over time was found. Conclusion The findings suggest that parents' self-reported smoking indoors at home versus outdoors is predictive of CCR among infants three and younger. Higher CCR concentrations in girls' urine need further examination. Furthermore, significant fluctuations in daily CCR were not apparent in infants over a seven-day time period.

  4. Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Piadé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397 ng/g respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8 ng/cig. under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7 ng/cig. under Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regime respectively. In the case of cigarettes with activated carbon, a selective retention of cadmium but not lead or arsenic was observed. This effect was more pronounced under ISO than under HCI smoking regimes. Cadmium selective retention by activated carbon was confirmed by testing specially designed prototype cigarettes and the causes for this selective filtration were investigated. The differences between cadmium, arsenic and lead in terms of their speciation in tobaccos and in cigarette smoke could be related to their distribution in the ash, butt, mainstream (in gas-phase and particulate-phase and sidestream smoke of a smoked cigarette. The possible formation of organometallic cadmium derivatives in the smoke gas-phase is discussed, the presence of which could adequately explain the observed cadmium selective filtration.

  5. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Cowling, David W; Kline, Randolph S; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-08-01

    To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence. Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools. The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence. Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.

  6. Tobacco Smoke Exposure as Risk Factor in Early Neonatal Death in Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB

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    Musrifa .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate tobacco smoke exposure as risk factor of early neonatal death in Mataram, NTB.Method: The study design was case control with a total sample of 87 consisting of 29 cases and 58 controls (1:2.Dependent variable was early neonatal death, independent variable was tobacco smoke exposure. Frequency ofantenatal visit, family income, delivery complications, anemia and low birth weight were confounding variables. Datawere collected through interview and registered cohort data from nine health centres during the period of 1 January-31December 2013. Data were analyzed by using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression to calculate crude OR andadjusted OR.Result: Results of bivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy, extent of exposure ?3cigarettes/days during pregnancy, and amount of exposure ?6 cigarettes/days last 24 hours were 2.75 (95%CI: 0.72-10.50; 2.34 (95%CI: 0.77-7.08; and 2.18 (95%CI: 0.65-7.29 respectively, increasing neonatal death but was notstatistically significant. Multivariate analysis indicated that tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy was 1.32 (95%CI:0.03-69.90. OR of other variables: low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complicationswere 204.39 (95%CI: 20.37-2050.07; 7.86 (95%CI: 1.45-42.83 and 7.55 (95%CI: 1.01-56.38 respectively.Conclusion: Tobacco smoke exposure was not statistically significant risk factor, specifically the smoking habits of thehusband. Study discovered that low birth weight, family income under Rp. 1,100,000,- and delivery complication duringbirth were statistically significant factors. Further study is needed to confirm these findings.Key words: tobacco smoke exposure, early neonatal death, risk factors, Nusa Tenggara Barat

  7. Transnational tobacco companies and health in underdeveloped countries: recommendations for avoiding a smoking epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of transnational tobacco companies on health in underdeveloped countries and makes recommendations for avoiding a coming smoking epidemic. Although tobacco is generally seen as primarily a health problem, tobacco's future in the Third World depends upon a number of nonhealth related considerations, especially political and economic factors. Unfortunately, there is very little relationship between what the World Health Organization and others have recommended, and what most Third World countries are doing today. Although the controversy concerning cigarette smoking and health has only become a 'burning issue' in recent decades, tobacco products have been used around the world for hundreds of years. The public outcry against cigarette smoking has become increasingly widespread since the 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's report on smoking and health. The ill effects of cigarette smoking are now widely considered collectively as the number one preventable health problem in the world, responsible for an estimated 2.5 million deaths per year. In response to declining sales in developed countries, the tobacco transnational corporations have begun focusing their attention on Third World markets, where tobacco consumption has increased dramatically in recent years. Cigarettes not only take precious limited resources away from desperately needed basic human needs, but they also inflict future health problems on vast numbers of Third World people who have only a vague understanding of the risks involved in cigarette smoking. Until Third World governments address the long-term consequences of their short-term lust for cash, the probabilities of a smoking epidemic in the Third World grow increasingly likely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Tobacco smoking patterns, awareness and expenditure: a cross-sectional overview from Surat City, India

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    Rajkumar Bansal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As smoking is a major risk factor in India, the objective of present study was to assess smoking patterns, expenditure and awareness amongst smokers and to examine factors associated with the severity of smoking in Surat city.METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted with the use of pre-structured questionnaire tool targeting 281 current smokers in the slums of 20 Urban Health Centers. Smokers were categorized based on pack-years, which means the number of packs smoked per day multiplied by the duration of smoking (mild 15, and based on the number of cigarette/bidis smoked per day without the duration component (mild 0.05. With the influence of friends (50%, about 60% smokers engage into this habit before the age of 20 years. Though only 20% of current smokers were not aware of the consequences of active smoking, more than 50% did not know about the same for passive smoking. The lowest socioeconomic class spends 44% of their income on tobacco products compared to 7% in the highest class.CONCLUSION: The study provides insights for information, education and counseling (IEC activities which should take into account health impact of bidi smoking, low awareness of health impact of passive smoking, and higher percentage of total monthly expenditure on tobacco among low-income household resulting in crowding out of expenditures on other needs.

  9. A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, P.; Löndahl, J.; Wierzbicka, A.; Salman, R.; Shihadeh, A.; Larsson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m3 of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m3 of LPS and 87.5 ng/m3 of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

  10. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  11. Increasing popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking and electronic cigarette use: Implications for oral healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, C P; Eissenberg, T; Sahingur, S E

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally. In recent years, tobacco smoking using a waterpipe ("hookah," "shisha") and use of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has increased significantly. Thus, dental clinicians likely will treat more patients who are waterpipe and/or ECIG users. Yet, the literature on the health effects of waterpipe and ECIGs use is sparse. Both waterpipe and ECIGs deliver the dependence-producing drug nicotine. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been associated with periodontitis, dry socket, premalignant lesions, and oral and esophageal cancer. The health effects of long-term ECIG use are unknown. The purpose of this review is to inform healthcare professionals about waterpipes and ECIGs, highlight emerging evidence on the biological effects of these increasingly popular tobacco products, and introduce perspectives for dental patient management and future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prenatal tobacco exposure and self-regulation in early childhood: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Clark, Caron A C; De Jong, Desiree M; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) has a well-documented association with disruptive behavior in childhood, but the neurocognitive effects of exposure that underlie this link are not sufficiently understood. The present study was designed to address this gap, through longitudinal follow-up in early childhood of a prospectively enrolled cohort with well-characterized prenatal exposure. Three-year-old children (n = 151) were assessed using a developmentally sensitive battery capturing both cognitive and motivational aspects of self-regulation. PTE was related to motivational self-regulation, where children had to delay approach to attractive rewards, but not cognitive self-regulation, where children had to hold information in mind and inhibit prepotent motor responses. Furthermore, PTE predicted motivational self-regulation more strongly in boys than in girls, and when propensity scores were covaried to control for confounding risk factors, the effect of PTE on motivational self-regulation was significant only in boys. These findings suggest that PTE's impact on neurodevelopment may be greater in boys than in girls, perhaps reflecting vulnerability in neural circuits that subserve reward sensitivity and emotion regulation, and may also help to explain why PTE is more consistently related to disruptive behavior disorders than attention problems.

  13. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Allermann, L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we...... on number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent...... wheeze (p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant interaction between this polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, though this was probably a chance finding. There were no other statistically significant effects of the polymorphisms or interactions with exposure...

  14. The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997

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    Smith Derek R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. Methods A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. Results Some of the earliest surveys revealed that around one-quarter of Australian physicians were smoking in the mid twentieth century, a rate which rapidly declined in the 1970s and 1980s, with reductions beyond that achieved by the general population. Conclusion Overall, our review suggests that not only do contemporary Australian physicians smoke at very low rates when compared internationally, but that an active professional community can also make a real difference to the lifestyle choices of its own members.

  15. [Gender and disparities: the example of tobacco smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Carole; De Kleijn, Miriam J J; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-06-10

    Smoking prevalence is globally five times higher among men compared to women but this gap tends to decrease. Regarding health consequences of smoking, women tend to be more vulnerable than men. They are namely more at risk to present certain lung cancers and die of cardiovascular disease. While men are less prone to seek help for smoking cessation, women are less successful in their quit attempts and smoking cessation treatments are less effective among them. Interventions for smoking cessation and preventive measures tailored to gender specificities have the potential to improve management of smokers and decrease gender disparities in healthcare.

  16. Ninety-day inhalation study in rats, comparing smoke from cigarettes that heat tobacco with those that burn tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, C R; Ayres, P H; Mosberg, A T; Sagartz, J W; Burger, G T; Hayes, A W

    1989-10-01

    Eight groups of 30 male and 30 female rats were exposed 1 hr per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, to smoke from reference (tobacco burned) or test (tobacco only heated) cigarettes, at nicotine concentrations of 5, 15, or 30 micrograms/liter of air. Similar smoke concentrations of wet total particulate matter and carbon monoxide were produced in each of the test/reference comparisons. There was a pronounced depression of minute ventilation of animals in the reference groups, but not in the test animals. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were similar in animals exposed to smoke from test and reference cigarettes. Plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in the test groups were higher than in the reference groups. There were no differences between the smoke-exposed groups in terms of body weight or feed consumption. At necropsy, an increase in heart weight was noted in both high exposure groups. There were notable differences in histopathology, with fewer and less-pronounced changes in the test groups than in the reference groups. Many of the histopathological responses induced in the reference groups were absent in the test groups. Overall, the study demonstrated a substantial reduction in the biological activity of smoke from the test cigarette when compared with the reference.

