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Sample records for prenatal stress ps

  1. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  2. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  3. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  4. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  5. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... and neurotransmitter function of glutamate, pregnant rats were subjected to restrain stress during the last week of gestation. Brains of the adult offspring were used to assess glutamate metabolism, uptake and release as well as expression of glutamate receptors and transporters. While glutamate metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  6. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  7. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  9. Prenatal stress reduces postnatal neurogenesis in rats selectively bred for high, but not low, anxiety: Possible key role of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Lucassen; O.J. Bosch; E. Jousma; S.A. Krömer; R. Andrew; J.R. Seckl; I.D. Neumann

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) produces persistent abnormalities in anxiety-related behaviors, stress responsivity, susceptibility to psychopathology and hippocampal changes in adult offspring. The hippocampus shows a remarkable degree of structural plasticity, notably in response to stress and glucocorticoid

  10. Chronic prenatal stress exacerbates learning and memory impairments in adult male APPswe/PS1 dE9 offspring mice who also suffer chronic stress%产前应激加剧慢性子代应激诱导的子鼠学习记忆能力损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐伟; 王正玉; 程娟; 韩振敏; 姚余有

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether chronic prenatal stress could exacerbate learning and memory impair-ments in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice who also suffer chronic stress, and if so, what the un-derlying mechanism is. Methods There were four groups: the prenatal control-offspring control group ( CC group), the prenatal control-chronic offspring stress group (CT group), the chronic prenatal stress-offspring control group ( TC group) , and the chronic prenatal stress-chronic offspring stress group ( TT group) . Morris water maze was used to investigate learning and memory impairments in mice, and the histopathologic changes in CA3 field of the hippocampus ( HE stain and Congo red stain) in hippocampus were examined under a light microscope. Fur-thermore, western blot was used to observe the expression levels of amyloid precursor protein ( APP) ,β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-βprotein (Aβ42) in hippocampus. Additionally, we also used ELISA to examine the serum levels of corticosterone in the offspring mice. Results Compared with the CC group, the results showed that CT group mice had more escape latency and swimming distance ( P  和游泳距离延长(P<0.05),平台象限游泳时间和穿越平台次数减少(P<0.05);海马CA3区损伤的神经元数目明显增加(P<0.05),排列疏松紊乱,脱失现象明显,核固缩、浓染;脑组织淀粉样斑块数目增多;海马组织APP、BACE1和Aβ42的表达量升高( P <0.05);血清皮质酮浓度升高(P<0.05)。与CT组相比, TT组小鼠的逃避潜伏期和游泳距离进一步延长(P<0.05),平台象限游泳时间和穿越平台次数进一步减少( P <0.05);脑组织淀粉样斑块和海马CA3区损伤的神经元数目进一步增加(P<0.05);海马组织APP、BACE1和Aβ42的表达量和血清皮质酮浓度进一步升高(P<0.05)。结论产前应激进一步加剧慢性应激所致的子鼠学习记忆损伤,其机制可能

  11. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  12. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  13. Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical lateralization, as indicated by mixed-handedness, has been related to diverse psychopathologies. Maternal prenatal stress has recently been associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In the present study, this relationship was investigated further in a prospective, methodologically

  14. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and had greater circulating serum concentrations of cortisol than control calves.

  15. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  16. Prenatal stress decreases spatial learning and memory retrieval of the adult male offspring of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Fatemeh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarboluki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-04-22

    Early life or prenatal stress induces many lifelong, mostly cognitive, homeostatic alterations in the behavior of the offspring. We investigated the effect of heterogeneous sequential stress (HSS) at three separate periods, before and during the first and second half of pregnancies on spatial learning and memory retrieval of adult male offspring. HSS is composed of several stressors, each in a day, during nine consecutive days including; restraint, swimming, isolation, and water and food deprivation on Wistar rats. The offspring were studied in a Morris water maze (MWM) apparatus to explore the latency, distance, proximity and target to opposite area as measures of learning and memory. Serum corticosterone was measured as a criterion of stress application. HSS increased blood corticosterone in dams of PS2 (Pregnancy Stress second half), and also in adult male offspring from BPS (Before Pregnancy Stress) and PS1 (Pregnancy Stress first half) groups. The weight of the offspring decreased in the PS1 and PS2 groups. While distance traveled and latency to locate the hidden platform were increased in BPS and PS1 acquisition trials, swimming speed was unchanged during the acquisition and retrieval tests. Moreover, time to platform location was increased in BPS and PS1 during retention tests. While control rats spent more time in the target quadrant, stressed animals spent a longer duration in the opposite quadrant. Furthermore, proximity measure was increased in all stress treated rats. It is concluded that prenatal stress, around the beginning of the pregnancy, increases corticosterone in adult male offspring, which might be the basis for spatial learning and memory retrieval deficits in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal stress induces depressive-like behavior in a sex-specific manner; impact of familiar versus novel environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    Stress, including prenatal maternal stress, increases affective disorder morbidity. Furthermore, women appear twice as likely as men to develop stress- and depression-related disorders. Some of the behaviors associated with depression are also found in rat offspring following maternal prenatal...... stress (PS) incl. increased helplessness and altered anxiety response. Our purpose was to investigate behavioral depression indices following PS and potential differences between male and female offspring. To this end, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repeated variable stress on days 13...... plus maze, EPM), and sleep behavior (via EEG recordings) was assessed in male and female offspring. In addition, half of PS and control animals, respectively, were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Weight gain during the last part of the pregnancy was significantly reduced...

  18. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  19. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring...

  20. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  1. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  2. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-02-25

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to a mild chronic variable stress on body weight, preweaning mortality and rat behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Early stimulation has been shown to produce long-lasting effects in many species. Prenatal exposure to some strong stressors may affect development of the nervous system leading to behavioral impairment in adult life. The purpose of the present work was to study the postnatal harmful effects of exposure to variable mild stresses in rats during pregnancy. Female Holtzman rats were submitted daily to one session of a chronic variable stress (CVS during pregnancy (prenatal stress; PS group. Control pregnant rats (C group were undisturbed. The pups of PS and C dams were weighed and separated into two groups 48 h after delivery. One group was maintained with their own dams (PS group, N = 70; C group, N = 36 while the other PS pups were cross-fostered with C dams (PSF group, N = 47 and the other C pups were cross-fostered with PS dams (CF group, N = 58. Pups were undisturbed until weaning (postnatal day 28. The male offspring underwent motor activity tests (day 28, enriched environment tests (day 37 and social interaction tests (day 42 in an animal activity monitor. Body weight was recorded on days 2, 28 and 60. The PS pups showed lower birth weight than C pups (Duncan's test, P<0.05. The PS pups suckling with their stressed mothers displayed greater preweaning mortality (C: 23%, PS: 60%; c2 test, P<0.05 and lower body weight than controls at days 28 and 60 (Duncan's test, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. The PS, PSF and CF groups showed lower motor activity scores than controls when tested at day 28 (Duncan's test, P<0.01 for PS group and P<0.05 for CF and PSF groups. In the enriched environment test performed on day 37, between-group differences in total motor activity were not detected; however, the PS, CF and PSF groups displayed less exploration time than controls (Duncan's test, P<0.05. Only the PS group showed impaired motor activity and impaired social behavior at day 42 (Duncan's test, P<0.05. In fact, CVS treatment during gestation plus

  4. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  5. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Scheinost

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  6. Effects of prenatal stress on lever-press acquisition with delayed reinforcement in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Salm, A K; Anderson, Karen G

    2012-03-01

    The prenatally stressed (PS) rat shows enhanced conditioned fear and increased behavioral inhibition in response to footshock compared to control (CON) rats. It is unclear whether this facilitated learning will occur only with aversive stimulation, or if it will also be observed in the context of positive reinforcement. There are limited and inconsistent data regarding sex differences and the impact of prenatal stress on learning. The present study was designed to examine lever-press acquisition with a 10-s delay to food reinforcement in male and female PS and CON rats. Overall, twice as many PS male rats acquired the lever-press response than the PS female rats, CON male rats, and CON female rats. PS male rats also earned significantly more reinforcers and responded on the operative lever at a significantly greater rate than the other three rat groups. These findings suggest that PS rats exhibit altered learning with a task involving positive reinforcement, and this effect of PS is sex specific for male rats.

  7. The Relationship between Prenatal Parental Stress and Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihardt, Joanne E.

    To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…

  8. Prenatal stress and its effect on infant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation the effect of prenatal maternal stress on infant development and behavior is discussed. In a prospective longitudinal study of 170 nulliparous women, data was gatheren on the maternal stress level three times during pregnancy by means of questionnaires and endocrinologic

  9. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  10. Cocaine enhances resistance to extinction of responding for brain-stimulation reward in adult prenatally stressed rats.

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    Gao, Shuibo; Suenaga, Toshiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yukie, Masao; Nakahara, Daiichiro

    2011-10-01

    The present experiment assessed whether prenatal stress (PS) can alter the ability of acute and chronic cocaine administration to increase and decrease the rewarding effectiveness of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), and also whether PS can affect the extinction of the MFB stimulation response. Adult male offspring of female rats that received PS or no PS (nPS) were implanted with MFB stimulating electrodes, and were then tested in ICSS paradigms. In both nPS and PS offspring, acute cocaine injection decreased ICSS thresholds dose-dependently. However, the threshold-lowering effects at any dose were not significantly different between groups. There was also no group-difference in the threshold-elevating effects of chronic cocaine administration. Nevertheless, chronically drug-administered PS rats exhibited a resistance to the extinguishing of the response for brain-stimulation reward when acutely treated with cocaine, as compared to extinction without cocaine treatment. The results suggest that PS may weaken the ability for response inhibition under cocaine loading in male adult offspring.

  11. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  12. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  13. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  14. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  15. Prenatal stress in birds : Pathways, effects, function and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although most work on prenatal stress has been conducted on mammalian species, birds provide useful alternative models since avian embryos develop outside the mother's body in a concealed environment, the egg, which is produced during a short time window of 4-14 days. This facilitates measurement of

  16. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  17. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal st

  18. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  19. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  20. The Effects of Sertraline administration from adolescence to adulthood on physiological and emotional development in prenatally stressed rats of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês ePereira-Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline is a clinically effective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor known to increase and stabilize serotonin levels. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in adolescent brain development in both rodents and humans, and its dysregulation has been correlated with deficits in behaviour and emotional regulation. Since prenatal stress may disturb serotoninergic homeostasis, the aim of this study was to examine the long-lasting effects of exposure to sertraline throughout adolescence on behavioural and physiological developmental parameters in prenatally stressed Wistar rats. Sertraline was administered (5mg/kg/day p.o. from the age of 1-3 months to half of the progeny, of both sexes, of gestating dams stressed by use of a restraint (PS or not stressed. Our data reveal that long-term sertraline treatment slightly reduced weight gain in both sexes, but reversed the developmental disturbed ‘catch-up’ growth found in PS females.Neither prenatal stress nor Sertraline treatment induced remarkable alterations in behaviour and had no effects on mean startle reflex values. However, a sex-dependent effects of PS was found: in males the PS paradigm slightly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the open field, while in females, it impaired startle habituation. In both cases, sertraline treatment reversed the phenomena. Additionally, the PS animals exhibited a disturbed leukocyte profile in both sexes, which was reversed by sertraline.The present findings are evidence that continuous sertraline administration from adolescence through adulthood is safe in rodents and lessens the impact of prenatal stress in rats.

  1. Can prenatal maternal stress increase the risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress adversely affects a mother's well-being and health and also negatively impacts her offspring. That this relationship also holds true for maternal stress during the pregnancy period is intuitive. However, whether maternal stress increases the risk of asthma development in her offspring is less clear and will be evaluated in this review. There is evidence from murine models to suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the offspring. While recent experimental research adds to the increasing body of evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal maternal stress and asthma risk in the offspring, the epidemiological evidence supporting this notion is insufficient. Almost all existing observational studies suffer from severe methodological limitations. Nevertheless, the results from experimental work on maternal stress during pregnancy and asthma risk in the offspring, in concert with other obvious adverse health effects in the offspring are sufficient to justify a recommendation to reduce maternal stressors, particularly during pregnancy.

  2. [Study of long-lasting effects of acute prenatal stress induced forced swimming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodina, M A; Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaia, N G; Kamenskiĭ, A A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess long-lasting effects of acute prenatal stress in white rats. Forced swimming in cold water on the 7th or the 14th gestational day was used as a prenatal stressor. The prenatal stress led to low birthweight of offspring and their delayed growth rate during the second month of life. Prenatally stressed animals showed abnormalities in exploratory behavior and anxiety, increased emotionality and impaired learning capabilities at the age of 1-2 month. Consequently, acute stress on the 7th and at the 14th day of pregnancy induced long-lasting negative behavioral changes in offspring of stressed white rats.

  3. Effects of perinatal diet and prenatal stress on the behavioural profile of aged male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier; Ramírez, María J

    2017-03-01

    The present work studies whether chronic prenatal stress (PS) influences the long-term sex-dependent neuropsychological status of offspring and the effects of an early dietary intervention in the dam. In addition, dams were fed with either a high-fat sugar diet (HFSD) or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDSD). PS procedure did not affect body weight of the offspring. MDSD induced decreases in body weight both in male and female offspring (1 month) that were still present in aged rats. HFSD induced an increase in body weight both in male and female offspring that did not persist in aged rats. In the Porsolt forced swimming test, only young males showed increases in immobility time that were reversed by MDSD. In old female rats (20 months), PS-induced cognitive impairment in both the novel object recognition test (NORT) and in the Morris water maze that was reversed by MDSD, whereas in old males, cognitive impairments and reversion by MDSD was evident only in the Morris water maze. HFSD induced cognitive impairment in both control and PS old rats, but there was no additive effect of PS and HFSD. It is proposed here that the diversity of symptoms following PS could arise from programming effects in early brain development and that these effects could be modified by dietary intake of the dam.

  4. Delays in GABAergic interneuron development and behavioral inhibition after prenatal stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, Stephanie J; Stevens, Hanna E

    2016-01-01

    .... Prenatal stress delays GABAergic progenitor migration, but the significance of these early developmental disruptions for the continued development of GABAergic cells in the juvenile brain is unclear...

  5. Chronic Stress Contributes to Cognitive Dysfunction and Hippocampal Metabolic Abnormalities in APP/PS1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Stress response is determined by the brain, and the brain is a sensitive target for stress. Our previous experiments have confirmed that once the stress response is beyond the tolerable limit of the brain, particularly that of the hippocampus, it will have deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function; however, the metabolic mechanisms for this are not well understood. Methods: Here, we used morris water maze, elisa and gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry to observe the changes in cognition, neuropathology and metabolomics in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (C57 mice caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS, we also further explored the correlation between cognition and metabolomics. Results: We found that 4 weeks of CUMS aggravated cognitive impairment and increased amyloid-β deposition in APP/PS1 mice, but did not affect C57 mice. Under non-stress conditions, compared with C57 mice, there were 8 different metabolites in APP/PS1 mice. However, following CUMS, 3 different metabolites were changed compared with untreated C57 mice. Compared to APP/PS1 mice, there were 7 different metabolites in APP/PS1+CUMS mice. Among these alterations, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, valine, serine, beta-alanine and o-phosphorylethanolamine, which are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion: The results indicate that APP/PS1 mice are more vulnerable to stress than C57 mice, and the metabolic mechanisms of stress-related cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice are related to multiple pathways and networks, including sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism.

  6. Chronic Stress Contributes to Cognitive Dysfunction and Hippocampal Metabolic Abnormalities in APP/PS1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Wang, Jin-Hua; Geng, Yuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Hua-Long; Wang, Yan-Yong; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Stress response is determined by the brain, and the brain is a sensitive target for stress. Our previous experiments have confirmed that once the stress response is beyond the tolerable limit of the brain, particularly that of the hippocampus, it will have deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function; however, the metabolic mechanisms for this are not well understood. Here, we used morris water maze, elisa and gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry to observe the changes in cognition, neuropathology and metabolomics in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (C57) mice caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), we also further explored the correlation between cognition and metabolomics. We found that 4 weeks of CUMS aggravated cognitive impairment and increased amyloid-β deposition in APP/PS1 mice, but did not affect C57 mice. Under non-stress conditions, compared with C57 mice, there were 8 different metabolites in APP/PS1 mice. However, following CUMS, 3 different metabolites were changed compared with untreated C57 mice. Compared to APP/PS1 mice, there were 7 different metabolites in APP/PS1+CUMS mice. Among these alterations, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, valine, serine, beta-alanine and o-phosphorylethanolamine, which are involved in sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. The results indicate that APP/PS1 mice are more vulnerable to stress than C57 mice, and the metabolic mechanisms of stress-related cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice are related to multiple pathways and networks, including sphingolipid metabolism, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and amino acid metabolism. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Prenatal stress increased Snk Polo-like kinase 2, SCF β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase and ubiquitination of SPAR in the hippocampus of the offspring at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutabhakdikul, Naunchan; Surakul, Pornprom

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to excessive glucocorticoids during fetal development period contributes to later life psychopathology. Prenatal stress decreases dendritic spine density and impair LTP in the hippocampus of rat pups, however, the mechanisms regulating these changes are still unclear. Glutamate receptors are localized in the postsynaptic density. PSD-95 is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein that plays a role in synaptic maturation and regulation of the synaptic strength and plasticity. PSD-95 interacts with other proteins to form the protein networks that promote dendritic spine formation. The present study investigated the effect of prenatal stress on the levels of scaffolding proteins of NMDA receptor in the hippocampus in order to explain how prenatal stress alters the amount of NMDA receptor in the pups' brain. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to either the prenatal stress (PS) or the control group (C). The pregnant rats in the PS group were restrained in a plexiglas restrainer for 4h/day during the GD 14-21. Control rats were left undisturbed for the duration of their pregnancies. The amount of PSD-95, SPAR, NR2A and NR2B, as well as the levels of Snk Polo-like kinase 2 and the SCF β-TrCP ubiquitin ligase were measured in the hippocampus of the offspring. The results show that prenatal stress induces a reduction in the amount of NR2B and NR2A subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups, parallel to the decrease in PSD-95 and SPAR at P40 and P60. Moreover, prenatal stress increases Snk and β-TrCP in the hippocampus of rat pups, and the timing correlates with the decrease of SPAR and PSD-95. Prenatal stress also induces a significantly increases in the level of ubiquitinated SPAR in the hippocampus of rat pups at adulthood. The results suggest that degradation of SPAR via UPS system may contribute to the loss of PSD-95 and NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at adulthood. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the developing brain is

  8. Sleep Changes in a Rat Prenatal Stress Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoven, Christian; Sickman, Helle M.; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    Major depression is one of the most frequently occurring mental health disorders, but is characterized by diverse symptomatology. Sleep disturbances, however, are commonplace in depressive patients. These alterations include increased duration of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) and increased sleep...... fragmentation. Stressful life events during the second trimester of human pregnancy increase the risk of depression in the offspring. Similarly, rodents exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) during gestation express depression- like behavioral changes. Accordingly, we investigated sleep changes in a rat PNS model...... of depression, to elucidate whether these are similar to those seen in clinical depression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to repeated variable stress during gestational days 13-21. The young adult offspring were surgically implanted with electrodes for subsequent electroencephalographic...

  9. Prenatal Stress Induced Gender-specific Alterations of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit Expression and Response to Aβ in Offspring Hippocampal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Li, Hui; Chang, Lirong; Song, Yizhi; Ma, Longhui; Lu, Liying; Du, Zunshu; Li, Yan; Liu, Jinping; Wu, Yan

    2017-08-27

    Prenatal stress (PS) is one of adverse life events during pregnancy, which may increase vulnerability to cognitive impairment in adult offspring. Aβ synaptotoxicity is one important pathological factor for cognitive impairment, and PS-induced cognitive disorder is closely associated with N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which acts as a key mediator of Aβ synaptotoxicity. In the present study, we tried to explore whether PS affects offspring's Aβ levels and NMDAR subunit expression in a gender-specific manner in hippocampal CA and DG subregions, and whether PS affects synaptic proteins and NMDAR subunit expression in cultured offspring hippocampal cells exposed to Aβ. Pregnant SD rats with restraint stress from gestation day 8 to 20 were used as PS model. Morris water maze, ELISA, immunofluorescence and western blot were tested on postnatal day 90 in male and female PS offspring. Our results showed that female offspring is more vulnerable to PS-induced cognitive impairment. Surprisingly, PS enhanced Aβ1-40 levels in the hippocampal DG subregion of male offspring. Furthermore, WB results implied that the decreased GluN2A in CA of female may contribute to the PS-induced cognitive impairment, while in DG, the increased GluN2A and decreased GluN2B contributed to protective effects against Aβ. Interestingly, we found PS could alleviate Aβ synaptotoxicity in male offspring's hippocampal cells. Overall, our results provided a fundamental understanding of PS-induced gender-specific alterations of NMDAR subunit expression and the susceptibility to Aβ, and paved the road for the development of timely preventive interventions on cognitive disorders of PS offspring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Relationship of prenatal transportation stress with postnatal temperament of Brahman calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress resulting from repeated transportation during gestation has been shown to increase postnatal adrenal responsiveness of calves to a stressor. The objective of the current experiment was to examine the relationship between prenatal stress and gestation length, calf birth weight, and su...

  11. Prenatal stress influences the insulin response to a glucose challenge in yearling Brahman heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of prenatal stress on postnatal glucose metabolism was studied in progeny of cows that did or did not experience a transportation event during gestation. Specifically, 12 prenatally stressed (dams transported for 2 hours on days 40, 60, 80, 120, and 140 of gestation) and 12 Control yearli...

  12. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age....

  13. The elite and stochastic model for iPS cell generation: multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are readily reprogrammable into iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Dezawa, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal of attention, although the mechanism by which they are generated is still not fully understood. Currently, two theories, the stochastic and elite models, have been proposed. Some reports provide theoretical support for the stochastic model. Other reports, however, support the elite model. For example, some human fibroblasts, such as Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are reported to be pluripotent and a primary source of iPS cells. Thus, the mechanism of iPS cell generation continues to be debated. In this review, we discuss the properties of the original cell source, such as the components of the original populations and the potential of each population to become iPS cells, and further discuss the implications of the two theories for iPS cell research.

  14. Long-term effects of prenatal stress : Changes in adult cardiovascular regulation and sensitivity to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastorci, Francesca; Vicentini, Massimo; Viltart, Odile; Manghi, Massimo; Graiani, Gallia; Quaini, Federico; Meerlo, Peter; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Maccari, Stefania; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal environment exerts profound influences on the development of an organism and stressful events during pregnancy can bring about long-term physiological/behavioral alterations in the offspring. Epidemiological evidence points to a relationship between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), b

  15. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  16. Effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and human development: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that prenatal stress can have significant effects on pregnancy, maternal health and human development across the lifespan. These effects may occur directly through the influence of prenatal stress-related physiological changes on the developing fetus, or indirectly through the effects of prenatal stress on maternal health and pregnancy outcome which, in turn, affect infant health and development. Animal and human studies suggest that activation of the maternal stress response and resulting changes in endocrine and inflammatory activity play a role in the aetiology of these effects. Ongoing research is focusing on clarifying these mechanisms, understanding the role of racial and cultural factors in these effects, and examining the epigenetic and transgenerational influences of prenatal stress. PMID:27757157

  17. Chronic Mild Prenatal Stress Exacerbates the Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. Nogueira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic mild prenatal stress on leukocyte infiltration into the airways was investigated in rat offspring. The chronic prenatal stress consisted of transitory and variable changes in the rat's living conditions. Offspring at adult age were actively sensitized (day 0 and intratracheally challenged (day 14 with ovalbumin. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in the offspring at 48 h after intratracheal challenge with ovalbumin. A significant increase in total leukocyte infiltration was observed in the nonstressed offspring group and this was associated with a marked recruitment of eosinophils without a significant effect on the influx of neutrophils and mononuclear cells. In the prenatal stressed offspring, the counts of both total leukocyte and eosinophils, as well as mononuclear cells, was increased by 50% compared to the non-stressed offspring. We provide here the first experimental evidence that chronic mild unpredictable prenatal stress produces a marked increase in the allergen-induced airway inflammation in the rat offspring.

  18. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  20. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  1. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  2. Puerarin alleviates cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Xie, Ning; Li, Libo; Zou, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojie; Dong, Miaoxian

    2014-04-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, there is interest in developing antioxidant therapies for the prevention/treatment of cognitive decline during AD. We reported previously that puerarin has antioxidative properties in vitro. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether puerarin improves cognitive function and reduces oxidative stress in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) mice, a well established AD mouse model, and explore its potential mechanism. Our results show that oral administration of puerarin significantly ameliorates cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) through, at least in part, induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) target gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice at 9 months of age, but without altering brain Aβ burden. Furthermore, puerarin significantly activated Akt, reduced activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice but did not alter ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Thus, puerarin may improve cognitive performance in APP/PS1 mice through activation of the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. These findings suggest that puerarin might be an attractive agent for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  3. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  4. Factors Associated With High Levels of Perceived Prenatal Stress Among Inner-City Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra L; Heaman, Maureen I

    2016-01-01

    To explore the factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress among inner-city women. Observational cross-sectional study. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 603 inner-city women. In our study, 330 participants (54.7%) self-identified as First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis. Prenatal stress was measured with Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. A social ecological model provided the theoretical framework for the study, and variables representing all levels of the model were selected for study. Data analyses included t tests to compare women with high stress and low/moderate stress, univariable logistic regression analysis to determine the association of selected factors with maternal stress, and multivariable logistic regression analysis to provide adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the factors. Of the 603 participants, 17.2% (104) reported high levels of perceived stress, and 82.8% (499) reported low/moderate levels. The high-stress group included a significantly greater proportion of First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis women (76.0%) than the low/moderate-stress group (50.3%). Low rates of self-esteem and social support, residential mobility, abuse before/during pregnancy, and experiencing discrimination were significantly associated with high levels of perceived prenatal stress. Our findings demonstrated that factors that influence prenatal stress occur at all levels of the social ecological model. The identified factors are amenable to change, and implications for practice include the need for psychosocial risk assessment, alternative forms of prenatal care, relational care, and advocacy initiatives. A greater understanding of the complex factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress can inform the development of effective interventions for inner-city women. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Prenatal stress and gender role behavior in girls and boys: a longitudinal, population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Johnston, Katie J; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2002-09-01

    Prenatal stress influences neural and behavioral sexual differentiation in rodents. Male offspring of stressed pregnancies show reduced masculine-typical characteristics and increased feminine-typical characteristics, whereas female offspring show the opposite pattern, reduced feminine-typical and increased masculine-typical characteristics. These outcomes resemble those seen following manipulations of gonadal hormones and are thought to occur because stress influences these hormones during critical periods of development. Research on prenatal stress and human sexual differentiation has produced inconsistent results, perhaps because studies have used small samples and assessed prenatal stress retrospectively. We related maternal self-reports of prenatal stress to childhood gender role behavior in a prospective, population study of 13,998 pregnancies resulting in 14,138 offspring. Neither stress reported during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy nor stress reported from week 19 of pregnancy to week 8 postnatal related to gender role behavior in male offspring at the age of 42 months. In female offspring, maternal reports of stress during both periods showed only small correlations with masculine-typical behavior. Although this relationship remained significant when other factors that related to stress were controlled, these other factors made larger contributions to girls' gender role behavior than did prenatal stress. In addition, in both boys and girls, older male or female siblings, parental adherence to traditional sex roles, maternal use of tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy, and maternal education all related significantly to gender role behavior. Our results suggest that prenatal stress does not influence the development of gender role behavior in boys and appears to have relatively little, if any, influence on gender role behavior in girls.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of the Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Indicates Sensing of the Plant Environment and Drought Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Rattei, Thomas; Sessitsch, Angela; Trognitz, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is widely accepted that bacterial endophytes actively colonize plants, interact with their host, and frequently show beneficial effects on plant growth and health. However, the mechanisms of plant-endophyte communication and bacterial adaption to the plant environment are still poorly understood. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing of B. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants was used to analyze in planta gene activity and the response of strain PsJN to plant stress. The transcriptome of PsJN colonizing in vitro potato plants showed a broad array of functionalities encoded in the genome of strain PsJN. Transcripts upregulated in response to plant drought stress were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular homeostasis, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, indicating an oxidative stress response in PsJN. Genes with modulated expression included genes for extracytoplasmatic function (ECF) group IV sigma factors. These cell surface signaling elements allow bacteria to sense changing environmental conditions and to adjust their metabolism accordingly. TaqMan quantitative PCR (TaqMan-qPCR) was performed to identify ECF sigma factors in PsJN that were activated in response to plant stress. Six ECF sigma factor genes were expressed in PsJN colonizing potato plants. The expression of one ECF sigma factor was upregulated whereas that of another one was downregulated in a plant genotype-specific manner when the plants were stressed. Collectively, our study results indicate that endophytic B. phytofirmans PsJN cells are active inside plants. Moreover, the activity of strain PsJN is affected by plant drought stress; it senses plant stress signals and adjusts its gene expression accordingly. PMID:26350963

  7. Influence of environmental enrichment on hippocampal synapses in adolescent offspring of mothers exposed to prenatal stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaojin Peng; Xiaohong Jian; Lihua Liu; Jianbin Tong; Deliang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Environmental enrichment attenuates hippocampal synaptic injury induced by prenatal stress in offspring.However, the influence of hippocampal synaptic changes and regional differences in prenatal stress remains poorly understood.The present study induced stress in Sprague Dawley rats, which were at gestational age 13 19 days.Following weaning, the offspring were raised in an enriched environment to establish models of stress+enriched environment.Dendritic spine density and synaptophysin expression were detected in hippocampal neurons using Golgi staining and western blot analysis, respectively.Results showed that enriched environment increased dendritic spine density of apical dendrites in CA1 pyramidal cells and basal dendrites of granular cells in the outer layer of the dentate gyrus.In addition, hippocampal synaptophysin expression increased and the effects of prenatal stress on neuronal dendritic spines were reversed in adolescence.