  17. A study of the impact of long-term tobacco smoking on postoperative intensive care admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A M; Pedersen, T; Villebro, N

    2003-01-01

    .01). The mortality rate was 37% in smokers with > 50 pack-years history and 24% in nonsmokers (odds ratio = 2.02, p = 0.08). We conclude long-term tobacco smoking (> 50 pack-years) carries a higher risk of postoperative admission to intensive care, and there seems to be a dose relationship between the amount...... of tobacco consumed and the risk of postoperative intensive care admission....

  18. Tobacco smoking among migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Jin; Fellmeth, Gracia; Griffiths, Sian; Dawes, Martin; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    While several studies of smoking behaviors in rural-to-urban Chinese migrants exist, none to our knowledge have focused on factory workers, estimated to represent between 10% and 20% of China's total rural-to-urban migratory population. This paper assesses factors associated with smoking behavior among rural-to-urban migrant factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A cross-sectional survey of migrant workers from 44 randomly selected factories in Shenzhen, China. Participants were migrant factory workers aged 16-59 years and holding nonlocal household registration. The main outcome measures were demographic, migration-related, and behavioral factors associated with smoking status. Four thousand and eighty-eight completed questionnaires were obtained (response rate 95.5%). Overall smoking prevalence (including occasional, daily, and heavy daily smoking) was 19.1%. The prevalence of daily smoking (including heavy daily smoking) was higher in men (27.3%) than women (0.7%). These rates are significantly lower than national smoking rates (59.5% in men, 3.7% in women) and rates found in a similar study. A high-risk group of men who smoke heavily and consume alcohol frequently was identified. Longer working hours and less rest were associated with higher rates of smoking. Frequent Internet use and lack of insurance were associated with lifetime smoking. Gender-adjusted models showed that poorer mental health and an accumulated working time in Shenzhen of 2-3 years increased female workers' likelihood of smoking. Migrant factory workers in Shenzhen had lower rates of smoking than other population groups in China. The identification of risk factors for heavy smoking may help to effectively target health promotion interventions.

  19. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,Mage=43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (Omax), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis use disorder is associated with greater illness severity in tobacco smoking patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerberg, T V; Icick, R; Andreassen, O A; Ringen, P A; Etain, B; Aas, M; Henry, C; Bjella, T D; Melle, I; Bellivier, F

    2016-01-15

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) may influence the course of bipolar disorder (BD), but key confounding factors such as tobacco smoking have not been adequately addressed. This study examined whether CUD was associated with a more severe illness course in tobacco smoking BD patients. A sample of French and Norwegian tobacco smoking patients with BD I and II (N=642) was investigated. DSM-IV diagnoses and other characteristics were obtained through personal interviews using structured questionnaires. The association between CUD and illness course was assessed in regression analyses. In bivariate analyses, CUD was associated with earlier BD onset, higher frequency of manic (in BD I) and depressive episodes and hospitalizations per illness year, and a higher occurrence of psychotic episodes. After controlling for potential confounders, the relationships with earlier BD onset (B=-5.60 95% CI=-7.65 to -3.64), and increased rates of manic episodes (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.23) and hospitalizations (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.85 to 4.64) remained statistically significant. Despite the multivariate approach, differences between the two samples may lead to spurious findings related to hidden confounders. Substance use and mood episode information was collected retrospectively, and potential birth cohort effects could not be controlled for. Studies have found associations between tobacco smoking and poorer outcomes in BD. In this study on tobacco smoking BD patients we report an association between CUD and illness severity, suggesting that CUD exacerbates the disease evolution independently of tobacco smoking. Specific treatment and prevention programs addressing CUD in BD patients are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  2. Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure, anti-TAPS policies, and students' smoking behavior in Botswana and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lorna McLeod; Hsia, Jason; Malarcher, Ann

    2016-10-01

    We examined the change over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and the concurrent changes in cigarette smoking behavior among students age 13 to 15years in two African countries with different anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies. In South Africa, anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies became more comprehensive over time and were more strictly enforced, whereas the partial anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies adopted in Botswana were weakly enforced. We analyzed two rounds of Global Youth Tobacco Survey data from South Africa (1999, n=2342; 2011, n=3713) and in Botswana (2001, n=1073; 2008, n=1605). We assessed several indicators of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure along with prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking susceptibility for each data round. Logistic regression was used to examine changes over time in tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure and smoking behavior in both countries. Between 1999 and 2011, South African students' exposure to tobacco advertising and sponsorship decreased significantly by 16% (p value, advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure did not change significantly between 2001 and 2008. South African students' prevalence of cigarette smoking decreased over time (OR, 0.68) as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 0.75), but declines did not remain significant after adjusting for parents' and friends' smoking. In Botswana, students' prevalence of cigarette smoking increased significantly over time (OR, 1.84), as did susceptibility to smoking (OR, 2.71). Enforcement of strong anti-tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship policies is a vital component of effective tobacco control programs in Africa. Such regulations, if effectively implemented, can reduce tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship exposure among adolescents and may influence cigarette smoking behavior. Copyright

  3. Parental Tobacco Smoking and Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Petridou, Eleni; Aranguré, Juan Manuel Mejía; Roman, Eve; Schüz, Joachim; Magnani, Corrado; Mora, Ana Maria; Mueller, Beth A; de Oliveira, Maria S Pombo; Dockerty, John D; McCauley, Kathryn; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hatzipantelis, Emmanouel; Rudant, Jérémie; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Kaatsch, Peter; Miligi, Lucia; Wesseling, Catharina; Doody, David R; Moschovi, Maria; Orsi, Laurent; Mattioli, Stefano; Selvin, Steve; Kang, Alice Y; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-08-15

    The association between tobacco smoke and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well established in adults but not in children. Individual-level data on parental cigarette smoking were obtained from 12 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC, 1974-2012), including 1,330 AML cases diagnosed at age <15 years and 13,169 controls. We conducted pooled analyses of CLIC studies, as well as meta-analyses of CLIC and non-CLIC studies. Overall, maternal smoking before, during, or after pregnancy was not associated with childhood AML; there was a suggestion, however, that smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk in Hispanics (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.61) but not in other ethnic groups. By contrast, the odds ratios for paternal lifetime smoking were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) in pooled and meta-analyses, respectively. Overall, increased risks from 1.2- to 1.3-fold were observed for pre- and postnatal smoking (P < 0.05), with higher risks reported for heavy smokers. Associations with paternal smoking varied by histological type. Our analyses suggest an association between paternal smoking and childhood AML. The association with maternal smoking appears limited to Hispanic children, raising questions about ethnic differences in tobacco-related exposures and biological mechanisms, as well as study-specific biases.

  4. Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

  5. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  6. Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

  7. Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  8. Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  9. Prohibiting juvenile access to tobacco: Violation rates, cigarette sales, and youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Andrew L; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-09-01

    Scholars who examine the efficacy of juvenile tobacco sales restrictions, especially the 1992 "Synar Amendment" that led all of fifty U.S. states to enact prohibitions on tobacco sales to minors, are notably divided as to impact on youth smoking. Some researchers claim that such policies have failed and ought to be abandoned (Craig & Boris, 2007; Etter, 2006; Glantz, 2002), while others insist that enforcement has indeed led to reduced tobacco use (DiFranza, 2011b; SAMHSA, 2011). The present study is the first to combine data on Synar violation rates from all states and years available since the amendment's implementation, assessing the connection to national rates of cigarette sales and youth smoking behavior. Using national data from the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Tobacco Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System across all U.S. states between 1996 and 2007, we employ hierarchical linear modeling to examine the connection between retailer Synar violations and youth smoking. Controlling for state-level demographic variables, results indicate that retailer violation rates are significantly associated with greater youth smoking prevalence, as well as higher overall cigarette sales. While critiques of Synar policies are substantive and should be addressed, laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to juveniles appear to have had some degree of success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Waiting until they got home': gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Greaves, Lorraine; Martin, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    The introduction in March 2006 of legislation banning smoking in public places in Scotland raised concerns that smokers would smoke more at home and so increase the exposure of those living with them to tobacco smoke. Drawing on interviews from two qualitative studies conducted after the implementation of the legislation, this article uses a gendered analysis to explore where and why smokers, who lived with non-smokers including children, continued to smoke in their homes. Although very few people attributed any increased home smoking to being a direct consequence of the legislation, many who already smoked there continued, and most women reported little or no disruption to their home smoking post-legislation. Also, because of the changing social environment of smoking, and other life circumstances, a minority of women had increased their levels of home smoking. Compared to the men in these studies, women, particularly those who didn't work outside the home, had restricted social lives and thus were less likely to have smoked in public places before the legislation and spent more time socialising in the homes of other people. In addition, women with children, including women who worked outside their homes, were more likely to spend sustained periods of time caring for children compared to fathers, who were more likely to leave the home to work or socialise. Although home smoking was linked to gendered caring responsibilities, other issues associated with being a smoker also meant that many women smokers chose to keep smoking in their homes.

  11. The Effect of Cigarette Design on the Content of Phenols in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cigarette design on the content of phenols in mainstream tobacco smoke was studied. The most abundant phenols - catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, o-, m-, and p-cresol, and resorcinol - were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Hydroquinone and catechol made the most significant contribution to the total content of phenols with maximum values of 135.0 µg/cig and 95.7 µg/cig, respectively. The highest total content of phenols (330.9 µg/cig was measured in the smoke of a Virginia tobacco cigarette. The total content of phenols (µg/cig in cigarette mainstream smoke decreased linearly with increased filter ventilation, R2 = 0.9536. The results obtained indicate that filtration and ventilation can strongly influence the mainstream tobacco smoke content of phenol and its less polar derivatives, o-, m-, and p-cresol, which were reduced by up to 85%. Hydroquinone and catechol are less affected and only cigarettes with the special “recessed charcoal filter system” and cigarettes with filter ventilation over 50% showed significant reductions. On a per mg ‘tar’ basis the largest contributor to phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke was the selection of the tobacco type. The use of any standard commercial filter on an unfiltered cigarette can substantially reduce the yield of phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke. The use of special filters (e.g., the “recessed charcoal filter system” or high levels of cigarette ventilation does not reduce the amount of phenols in tobacco smoke considerably when normalized on a per mg ‘tar’ basis.