  8. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  9. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  10. [Influence of prenatal hospitalization on parental stressful experience in the case of a premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisod-Harari, M; Borghini, A; Hohlfeld, P; Forcada-Guex, M; Muller-Nix, C

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the influence of prenatal hospitalization before a premature birth, on the parental stressful experience, parental symptoms of post-traumatic stress and quality of parent-infant interaction during the hospitalization in neonatology. 51 preterm infants born and 25 full term infants control. Four groups: controls, premature without prenatal hospitalization, premature with a short (premature with a long (≥ 8 days) prenatal hospitalization. the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (PSS: NICU, Miles et al., 1993 [14]) and the Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire (PPQ, Quinnell and Hynan, 1999 [16]). When prenatal hospitalization of the mother occurred, parents acknowledged increased stress induced by the environmental factors during the infant's hospitalization. Furthermore, mothers from the group with a short prenatal hospitalization presented significantly more symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Parents presenting more symptoms of post-traumatic stress describe a significantly more difficult interaction with their infant in neonatology. This study highlights the necessity to deliver special care to women hospitalized shortly (premature baby. This group is at high risk of presenting post-traumatic stress symptoms, which could have a negative impact on the quality of parent-infant interactions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  12. Influence of prenatal stress on insulin response to a glucose challenge in yearling Brahman bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that stressing cows during gestation (prenatal stress, PNS) would increase the insulin sensitivity of their progeny. Progeny of PNS cows subjected to transportation for 2 hour periods on days 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 of gestation were compared with progeny of nontransported controls ...

  13. Prenatal stress and children's cortisol reaction to the first day of school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been found to be related to over-activity and/or dysregulation of the HPA-system in the offspring. These effects are more readily apparent in response to novel situations. The aim of the present report was to examine whether pregnancy stress predicted HPA-axis reactions

  14. Prenatal stress and children’s cortisol reaction to the first day of school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been found to be related to over-activity and/or dysregulation of the HPA-system in the offspring. These effects are more readily apparent in response to novel situations. The aim of the present report was to examine whether pregnancy stress predicted HPA-axis reactions

  15. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal maternal psychological stress and childhood asthma and wheezing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, Kim F E; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Roukema, Jolt; Roeleveld, Nel; Merkus, Peter J F M; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyse observational studies on prenatal maternal psychological stress and the subsequent development of asthma and wheezing in early childhood.All available published literature from 1960 until November 2013 was systematically searched through electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and Web of Science). All observational studies assessing associations between any form of prenatal maternal psychological stress and respiratory morbidity in the child were included. Data extraction, quality assessment and meta-analyses were performed.The overall meta-analysis included 10 studies and showed that the prevalence of wheezing, asthma and other respiratory symptoms is higher in children of mothers who were exposed to or experienced some form of psychological stress during pregnancy than in mothers who did not (pooled OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.36-1.80)). Comparable results were observed in subgroup analyses of stress exposure, perceived stress, asthma and wheezing.This study demonstrates that prenatal maternal psychological stress is associated with respiratory morbidity, including asthma and wheezing in the child. Future studies examining the early origins of asthma and wheezing need to account for the impact of prenatal maternal stress.

  17. Prenatal stress perception and coping strategies: Insights from a longitudinal prospective pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, J; Kocalevent, R-D; Hansen, G; Rose, M; Becher, H; Hecher, K; Arck, P C; Diemert, A

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal distress has been linked to pregnancy complications and poor offspring's health, despite the fact that longitudinal assessments of various stress dimensions are still lacking. Hence, we aimed to assess perceived stress over the course of pregnancy. Moreover, we examined whether social support and coping styles are linked to prenatal stress trajectories. Data from 543 women participating in the PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children Health) study, a prospective population-based cohort study, was used for the present analyses. Once per trimester the women completed questionnaires regarding different psychometric measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Linear mixed regression models were used to examine perceived stress development longitudinally and to relate social support and coping styles to stress trajectories during pregnancy. A significant decrease of perceived stress was observed over the course of pregnancy. Stratifying the study sample according to parity, women delivering their first child had continuously lower perceived stress scores compared to women having already one or more children, and a significant decrease during pregnancy was exclusively observed in primiparous women. Both, positive coping strategies and higher perceived and received social support were independently associated with lower perceived stress, while evasive coping strategies were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Our study reveals stress perception trajectories during pregnancies in primi- and multiparous women. Our findings underscore the need for intervention strategies aiming to improve social support and positive coping strategies especially in multiparous women in order to reduce the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response...... function due to CMS were observed. In the present experimental setting, there was no indication of the two exposures potentiating each other with respect to adverse effects on the nervous system. However, the effects of prenatal CMS indicate that stress during fetal life may interfere with the development...

  19. Maternal serotonin transporter genotype affects risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Patrick M; Hudson, Melissa; Connors, Susan L; Tilley, Michael R; Liu, Xudong; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-11-01

    Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures to prenatal stress do not always result in ASD, suggesting that other factors may interact with environmental stressors to increase ASD risk. The present study examined a maternal genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) affecting stress tolerance and its interaction with the effect of environmental stressors on risk for ASD. Two independent cohorts of mothers of ASD children recruited by the University of Missouri and Queen's University were surveyed regarding the prenatal environment and genotyping on 5-HTTLPR was performed to explore this relationship. In both samples, mothers of children with ASD carrying the stress susceptible short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR experienced a greater number of stressors and greater stress severity when compared to mothers carrying the long allele variant. The temporal peak of stressors during gestation in these mothers was consistent with previous findings. Additionally, increased exposure to prenatal stress was not reported in the pregnancies of typically developing siblings from the same mothers, regardless of maternal genotype, suggesting against the possibility that the short allele might increase the recall of stress during pregnancy. The present study provides further evidence of a specific maternal polymorphism that may affect the risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1151-1160. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring.

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Homauni Afshari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have shown that prenatal stress affects development of fetal brain. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 16 male and 16 female Wistar rats in 2014. The rats were divided into four groups: male and female control groups, with natural pregnancy and two male and female treatment groups with exposure to combined stress (electromagnetic field, immobility and social stress in the second and third weeks of embryonic development. The learning was evaluated using shuttle box setup. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Findings: The prenatal combined stress caused decrease in the latency time to enter the dark chamber in male and female new born rats in post-training periods especially the second week compared to the control groups. Conclusion: With regards to the results, prenatal exposure to combined stress can reduce the memory retention of passive avoidance learning.

  2. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  4. [Free radical modification of proteins in brain structure of Sprague-Dawley rats and some behaviour indicators after prenatal stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    V'iushina, A V; Pritvorova, A V; Flerov, M A

    2012-08-01

    We studied the influence of late prenatal stress on free radical oxidation processes in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus proteins. It was shown that after prenatal stress most changes were observed in hypothalamus and hippocampus. It was shown that in hypothalamus spontaneous oxidation level increased, but level of induced oxidation decreased, the opposite changes were found in hippocampus. Simultaneously minor changes of protein modification were observed in cortex and striatum. It was shown that prenatal stress changed both correlation of proteins free radical oxidation in studied structures and values of these data regarding to control. In test of "open field" motor activity in rats after prenatal stress decreased and time of freezing and grooming increased; opposite, in T-labyrinth motor activity and time of grooming in rats after prenatal stress increased, but time of freezing decreased.

  5. Prenatal stress puzzle, the oxytocin piece: Prenatal stress alters the behaviour and autonomic regulation in piglets, insights from oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental changes in response to prenatal stressors (PNS) may represent an adaptive strategy to enhance survival traits in the offspring. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety, whereas OT deficiencies are...

  6. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Can Molecular Hippocampal Alterations Explain Behavioral Differences in Prenatally Stressed Rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in both humans and animals have shown that prenatal stress can alter cognitive function and other neurological behaviors in adult offspring. One possible underlying mechanism for this may lie with alterations in hippocampal gene expression. The present study examined geno...

  8. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  9. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  10. Prenatally stressed piglets 'shut down' in response to separation, oxytocin modulates some effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) effects may enhance offspring’s survival traits. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety while OT deficiency results in social behavior alteration. We hypothesized that PNS piglets would b...

  11. Effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety, spatial learning and serotonergic system of male offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Takemura, Kaori; Ohtani, Akiko; Shiga, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Environmental factors during perinatal period have various effects on behavior. The present study examined the effects of prenatal stress and neonatal handling on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring. Prenatal stress increased anxiety-related behavior of adult offspring, whereas neonatal handling had no effect. In contrast, spatial learning was not affected by prenatal stress, but improved by neonatal handling in both prenatally stressed and non-stressed mice. Next, to elucidate possible brain mechanisms mediating effects of environmental factors on behavior, we focused on serotonin (5-HT) system in the frontal cortex and hippocampus which is involved in anxiety and learning. We examined effects of environmental factors on the mRNA expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the frontal cortex and hippocampus during postnatal period and adulthood. Both prenatal stress and neonatal handling altered the mRNA expression of 5-HT receptors. These effects were dependent on environmental factors, brain regions and developmental stages. In summary, the present study revealed that prenatal stress and neonatal handling had differential effects on anxiety and spatial learning of offspring, and concomitantly the expression of 5-HT receptors. It was also shown that the effects of prenatal stress on 5-HT system were recovered partially by neonatal handling.

  12. Schizophrenia and reelin: a model based on prenatal stress to study epigenetics, brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Palacios-García, Ismael; Fuentealba, Pablo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2016-03-11

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in a significant disability for the patient. The disorder is characterized by impairment of the adaptive orchestration of actions, a cognitive function that is mainly dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This behavioral deficit, together with cellular and neurophysiological alterations in the prefrontal cortex, as well as reduced density of GABAergic cells and aberrant oscillatory activity, all indicate structural and functional deficits of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Among the several risk factors for the development of schizophrenia, stress during the prenatal period has been identified as crucial. Thus, it is proposed that prenatal stress induces neurodevelopmental alterations in the prefrontal cortex that are expressed as cognitive impairment observed in schizophrenia. However, the precise mechanisms that link prenatal stress with the impairment of prefrontal cortex function is largely unknown. Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the development of cortical neural connectivity at embryonic stages, and in synaptic plasticity at postnatal stages. Interestingly, down-regulation of reelin expression has been associated with epigenetic changes in the reelin gene of the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that, similar to schizophrenic patients, prenatal stress induces down-expression of reelin associated with the methylation of its promoter in the rodent prefrontal cortex. These alterations were paralleled with altered prefrontal cortex functional connectivity and impairment in prefrontal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks. Therefore, considering molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral evidence, we propose a unifying framework that links prenatal stress and prefrontal malfunction through epigenetic alterations of the reelin gene.

  13. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    children were in the unexposed group. All children were followed up from birth until their death, migration, onset of autism, or the end of 2006. Information on autism was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios in the exposed group...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  15. Enriched environment upregulates growthassociated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu Zhang; Hua Zhang; Baoling Du; Zhiqiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we reported that prenatal restraint stress could induce cognitive deficits, which correlated with a change in expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the hippocampus.In this study, we investigated the effects of enriched environment on cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay results revealed that growth-associated protein 43 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated on postnatal day 15 in the prenatal restraint stress group. Growth-associated protein 43 expression was significantly lower in the prenatal restraint stress group compared with the negative control and prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment groups on postnatal days 30 and 50. Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive abilities were noticeably increased in rats from the prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment group on postnatal day 50. These results indicate that enriched environment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring by upregulating growth-associated protein 43 expression.

  16. Chronic Stress Aggravates Cognitive Impairment and Suppresses Insulin Associated Signaling Pathway in APP/PS1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Yu, Lulu; Geng, Yuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Hualong; Wang, Yanyong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Mingwei

    2016-07-02

    Differences in brain function are a central determinant of individual variability in the stress response. Brain dysfunction, resulting from aging, illness, or genetic mutations, could reduce the tolerance of glucocorticoid stress hormones. When glucocorticoids exceed tolerable limits in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, this state can cause or aggravate structural or functional damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in APP/PS1 and control mice. We showed that 4 weeks of CUMS exposure increased the levels of glucocorticoids, reduced glucocorticoids receptor expression, and promoted senile plaque deposition, neuronal injury, and cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice compared to controls. The phosphorylation of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 and associated signaling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, ERK1/2, and PTEN) were decreased in hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice compared to control mice, while no changes were found in GSK3 and TSC2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, insulin and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways were further decreased in APP/PS1 mice after CUMS, which may be related to the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase JNK, while no alterations in the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2, GSK3, PTEN, or TSC2 were observed. These results suggest that chronic stress may affect the insulin and Akt/mTOR pathway, accelerating the progression of Alzheimer's disease in vulnerable individuals.

  17. Prenatal maternal stress and wheeze in children: novel insights into epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Saskia; Bieg, Matthias; Gu, Zuguang; Thürmann, Loreen; Bauer, Tobias; Bauer, Mario; Ishaque, Naveed; Röder, Stefan; Gu, Lei; Herberth, Gunda; Lawerenz, Christian; Borte, Michael; Schlesner, Matthias; Plass, Christoph; Diessl, Nicolle; Eszlinger, Markus; Mücke, Oliver; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Herrmann, Carl; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wright, Rosalind J; Lehmann, Irina; Eils, Roland

    2016-06-28

    Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs. These data were complemented by longitudinal targeted methylation and transcriptional analyses in children from our prospective mother-child cohort LINA for whom maternal stress and wheezing information was available (n = 443). High maternal stress was associated with an increased risk for persistent wheezing in the child until the age of 5. Both mothers and children showed genome-wide alterations in DNA-methylation specifically in enhancer elements. Deregulated neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter receptor interactions were observed in stressed mothers and their children. In children but not in mothers, calcium- and Wnt-signaling required for lung maturation in the prenatal period were epigenetically deregulated and could be linked with wheezing later in children's life.

  18. How to measure prenatal stress? A systematic review of psychometric instruments to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Bolten, Margarete; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Hellhammer, Dirk H

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of literature documents associations of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with fetal, infant and child behaviour and development. However, findings across studies are often inconsistent, which may in part be due to differences in stress definitions and assessments. We systematically reviewed methods applied to assess maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy in studies looking at associations with biobehavioural outcomes in the offspring. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science and PubMed for the time period between January 1999 and October 2009. Psychometric instruments assessing maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy were identified and described if data on psychometric properties were available. We identified 115 publications that assessed psychosocial stress during pregnancy with validated methods. These publications applied overall 43 different instruments assessing constructs falling under seven categories, ordered according to their frequency of use: anxiety, depression, daily hassles, aspects of psychological symptomatology (not reduced to anxiety or depression), life events, specific socio-environmental stressors and stress related to pregnancy and parenting. If available, we provide information on validity and reliability of the instruments for samples of pregnant women. Within the 'prenatal stress' research, a broad range of instruments is applied to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy. Prenatal stress research should take into consideration that the variety of methods in use might hamper the comparability of stress research results. In each category of stress constructs, one instrument with good psychometric properties in pregnant women is highlighted as the best currently available measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  20. Prenatal substance use, prenatal stress and offspring behavioural outcomes: Considerations for future studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have been conducted in which the most common forms of maternal substance use during pregnancy (smoking, drinking or using cannabis) and maternal stress during pregnancy and her offspring's developmental or behavioural outcome have been the focus of interest. These studie

  1. Prenatal exposure to noise stress: anxiety, impaired spatial memory, and deteriorated hippocampal plasticity in postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Marzieh; Sajjadi, Fatemeh Sadat; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Hamidi, Gholamali; Salami, Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Sound pollution is known as an annoying phenomenon in modern life. Especially, development of organisms during fetal life is more sensitive to environmental tensions. To address a link between the behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of brain function with action of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in stressed animals, this study was carried out on the male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to sound stress. Groups of pregnant rats were exposed to noise stress for 1, 2, and 4 hour(s). The degree of anxiety and the spatial memory were evaluated by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Basic synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction were assessed in the CA3-CA1 pathway of hippocampus. The serum level of corticosterone was measured in the pregnant mothers and the offspring. The behavioral experiments appeared that the stressed animals performed considerably weaker than the control rats. The prenatal stress negatively affected the basic synaptic responses and led to a lower level of LTP. The pregnant animals showed an increased serum corticosterone in comparison with the nonpregnant females. Also the offspring exposed to the noise stress had a more elevated level of corticosterone than the control rats. Our findings indicate that the corticosterone concentration changes markedly coincides the results of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. We conclude that, similar to other environmental stresses, the sound stress during fetal life efficiently disturbs both cognitive abilities and synaptic activities. The changes in action of HPA axis may contribute to problems of the brain function in the prenatally stress exposed animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prenatal stress diminishes the cytokine response of leukocytes to endotoxin stimulation in juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Christopher L; Kramer, Marian; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Netter, Petra; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated whether exposing the fetal primate to repeated episodes of maternal stress would have long-lasting effects on the endotoxin-induced cytokine response and corticosteroid sensitivity of peripheral blood cells in juvenile animals. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were acutely aroused on a daily basis for 6 wk using an acoustical startle protocol, either early or late in the 24-wk pregnancy. To quantify cytokine responses and corticosteroid sensitivity in their offspring at 2 yr of age, whole blood cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and incubated with dexamethasone (DEX). TNFalpha and IL-6 levels were determined in the culture supernatants. The blood samples were collected from undisturbed monkeys under baseline conditions, as well as in an aroused state induced by a 2 h social separation. Juvenile monkeys from stressed pregnancies had significantly lower cellular cytokine responses compared with the undisturbed controls. When DEX was added to the cell cultures, it systematically inhibited TNFalpha and IL-6 production, bringing the values for control animals down into the range of the prenatally stressed animals. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production was also markedly suppressed by the experience of acute stress, reducing cytokine responses of controls to the levels found for prenatally disturbed monkeys under baseline conditions. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that prenatal disturbance can induce a lasting change in cytokine biology, which persists well beyond the fetal and infant stage. Further, these effects may be due to elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the prenatally stressed animals, because both DEX and acute arousal made the cells from control monkeys appear more similar to those from disturbed pregnancies.

  3. Stress and Its Consequences from Prenatal Period to Older Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Pekel Uludagli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human life includes numerous developmental changes starting from the mother's womb to old ages. Both age related physical, cognitive, and emotional changes and social roles that are expected to be fulfilled at every age period require individual to adapt new conditions. Even if these new conditions are sometimes desirable, they lead individuals to feel stress. Although there are a large number of studies about stress in the relevant literature, they either approached stress pathologically or focused on specific age groups; how stress affects an individual across the life span was not addressed holistically. This review examined the important life events that are experienced respectively in the infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and older ages and the effects of these life events on the individuals' health from the life span perspective. Accordingly, each individual's conditions such as the amount of social support, living in a disadvantaged district, healthy life habits, and coping skills determine to what extent the individual experiences stress. The stress that the individual experiences with varying degrees in each age period may affect his/her physical and psychological health negatively. Although developmental stress is inevitable, having positive and supportive social relations helps coping with stress effectively. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 189-208

  4. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  5. The Association between Prenatal Psychosocial Stress and Blood Pressure in the Child at Age 5-7 Years

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stress could have permanent effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether maternal psychosocial stress is a prenatal factor affecting the blood pressure (BP) of offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, around gestational week 16, depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain ...

  6. [Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocytes in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, E K; Nazarov, S B; Tomilova, I K

    2011-07-01

    Morphofunctional and biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane were investigated in early postnatal ontogenesis in rats in norm and after prenatal immobilization stress. The transient decrease of erythrocyte membranes stability was revealed in the control rats. The ability to erythrocyte transformation and the concentration of lipid peroxidation products are increased. It has been shown by an increase of percentage discocytes and lower lipid peroxidation level that the erythrocyte membrane of the rats after prenatal stress is more stable.

  7. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  8. Prenatal Stress and Low Birth Weight: Evidence from the Super Bowl

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Brian; Mansour, Hani; Rees, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have estimated the relationship between psychological stress and birth weight by exploiting natural disasters and terrorist attacks, both of which could affect fetal health through other channels. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System for the period 1969-2004, we estimate the effect of prenatal exposure to the Super Bowl on low birth weight. Although major sporting events elicit intense emotions, they do not threaten viewers with direct physical harm or limit access to ...

  9. The histone acetyltransferase PsGcn5 mediates oxidative stress responses and is required for full virulence of Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Tao; Liu, Shusen; Chen, Qingqing; Qi, Rende

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histone acetyltransferase complexes are coactivators that are important for transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin. In this study, a gene (PsGcn5) from Phytophthora sojae encoding a histone acetyltransferase was identified as a homolog of one component of the histone acetyltransferase complex from yeasts to mammals. PsGcn5 was constitutively expressed in each stage tested, but had a slightly higher expression in sporulating hyphae and 3 h after infection. PsGcn5-silenced mutants were generated using polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast stable transformation. These mutants had normal development, but compared to wild type strains they had higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and significantly reduced virulence in soybean. Diaminobenzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H2O2 around the infection sites of PsGcn5-silenced mutants but not for wild type strains. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase by diphenyleneiodonium prevented host-derived H2O2 accumulation in soybean cells and restored infectious hyphal growth of the mutants. Thus, we concluded that PsGcn5 is important for growth under conditions of oxidative stress and contributes to the full virulence of P. sojae by suppressing the host-derived reactive oxygen species.

  10. Neurocircuitry underlying stress and emotional regulation in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol and subjected to chronic mild stress in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlis eRaineki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals exposed to alcohol during gestation show higher rates of psychopathologies. The hyperresponsivity to stress induced by prenatal alcohol exposure may be related to this increased rate of psychopathologies, especially because this population is more likely to be exposed to stressful environments throughout life. However, alcohol-induced changes in the overlapping neurocircuitries that underlie stress and the expression of psychopathologies are not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the neural activity within central areas known to play key roles in both emotional and stress regulation. Adult male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control conditions were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS. Following CMS, the neural activity (c-fos mRNA of the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN was assessed in response to an acute stress (elevated plus maze. Our results demonstrate that, overall, PAE decreased neural activity within the amygdala and hippocampal formation in males and increased neural activity within the amygdala and mPFC in females. CMS reduced neural activity within the mPFC and PVN in PAE males, but reduced activity in all areas analyzed in control males. By contrast, CMS reduced neural activity in the mPFC in PAE females and had no effects in control females. Furthermore, the constrained principal component analysis revealed that these patterns of neural activity resulted in differential activation of functional neural networks in males compared to females, indicating sexually dimorphic effects of PAE and CMS. Importantly, the altered networks of brain activation in PAE animals may underlie the hyperresponsivity to stress and increased psychopathologies observed among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol.

  11. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-03-24

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  12. The Effect of Quercetin on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in a Prenatally Stressed Rat Model of Febrile Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nombuso Valencia Pearl; Qulu, Lihle; Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are childhood convulsions resulting from an infection that leads to an inflammatory response and subsequent convulsions. Prenatal stress has been shown to heighten the progression and intensity of febrile seizures. Current medications are costly and have adverse effects associated with prolonged use. Quercetin flavonoid exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and anti-stress effects. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of quercetin in a prenatally stressed rat model of febrile seizures. We hypothesized that quercetin will alleviate the effects of prenatal stress in a febrile seizure rat model. On gestational day 13, Sprague-Dawley rat dams were subjected to restraint stress for 1 hour/d for 7 days. Febrile seizures were induced on postnatal day 14 on rat pups by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide followed by kainic acid and quercetin on seizure onset. Hippocampal tissue was harvested to profile cytokine concentrations. Our results show that quercetin suppresses prenatal stress-induced pro-inflammatory marker (interleukin 1 beta) levels, subsequently attenuating febrile seizures. This shows that quercetin can be therapeutic for febrile seizures in prenatally stressed individuals.

  13. Alteration of neurotrophin and cytokine expression in lymphocytes as novel peripheral markers of spatial memory deficits induced by prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuan, C G; Di Rosso, M E; Pivoz-Avedikian, J E; Wald, M R; Zorrilla Zubilete, M A; Genaro, A M

    2017-05-01

    Much evidence has suggested that early life adversity can have a lasting effect on behavior. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of prenatal exposure to stress on cognition in adult life and how it impacts chronic stress situations. In addition, we investigated the participation of glucocorticoids, neurotrophins and cytokines in prenatal stress effects. For this purpose, pregnant mice were placed in a cylindrical restraint tube for 2h daily during the last week of pregnancy. Control pregnant females were left undisturbed during their entire pregnancy period. Object-in-place task results showed that adult female mice exposed to prenatal stress exhibited an impairment in spatial memory. However, in the alternation test this memory deficit was only found in prenatally stressed mice submitted to chronic stress. This alteration occurred in parallel with a decrease in BDNF, an increase in glucocorticoid receptors and an alteration of Th1/Th2 in the hippocampus. Interestingly, these changes were observed in peripheral lymph nodes as well. However, none of the mentioned changes were observed in adult male mice. These results indicate that lymphoid cells could be good candidates as peripheral markers of susceptibility to behavioral alterations associated with prenatal exposure to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal maternal stress predicts childhood asthma in girls: project ice storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Lim, Robert; Laplante, David P; Kobzik, Lester; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR = 1.11; 90% CI = 1.01-1.23), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.00-1.19), and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR = 1.12; 90% CI = 1.01-1.25). Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample.

  15. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Childhood Asthma in Girls: Project Ice Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N=68. No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR=1.11; 90% CI = 1.01–1.23, doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR=1.09; 90% CI = 1.00–1.19, and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR=1.12; 90% CI = 1.01–1.25. Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample.

  16. Enhanced learning deficits in female rats following lifetime pb exposure combined with prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Stern, Sander; Weston, Doug; Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Sue

    2010-10-01

    Pb (lead) exposure and stress are co-occurring risk factors (particularly in low socioeconomic communities) that also act on common biological substrates and produce common adverse outcomes, including cognitive impairments. This study sought to determine whether lifetime Pb exposure combined with prenatal stress would enhance the cognitive deficits independently associated with each of these risk factors and to explore associated mechanisms of any observed impairments. Learning was evaluated using a multiple schedule of repeated learning and performance in female rats subjected to lifetime Pb exposure (0 or 50 ppm Pb in drinking water beginning in dams 2 months prior to breeding; blood Pb levels ∼10 μg/dl), to prenatal restraint stress on gestational days 16 and 17, or to both. Blood Pb, corticosterone levels, brain monoamines, and hippocampal nerve growth factor levels were also measured. Sequence-specific learning deficits produced by Pb, particularly the number of responses to correctly learn response sequences, were further enhanced by stress, whereas performance measures were unimpaired. Statistical analyses indicated significant relationships among corticosterone levels, frontal cortex dopamine (DA), nucleus accumbens dopamine turnover, and total responses required to learn sequences. This study demonstrates that Pb and stress can act together to produce selective and highly condition-dependent deficits in learning in female rats that may be related to glucocorticoid-mediated interactions with mesocorticolimbic regions of brain. These findings also underscore the critical need to evaluate toxicants in the context of other risk factors pertinent to human diseases and disorders.

  17. Prenatal Stress as a Modifier of Associations between Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Development: results from a Multicentre Pregnancy Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, J Bruce; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Swan, Shanna H

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with altered male reproductive tract development, and in particular, shorter anogenital distance (AGD). AGD, a sexually dimorphic index of prenatal androgen exposure, may also be altered by prenatal stress. How these exposures interact to impact AGD is unknown. Here, we examine the extent to which associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant AGD are modified by prenatal exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Phthalate metabolites [including those of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (ΣDEHP)] were measured in first trimester urine from 738 pregnant women participating in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES). Women completed questionnaires on SLEs, and permitted infant AGD measurements at birth. Subjects were classified as 'lower' and 'higher' stress (0 first trimester SLEs vs. 1+).We estimated relationships between phthalate concentrations and AGD (by infant sex and stress group) using adjusted multiple regression interaction models. In the lower stress group, first trimester ΣDEHP was inversely associated with two measures of male AGD: anoscrotal distance (AGD-AS; β = -1.78; 95% CI -2.97, -0.59) and anopenile distance (AGD-AP; β = -1.61; 95% CI -3.01, -0.22). By contrast, associations in the higher stress group were mostly positive and non-significant in male infants. No associations were observed in girls. Associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and altered genital development were only apparent in sons of mothers who reported no SLEs during pregnancy. Prenatal stress and phthalates may interact to shape fetal development in ways that have not been previously explored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cyclooxygenase 2,pS2,inducible nitric oxide synthase and transforming growth factor alpha in gastric adaptation to stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Nan Nie; Hai-Chen Sun; Xue-Hao Wu; Xiao-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of mucosal gene expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), pS2 (belongs to trefoil peptides),inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) in gastric adaptation to water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) in rats.METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed to single or repeated WRS for 4 h every other day for up to 6 d. Gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was measured by laser Doppler fiowmeter3. The extent of gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated grossly and histologically and expressions of COX-2, pS2,iNOS and TGFα were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot.RESULTS: The damage to the surface of gastric epithelium with focal areas of deep haemorrhagic necrosis was induced by repeated WRS.The adaptative cytoprotection against stress was developed with activation of cell proliferation in the neck regions of gastric glands. The ulcer index (UI) in groups Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ was markedly reduced as compared with group Ⅰ (Ⅰ: 47.23±1.20; Ⅳ: 10.39±1.18,P<0.01). GMBF significantly decreased after first exposure to WRS with an adaptive increasement of GMBF in experimental groups after repetitive challenges with WRS. After the 4th WRS,the value of GMBF almost restored to normal level (Ⅰ:321.87±8.85; Ⅳ: 455.95±11.81,P<0.01). First WRS significantly decreased the expression of pS2 and significantly increased the expressions of COX-2, iNOS and TGFα. After repeated WRS, pS2 and TGFα expressions gradually increased (pS2: Ⅰ: 0.37±0.02; Ⅳ: 0.77±0.01; TGFα: Ⅰ:0.86±0.01; Ⅳ: 0.93±0.03, P<0.05) with a decrease in the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS (COX-2: Ⅰ: 0.45±0.02; Ⅳ:0.22±0.01; iNOS: Ⅰ: 0.93±0.01; Ⅳ: 0.56±0.01, P<0.01).Expressions of pS2, COX-2, iNOS and TGFα showed regular changes with a good relationship among them.CONCLUSION: Gastric adaptation to WRS injury involves enhanced cell proliferation, increased expression of pS2 and

  19. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  20. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  1. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  2. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight.