  12. Medicaid coverage for tobacco dependence treatments in Massachusetts and associated decreases in smoking prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of smokers die prematurely from tobacco-related diseases. In July 2006, the Massachusetts health care reform law mandated tobacco cessation coverage for the Massachusetts Medicaid population. The new benefit included behavioral counseling and all medications approved for tobacco cessation treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008, a total of 70,140 unique Massachusetts Medicaid subscribers used the newly available benefit, which is approximately 37% of all Massachusetts Medicaid smokers. Given the high utilization rate, the objective of this study is to determine if smoking prevalence decreased significantly after the initiation of tobacco cessation coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Smoking prevalence was evaluated pre- to post-benefit using 1999 through 2008 data from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFSS. The crude smoking rate decreased from 38.3% (95% C.I. 33.6%-42.9% in the pre-benefit period compared to 28.3% (95% C.I.: 24.0%-32.7% in the post-benefit period, representing a decline of 26 percent. A demographically adjusted smoking rate showed a similar decrease in the post-benefit period. Trend analyses reflected prevalence decreases that accrued over time. Specifically, a joinpoint analysis of smoking prevalence among Massachusetts Medicaid benefit-eligible members (age 18-64 from 1999 through 2008 found a decreasing trend that was coincident with the implementation of the benefit. Finally, a logistic regression that controlled for demographic factors also showed that the trend in smoking decreased significantly from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a tobacco cessation benefit that includes coverage for medications and behavioral treatments, has few barriers to access, and involves broad promotion can significantly reduce smoking prevalence.

  13. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-sale (POS advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understanding of tobacco industry marketing influences and related advocacy activities. This mixed methods study examined Oklahoma’s tobacco control youth empowerment program members’ perceptions of tobacco industry marketing influences. Four focus groups were held with active program members from rural and urban areas. Overall, the focus group participants viewed the program as purposeful, as an avenue to help others, and as a way to make a difference. Specifically, the older participants (median age = 18 years identified tobacco industry marketing influences such as POS, movies, and magazine advertisements and reported participating in activities that counter POS tobacco advertisements at retail stores. Likewise younger participants (median age = 16 years, identified similar tobacco industry marketing influences, but also included tobacco use by friends and family as tobacco industry marketing influences. Moreover, the younger participants did not report engaging in activities that addressed POS tobacco advertisements. The study results suggest that the empowerment program should tailor its programming, training, materials, and activities with input from youth of various ages. Thoughtfully developed messages and specific activities can truly empower youth and maximize their contribution as change agents who address POS or other initiatives at the retail environments to prevent chronic diseases.

  14. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry’s involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. Methods and Findings A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry’s interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. Conclusions The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC’s commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees. PMID:26252397

  15. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    Full Text Available The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry's involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand.A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry's interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals.The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC's commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees.

  16. Effect of continued tobacco smoking during radiotherapy on loco-regional control for carcinoma of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P.; Primdahl, H.; C, A. Kristensen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Tobacco smoking impose a poor prognosis on cancer patients either from reduced treatment response, new primary cancers, or other tobacco-related diseases. The effect of tobacco cessation in smokers commencing radiation treatment for head and neck cancer has only been investigated...... were all active smokers at the date of diagnosis. Patients treated with primary radiotherapy > 60 Gy were included. No surgery was allowed. Tobacco consumption was recorded weekly during radiotherapy, and two and six weeks after, and any smoking during RT was considered active smoking. Follow-up data...

  17. Smoke extracts and nicotine, but not tobacco extracts, potentiate firing and burst activity of Ventral Tegmental Area dopaminergic neurons in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Fabio; Arib, Ouafa; Morel, Carole; Dufresne, Virginie; Maskos, Uwe; Corringer, Pierre Jean; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Faure, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nicotine prominently mediates the behavioral effects of tobacco consumption, either through smoking or when taking tobacco by snuff or chew. However, many studies question the exclusive role of nicotine in these effects. The use of preparations containing all the components of tobacco, such as tobacco and smoke extracts, may be more suitable than nicotine alone to investigate the behavioral effects of smoking and tobacco intake. In the present study, the electrophysiologic...

  18. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  19. Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunukula Sameer K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or related concepts. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested data abstraction form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We also determined the percentage of observational studies assessing the health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking and the percentage of studies of prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking that have used validated survey instruments. Results We identified a total of five survey instruments. One instrument was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and waterpipe use among pregnant women and was shown to have internal consistency and content validity. Three instruments were designed to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption, two of which were reported to have face validity. The fifth instrument was designed to measure waterpipe dependence and was rigorously developed and validated. One of the studies of prevalence and none of the studies of health effects of waterpipe smoking used validated instruments. Conclusions A number of instruments for measuring the use of and dependence on waterpipe smoking exist. Future research should study content validity and cross cultural adaptation of these instruments.

  20. Pro-smoking apps for smartphones: the latest vehicle for the tobacco industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BinDhim, Nasser F; Freeman, Becky; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone use is growing exponentially and will soon become the only mobile phone handset for about 6 billion users. Smartphones are ideal marketing targets as consumers can be reached anytime, anywhere. Smartphone application (app) stores are global shops that sell apps to users all around the world. Although smartphone stores have a wide collection of health-related apps they also have a wide set of harmful apps. In this study, the availability of 'pro-smoking' apps in two of the largest smartphone app stores (Apple App store and Android Market) was examined. In February 2012, we searched the Apple App Store and Android Market for pro-smoking apps, using the keywords Smoke, Cigarette, Cigar, Smoking and Tobacco. We excluded apps that were not tobacco-related and then assessed the tobacco-related apps against our inclusion criteria. 107 pro-smoking apps were identified and classified into six categories based on functionality.42 of these apps were from the Android Market and downloaded by over 6 million users. Some apps have explicit images of cigarette brands. Tobacco products are being promoted in the new 'smartphone app' medium which has global reach, a huge consumer base of various age groups and underdeveloped regulation. The paper also provides two examples of app store responses to country-specific laws and regulations that could be used to control the harmful contents in the app stores for individual countries.

  1. RESEARCH THE DEPOSITION NANO- AND SUBMICRON PARTICLES OF TOBACCO SMOKE ON AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of deposition of highly dispersed particles of smoke on nanoscale biological airway surface on the example of tobacco smoke are considering. A model of particle deposition of the nicotine gum along the way through the smoke inhaled. Obtain a solution of the equation for the diffusion flux changes deposited nano- and submicron particles through hydrodynamic boundary layer.The particle deposition of nicotine gum on the airways by scanning the distribution of nanoparticles deposited using an atomic force microscope SobverPRO was experimentally studied. Patterns of distribution of nanoparticles dispersed smoke 4 species of tobacco in different parts of the respiratory tract were obtained. That allowed to talk about the absence of the effect of coagulation of the airway. It was established that the child as a passive smoker particle deposition diffusive flux of nicotine is proportionally higher than adult because the channel width is less than the airways than in adults.

  2. Barriers and Promoters of an Evidenced-Based Smoking Cessation Counseling During Prenatal Care in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L.; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M.; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A’s model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers’, clinic directors’, and pregnant smokers’ opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches. PMID:25500989

  3. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    of cigarettes smoked per day (lifelong) to 5, 10, 20 and 40 or more, the risk increases by five-, eight-, 16- and 30-fold, respectively, over that of people who have never smoked. Thus, with approximately 35% current smokers and 25% former smokers among Nordic men in 1985 and approximately 30% current smokers......Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number...

  4. Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking in a Spanish psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LLerena, Adrián; de la Rubia, Alfredo; Peñas-Lledó, Eva M; Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose

    2003-04-01

    This study in a Spanish hospital replicated two US studies suggesting that schizophrenia is associated with smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. Neither antipsychotics nor institutionalism could explain this relationship. Seventy of the 100 schizophrenic and 53 of the 100 non-schizophrenic inpatients were current smokers. After correcting for confounding factors, schizophrenia increased the risk of smoking by 2- to 3-fold. Heavy smoking was not associated with schizophrenia.

  5. Tobacco smoking and cannabis use in a longitudinal birth cohort: evidence of reciprocal causal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Boden, Joseph M; De Pirro, Silvana; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Harold, Gordon T

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence of associations between tobacco and cannabis use that are consistent with both a classical stepping-stone scenario that posits the transition from tobacco use to cannabis use ('gateway' effect of tobacco) and with the reverse process leading from cannabis use to tobacco abuse ('reverse gateway' effect of cannabis). The evidence of direct causal relationships between the two disorders is still missing. We analysed data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) longitudinal birth cohort using advanced statistical modelling to control for fixed sources of confounding and to explore causal pathways. The data were analysed using both: (a) conditional fixed effects logistic regression modelling; and (b) a systematic structural equation modelling approach previously developed to investigate psychiatric co-morbidities in the same cohort. We found significant (pcannabis use and tobacco smoking and vice versa, after controlling for non-observed fixed confounding factors and for a number of time-dynamic covariate factors (major depression, alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorder, stressful life events, deviant peer affiliations). Furthermore, increasing levels of tobacco smoking were associated with increasing cannabis use (p=0.02) and vice versa (pcannabis use arises from a reciprocal feedback loop involving simultaneous causation between tobacco use disorder and cannabis use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of transdermal nicotine and concurrent smoking on cognitive performance in tobacco-abstinent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Jennings, Janine M.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Smokers experience cognitive decrements during tobacco abstinence and boosts in performance upon resumption of smoking. Few studies have examined whether smoking cessation treatments such as transdermal nicotine ameliorate these decrements and/or attenuate the cognitive effects of smoking. Identifying the effects of nicotine on these tobacco-related changes in performance could guide the development of more efficacious treatments. The purpose of this double-blind, randomized, laboratory study was to use process-specific cognitive tasks to examine the effects of transdermal nicotine (TN) and tobacco smoking on attention and working memory in overnight-abstinent smokers (N=124; 54 women). Each participant completed four, 6.5-hour sessions corresponding to 0, 7, 14, or 21 mg TN doses, and smoked a single cigarette four hours after TN administration. Outcome measures were administered before and after smoking, and included tasks measuring attention (alerting, orienting, and executive function), working memory (verbal and spatial), and psychomotor function. Analysis of variance (p < .05) revealed that TN improved verbal and spatial working memory performance, as well as psychomotor function. Smoking, independent of TN dose, improved alerting, verbal working memory, and psychomotor function. Lastly, TN partially attenuated the effects of smoking on some working memory outcomes. These findings lend evidence to the idea that TN ameliorates some abstinence-related cognitive decrements and suggest that TN does not completely attenuate the cognitive effects of a concurrently smoked cigarette. Consequently, TN’s efficacy as a smoking cessation treatment might be improved should these limitations be better addressed by either modifying or supplementing existing treatments. PMID:21341925

  7. Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization

    2007-01-01

    Executive summary Scientific evidence has firmly established that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), a pollutant that causes serious illnesses in adults and children. There is also indisputable evidence that implementing 100% smoke-free environments is the only effective way to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. Moreover, several countries and hundreds of subnational and local jurisdictions have successfully...

  8. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure on rat tracheal submucosal glands: an ultrastructural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.J.; Jakins, P.R.

    1981-08-01

    The ultrastructural appearance of rat tracheal submucosal glands after exposure to tobacco smoke for up to two years is described. Within the mucous cells many of the rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae were grossly dilated with an accumulation of amorphous, electron-lucent material. The Golgi zones were prominent, and the secretion granules often contained dense cores, and appeared to have coalesced. Histochemically, increased amounts of sulphated mucus were present in exposed rats. Serous, ciliated, and myoepithelial cells were unaffected by smoke exposure.

  9. Effects of Tobacco Smoke (TS) on Growth of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position , policy...males than in females1. Tobacco smoking (TS), obesity , hypertension, and age are established risk factors for ccRCC development1. Despite the well...several papers . NDRI is able to procure tissues from patients with known status of smoking and additional information such as BMI and history of

  10. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasry, Shady; Asfour, Shihab; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Travascio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Compelling experimental evidence associates smoking to the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In particular, it has been shown that nicotine down-regulates both the proliferation rate and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis of disc cells. Moreover, tobacco smoking causes the constriction of the vascular network surrounding the IVD, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients and anabolic agents from the blood vessels to the disc. It has been hypothesized that both nicotine presence in the IVD and the reduced solute exchange are responsible for the degeneration of the disc due to tobacco smoking, but their effects on tissue homeostasis have never been quantified. In this study, a previously presented computational model describing the homeostasis of the IVD was deployed to investigate the effects of impaired solute supply and nicotine-mediated down-regulation of cell proliferation and biosynthetic activity on the health of the disc. We found that the nicotine-mediated down-regulation of cell anabolism mostly affected the GAG concentration at the cartilage endplate, reducing it up to 65% of the value attained in normal physiological conditions. In contrast, the reduction of solutes exchange between blood vessels and disc tissue mostly affected the nucleus pulposus, whose cell density and GAG levels were reduced up to 50% of their normal physiological levels. The effectiveness of quitting smoking on the regeneration of a degenerated IVD was also investigated, and showed to have limited benefit on the health of the disc. A cell-based therapy in conjunction with smoke cessation provided significant improvements in disc health, suggesting that, besides quitting smoking, additional treatments should be implemented in the attempt to recover the health of an IVD degenerated by tobacco smoking.

  11. Cannabis, tobacco smoking, and lung function: a cross-sectional observational study in a general practice population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, John; Robertson, Roy; Copeland, Lorraine; McKenzie, James; Elton, Rob; Reid, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Health concerns around cannabis use have focused on the potential relationship with psychosis but the effect of cannabis smoking on respiratory health has received less attention. Aim To investigate the association between tobacco-only smoking compared with tobacco plus cannabis smoking and adverse outcomes in respiratory health and lung function. Design and setting The design was cross-sectional with two groups recruited: cigarette smokers with tobacco pack-years; cannabis smokers with cannabis joint-years. Recruitment occurred in a general practice in Scotland with 12 500 patients. Method Exposures measured were tobacco smoking (pack-years) and cannabis smoking (joint-years). Cannabis type (resin, herbal, or both) was recorded by self-report. Respiratory symptoms were recorded using NHANES and MRC questionnaires. Lung function was measured by spirometry (FEV1/FVC ratio). Results Participants consisted of 500 individuals (242 males). Mean age of tobacco-only smokers was 45 years; median tobacco exposure was 25 pack-years. Mean age of cannabis and tobacco smokers was 37 years; median tobacco exposure was 19 pack-years, rising to 22.5 when tobacco smoked with cannabis. Although tobacco and cannabis use were associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms, this was higher among those who also smoked cannabis. Both tobacco and cannabis users had evidence of impaired lung function but, in fully adjusted analyses, each additional joint-year of cannabis use was associated with a 0.3% (95% confidence interval = 0.0 to 0.5) increase in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion In adults who predominantly smoked resin cannabis mixed with tobacco, additional adverse effects were observed on respiratory health relating to cannabis use. PMID:25624312

  12. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102. We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005 and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007 in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5 in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2 in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network.

  13. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

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    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  14. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

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    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  15. Predictors of Tobacco Smoking in Male Adolescents in Hamadan Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    Majid Barati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.

  16. Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Kiran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0% were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34, acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64, suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84, otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33 (p > 0.05 and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05. For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58, 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93 for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81. Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30 and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04 (p Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.

  17. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in open and semi-open settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; López, María J; Nebot, Manel

    2013-07-01

    Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. The objective of the present study was to review research on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. Our search terms included combinations of "secondhand smoke," "environmental tobacco smoke," "passive smoking" OR "tobacco smoke pollution" AND "outdoors" AND "PM" (particulate matter), "PM(2.5)" (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm), "respirable suspended particles," "particulate matter," "nicotine," "CO" (carbon monoxide), "cotinine," "marker," "biomarker" OR "airborne marker." In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. Almost all studies used PM(2.5) concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM(2.5) concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 to 124 µg/m(3) at hospitality venues, and 4.60 to 17.80 µg/m(3) at other locations. Mean PM(2.5) concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 to 120.51 µg/m(3). SHS levels increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings.

  18. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  19. Tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Thai urban females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimhanam, Chaisak; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of urban female breast cancer has been continuously increasing over the past decade with unknown etiology. One hypothesis for this increase is carcinogen exposure from tobacco. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the risk of urban female breast cancer from tobacco smoke exposure. The matched case control study was conducted among Thai females, aged 17-76 years and living in Bangkok or its surrounding areas. A total of 444 pairs of cases and controls were recruited from the Thai National Cancer Institute. Cases were newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed as breast cancer while controls were selected from healthy women who visited a patient, matched by age ± 5 years. After obtaining informed consent, tobacco smoke exposure data and information on other potential risk factors were collected by interview. The analysis was performed by conditional logistic regression, and presented with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals(CI). From all subjects, 3.8% of cases and 3.4% of controls were active smokers while 11.0% of cases and 6.1% of controls were passive smokers. The highest to lowest sources of passive tobacco smoke were from spouses (40.8%), the workplace (36.8%) and public areas (26.3%), respectively. After adjusting for other potential risk factors or confounders, females with frequent low-dose passive smoke exposure (≤ 7 hours per week) from a spouse or workplace had adjusted odds ratio 3.77 (95%CI=1.11-12.82) and 4.02 (95%CI=1.04-15.50) higher risk of breast cancer compared with non-smokers, respectively. However, this study did not find any association of breast cancer risk in high dose passive tobacco smoke exposure, or a dose response relationship in cumulative passive tobacco smoke exposure per week, or in the active smoker group. In conclusion, passive smoke exposure may be one important risk factor of urban female breast cancer, particularly, from a spouse or workplace. This risk factor highlights the

  20. Relationships Among Chewing Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Chronic Health Conditions in Males 18-44 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Shanda L; Banks, Haley E; Bailey, Adrianne E; Bachman, Melissa J; Kane, John; Hartos, Jessica L

    2017-08-07

    As more public places are designated "non-smoking," chewing tobacco could be an alternative choice for tobacco use; however, controversy exists over the long-term health effects associated with it. This study assessed the relationship between chewing tobacco, cigarette smoking, and chronic health conditions in a representative sample of males 18-44 years of age, while controlling for other variables known to be related to tobacco use. This cross sectional analysis used 2013 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The results indicated that about 41% of males reported one or more chronic health conditions, and that about 15% used chewing tobacco only, 21% smoked cigarettes only, and 6% did both. From adjusted analyses, those who chewed tobacco only were 49% more likely to report one or more health conditions; those who smoked cigarettes only were 34% more likely to report one or more health conditions; and those who did both were 95% more likely to report at least one health condition. Overall, any combination of tobacco use was significantly and similarly related to the increased prevalence of chronic health conditions in males aged 18-44 years. Although chewing tobacco use may not be as prevalent in the general population as cigarette smoking, clinicians should be aware of the similar health risks associated with all tobacco use at ages younger than may be expected, and encourage cessation of any tobacco use.

  1. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number...... and 15% former smokers among Nordic women in that year, by the year 2000 10,000 cases of lung cancer (6,500 in men and 3,500 in women) will be caused by active smoking; this is equivalent to 82% of all cases of lung cancer in these populations. Another 6,000 cancers of other types (4,000 in men and 2...