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    Jiong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed 65,212 children born in Denmark from 1970-1989 who underwent health examinations from 7 to 13 years of age in public or private schools in Copenhagen. We identified 459 children as exposed to prenatal stress, defined by being born to mothers who were bereaved by death of a close family member from one year before pregnancy until birth of the child. We compared the prevalence of overweight between the exposed and the unexposed. Body mass index (BMI values and prevalence of overweight were higher in the exposed children, but not significantly so until from 10 years of age and onwards, as compared with the unexposed children. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for overweight was 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.61 at 12 years of age and 1.63 (95% CI 1.00-2.61 at 13 years of age. The highest ORs were observed when the death occurred in the period from 6 to 0 month before pregnancy (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.42 at age 12, and OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.97 at age 13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that severe pre-pregnancy stress is associated with an increased risk of overweight in the offspring in later childhood.

  3. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  4. Prenatal stress enhances severity of atherosclerosis in the adult apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse offspring via inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, H; Lhotak, S; Solano, M E; Karimi, K; Pincus, M K; Austin, R C; Arck, P

    2013-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Endothelial cell dysfunctions are early events in atherosclerosis, resulting in the recruitment of circulating monocytes. The immune system can elicit an inflammatory response toward the atherosclerotic lesion, thereby accelerating lesion growth. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include hypertension, smoking, stress perception or low birth weight. As prenatal stress challenge decreases the birth weight and affects the offspring's postnatal immune response, we aimed to investigate whether prenatal stress contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in mice. Syngenic pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) dams were exposed to sound stress on gestation days 12.5 and 14.5. The presence and size of atherosclerotic plaques in the offspring at the age of 15 weeks was evaluated by histomorphology, accompanied by flow cytometric analysis of the frequency and phenotype of monocytes/macrophages and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood. Further, cytokine secretion of peripheral blood lymphocytes was analyzed. In response to prenatal stress challenge, an increased frequency of large atherosclerotic plaques was detectable in apoE-/- offspring, which was particularly profound in females. Prenatal stress also resulted in alterations of the offspring's immune response, such as a decreased frequency of Treg cells in blood, alterations of macrophage populations in blood and an increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. We provide novel evidence that prenatally stressed adult offspring show an increased severity of atherosclerosis. As Treg cells are key players in dampening inflammation, the observed increase in atherosclerosis may be due to the lack of Treg cell frequency. Future interdisciplinary research is urgently required to understand the developmental origin of prenatal stress-induced atherosclerosis. The availability of our model may facilitate and foster such research endeavors.

  5. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids sensitizes the hpa axis response to stress among full-term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the consequences for HPA axis functioning among healthy full-term newborns of prenatal treatment with the synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), betamethasone, which is the routine treatment for threatened preterm delivery. Ninety full-term infants were recruited into two study groups (30 betamethasone treated; 60 comparison group matched for GA at birth and sex). The cortisol and behavioral response to the painful stress of a heel-stick blood draw was assessed 24 hr after birth. Full-term infants exposed to prenatal betamethasone displayed a larger cortisol response to the heel-stick procedure, despite no differences in baseline levels. Further, within the recommended window of betamethasone administration (24-34 gestational weeks), infants exposed to betamethasone earlier in gestation displayed the largest cortisol response to the heel-stick. These data add to accumulating evidence that prenatal exposure to elevated GCs programs the development of the HPA axis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Contribution of Prenatal Stress to the Pathogenesis of Autism as a Neurobiological Developmental Disorder: A Dizygotic Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, M.; Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.; Bosman, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the contribution of prenatal stress to the pathogenesis of autism as a neurobiological developmental disorder in a dizygotic study. The aim was to explore whether the neurobiological impact of stress prior to week 28 of gestation might be related to the pathogenesis of autism. The following data-generating strategies were…

  7. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  8. Learning deficits and suppression of the cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring are attenuated by maternal chewing during prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2014-02-07

    Prenatal stress in dams induces learning deficits and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of offspring via increasing corticosterone levels in the dam. Chewing under stressful conditions prevents stress-induced behavioral impairments and morphologic changes. Here, we examined whether chewing during prenatal stress prevents the stress-induced learning deficits and the suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress beginning on day 12 of pregnancy and continuing until delivery. Half of the dams were given a wooden stick to chew on during restraint. The pups were raised to adulthood, and learning ability and cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG were assessed. In dams, chewing during prenatal stress attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. In the adult offspring, prenatal stress impaired learning and decreased cell proliferation in the DG, whereas maternal chewing during prenatal stress significantly attenuated the prenatal stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in the DG in their offspring. These findings suggest that maternal chewing during prenatal stress is an effective stress-coping method for the dam to prevent learning deficits and suppression of cell proliferation in offspring.

  9. Prenatal programing: at the intersection of maternal stress and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Christopher L; Bale, Tracy L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal insults such as maternal stress and pathogenic infections has been associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanisms by which these programing events occur likely involve complex interactions between the maternal hormonal milieu, the placenta, and the developing fetus, in addition to compounding factors such as fetal sex and gestational stage of development. Despite the diverse biological processes involved, examination of common pathways in maternal stress and immune activation offers intriguing possibilities for elucidation of mechanistic insight. Further, the endocrine and sex-specific placenta is a tissue poised to be a key mediator in fetal programing, located at the intersection of the maternal and embryonic environments. In this review, we will discuss the potential shared mechanisms of maternal stress and immune pathway activation, with a particular focus on the important contribution and role of the placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

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    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  11. Prenatal stress induces depressive-like behavior in a sex-specific manner; impact of familiar versus novel environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    stress (PS) incl. increased helplessness and altered anxiety response. Our purpose was to investigate behavioral depression indices following PS and potential differences between male and female offspring. To this end, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to repeated variable stress on days 13...... plus maze, EPM), and sleep behavior (via EEG recordings) was assessed in male and female offspring. In addition, half of PS and control animals, respectively, were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Weight gain during the last part of the pregnancy was significantly reduced...

  12. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  13. Prenatal Stress Produces Persistence of Remote Memory and Disrupts Functional Connectivity in the Hippocampal-Prefrontal Cortex Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Neira, David; Espinosa, Nelson; Fuentealba, Pablo; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which are commonly characterized by an increased persistence of aversive remote memory. Here, we addressed the effect of prenatal stress on both memory consolidation and functional connectivity in the hippocampal-prefrontal cortex axis, a dynamical interplay that is critical for mnemonic processing. Pregnant mice of the C57BL6 strain were subjected to restraint stressed during the last week of pregnancy, and male offspring were behaviorally tested at adulthood for recent and remote spatial memory performance in the Barnes Maze test under an aversive context. Prenatal stress did not affect the acquisition or recall of recent memory. In contrast, it produced the persistence of remote spatial memory. Memory persistence was not associated with alterations in major network rhythms, such as hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) or neocortical spindles. Instead, it was associated with a large decrease in the basal discharge activity of identified principal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as measured in urethane anesthetized mice. Furthermore, functional connectivity was disrupted, as the temporal coupling between neuronal discharge in the mPFC and hippocampal SWRs was decreased by prenatal stress. These results could be relevant to understand the biological basis of the persistence of aversive remote memories in stress-related disorders.

  14. Prenatal stress, fearfulness, and the epigenome: Exploratory analysis of sex differences in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene.

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    Brendan Dale Ostlund

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68. Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament.

  15. Prenatal Stress and Acute Stress Later in Life Impacts the Responses in Tests for Depressive-Like Behavior in a Sex-Specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.

    in locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...... stress (PS). These include increased helplessness, altered anxiety indicators and sleep modifications. Our purpose was to further investigate behavioral depression indices following PS as well as CNS structural changes including sex specificity of these variables. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were......, PS blunted this effect. Relative and absolute numbers of rapid eye movement sleep bouts were higher in PS offspring. Moreover, exposure to an acute stressor induced a REM rebound effect in control animals but this compensatory mechanism was blunted in PS animals. Finally, depression-like behavioral...

  16. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and membrane properties in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, Sven; Hass, Ulla; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to investigate if toluene induced oxidative stress in brains from rats exposed prenatally to 1800 ppm toluene 6 hr/day at days 7-20 during the pregnancy. 35-42 days after birth the rats were killed and synaptosomal fractions were prepared...... for the experiments, Synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene exhibited an increased level of oxidative stress when incubated with toluene in vitro compared to synaptosomes from unexposed offspring. Also the cell membrane was affected, as the calcium leakage was more increased from exposed synaptosomes...

  17. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  18. Prenatal stress enhances excitatory synaptic transmission and impairs long-term potentiation in the frontal cortex of adult offspring rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sowa

    Full Text Available The effects of prenatal stress procedure were investigated in 3 months old male rats. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test, including increased immobility, decreased mobility and decreased climbing. In ex vivo frontal cortex slices originating from prenatally stressed animals, the amplitude of extracellular field potentials (FPs recorded in cortical layer II/III was larger, and the mean amplitude ratio of pharmacologically-isolated NMDA to the AMPA/kainate component of the field potential--smaller than in control preparations. Prenatal stress also resulted in a reduced magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the mean frequency, but not the mean amplitude, of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. These data demonstrate that stress during pregnancy may lead not only to behavioral disturbances, but also impairs the glutamatergic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the frontal cortex of the adult offspring.

  19. Prenatal stress increases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and exacerbates the inflammatory response to LPS in the hippocampal formation of adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Astiz, Mariana; Bellini, Maria José; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2013-02-01

    Early life experiences, such as prenatal stress, may result in permanent alterations in the function of the nervous and immune systems. In this study we have assessed whether prenatal stress affects the inflammatory response of the hippocampal formation of male mice to an inflammatory challenge during adulthood. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to stress (n=10) or non-stress (n=10) groups. Animals of the stress group were placed in plastic transparent cylinders and exposed to bright light for 3 sessions of 45min every day from gestational day 12 to parturition. Non-stressed pregnant mice were left undisturbed. At four months of age, non stressed and prenatally stressed male offspring were killed, 24h after the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. Under basal conditions, prenatally stressed animals showed increased expression of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the hippocampus and an increased percentage of microglia cells with reactive morphology in CA1 compared to non-stressed males. Furthermore, prenatally stressed mice showed increased TNF-α immunoreactivity in CA1 and increased number of Iba-1 immunoreactive microglia and GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes in the dentate gyrus after LPS administration. In contrast, LPS did not induce such changes in non-stressed animals. These findings indicate that prenatal stress induces a basal proinflammatory status in the hippocampal formation during adulthood that results in an enhanced activation of microglia and astrocytes in response to a proinflammatory insult.

  20. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos: significance for maternal stress and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Cauley, Marty; Johnson, Joshua E; Cooper, Ellen M; Stapleton, Heather M; Ferguson, P Lee; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment given in preterm labor and are also elevated by maternal stress; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous, so human developmental coexposures to these two agents are common. This study explores how prenatal dexamethasone exposure modifies the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used organophosphates. We administered dexamethasone to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-19 at a standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg); offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1 mg/kg) that produces barely-detectable (<10%) inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. Dexamethasone did not alter brain chlorpyrifos concentrations, nor did either agent alone or in combination affect brain thyroxine levels. Assessments were carried out from adolescence through adulthood encompassing T-maze alternation, Figure 8 maze (locomotor activity, habituation), novelty-suppressed feeding and novel object recognition tests. For behaviors where chlorpyrifos or dexamethasone individually had small effects, the dual exposure produced larger, significant effects that reflected additivity (locomotor activity, novelty-suppressed feeding, novel object recognition). Where the individual effects were in opposite directions or were restricted to only one agent, we found enhancement of chlorpyrifos' effects by prenatal dexamethasone (habituation). Finally, for behaviors where controls displayed a normal sex difference in performance, the combined treatment either eliminated or reversed the difference (locomotor activity, novel object recognition). Combined exposure to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos results in a worsened neurobehavioral outcome, providing a proof-of-principle that prenatal glucocorticoids can create a subpopulation with enhanced vulnerability to environmental toxicants.

  1. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  2. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  3. Project Ice Storm: Prenatal Maternal Stress Affects Cognitive and Linguistic Functioning in 5 1/2-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain; Schmitz, Norbert; Ciampi, Antonio; King, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The study used data from Project Ice Storm to determine the extent to which exposure to prenatal maternal stress due to a natural disaster can explain variance in the intellectual and language performance of offspring at age 5 1/2.

  4. An epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of prenatal maternal stress in neonates: A model approach for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Pappa, Irene; Walton, Esther; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Rippe, Ralph C A; Roza, Sabine J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Felix, Janine F; Cecil, Charlotte A M; Relton, Caroline L; Gaunt, Tom R; McArdle, Wendy; Mill, Jonathan; Barker, Edward D; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been associated with neonatal differential DNA methylation. However, the available evidence in humans is largely based on candidate gene methylation studies, where only a few CpG sites were evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and offspring genome-wide cord blood methylation using different methods. First, we conducted a meta-analysis and follow-up pathway analyses. Second, we used novel region discovery methods [i.e., differentially methylated regions (DMRs) analyses]. To this end, we used data from two independent population-based studies, the Generation R Study (n = 912) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, n = 828), to (i) measure genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood and (ii) extract a prenatal maternal stress composite. The meta-analysis (ntotal = 1,740) revealed no epigenome-wide (meta P meta-analysis (meta P meta-analysis, the current study indicates that there are no large effects of prenatal maternal stress exposure on neonatal DNA methylation. Such replication efforts are essential in the search for robust associations, whether derived from candidate gene methylation or epigenome-wide studies.