  2. Tobacco advertising/promotions and adolescents' smoking risk in Northern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Ledford, E Cannon; Andersen, Lori; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2014-05-01

    Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer smoking. Adolescent data (n=12 329) from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed (Libya, 2007; Egypt, 2005; Morocco, 2006; Tunisia 2007; and Sudan, 2005). Current smoking (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) and never-smokers' initiation susceptibility (composite of openness to accepting a cigarette from a friend and intention to start smoking in the next year) outcomes were examined. Advertising/promotion exposures included media and in-person contacts. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 5.6% (Egypt) to 15.3% (Tunisia) among boys, and 1.1% (Libya and Egypt) to 2.0% (Morocco and Sudan) among girls. Initiation susceptibility ranged from 14.1% (Sudan) to 25.0% (Tunisia) among boys, and from 13.3% (Sudan) to 15.0% (Libya) among girls. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents reported exposure to at least one type of advertising/promotion. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographics, each type of advertising/promotion was significantly and positively associated with boys' current smoking status; most advertising/promotion exposure types were also positively associated with initiation susceptibility among boys and girls. Peer smoking only partially mediated these associations. Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced.

  3. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  4. Money Gone Up in Smoke: The Tobacco Use and Malnutrition Nexus in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Parascandola, Mark; Khondker, Bazlul Haque; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    The tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh is pervasive. Expenditures on tobacco may reduce money available for food in a country with a high malnutrition rate. The aims of the study are to quantify the opportunity costs of tobacco expenditure in terms of nutrition (ie, food energy) forgone and the potential improvements in the household level food-energy status if the money spent on tobacco were diverted for food consumption. We analyzed data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted among 12,240 households. We present 2 analytical scenarios: (1) the lower-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco partially diverted to acquiring food according to households' food consumption share in total expenditures; and (2) the upper-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco diverted to acquiring food only. Age- and gender-based energy norms were used to identify food-energy deficient households. Data were analyzed by mutually exclusive smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual-tobacco user households. On average, a smoking-only household could gain 269-497 kilocalories (kcal) daily under the lower-bound and upper-bound scenarios, respectively. The potential energy gains for smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households ranged from 148-268 kcal and 508-924 kcal, respectively. Under these lower- and upper-bound estimates, the percentage of smoking-only user households that are malnourished declined significantly from the baseline rate of 38% to 33% and 29%, respectively. For the smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households, there were 2-3 and 6-9 percentage point drops in the malnutrition prevalence rates. The tobacco expenditure shift could translate to an additional 4.6-7.7 million food-energy malnourished persons meeting their caloric requirements. The findings suggest that tobacco use reduction could facilitate concomitant improvements in population-level nutrition status and may inform the

  5. Prevalence of active and passive tobacco smoking among Beijing residents in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Ding Zhang; Jie Cao; Zhong Dong; Jian-Xin Li; Gang Li; Ai-Jun Ma; Xue-Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of active and passive tobacco smoking among Beijing residents in 2011. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a stratified multistage cluster random sampling method to select a representative sample of 20,242, among Beijing residents aged 18-79 years. Active and passive tobacco smoking information was collected by a standardized and validated questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. All estimates of prevalence and numbers were weighted by the 2010 Beijing Population Census data and the sampling scheme. Results: Among Beijing residents aged 18-79 years, the overall prevalence of ever smokers and current smokers were 33.13%and 30.18%, respectively. The prevalence in males was much higher than that in females (60.75%vs. 3.75%for ever smokers, and 55.53% vs. 3.21% for current smokers, respectively). For overall current smokers, 14.12 cigarettes were consumed per day. However, only 8.91%of ever smokers quitted smoking at the time of the survey, and 2.44%of ever smokers quitted smoking in recent two years. Furthermore, 44.74%of overall nonsmokers and former smokers, with 47.03%of males and 43.63%of females, reported exposure to secondhand smoke for at least 15 minutes per day and at least one day per week. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking prevalence is still extremely high in Beijing. Nonsmokers do still suffer from secondhand smoke critically. Further urgent efforts for tobacco control are warranted in Beijing.

  6. Proximity to a tobacco store and smoking cessation: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-03-01

    It is not clear whether the availability of tobacco affects the likelihood of smoking cessation. We examined whether the proximity to a tobacco store and the number of stores were associated with smoking cessation, and compared results for proximity variables based on walking and straight-line (as the crow flies) distance. The study population consisted of 8751 baseline smokers from the Finnish Public Sector study in 1997-2005. Smoking intensity (cigarettes/day) was determined at baseline and smoking cessation was determined from a follow-up survey in 2008-2009. Proximity was measured using straight-line and walking distance from home to the nearest tobacco store, and another exposure variable was the number of stores within 0.50 km from home. We calculated associations with log-binomial regression models, adjusting for individual-level and area-level confounders. Of the participants, 3482 (39.8%) quit smoking during the follow-up (mean follow-up 5.5 years, SD 2.3 years). Among men who were moderate/heavy smokers at baseline and lived store, the likelihood of smoking cessation was 27% (95% CI 12% to 40%) lower compared with those living ≥0.50 km from a store. Having even one store within 0.50 km walking distance from home decreased cessation in men who were moderate/heavy smokers by 37% (95% CI 19% to 51%). No decrease was found for men who were light smokers at baseline or for women. Living within walking distance of a tobacco store reduced the likelihood of smoking cessation among men who were moderate/heavy smokers.

  7. Tobacco smoking in urban neighborhoods: exploring social capital as a protective factor in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapag, Jaime C; Poblete, Fernando C; Eicher, Caitlin; Aracena, Marcela; Caneo, Constanza; Vera, Gloria; Martínez, Mayra; Hoyos, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Luis; Bradford, Elizabeth

    2010-09-01

    Research examining the relationship between social capital and health in Latin America has been limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between social capital and tobacco use in four low-income neighborhoods in Santiago, Chile. A multistage probability sample was used to select households in 4 of the 10 poorest neighborhoods in the district of Puente Alto, in Santiago, Chile. A cross-sectional survey of 781 participants (81.2% response rate for households) included sociodemographic variables, questions pertaining to neighborhood social capital, and questions pertaining to tobacco. Main analyses were carried out at the individual level by performing a multiple logistic regression of individual tobacco use on individual perceptions of community social capital. The prevalence of smoking was 43.9% of the surveyed population. A five-factor structure for social capital was identified, including "perceived trust in neighbors," "perceived trust in organizations," "reciprocity within the neighborhood," "neighborhood integration," and "social participation." An inverse relationship between trust in neighbors and tobacco smoking was statistically significantly with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.99). Trust in neighbors was also significantly inversely associated with the number of cigarettes smoked. Tobacco control remains a significant challenge in global health, requiring innovative strategies that address changing social contexts as well as the changing epidemiological profile of developing regions.

  8. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students’ Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10–11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  9. Waterpipe use and cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth: analysis of the 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirallah, Khalid A; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Ward, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as lack of a firm decision to not initiate smoking, predicts youth smoking initiation and experimentation and is a first step in the transition to regular smoking. This study investigated whether waterpipe (WP) smoking, an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use among Arab adolescents, was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Jordan Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted to assess the association between WP use and cigarette susceptibility, after adjusting for important confounders. A total of 1,476 youth aged 13-15 years old who had never smoked cigarettes were identified and represented 166,593 never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth. We found 40% of boys and 29% of girls were susceptible to cigarette smoking, and both boys (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.54) and girls (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.83-2.04) who had ever smoked WP were more susceptible to cigarette smoking than those who never smoked WP. This is the first study to report that WP use may increase youth's susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  11. Validity and reliability of self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in work offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MC; Brug, J; Uges, DRA; VosdeWael, ML

    1997-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an occupational carcinogen. Large companies often examine ETS exposure by employee surveys, However, reliable and valid self-report measures have been lacking. This study compared validity and reliability of various self-report measures, One hundred and seven non

  12. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  13. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  14. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  15. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for

  16. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; ten Hacken, Nicolaas; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega g

  17. A review of human carcinogens - Part E: tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salted fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretan, B.; Straif, K.; Baan, R.; Grosse, Y.; El Ghissassi, F.; Bouvard, V.; Benbrahim-Tallaa, L.; Guha, N.; Freeman, C.; Galichet, L.; Cogliano, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    2009-11-15

    In October, 2009, 30 scientists from 10 countries met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to reassess the carcinogenicity of tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, coal smoke, and salt-preserved fish, and to identify additional tumor sites and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. These assessments will be published as Part E of Volume 100 of the IARC Monographs.

  18. The regional lung deposition of thoron progeny attached to the particulate phase of environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, J.C.; Black, A.; Knight, D.A.; Dickens, C.J.; McAughey, J. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The [gamma] emitting isotope of lead (([sup 212]Pb), a decay product of thoron ([sup 220]Rn)), has been used to radiolabel the particulate phase of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in situ. The radiolabelled aerosol is suitable for studies with human volunteers and as a marker for lung deposition and clearance of the attached fraction of thoron progeny, as well as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a variety of environmental situations. Total mean deposition values for nine male volunteers varied from 22% to 59% under different breathing conditions, including nasal as against mouth breathing. These data are higher than previously reported values for environmental tobacco smoke but are consistent with models of particle deposition in the lung. Data for regional deposition and clearance show deposition principally in the pulmonary region of the lung. Preliminary studies using radon ([sup 222]Rn) to determine the degree of association of progeny in the presence of ambient particulate or environmental tobacco smoke confirm that the degree of attachment rises with increasing particle concentration, and is therefore likely to influence both the magnitude and site of deposition in the lung. (author).

  19. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Alterations in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity are associated with tobacco smoking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Humsini; Velasquez, Kenia M; Thompson-Lake, Daisy Gemma Yan; Savjani, Ricky; Carter, Asasia Q; Eagleman, David; Baldwin, Philip R; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking) is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers.