  5. An epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of prenatal maternal stress in neonates: A model approach for replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); I. Pappa (Irene); E. Walton (Esther); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); V. Mileva-Seitz; R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); S.J. Roza (Sabine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.F. Felix (Janine); C.A.M. Cecil (Charlotte A.M.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); J. Mill (Jonathan); E.D. Barker (Edward D.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been associated with neonatal differential DNA methylation. However, the available evidence in humans is largely based on candidate gene methylation studies, where only a few CpG sites were evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine th

  6. Influence of Panax ginseng on the offspring of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, YOUNG OCK; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; WON, HANSOL; NAH, SEONG-SU; LEE, HWA-YOUNG; KIM, HYUNG-KI; KWON, JUN-TACK; KIM, HAK-JAE

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of pregnant females to stress during a critical period of fetal brain development is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophrenia is a group of common mental disorders of unclear origin, affecting approximately 1% of the global population, showing a generally young age at onset. In the present study, a repeated variable stress paradigm was applied to pregnant rats during the final week of gestation. The effects of an extract of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG) on rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) were investigated in terms of behavioral activity and protein expression analyses. In the behavioral tests, grooming behavior in a social interaction test, line-crossing behavior in an open-field test and swimming activity in a forced-swim test were decreased in the rats exposed to PNS compared with the non-stressed offspring; the changes in behavioral activity were reversed upon oral treatment with PG (300 mg/kg). Subsequently, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical analyses of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus revealed that the downregulation of several neurodevelopmental genes which occurred following exposure to PNS was reversed upon treatment with PG. The current findings demonstrate that the downregulation of several genes following exposure to PNS may affect subsequent behavioral changes, and that these phenomena are reversed following treatment with PG during pregnancy. Our results suggest that oral treatment with PG reduces the incidence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. PMID:25394395

  7. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Protective effect of early prenatal stress on the induction of asthma in adult mice: Sex-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Mauro Henrique Moraes; Campos, Natália Evangelista; de Souza, Rodrigo Godinho; da Cunha, Aline Andrea; Nuñez, Nailê Karine; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes

    2016-10-15

    Adversities faced during the prenatal period can be related to the onset of diseases in adulthood. However, little is known about the effects on the respiratory system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress in two different time-points during pregnancy on pulmonary function and on the inflammatory profile of mice exposed to an asthma model. Male and female BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: control (CON), prenatal stress from the second week of pregnancy (PNS1) and prenatal stress on the last week of pregnancy (PNS2). Both PNS1 and PNS2 pregnant females were submitted to restraint stress. As adults, fear/anxiety behaviors were assessed, and animals were subjected to an asthma model induced by ovalbumin. Pulmonary function, inflammatory parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histology were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in the number of entries and time spent in the central quadrant on the open field test for the PNS1 animals. Females (PNS1) showed improved pulmonary function (airway resistance, tissue damping and pulmonary elastance), significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes and a decrease in eosinophils when compared to controls. There was a significant decrease in inflammatory cytokines in BAL of both males (IL-5 and IL-13) and females (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) from PNS1 and PNS2 when compared to the CON group. Prenatal stress starting from the beginning of pregnancy reduces the impact of asthma development in adult female mice, showing an improved pulmonary function and a lower inflammatory response in the lungs.

  9. Effect of prenatal stress on memory, nicotine withdrawal and 5HT1A expression in raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N; Lakehayli, S; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Maternal distress has often been associated with cognitive deficiencies and drug abuse in rats. This study examined these behavioral effects in offspring of mothers stressed during gestation. To this end, pregnant dams were subjected to daily electric foot shocks during the last 10 days of pregnancy. We measured litter parameters and body weights of the descendants after weaning (21 days) and at adulthood (80 days). Afterwards, prenatally stressed and control rats' performances in the novel object recognition test were compared in order to evaluate their memory while others underwent the Water consumption test to assess the nicotine withdrawal intensity after perinatal manipulations. Meanwhile, another set of rats were sacrificed and 5HT1A receptors' mRNA expression was measured in the raphe nuclei by quantitative Real Time PCR. We noticed no significant influence of maternal stress on litter size and body weight right after weaning. However, control rats were heavier than the stressed rats in adulthood. The results also showed a significant decrease in the recognition score in rats stressed in utero compared to the controls. Moreover, a heightened anxiety symptom was observed in the prenatally stressed offspring following nicotine withdrawal. Additionally, the Real Time PCR method revealed that prenatal stress induced a significant decrease in 5HT1A receptors' levels in the raphe nuclei. Nicotine had a similar effect on these receptors' expression in both nicotine-treated control and prenatally stressed groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cognitive functions and drug dependence can be triggered by early adverse events in rats.

  10. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Rayen

    Full Text Available Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1. Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1 prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2 prenatal stress+vehicle, 3 fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4 vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  11. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions.

  12. The Influence of Maternal Prenatal and Early Childhood Nutrition and Maternal Prenatal Stress on Offspring Immune System Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of prenatal maternal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood as well as prenatal maternal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early

  13. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... stressor (elevated platform) before EPM testing. Dams exposed to the stressor battery had increased plasma corticosterone levels compared with controls. Male PS offspring displayed changes in locomotor and rearing/climbing activity relative to controls. Additionally, anxiety measures in the EPM were...... of PS. These findings indicate that the PS rat model reflects multiple clinical depression characteristics, including elevated female vulnerability....

  14. Prenatal stress alters the behavior and dendritic morphology of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in mouse offspring during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian; Pascual, Rodrigo; Bustamante, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that prenatal stress alters neuronal dendritic development in the prefrontal cortex, together with behavioral disturbances (anxiety). Nevertheless, neither whether these alterations are present during the lactation period, nor whether such findings may reflect the onset of anxiety disorders observed in childhood and adulthood has been studied. The central aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal stress on the neuronal development and behavior of mice offspring during lactation (postnatal days 14 and 21). We studied 24 CF-1 male mice, grouped as follows: (i) control P14 (n=6), (ii) stressed P14 (n=6), (iii) control P21 (n=6) and (iv) stressed P21 (n=6). On the corresponding days, animals were evaluated with the open field test and sacrificed. Their brains were then stained in Golgi-Cox solution for 30 days. The morphological analysis dealt with the study of 96 pyramidal neurons. The results showed, first, that prenatal stress resulted in a significant (i) decrease in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 14, (ii) increase in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 21, and (iii) reduction in exploratory behavior at postnatal day 14 and 21.

  15. Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted external environmental conditions, but because both affect phenotypes similarly, they are largely indistinguishable. Only external (not internal) PARs rely on high environmental stability particularly in long-lived species. We report on a crucial test case in a wild long-lived mammal, the Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis), which evolved and lives in an unpredictable environment where external PARs are probably not advantageous. We quantified food availability, growth, motor skills, maternal caretaking style and maternal physiological stress from faecal glucocorticoid measures. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively correlated to prenatal food availability and led to accelerated offspring growth accompanied by decelerated motor skill acquisition and reduced immune function. These results support the ‘internal PAR’ theory, which stresses the role of stable adverse internal somatic states rather than stable external environments. PMID:27655764

  16. Sex-specific prenatal stress effects on the rat reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan O; Hogg, Charis O; Lai, Yu-Ting; Brunton, Paula J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social stress during pregnancy has profound effects on offspring physiology. This study examined whether an ethologically relevant social stress during late pregnancy in rats alters the reproductive axis and adrenal gland structure in post-pubertal male and female offspring. Prenatally stressed (PNS) pregnant rats (n=9) were exposed to an unfamiliar lactating rat for 10 min/day from day 16 to 20 of pregnancy inclusive, whereas control pregnant rats (n=9) remained in their home cages. Gonads, adrenal glands and blood samples were obtained from one female and one male from each litter at 11 to 12-weeks of age. Anogenital distance was measured. There was no treatment effect on body, adrenal or gonad weight at 11–12 weeks. PNS did not affect the number of primordial, secondary or tertiary ovarian follicles, numbers of corpora lutea or ovarian FSH receptor expression. There was an indication that PNS females had more primary follicles and greater ovarian aromatase expression compared with control females (both P=0.09). PNS males had longer anogenital distances (0.01±0.0 cm/g vs 0.008±0.00 cm/g; P=0.007) and higher plasma FSH concentrations (0.05 ng/mL vs 0.006 ng/mL; s.e.d.=0.023; P=0.043) compared with control males. There were no treatment effects on the number of Sertoli cells or seminiferous tubules, seminiferous tubule area, plasma testosterone concentration or testis expression of aromatase, FSH receptor or androgen receptor. PNS did not affect adrenal size. These data suggest that the developing male reproductive axis is more sensitive to maternal stress and that PNS may enhance aspects of male reproductive development. PMID:27026714

  17. Developmental Programming of Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction: Role of Prenatal Stress and Stress Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, physiological, cellular and molecular evidence suggests the origins of obesity and metabolic dysfunction can be traced back to intrauterine life and supports an important role for maternal nutrition prior to and during gestation in fetal programming. The elucidation of underlying mechanisms is an area of interest and intense investigation. We propose that in addition to maternal nutrition-related processes, it may be important to concurrently consider the potential role of intrauterine stress and stress biology. We frame our arguments in the larger context of an evolutionary-developmental perspective that supports roles for both nutrition and stress as key environmental conditions driving natural selection and developmental plasticity. We suggest that intrauterine stress exposure may interact with the nutritional milieu, and that stress biology may represent an underlying mechanism mediating the effects of diverse intrauterine perturbations, including but not limited to maternal nutritional insults (undernutrition and overnutrition), on brain and peripheral targets of programming of body composition, energy balance homeostasis and metabolic function. We discuss putative maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory candidate processes that may underlie the long-term effects of intrauterine stress. PMID:23887109

  18. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects were not worse. The results point to the need to aim to avoid stress in pregnant women.

  19. The association between prenatal psychosocial stress and blood pressure in the child at age 5-7 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stress could have permanent effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether maternal psychosocial stress is a prenatal factor affecting the blood pressure (BP of offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, around gestational week 16, depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain were recorded by questionnaire. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were measured in the offspring at age 5-7 years. Inclusion criteria were: no use of antihypertensive medication during pregnancy; singleton birth; no reported cardiovascular problems in the child (N = 2968 included. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, the single stress scales were not associated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP and hypertension (p>0.05. The presence of 3-4 psychosocial stressors prenatally (4% was associated with 1.5 mmHg higher systolic and diastolic BP (p = 0.046; p = 0.04 and 1.5 mmHg higher MAP in the offspring (p = 0.02 compared to no stressors (46%. The presence of 3-4 stressors did not significantly increase the risk for hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.93.4. Associations did not differ between sexes. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing rendered all associations non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple psychosocial stressors during pregnancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP and MAP in the child at age 5-7. Further investigation of maternal prenatal stress may be valuable for later life cardiovascular health.

  20. Prenatal and early life stress and risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiujuan; Liang, Hong; Yuan, Wei; Olsen, Jørn; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    Females are more likely than males to develop eating disorders (EDs) in the adolescence and youth, and the etiology remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the effect of severe early life stress following bereavement, the death of a close relative, on the risk of EDs among females aged 10-26 years. This population-based cohort study included girls born in Denmark (from 1973 to 2000) or Sweden (from 1970 to 1997). Girls were categorized as exposed if they were born to mothers who lost a close relative 1 year prior to or during pregnancy or if the girl herself lost a parent or a sibling within the first 10 years of life. All other girls were included in unexposed group. An ED case was defined by a diagnosis of EDs at ages of 10-26 years, including broadly defined bulimia nervosa, broadly defined anorexia nervosa and mixed EDs. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between exposed group and unexposed group.A total of 64453 (3.05 %) girls were included in the exposed group. We identified 9477 girls with a diagnosis of EDs, of whom 307 (3.24 %) were from the exposed group. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure following bereavement by unexpected death was associated with an increased overall risk of EDs (IRRprenatal: 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.19 and IRRpostnatal: 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.71). We observed similar results for subtypes of broadly defined bulimia nervosa (IRR: 2.47, 95 % CI: 1.67-3.65) and mixed EDs (IRR: 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.07).Our findings suggest that prenatal and early postnatal life stress due to unexpected death of a close relative is associated with an increased overall risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women. The increased risk might be driven mainly by differences in broadly defined bulimia nervosa and mixed eating disorders, but not broadly defined anorexia nervosa.

  1. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  2. Prenatal Restraint Stress Generates Two Distinct Behavioral and Neurochemical Profiles in Male and Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolini, Paola; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Chiodi, Valentina; Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Gradini, Roberto; Catalani, Assia; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS) in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy) on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS (“PRS rats”) showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM), a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females. PMID:18478112

  3. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

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    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  4. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

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    Ismael Palacios-García

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that

  5. Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse

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    Choon Hwai Yap; Xiaoqin Liu; Kerem Pekkan

    2014-01-01

    Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse Choon Hwai Yap1, Xiaoqin Liu2, Kerem Pekkan3* 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, 2 Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh...

  6. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-García, Ismael; Lara-Vásquez, Ariel; Montiel, Juan F; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela F; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Utreras, Elías; Montecino, Martín; González-Billault, Christian; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS) upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that can yield new

  7. Effects of short-term Western diet on cerebral oxidative stress and diabetes related factors in APP x PS1 knock-in mice.

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    Studzinski, Christa M; Li, Feng; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Zhang, Le; Weidner, Adam M; Markesbery, William R; Murphy, M Paul; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2009-02-01

    A chronic high fat Western diet (WD) promotes a variety of morbidity factors although experimental evidence for short-term WD mediating brain dysfunction remains to be elucidated. The amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP x PS1) knock-in mouse model has been demonstrated to recapitulate some key features of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-beta (Abeta) pathogenesis. In this study, we placed 1-month-old APP x PS1 mice and non-transgenic littermates on a WD for 4 weeks. The WD resulted in a significant elevation in protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the brain of APP x PS1 mice relative to non-transgenic littermates, which occurred in the absence of increased Abeta levels. Altered adipokine levels were also observed in APP x PS1 mice placed on a short-term WD, relative to non-transgenic littermates. Taken together, these data indicate that short-term WD is sufficient to selectively promote cerebral oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances in APP x PS1 knock-in mice, with increased oxidative stress preceding alterations in Abeta. These data have important implications for understanding how WD may potentially contribute to brain dysfunction and the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment increase the expression of GAP-43 in the hippocampus and promote cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring.