  1. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal has been associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthened after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung can

  2. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for incid

  3. Tobacco smoking and depression : time to move on to a new research paradigm in medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders reported on a study into whether tobacco smoking may serve as a risk factor for depression in patients with heart disease. In the current paper, we discuss several limitations of that study, of which many apply not just to the study itself but

  4. [Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pre-school children--a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielskai, Dorota Emilia; Gomółka, Ewa; Kurpas, Donata; Chlabicz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work was to compare the socioeconomic situation and the structure of tobacco use in the families of children attending preschools in Bialystok in 2004 and 2012 in terms of 3-year-olds' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The study involved 313 children out of 1,200 3-year-olds attending 51 pre-schools in Bialystok in 2004 (Gr I) and 273 children out of 1,100 attending 49 pre-schools in 2012 (Gr I). Information on environmental conditions and the use of tobacco in the families of the studied 3-year-olds was obtained through anonymous questionnaires filled in by their parents or caregivers. The exposure of children to ETS was evaluated using the questionnaire and by determining the cotinine/creatinine ratio in urine. The children from Gr I had better educated (pgrandparents. The declared number of cigarettes smoked a day by the people living with the children was similar in both Groups The Groups did not differ significantly regarding the rules of tobacco smoke applying to the family members and guests (p=0.639). The mean cotinine/ creatinine concentration [ng/mg] in the urine of children from Gr I (60.78) was significantly higher than in those from Gr II (22.75) (pyoung parents decreased, but despite education activities in the community, only 1/4 of homes with children had the "no smoking" rule.

  5. Interaction between filaggrin null mutations and tobacco smoking in relation to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2012-01-01

    between FLG deficiency and environmental exposures play a role in asthma development. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate possible interactions between FLG null mutations and tobacco smoking in relation to asthma. METHODS: A total of 3471 adults from a general population sample participated in a health...

  6. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  7. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  8. Alterations in Interhemispheric Functional and Anatomical Connectivity are Associated with Tobacco Smoking in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humsini eViswanath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers.

  9. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  10. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with penergy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63.04% of men, about alcohol consumption - 66.67% women and 58.70% men respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between sex of the respondents and obtaining

  11. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

  12. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130. Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80% of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not

  13. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  14. Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2000 tobacco outlets and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multi-level models (city, individual, time). A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. A total of 1478 youths (aged 13-16 at wave 1, 52.2% male); 1061 participated in all waves. Measures at the individual level included life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and compliance checks. Outlet density was associated positively with life-time smoking [OR = 1.12, P smoking at the earlier waves when respondents were younger. Greater density was associated positively with perceived availability (β = 0.02, P smoking among youths. Density, sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  16. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M.C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A.E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About 31% of people who live below the poverty level smoke. Although the number of teenagers in ... conditions. State and community leaders can: Consider the World Health Organization's MPOWER strategies in efforts to prevent ...

  18. Genetic Factors Interact With Tobacco Smoke to Modify Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Humans and Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Ellinghaus, David; Rémy, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of tobacco smoke in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We investigated interactions between genes and smoking (gene-smoking interactions) that affect risk for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a case-only study of patients an...

  19. Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond G; D'silva, Joanne; Stanton, Cassandra A; Carusi, Charles; Tang, Zhiqun

    2017-06-17

    Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment. Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels. Controlling for age and gender, a decreased rate of smoking among high and middle education groups was offset by an increase in the low education group. Dependence (time to first cigarette) was twice as high in the lowest education group compared to highest, yet dependence did not decline over time for any group. There was a decline in cigarettes per day in all education groups, but an increase in OTP use in the lowest and middle education groups. Given existing smoking disparities, novel efforts are urgently needed. Complementing known population-level strategies with community and individual-level approaches will be necessary to eliminate the widening gap in smoking disparities and to end the burden of tobacco-related disease.

  20. Smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among 6th-grade students in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.

  1. Effects of type of smoking (pipe, cigars or cigarettes) on biological indices of tobacco exposure and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck-Brentano, Christian; Raphaël, Mathilde; Lafontaine, Michel; Arnould, Jean-Pierre; Verstuyft, Céline; Lebot, Martine; Costagliola, Dominique; Roussel, Ronan

    2006-10-01

    Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to compare CYP1A2 activity in individuals smoking pipes or cigars only, cigarettes only and in non-smokers. We studied 30 smokers of pipes or cigars only, 28 smokers of cigarettes only, and 30 non-smokers male subjects matched for age. CYP1A2 activity was assessed as the caffeine metabolic ratio in plasma. One-day urine collection was used for determining exposure to products of tobacco metabolism. Nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adducts were measured in lymphocytes. CYP1A2 activity was greater (ptobacco metabolism than cigarette smoking and to an absence of CYP1A2 induction. Cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity in smokers. However, inhalation behaviour, rather than the type of tobacco smoked, may be the key factor linked to the extent of tobacco exposure and CYP1A2 induction. Our results provide a reasonable explanation for the results of epidemiological studies showing pipe or cigar smoking to present fewer health hazards than cigarette smoking.

  2. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (pcigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  3. Influence of the tobacco smoking on the bronchial asthma in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ts. Batozhargalova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative epidemiological research on studying prevalence tobacco smoking and respiratory symptoms among rural teenagers with bronchial asthma. Control group have made non-smoking (n = 59, and skilled — smoking teenagers (n = 72. Prevalence of smoking among adolescents with bronchial asthma has made 55% against 44,3% on the average at adolescents (p < 0.05. At smokers sick of a bronchial asthma the presence of respiratory complaints, level of СO in exhaled air and urinary cotinine has been raised. Authentic communication of smoking with a series of symptoms bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis in teenagers, shown is taped by a high and average parity of chances.

  4. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  5. Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, D J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ≥15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India.

  6. Tobacco smoking and tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a prospective cohort study in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegia, Medea; Magee, Matthew J; Kempker, Russell R; Kalandadze, Iagor; Chakhaia, Tsira; Golub, Jonathan E; Blumberg, Henry M

    2015-06-01

    To assess the effect of tobacco smoking on the outcome of tuberculosis treatment in Tbilisi, Georgia. We conducted a prospective cohort study of adults with laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis from May 2011 to November 2013. History of tobacco smoking was collected using a standardized questionnaire adapted from the global adult tobacco survey. We considered tuberculosis therapy to have a poor outcome if participants defaulted, failed treatment or died. We used multivariable regressions to estimate the risk of a poor treatment outcome. Of the 591 tuberculosis patients enrolled, 188 (31.8%) were past smokers and 271 (45.9%) were current smokers. Ninety (33.2%) of the current smokers and 24 (18.2%) of the participants who had never smoked had previously been treated for tuberculosis (P Treatment outcome data were available for 524 of the participants, of whom 128 (24.4%) - including 80 (32.9%) of the 243 current smokers and 21 (17.2%) of the 122 individuals who had never smoked - had a poor treatment outcome. Compared with those who had never smoked, current smokers had an increased risk of poor treatment outcome (adjusted relative risk, aRR: 1.70; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.00-2.90). Those who had ceased smoking more than two months before enrolment did not have such an increased risk (aRR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.51-1.99). There is a high prevalence of smoking among patients with tuberculosis in Georgia and smoking increases the risk of a poor treatment outcome.

  7. Assessment of the influence of direct tobacco smoke on infection and active TB management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Maldonado, José; Molina, Israel; González-Díaz, Yoel; Milà, Celia; García-García, Esther; Muriel, Beatriz; Villar-Hernández, Raquel; Laabei, Maisem; Gómez, Andromeda-Celeste; Godoy, Pere; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Solano, Segismundo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease progression. Tobacco smoking increases susceptibility to TB in a variety of ways, one of which is due to a reduction of the IFN-γ response. Consequently, an impaired immune response could affect performance of IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). Objective In the present study, we assess the impact of direct tobacco smoking on radiological manifestations, sputum conversion and immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, analyzing IFN-γ secretion by IGRAs. Methods A total of 525 participants were studied: (i) 175 active pulmonary TB patients and (ii) 350 individuals coming from contact tracing studies, 41 of whom were secondary TB cases. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. T-SPOT.TB and QFN-G-IT were processed according manufacturer’s instructions. Results In smoking patients with active TB, QFN-G-IT (34.4%) and T-SPOT.TB (19.5%) had high frequencies of negative results. In addition, by means of an unconditional logistic regression, smoking was a main factor associated with IGRAs’ false-negative results (aOR: 3.35; 95%CI:1.47–7.61; p<0.05). Smoking patients with active TB presented a high probability of having cavitary lesions (aOR: 1.88; 95%CI:1.02–3.46;p<0.05). Mean culture negativization (months) ± standard deviation (SD) was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (2.47±1.3 versus 1.69±1.4). Latent TB infection (LTBI) was favored in smoking contacts, being a risk factor associated with infection (aOR: 11.57; 95%CI:5.97–22.41; p<0.00005). The IFN-γ response was significantly higher in non-smokers than in smokers. Smoking quantity and IFN-γ response analyzed by IGRAs were dose-dependent related. Conclusions Smoking had a negative effect on radiological manifestations, delaying time of sputum conversion. Our data establish a link between tobacco smoking and TB due to a weakened IFN-γ response caused by direct tobacco smoke. PMID:28837570

  8. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Williams, Michael T; Braun, Amanda A; Graham, Devon L; Webb, Cynthia L; Birtles, Todd S; Greene, Robert M; Vorhees, Charles V; Pisano, M Michele

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is a well-documented risk factor for a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes, how prenatal cigarette smoke exposure affects postnatal neurobehavioral/cognitive development remains poorly defined. In order to investigate the cause of an altered behavioral phenotype, mice developmentally exposed to a paradigm of 'active' maternal cigarette smoke is needed. Accordingly, cigarette smoke exposed (CSE) and air-exposed C57BL/6J mice were treated for 6h per day in paired inhalation chambers throughout gestation and lactation and were tested for neurobehavioral effects while controlling for litter effects. CSE mice exhibited less than normal anxiety in the elevated zero maze, transient hypoactivity during a 1h locomotor activity test, had longer latencies on the last day of cued Morris water maze testing, impaired hidden platform learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition, reversal, and shift trials, and impaired retention for platform location on probe trials after reversal but not after acquisition or shift. CSE mice also showed a sexually dimorphic response in central zone locomotion to a methamphetamine challenge (males under-responded and females over-responded), and showed reduced anxiety in the light-dark test by spending more time on the light side. No differences on tests of marble burying, acoustic startle response with prepulse inhibition, Cincinnati water maze, matching-to-sample Morris water maze, conditioned fear, forced swim, or MK-801-induced locomotor activation were found. Collectively, the data indicate that developmental cigarette smoke exposure induces subnormal anxiety in a novel environment, impairs spatial learning and reference memory while sparing other behaviors (route-based learning, fear conditioning, and forced swim immobility). The findings add support to mounting evidence that developmental cigarette smoke exposure has long-term adverse effects on brain function. Copyright © 2013

  9. Tobacco smoking prevalence among in-school adolescents aged 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1Zulu R, 2Siziya S, 2Nzala SH. 1Institute of Economic and Social Research, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia ... Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS) were used to estimate the ... Weighted analysis was used to produce ... a country to design, implement and evaluate ... Although the questionnaire included questions on age,.