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    Zhang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Hua; Du, Baoling; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2012-07-26

    Neonatal handling and environmental enrichment have been used to aid the treatment and recovery of a diverse variety of brain dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects on cognitive function following neonatal handling and environmental enrichment are still unclear. In this study, we investigated GAP-43 protein levels in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed rat pups by Western blot on postnatal day (P) 10, P20 and P45. The cognitive ability of prenatally stressed rat pups was tested by using the Morris water maze on P45. GAP-43 protein levels were upregulated on P10 in the prenatal restraint stress (RS) group and the prenatal restraint stress plus neonatal handling and environmental enrichment (RE) group compared to the negative control (NC) group. However, the expression of GAP-43 in RS pups was lower on P20 and P45 than that in NC and RE pups. Exposure to prenatal stress prolonged average latency and total swim distance, but neonatal handling and environmental enrichment could reverse the change. Differences were also observed in the selection of search strategies. These results indicate that neonatal handling and environmental enrichment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring, and the possible mechanism is the upregulation of GAP-43. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Chronic stress induced cognitive impairment in APP/PS-1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Bing HAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS on the cognitive function and brain morphological changes in APP/PS-1 mice, one of the genetic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and to investigate the possible role of environmental factors in genetic mouse model of AD. Methods  There were 22-week-old wild-type C57BL/6 male mice (control group, N = 15 and APP/PS-1 double transgenic male mice [N = 27: AD group (N = 13 and AD + CUMS group (N = 14] tested in this study. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory of the mice. Amyloid deposition in the hippocampus was determined by Congo red staining. The ultrastructure of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM.  Results  Compared with control group, AD + CUMS group had significantly longer fifth-day escape latency [(33.14 ± 14.37 s vs (21.22 ± 12.16 s; t = -2.701, P = 0.045], and significantly shortened time spent in platform quadrant [(9.74±1.35 s vs (15.02 ± 1.33 s; t = 2.639, P = 0.012] in Morris water maze test. Compared with AD group, the percentage of amyloid plaque area in hippocampal area was increased in AD + CUMS group [(0.59 ± 0.03% vs (0.04 ± 0.03%; t = -2.900, P = 0.005]. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD group was slightly damaged: cellular membrane was intact; cell matrix was uniform; intracelluar lipofuscin could be seen; the structure of nucleus and nuclear membrane had no obvious changes; mild fusion of cristae and membrane was seen in mitochondria; Golgi apparatus was partially indistinct; endoplasmic reticulum was mildly expanded. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD + CUMS group was obviously damaged, including blurred cell membrane, reduced low-density and high-density granules in cytoplasm, uneven cell matrix, reduced number of organelles, lipofuscin and autophagosome deposition, obvious condensation of chromatin distributing over

  10. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

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    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  11. The effect of ageing on neurogenesis and oxidative stress in the APP(swe)/PS1(deltaE9) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison; Holscher, Christian

    2012-04-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. One of the hallmarks of AD is the formation of beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques. Aβ has neurodegenerative properties and aggregates in the brain, causing inflammation, oxidative stress and eventually neuronal loss. In AD, adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is known to be impaired. We tested how ageing affects neurogenesis and oxidative stress in the commonly used APP(SWE)/PS1(ΔE9) mouse model of AD and their wild type (wt) littermate controls aged 3, 5, 10 and 15months. Progenitor cell proliferation in the DG of APP/PS1 was lower at 3, 5 and 10months compared to controls, while oxidative stress in APP/PS1 mice was increased in the cortex at 3 and 5months of age compared to controls. The numbers of new neurons in the DG were decreased in APP/PS1 mice at 10 and 15months. In APP/PS1 mice, Aβ plaques were evident in the cortex from 3months onward; however these were small and few. Plaque size and number consistently increased with age in APP/PS1 mice. These results show that the damage to the brain occurs already very early in the brain, and although neurogenesis is impaired, it is still active even in late stage AD. Therefore, therapies would have the best effects if started early, but promoting neurogenesis may act in a protective and reconstructive way even in later stages of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean.

  13. Prenatal stress produces anxiety prone female offspring and impaired maternal behaviour in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Donald, Ramona D; Robson, Sheena K; Ison, Sarah H; Jarvis, Susan; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2014-04-22

    Numerous studies have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) can have profound effects on postnatal well-being. Here, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used to investigate PNS effects owing to the direct relevance for farm animal welfare and the developing status of the pig as a large animal model in translational research. Pregnant primiparous sows were exposed, in mid-gestation, to either a social stressor (mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics) or were kept in stable social groups. The ratio of levels of mRNAs for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors 1 and 2 in the amygdala, measured for the first time in the pig, was substantially increased in 10-week-old female, but not male, PNS progeny indicating a neurobiological propensity for anxiety-related behaviour. Mature female offspring were observed at parturition in either a behaviourally restrictive crate or open pen. Such PNS sows showed abnormal maternal behaviour in either environment, following the birth of their first piglet. They spent more time lying ventrally, more time standing and showed a higher frequency of posture changes. They were also more reactive towards their piglets, and spent longer visually attending to their piglets compared to controls. Associated with this abnormal maternal care, piglet mortality was increased in the open pen environment, where protection for piglets is reduced. Overall, these data indicate that PNS females have their brain development shifted towards a pro-anxiety phenotype and that PNS can be causally related to subsequent impaired maternal behaviour in adult female offspring.

  14. Prenatal stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms as predictors of intention to breastfeed among Hispanic women.

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    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Fortner, Renée Turzanski; Pekow, Penelope; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    Studies on the relationship between prenatal psychosocial risk factors and breastfeeding are sparse, particularly in Hispanic women. We evaluated this association among 424 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, an ongoing prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered by bilingual interviewers in early pregnancy (mean 13.6 weeks gestation) and midpregnancy (mean 25.7 weeks gestation). Information on sociodemographic, behavioral, and acculturation factors was also collected. Breastfeeding intention was abstracted from medical records. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence risk ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 274 (64.6%) women reported a positive intention to breastfeed. In multivariate analyses, women in the highest quartile of perceived stress (PRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.94) in early pregnancy and highest quartile of anxiety in early pregnancy (PRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.81) and midpregnancy (PRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-1.00) were less likely to intend to breastfeed compared to women in the lowest quartile. Women who had at least probable minor depression (EPDS score ≥13) (PRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.95) or probable major depression (EPDS score ≥15) (PRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96) during midpregnancy were less likely to intend to breastfeed compared to women without depressive symptoms. Similarly, women with persistent depressive symptoms over pregnancy were 24%-33% less likely to intend to breastfeed compared to women without depressive symptoms. Psychosocial risk factors during pregnancy are important predictors of breastfeeding intention among Hispanic women.

  15. Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauquier-Maccotta, Berengere; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Picquet, Anne-Laure; Carrier, Aude; Bussières, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Monochronioric (MC) twin pregnancies are considered as high-risk pregnancies with potential complications requiring in-utero interventions. We aimed to assess prenatal attachment, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in MC pregnancies complicated with Twin-To-Twin-transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in comparison to uncomplicated monochorionic (UMC) and dichorionic pregnancies (DC). Auto-questionnaires were filled out at diagnosis of TTTS and at successive milestones. Prenatal attachment, PTSD, anxiety and perinatal depression were evaluated respectively by the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) completed for each twin, the Post-traumatic Checklist Scale (PCLS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS). There was no significant difference in the PAI scores between the two twins. In the DC and UMC groups, PAI scores increased throughout pregnancy, whilst it didn't for TTTS group. TTTS and DC had a similar prenatal attachment while MC mothers expressed a significantly higher attachment to their fetuses and expressed it earlier. At the announcement of TTTS, 72% of the patients present a score over the threshold at the EPDS Scale, with a higher score for TTTS than for DC (p = 0.005), and UMC (p = 0.007) at the same GA. 30% of mothers in TTTS group have PTSD during pregnancy. 50% of TTTS- patients present an anxiety score over the threshold (STAI-Scale), with a score significantly higher in TTTS than in UMC (pPTSD, high level of anxiety and an alteration of the prenatal attachment. These results should guide the psychological support provided to these patients.

  16. Beneficial impact of intracerebroventricular fractalkine administration on behavioral and biochemical changes induced by prenatal stress in adult rats: Possible role of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Wydra, Karolina; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Filip, Małgorzata; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for pathological inflammatory processes and lead to the development of depression. Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemokine, plays an important role not only in the migration, differentiation and proliferation of neuronal and glial cells but also in the regulation of neuronal-microglial signaling and the production of pro-inflammatory factors. In the present study, we examined the impact of a prenatal stress procedure on the expression of fractalkine in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult male rats. Furthermore, we measured the age-dependent effect of stress during pregnancy on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL2 in both brain structures. Next, to illustrate the link between fractalkine signaling and the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by prenatal stress, adult prenatally stressed offspring were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with exogenous fractalkine. We reported that prenatal stress leads to long-lasting deficits in fractalkine signaling and enhanced inflammatory activation. The study demonstrates that icv administration of fractalkine attenuates the behavioural changes evoked by prenatal stress procedure in adult animals. Moreover, fractalkine administration, exhibits anti-inflammatory action, mainly in the frontal cortex of adult prenatally stressed rats. The effect of fractalkine is related to inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, its action on the other members of NOD-like receptor family (NLR) cannot be excluded. These findings provide new in vivo evidence that the behavioral and inflammatory disturbances observed in adult prenatally stressed rats may be related to long-lasting malfunctions in fractalkine signaling.

  17. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

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    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  18. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life.

  19. Single and combined effects of prenatal immune activation and peripubertal stress on parvalbumin and reelin expression in the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanoli, Sandra; Weber, Liz; Meyer, Urs

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences in peripubertal life are two environmental risk factors for developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Modeling the cumulative neuronal impact of these factors in a translational animal model has led to the recent identification of pathological interactions between these environmental adversities in the development of adult brain dysfunctions. The present study explored the consequences of combined prenatal immune challenge and peripubertal stress on discrete cellular abnormalities in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system of the hippocampus. Pregnant mice were treated with the viral mimetic poly(I:C) (=polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid) or control solution, and offspring born to poly(I:C)-exposed or control mothers were then left undisturbed or subjected to unpredictable sub-chronic stress during peripubertal development. Stereological estimations of parvalbumin-expressing cells revealed a significant reduction of these GABAergic interneurons in the ventral dentate gyrus of adult offspring exposed to combined immune activation and stress. Single exposure to either environmental factor was insufficient to cause similar neuropathology. We further found that peripubertal stress exerted opposite effects on reelin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal cornu ammonis (CA) region of the hippocampus, with stress increasing and decreasing reelin expression in control offspring and prenatally immune challenged animals, respectively. The present data suggest that the combination of two environmental risk factors, which have each been implicated in the etiology of major neuropsychiatric disease, induces significant but restricted neuropathological effects on hippocampal GABAergic cell populations known to be affected in brain disorders with neurodevelopmental components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of prenatal sound stress on the spatial learning and memory of rat's male offspring

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    Barzegar M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Numerous evidences indicate that various environmental stresses during pregnancy affect physiological behavior of the offspring. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of noise stress during prenatal period of rats on spatial learning and memory and plasma corticostrone level in postnatal life."n"nMethods: Three groups of pregnant rats were given daily noise stress with durations of two and/ or four hours in last week of pregnancy period. The fourth group was left unstressed. The male offspring from the unstressed and different stressed groups were assigned as controls and stressed groups. The animals were introduced to a spatial task in Morris water maze 4 trials/day for five consecutive days. The probe test was performed on the 5th day of the experiment. The delay in findings and the distance passed to locate the target platform were assessed as the spatial learning. "n"nResults: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to noise stress for two and/ or four hours a day, leads to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the postnatal animals. The plasma level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups of rats markedly matched with their behavioral function. Prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise stress revealed no effects on the offsprings' behavior and plasma corticostrone level."n"nConclusion: Based on our study results, it seems that applied range of stress which is executed through the noise stress could increase the plasma corticostrone level and

  1. Developmental programming of cardiovascular dysfunction by prenatal hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino A Giussani

    Full Text Available Fetal hypoxia is a common complication of pregnancy. It has been shown to programme cardiac and endothelial dysfunction in the offspring in adult life. However, the mechanisms via which this occurs remain elusive, precluding the identification of potential therapy. Using an integrative approach at the isolated organ, cellular and molecular levels, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress in the fetal heart and vasculature underlies the molecular basis via which prenatal hypoxia programmes cardiovascular dysfunction in later life. In a longitudinal study, the effects of maternal treatment of hypoxic (13% O(2 pregnancy with an antioxidant on the cardiovascular system of the offspring at the end of gestation and at adulthood were studied. On day 6 of pregnancy, rats (n = 20 per group were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia ± vitamin C. At gestational day 20, tissues were collected from 1 male fetus per litter per group (n = 10. The remaining 10 litters per group were allowed to deliver. At 4 months, tissues from 1 male adult offspring per litter per group were either perfusion fixed, frozen, or dissected for isolated organ preparations. In the fetus, hypoxic pregnancy promoted aortic thickening with enhanced nitrotyrosine staining and an increase in cardiac HSP70 expression. By adulthood, offspring of hypoxic pregnancy had markedly impaired NO-dependent relaxation in femoral resistance arteries, and increased myocardial contractility with sympathetic dominance. Maternal vitamin C prevented these effects in fetal and adult offspring of hypoxic pregnancy. The data offer insight to mechanism and thereby possible targets for intervention against developmental origins of cardiac and peripheral vascular dysfunction in offspring of risky pregnancy.

  2. STRESS-INDUCED CHANGES IN EXTRACELLULAR DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN IN THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND DORSAL HIPPOCAMPUS OF PRENATALLY MALNOURISHED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Mokler, David J.; Torres, Olga I.; GALLER, JANINA R.; Morgane, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition continues to be a significant problem in the world today. Exposure to prenatal protein malnutrition increases the risk of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood including depression, schizophrenia and attentional deficit disorder. In the present experiment we have examined the effects of stress on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of rats exposed in utero to protein malnutrition. The me...

  3. Psychosocial stress and minor psychiatric disorders among Agentes Socioeducadores Estrés psicosocial y disturbios psíquicos menores en agentes socio-educadores Estresse psicossocial e distúrbios psíquicos menores em agentes socioeducadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bitencourt Toscani Greco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the association between psychosocial stress and the occurrence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders in agentes socioeducadores. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 381 agentes socioeducadores from the Centros de Atendimento Socioeducativo in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2011. Brazilian versions of the social demand-control-support at work scale were used, and of the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. RESULTS: the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 50.1%. The chances of being classified with such a disorder were higher in the high strain work quadrant (OR=2.05; CI95%=1.03-4.09 and active work quadrant (OR=1.99; CI95%=1.09-3.63 when compared to that of low strain, after adjustment for potentially confusing factors. CONCLUSION: there is a positive association between psychosocial stress (high strain and active work and minor psychiatric disorders among agentes socioeducadores. In order to prevent mental illness among these workers, the planning of health promotion actions is necessary.OBJETIVO: verificar la asociación entre estrés psicosocial y la ocurrencia de Disturbios Psíquicos Menores en agente socio-educadores. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal con 381 agentes socio-educadores de los Centros de Servicio Socio-educativo de Rio Grande do Sul, en 2011. Se utilizaron las versiones brasileñas de la escala de Demanda-control-apoyo social en el trabajo y del Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. RESULTADOS: la superioridad de disturbio psíquico menor fue del 50,1%. Las chances de ser clasificado con tal disturbio fueron mayores en el cuadrante de trabajo en alta exigencia (OR=2,05; IC95%=1,03-4,09 y trabajo activo (OR=1,99; IC95%=1,09-3,63 cuando se comparó a lo de baja exigencia, después del ajuste por potenciales factores de confusión. CONCLUSIÓN: hay asociación positiva entre estrés psicosocial (alta exigencia y trabajo activo y disturbios psíquicos menores en agentes socio-educadores. Se hace

  4. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  5. Astaxanthin improves behavioral disorder and oxidative stress in prenatal valproic acid-induced mice model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Khan, Fazlur Rahman; Zaman, Fahmida; Mahmud Reza, Hasan

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to valproic acid on gestational day 12.5 may lead to the impaired behavior in the offspring, which is similar to the human autistic symptoms. To the contrary, astaxanthin shows neuroprotective effect by its antioxidant mechanism. We aimed to (i) develop mice model of autism and (ii) investigate the effect of astaxanthin on such model animals. Valproic acid (600 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to the pregnant mice on gestational day 12.5. Prenatal valproic acid-exposed mice were divided into 2 groups on postnatal day 25 and astaxanthin (2mg/kg) was given to the experimental group (VPA_AST, n=10) while saline was given to the control group (VPA, n=10) for 4 weeks. Behavioral test including social interaction, open field and hot-plate were conducted on postnatal day 25 and oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxidation, advanced protein oxidation product, nitric oxide, glutathione, and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were estimated on postnatal day 26 to confirm mice model of autism and on postnatal day 56 to assess the effect of astaxanthin. On postnatal day 25, prenatal valproic acid-exposed mice exhibited (i) delayed eye opening (ii) longer latency to respond painful stimuli, (iii) poor sociability and social novelty and (iv) high level of anxiety. In addition, an increased level of oxidative stress was found by determining different oxidative stress markers. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (pAstaxanthin improves the impaired behavior in animal model of autism presumably by its antioxidant activity.