  10. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements

  11. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  12. Smoking prevalence and views about tobacco law in students of medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Baykan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking prevalence among first year students attending Erciyes University Medical School and to evaluate their ideas about the law Prevention and Control of Hazards of Tobacco Products”. Methods:This was a descriptive study conducted in May 2013. The participation rate was 72.5%. A questionnaire including 18 questions was administered to the participants. Socio demographic features, smoking status, addiction perception of smokers and their ideas about the law were asked in the questionnaire. Ethical approval was obtained for the study. Chi square test was used. Results:Out of 200 students 49.0% had tried smoking and 23. 0% has been smoking. 40,6 % of the male and 6.7% of the female students was smoking. There was statistically significant difference between them (fisher exacttest, p<0.001. Smoking among students, whose family members also smokers, were higher. The mean starting age to smoking was 16.7±2.0 and stress was the first reason. 84.3 % of the students evaluated smoking as an addiction. 79.0% of the students were considering that the law was partially applied. 60.5% said that tobacco use had decreased with the law and 28.3% said that their usage had also been decreased. Only 38.0% believes that this law interfere personal rights. Conclusion:Half of the students had tried smoking at early ages. Parents were important role models. The majority of the students thought that restrictive laws limit smoking.

  13. The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Gary E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

    2007-09-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of compounds including nicotine. Many constituents have known toxicity to the brain, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. Nicotine, on the other hand, by virtue of its short-term actions on the cholinergic system, has positive effects on certain cognitive domains including working memory and executive function and may be, under certain conditions, neuroprotective. In this paper, we review recent literature, laboratory and epidemiologic, that describes the components of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke, including heavy metals and their toxicity, the effect of medicinal nicotine on the brain, and studies of the relationship between smoking and (1) preclinical brain changes including silent brain infarcts; white matter hyperintensities, and atrophy; (2) single measures of cognition; (3) cognitive decline over repeated measures; and (4) dementia. In most studies, exposure to smoke is associated with increased risk for negative preclinical and cognitive outcomes in younger people as well as in older adults. Potential mechanisms for smoke's harmful effects include oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence implicates medicinal nicotine as potentially harmful to both neurodevelopment in children and to catalyzing processes underlying neuropathology in Alzheimer's Disease. The reviewed evidence suggests caution with the use of medicinal nicotine in pregnant mothers and older adults at risk for certain neurological disease. Directions for future research in this area include the assessment of comorbidities (alcohol consumption, depression) that could confound the association between smoking and neurocognitive outcomes, the use of more specific measures of smoking behavior and cognition, the use of biomarkers to index exposure to smoke, and the assessment of cognition-related genotypes to better understand the role of interactions between smoking/nicotine and variation in genotype in determining

  14. Effects of tobacco smoke exposure during lactation on nutritional and hormonal profiles in mothers and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, A P; Oliveira, E; Pinheiro, C R; Nunes-Freitas, A L; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Santana, A C; Nascimento-Saba, C C; Nogueira-Neto, J F; Reis, A M; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is related to changes in energy balance regulation and several endocrine dysfunctions. Previously, we showed that maternal nicotine (the main addictive compound of tobacco) exposure exclusively during lactation affects biochemical profiles in mothers, milk, and pups. As the possible consequences for mothers and offspring of maternal smoking during lactation are still unknown, we evaluated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal parameters in dams and pups at weaning. After 72 h from birth, lactating rats were divided into two groups: smoke-exposed (S) in a cigarette-smoking machine, 4 × 1 h per day throughout the lactation period without pups; control (C), rats were treated the same as the experimental group but exposed to filtered air. Dams and pups were killed at weaning (21 days of lactation). Body weight and food intake were evaluated. Milk, blood, visceral fat, adrenal, and carcass were collected. S dams showed hyperprolactinemia (+50%), hypoinsulinemia (-40%), hypoleptinemia (-46%), as well as lower triglycerides (-53%) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-50%). Milk of S dams had higher lactose (+52%) and triglycerides (+78%). S pups presented higher body protein (+17%), lower total (-24%) and subcutaneous fat contents (-25%), hypoglycemia (-11%), hyperinsulinemia (+28%), hypocorticosteronemia (-40%), lower adrenal catecholamine content (-40%), hypertriglyceridemia (+34%), higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+16%), and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-45%). In conclusion, tobacco smoke exposure leads to changes in nutritional, biochemical, and hormonal parameters in dams and, passively through the milk, may promote several important metabolic disorders in the progeny.

  15. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  16. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, Paulo D; Machado, José Cunha; Ravara, Sofia B; Araújo, Ana Carolina; Samorinha, Catarina; Antunes, Henedina; Rosas, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo; Precioso, José

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car; to compare exposure among children with smoking and non-smoking parents. In 2011, a self-administered questionnaire was applied to a 4th grade Portuguese children national sample (N=3187, mean age 9.5 ± 0.7, 51.1% boys). Prevalence rates and chi-square tests were computed. Of the participants, 52.0% reported having, at least, one smoking parent. Overall exposure in the car was 28.9% (95% CI 27.3-30.5). Children's exposure among those reporting smoking parents was 46.9% (95% CI 44.4-49.4); and 8.6% (95% CI 7.1-10.1) among those reporting non-smoking parents (p<.001). Therefore, children with smoking parents were 5.44 times more likely to be exposed. Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco smoking affects bacterial acquisition and colonization in oral biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Purnima S; Matthews, Chad R; Joshi, Vinayak; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

    2011-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that smoking affects the composition of the disease-associated subgingival biofilm, yet little is known about its effects during the formation of this biofilm. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the contributions of smoking to the composition and proinflammatory characteristics of the biofilm during de novo plaque formation. Marginal and subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 15 current smokers and from 15 individuals who had never smoked (nonsmokers) following 1, 2, 4, and 7 days of undisturbed plaque formation. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used for bacterial identification, and multiplex bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, relatively unstable initial colonization of both marginal and subgingival biofilms, with lower niche saturation than that seen in nonsmokers. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Cardiobacterium, Synergistes, and Selenomonas, as well as respiratory pathogens belonging to the genera Haemophilus and Pseudomonas, colonized the early biofilms of smokers and continued to persist over the observation period, suggesting that smoking favors early acquisition and colonization of pathogens in oral biofilms. Smokers also demonstrated an early proinflammatory response to this colonization, which persisted over 7 days. Further, a positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and commensal bacteria was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Taken together, the data suggest that smoking influences both the composition of the nascent biofilm and the host response to this colonization.

  18. Parental smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with waterpipe smoking among youth: results from a national survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, M; Nakkash, R T; Mahfoud, Z; Bteddini, D; Haddad, P; Afifi, R A

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is a growing public health concern worldwide yet little is known about the epidemiology of use among young people. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of WTS among students across Lebanon. The study design was a cross sectional survey. 126-item tobacco questionnaire was conducted among 1128 sixth and seventh grade students across Lebanon. Current patterns of use were descriptively analysed, and logistic regression models examined correlates of WTS. Ever WTS prevalence was 44.3%, current WTS prevalence was triple that of cigarettes (22.1% vs 7.4%), and 40.0% of current users were at least weekly or daily smokers. Initiation and patterns of use, as well as addiction and cessation attitudes have been reported. Significant correlates of current WTS included older age, reduced religiosity, peer and parent tobacco use, recent waterpipe advertisement exposure, increased pluralistic ignorance and current cigarette use. Significant correlates of ever WTS were similar to current WTS, but included second hand waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure at home and did not include recent waterpipe advertisement exposure. Neither gender nor socio-economic status were significant correlates of current or ever WTS. Waterpipe is the most common form of tobacco smoking, and is used regularly, among sixth and seventh grade Lebanese students. It should be considered a public health priority with increased tobacco surveillance and legislation. Widespread educational and policy interventions might help denormalize the social acceptability of WTS. Meanwhile, more research is needed to understand the changing paradigm of WTS epidemiology and the health outcomes among young smokers. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urine Cotinine Screening Detect Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Jain, Shonul; Dempsey, Delia A; Nardone, Natalie; St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton

    2016-12-28

    Routine biochemical assessment of tobacco smoke exposure could lead to more effective interventions to reduce or prevent secondhand smoke (SHS)-related disease in adolescents. Our aim was to determine using urine cotinine (major nicotine metabolite) measurement the prevalence of tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents receiving outpatient care at an urban public hospital. Surplus urine was collected in 466 adolescents attending pediatric or urgent care clinics at San Francisco General Hospital, serving families with lower levels of income and education, in 2013-14. The majority were Hispanic or African American. Urine cotinine cut points of 0.05 to 0.25 ng/ml, 0.25 to 30 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml were used to classify subjects as light SHS or thirdhand smoke exposed, SHS or light/intermittent active users, and active tobacco users, respectively. Among subjects 87% were exposed, including 12% active smoking, 46% SHS and 30% lightly exposed. The SHS exposed group adjusted geometric mean cotinine values were significantly higher in African Americans (1.48 ng/mL) compared to other groups (0.56 - 1.13 ng/ml). In a city with a low smoking prevalence (12%), a large majority (87%) of adolescents seen in a public hospital clinic are exposed to tobacco. This is much higher than reported in national epidemiological studies of adolescents, which used a plasma biomarker. Since SHS is associated with significant respiratory diseases and parents and adolescents underreport exposure to SHS, routine biochemical screening should be considered as a tool to reduce SHS exposure. The clinical significance of light exposure needs to be investigated. Urine biomarker screening found that a large majority (87%) of adolescents treated in an urban public hospital are exposed to tobacco. Since secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with significant respiratory diseases and parents and adolescents underreport exposure to SHS, routine biochemical screening should be considered as a tool to reduce SHS

  20. Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P students participated in the study with a response rate of 89.2%. The mean age (years) was 21.4 ± 3. Rate of ever smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.

  1. Intention to Smoke Tobacco Using Waterpipe among Students in a Southeastern U.S. College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela; Yan, Guofen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action this study examined the association of behavioral beliefs, attitudes, normative beliefs and subjective norms with waterpipe tobacco smoking intention in college students. Design and Sample A cross-sectional design was used. A web-based survey was sent to a random sample of 1,000 undergraduate students from a public institution in the Southeast to recruit participants. Measures The Theory of Reasoned Action Waterpipe Questionnaire, a modified version of the Fishbein-Ajzen-Hanson Questionnaire, was used to capture modal constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action related to waterpipe use. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the scales of the Theory of Reasoned Action Waterpipe Questionnaire ranged from .76 to .95. Results Of the sample (n=223), 13.5% currently smoked a waterpipe and 61% had ever done so. Using multiple regression, attitudes, behavioral beliefs, and subjective norms were associated with intention to smoke a waterpipe in the next three months and collectively explained 35% of the variance in intention. The full model, which included all the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action, demographic variables, and tobacco use variables, explained 83% of the variance in intention to smoke a waterpipe in the next three months. Conclusions This study provides valuable information that may be used to target students at risk for waterpipe smoking and serves as a starting point in developing theoretically-driven interventions to prevent waterpipe smoking. PMID:22092459

  2. Intention to smoke tobacco using a waterpipe among students in a southeastern U.S. College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela; Yan, Guofen

    2011-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action, this study examined the association of behavioral beliefs, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms with waterpipe tobacco smoking intention in college students. A cross-sectional design was used. A Web-based survey was sent to a random sample of 1,000 undergraduate students from a public institution in the southeast to recruit participants. The Theory of Reasoned Action Waterpipe Questionnaire, a modified version of the Fishbein-Ajzen-Hanson Questionnaire, was used to capture modal constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action related to waterpipe use. Cronbach's α coefficients for the scales of the Theory of Reasoned Action Waterpipe Questionnaire ranged from .76 to .95. Of the sample (n=223), 13.5% currently smoked a waterpipe and 61% had ever done so. Using multiple regression, attitudes, behavioral beliefs, and subjective norms were associated with intention to smoke a waterpipe in the next 3 months and collectively explained 35% of the variance in intention. The full model, which included all the constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action, demographic variables, and tobacco use variables, explained 83% of the variance in intention to smoke a waterpipe in the next 3 months. This study provides valuable information that may be used to target students at risk for waterpipe smoking and serves as a starting point in developing theoretically driven interventions to prevent waterpipe smoking. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  4. Assessment of the influence of direct tobacco smoke on infection and active TB management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altet, Neus; Latorre, Irene; Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Maldonado, José; Molina, Israel; González-Díaz, Yoel; Milà, Celia; García-García, Esther; Muriel, Beatriz; Villar-Hernández, Raquel; Laabei, Maisem; Gómez, Andromeda-Celeste; Godoy, Pere; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Solano, Segismundo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Domínguez, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease progression. Tobacco smoking increases susceptibility to TB in a variety of ways, one of which is due to a reduction of the IFN-γ response. Consequently, an impaired immune response could affect performance of IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). In the present study, we assess the impact of direct tobacco smoking on radiological manifestations, sputum conversion and immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, analyzing IFN-γ secretion by IGRAs. A total of 525 participants were studied: (i) 175 active pulmonary TB patients and (ii) 350 individuals coming from contact tracing studies, 41 of whom were secondary TB cases. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. T-SPOT.TB and QFN-G-IT were processed according manufacturer's instructions. In smoking patients with active TB, QFN-G-IT (34.4%) and T-SPOT.TB (19.5%) had high frequencies of negative results. In addition, by means of an unconditional logistic regression, smoking was a main factor associated with IGRAs' false-negative results (aOR: 3.35; 95%CI:1.47-7.61; pTB presented a high probability of having cavitary lesions (aOR: 1.88; 95%CI:1.02-3.46;pTB infection (LTBI) was favored in smoking contacts, being a risk factor associated with infection (aOR: 11.57; 95%CI:5.97-22.41; pTB due to a weakened IFN-γ response caused by direct tobacco smoke.

  5. Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-07-11

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  6. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%. Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  7. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  8. An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated with naturalistic psychedelic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Johnson, Patrick S; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Data suggest psychedelics such as psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of addictions, including tobacco dependence. This retrospective cross-sectional anonymous online survey characterized 358 individuals (52 females) who reported having quit or reduced smoking after ingesting a psychedelic in a non-laboratory setting ⩾1 year ago. On average, participants smoked 14 cigarettes/day for 8 years, and had five previous quit attempts before their psychedelic experience. Of the 358 participants, 38% reported continuous smoking cessation after psychedelic use (quitters). Among quitters, 74% reported >2 years' abstinence. Of the 358 participants, 28% reported a persisting reduction in smoking (reducers), from a mode of 300 cigarettes/month before, to a mode of 1 cigarette/month after the experience. Among reducers, 62% reported >2 years of reduced smoking. Finally, 34% of the 358 participants (relapsers) reported a temporary smoking reduction before returning to baseline smoking levels, with a mode time range to relapse of 3-6 months. Relapsers rated their psychedelic experience significantly lower in personal meaning and spiritual significance than both other groups. Participants across all groups reported less severe affective withdrawal symptoms (e.g. depression, craving) after psychedelic use compared with previous quit attempts, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for psychedelic-associated smoking cessation/reduction. Changes in life priorities/values were endorsed as the most important psychological factor associated with smoking cessation/reduction. Results suggest psychedelics may hold promise in treating tobacco addiction as potentially mediated by spiritual experience, changed priorities/values, and improved emotional regulation.

  9. Pathophysiology of tobacco smoke exposure: recent insights from comparative and redox proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Graziano; Clerici, Marco; Giustarini, Daniela; Portinaro, Nicola M; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    First-hand and second-hand tobacco smoke are causally linked to a huge number of deaths and are responsible for a broad spectrum of pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases as well as adverse effects on female reproductive function. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of different chemical species, which exert their negative effects on macromolecules and biochemical pathways, both directly and indirectly. Many compounds can act as oxidants, pro-inflammatory agents, carcinogens, or a combination of these. The redox behavior of cigarette smoke has many implications for smoke related diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (both radicals and non-radicals), reactive carbonyl compounds, and other species may induce oxidative damage in almost all the biological macromolecules, compromising their structure and/or function. Different quantitative and redox proteomic approaches have been applied in vitro and in vivo to evaluate, respectively, changes in protein expression and specific oxidative protein modifications induced by exposure to cigarette smoke and are overviewed in this review. Many gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques have already been used successfully to obtain clues about smoke effects on different proteins in cell cultures, animal models, and humans. The further implementation with other sensitive screening techniques could be useful to integrate the comprehension of cigarette smoke effects on human health. In particular, the redox proteomic approach may also help identify biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke useful for preventing these effects or potentially predictive of the onset and/or progression of smoking-induced diseases as well as potential targets for therapeutic strategies.

  10. A latent modeling approach to genotype-phenotype relationships: maternal problem behavior clusters, prenatal smoking, and MAOA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, L M; Mustanski, B; Metzger, A; Pine, D S; Kistner-Griffin, E; Cook, E; Wakschlag, L S

    2012-08-01

    This study illustrates the application of a latent modeling approach to genotype-phenotype relationships and gene × environment interactions, using a novel, multidimensional model of adult female problem behavior, including maternal prenatal smoking. The gene of interest is the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene which has been well studied in relation to antisocial behavior. Participants were adult women (N = 192) who were sampled from a prospective pregnancy cohort of non-Hispanic, white individuals recruited from a neighborhood health clinic. Structural equation modeling was used to model a female problem behavior phenotype, which included conduct problems, substance use, impulsive-sensation seeking, interpersonal aggression, and prenatal smoking. All of the female problem behavior dimensions clustered together strongly, with the exception of prenatal smoking. A main effect of MAOA genotype and a MAOA × physical maltreatment interaction were detected with the Conduct Problems factor. Our phenotypic model showed that prenatal smoking is not simply a marker of other maternal problem behaviors. The risk variant in the MAOA main effect and interaction analyses was the high activity MAOA genotype, which is discrepant from consensus findings in male samples. This result contributes to an emerging literature on sex-specific interaction effects for MAOA.

  11. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K; Ballout, Rami A; Akl, Elie A

    2016-05-11

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand -1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes.

  12. Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis

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    David Boisclair

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.

  13. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories-premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Analysis of 2001-08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for.