  6. Project ice storm : effects of prenatal stress on children's physical, cognitive and behavioral development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPlante, D.P.; King, S.; Brunet, A. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ice storm in the winter of 1998 left three million people in Quebec without power for as long as 40 days. This study recruited 224 women who were pregnant during the storm or who became pregnant within 3 months after the storm. The study examined the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in an effort to fill gaps in literature regarding prenatal stress and increased risks and to assist in the development of preventive interventions for pregnant women who have experienced stress or trauma. Natural disaster studies provide good opportunities to study the effects of PNMS, as effects are random across large numbers of women and can be assessed independently of the pregnant women's own personality traits. The study examined whether there was an effect of the timing and severity of the ice storm on perinatal outcomes and later health; intellectual and linguistic functioning at two and a half and five years of age; behavioural and attention problems at four and five and a half years of age and physical features. The study concluded that pregnant women are a risk group and need proper interventions as children experienced delays or deficiencies in several key developmental areas. tabs., figs.

  7. Functional analysis of the iron-stress induced CP 43' polypeptide of PS II in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, S; Samson, G; Bruce, D; Huner, N P; Laudenbach, D E

    1995-07-01

    Under conditions of iron-stress, the Photosystem II associated chlorophyll a protein complex designated CP 43', which is encoded by the isiA gene, becomes the major pigment-protein complex in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. The isiB gene, which is located immediately downstream of isiA, encodes the protein flavodoxin, which can functionally replace ferredoxin under conditions of iron stress. We have constructed two cyanobacterial insertion mutants which are lacking (i) the CP 43' apoprotein (designated isiA (-)) and (ii) flavodoxin (designated isiB (-)). The function of CP 43' was studied by comparing the cell characteristics, PS II functional absorption cross-sections and Chl a fluorescence parameters from the wild-type, isiA (-) and isiB (-) strains grown under iron-stressed conditions. In all strains grown under iron deprivation, the cell number doubling time was maintained despite marked changes in pigment composition and other cell characteristics. This indicates that iron-starved cells remained viable and that their altered phenotype suggests an adequate acclimation to low iron even in absence of CP 43' and/or flavodoxin. Under both iron conditions, no differences were detected between the three strains in the functional absorption crossection of PS II determined from single turnover flash saturation curves of Chl a fluorescence. This demonstrates that CP 43' is not part of the functional light-harvesting antenna for PS II. In the wild-type and the isiB (-) strain grown under iron-deficient conditions, CP 43' was present in the thylakoid membrane as an uncoupled Chl-protein complex. This was indicated by (1) an increase of the yield of prompt Chl a fluorescence (Fo) and (2) the persistence after PS II trap closure of a fast fluorescence decay component showing a maximum at 685 nm.

  8. Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan Ting; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide has become a public health issue. While many factors are involved in the development of obesity, stress during pregnancy has been linked to adiposity. However, research involving stressors that are independent of pregnant women's socioeconomic and psychological characteristics is rare. The present study made use of a natural disaster (1998 Quebec ice storm) to determine which aspect of the women's disaster experience (objective hardship, subjective stress, and/or cognitive appraisal) were associated with body mass index levels and/or waist to height ratio across childhood and adolescence. Measure of objective hardship, subjective stress, and cognitive appraisal were obtained following the 1998 Quebec ice storm. We measured height, weight, and waist circumference in children at ages 5½, 8½, 11½, 13½, and 15½. Our results show that higher prenatal maternal stress was associated with higher body mass index levels and central adiposity in children of ages 5½, 8½, 13½, and 15½. The effects of prenatal maternal stress on anthropometric measurements tend to increase as the children grew older. The findings of this study highlight the long-lasting effect of prenatal stress on body composition, and are compatible with the current theory of fetal programming. Hopefully, our increased knowledge of the effects of prenatal stress on the fetus will lead to improved awareness and the creation of early intervention programs, ultimately improving women's and children's health in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic prenatal stress epigenetically modifies spinal cord BDNF expression to induce sex specific visceral hypersensitivity in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a heterogeneous disorder with abdomen pain as one of the primary symptoms. The etiology of IBS remains unknown. Epidemiological studies found that a subset of these patients have a history of adverse early-life events. We tested the hypothesis that chronic prenatal stress (CPS) epigenetically enhances brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in spinal cord to aggravate colon sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) differentially in male and female offspring. Methods We used heterotypic intermittent chronic stress (HeICS) protocols in pregnant dams from E11 until delivery. Results CPS induced significant visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) to CRD in male and female offspring. A second exposure to HeICS in adult offspring exacerbated VHS greater in female offspring that persisted longer than in male offspring. CPS upregulated BDNF expression in the lumbar-sacral dorsal horn that correlated with the exacerbation of VHS in female, but not in male offspring. The upregulation of BDNF was due to a significant increase in RNA Pol II binding, histone H3 acetylation and significant decrease in histone deacetylase 1 association with the core promoter of BDNF in female offspring. Other chronic prenatal and neonatal stress protocols were less effective than HeICS. Conclusion & Inferences The development of visceral hypersensitivity, which contributes to the symptom of intermittent abdominal pain, is a two-step process, chronic in utero stress followed by chronic stress in adult-life. This two-step process induces aggravated and persistent colon hypersensitivity in female than in male offspring. Our preclinical model explains several clinical features in IBS patients. PMID:24588943

  10. Effects of prenatal stress on development and health of offspring and its potential mechanisms%产前应激对子代的影响及潜在作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阿迪; 刘健康; 冯智辉

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate diet and stress in maternal pregnancy may affect the development of the offspring . Brain dysfunction and some chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes in offspring are associated with the factors during maternal pregnancy.Many researches focused on how prenatal stress affected cognitive function and behavior of the off -spring and how nutritional modulation might prevent the pathogenesis of such diseases .Here we summarize the effects of prenatal stress on the offspring and the potential mechanism , like hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation, and the prevention of nutrient to offspring dysfunction by prenatal stress , based on our previous work and some existing references .

  11. The incretin analogue D-Ala2GIP reduces plaque load, astrogliosis and oxidative stress in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A M; Hölscher, C

    2013-01-03

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin is a neuroprotective growth factor, and an impairment of insulin signalling has been found in AD brains. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin hormone, normalises insulin signalling and also acts as a neuroprotective growth factor. GIP plays an important role in memory formation, synaptic plasticity and cell proliferation. We have shown previously that the long-lasting incretin hormone analogue D-Ala(2)GIP protects memory formation and synaptic plasticity, reduces plaques, normalises the proliferation of stem cells, reduces the activation of microglia, and prevents the loss of synapses in the cortex of the APPswe/PS1deltaE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. D-Ala(2)GIP was injected for 35 days at 25 nmol/kg i.p. once daily in APP/PS1 male mice and wild-type (WT) littermates aged 6, 12 and 19 months. In a follow-up study, we analysed plaque load, the activation of astrocytes as a means of chronic inflammation in the brain, and oxidative stress in the brains of these mice (8-oxoguanine levels). D-Ala(2)GIP reduced the amyloid plaque load in 12- and 19-month-old mice, and the inflammation response as shown in the reduction of activated astrocytes in 12- and 19-month old APP/PS1 mice. Chronic oxidative stress in the brain was reduced in 12- and 19-month-old mice as shown in the reduction of 8-oxoguanine levels in the cortex of D-Ala(2)GIP-injected APP/PS1 mice. The results demonstrate that D-Ala(2)GIP has neuroprotective properties on key markers found in Alzheimer's disease. This finding shows that novel GIP analogues have the potential to be developed as novel therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Holsen, Laura; Huang, Grace; Hammond, Bradley D; James-Todd, Tamarra; Cherkerzian, Sara; Hale, Taben M; Handa, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Furthermore, these effects have lifelong consequences for shared sex-dependent risk of MDD and obesity/MetS. Thus, we propose that there are shared biologic substrates at the anatomical, molecular, and/or genetic levels that produce the comorbid risk for MDD-MetS through sex-dependent fetal origins.

  13. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  14. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  15. The influence of DHEA pretreatment on prepulse inhibition and the HPA-axis stress response in rat offspring exposed prenatally to polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic-acid (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, Rachel; Ram, Edward; Biton, Doron; Cohen, Hagit; Baharav, Ehud; Strous, Rael D; Weizman, Abraham

    2012-07-11

    Prenatal exposure to maternal infection may be associated with the development of neurodevelopmental disorders as well as increased susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia. Prenatal administration of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic-acid, mimicking RNA virus exposure, has been shown to induce schizophrenia-like behavioral, neurochemical and neuorophysiological abnormalities in rodent offspring. In the present study PIC prenatal administration at gestation day 15 was associated with alterations in the acoustic-startle-response/prepulse-inhibition [ASR/PPI] and the HPA-axis stress response in rat offspring on day 90. We show that pretreatment with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reverses PIC-related ASR/PPI disruption in female rats and normalizes HPA-axis stress response in a united group of male and female rats. Further research in both animal and human studies is recommended in order to confirm these preliminary findings and their application to the understanding and management of schizophrenia and related conditions.

  16. 产前应激促进慢性应激诱导的子代鼠海马β-淀粉样蛋白形成%Prenatal stress promotes formation of chronic stress-induced hippocampal amyloid β protein in offspring mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正玉; 韩振敏; 唐伟; 姚余有

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨产前应激是否能促进慢性应激诱导的6月龄雄性子代鼠海马β-淀粉样蛋白(Aβ)形成及其作用机制. 方法 以APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因小鼠为研究对象,将雄性APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因子代鼠根据产前是否应激和子代鼠是否慢性应激分为产前应激-子代慢性应激(TT)组、产前应激-子代正常处理(TC)组、产前正常处理-子代慢性应激(CT)组和产前正常处理-子代正常处理(CC)组,每组18只.采用刚果红染色检查子代鼠脑组织的淀粉样斑块;采用Western blotting检测海马组织磷酸化真核翻译起始因子2的α亚单位(p-eIF2α)、磷酸化蛋白激酶R样内质网激酶(p-PERK)、葡萄糖调节蛋白78(Grp78)和淀粉样前体蛋白β位点分裂酶1(BACE1)的表达水平;采用ELISA法检测Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平;采用荧光酶标仪检测BACE1活性. 结果 与CC组相比,CT组、TT组、TC组小鼠脑组织淀粉样斑块数目增多.与CC组相比,CT组小鼠海马组织p-eIF2α、p-PERK、Grp78、BACE1、Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).与CT组相比,TT组海马组织p-eIF2α、p-PERK、Grp78、BACE1、Aβ1-40和Aβ1-42表达水平进一步升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).各组小鼠海马组织BACE1活性比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 产前应激可促进慢性应激诱导的6月龄雄性APPswe/PS1 dE9双转基因小鼠子代鼠Aβ生成增多,其机制可能是产前应激通过促进子代鼠海马神经元内质网应激,激活PERK,引起eIF2α磷酸化,促进BACE1表达增加,从而促进Aβ生成.%Objective To explore whether prenatal stress promotes formation of chronic stress-induced hippocampal amyloid β (Aβ) protein in 6-month-old male offspring mice and its mechanism.Methods The APPswe/PSIdE9 double transgenic mice were divided into 4 groups according to the prenatal stress and offspring mice stress:prenatal control-offspring control group (CC

  17. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  18. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  19. Sex-specific effects of prenatal chronic mild stress on adult spatial learning capacity and regional glutamate receptor expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Hu, Jingmin; Zhang, Xinxin; Cheng, Wenwen; Jiang, Han; Li, Min; Ren, Jintao; Zhang, Xiaosong; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-07-01

    Both animal experiments and clinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress can cause cognitive disorders in offspring. To explore the scope of these deficits and identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined the spatial learning and memory performance and glutamate receptor (GluR) expression patterns of adult rats exposed to prenatal chronic mild stress (PCMS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the interrelationships among spatial learning indices and GluR expression changes. Female PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited markedly impaired spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) task compared to control females, while PCMS-exposed males showed better initial spatial learning in the MWM compared to control males. PCMS also altered basal and post-MWM glutamate receptor expression patterns, but these effects differed markedly between sexes. Male PCMS-exposed offspring exhibited elevated basal expression of NR1, mGluR5, and mGluR2/3 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), whereas females showed no basal expression changes. Following MWM training, PCMS-exposed males expressed higher NR1 in the PFC and mammillary body (MB), higher mGluR2/3 in PFC, and lower NR2B in the hippocampus (HIP), PFC, and MB compared to unstressed MWM-trained males. Female PCMS-exposed offspring showed strongly reduced NR1 in MB and NR2B in the HIP, PFC, and MB, and increased mGluR2/3 in PFC compared to unstressed MWM-trained females. This is the first report suggesting that NMDA subunits in the MB are involved in spatial learning. Additionally, PCA further suggests that the NR1-NR2B form is the most important for spatial memory formation. These results reveal long-term sex-specific effects of PCMS on spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood and implicate GluR expression changes within HIP, PFC, and MB as possible molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in offspring exposed to prenatal stress.

  20. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kamin, Hayley S.; Hughes, David A.; Rodney, Nicole C.; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which…

  1. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina [UNIFESP; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. in this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depres...

  2. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal stress induces spatial memory deficits and epigenetic changes in the hippocampus indicative of heterochromatin formation and reduced gene expression.

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    Benoit, Jamie D; Rakic, Pasko; Frick, Karyn M

    2015-03-15

    Stress during pregnancy has a wide variety of negative effects in both human [1] and animal offspring [2]. These effects are especially apparent in various forms of learning and memory such as object recognition [3] and spatial memory [4]. The cognitive effects of prenatal stress (PNS) may be mediated through epigenetic changes such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation [5]. As such, the present study investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable PNS on memory and epigenetic measures in adult offspring. Mice that underwent PNS exhibited impaired spatial memory in the Morris water maze, as well as sex-specific changes in levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 protein, and acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) in the hippocampus, and serum corticosterone. Male mice exposed to PNS exhibited decreased hippocampal AcH3, whereas female PNS mice displayed a further reduction in AcH3, as well as heightened hippocampal DNMT1 protein levels and corticosterone levels. These data suggest that PNS may epigenetically reduce transcription in the hippocampus, particularly in females in whom this effect may be related to increased baseline stress hormone levels, and which may underlie the sexual dimorphism in rates of mental illness in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender-dependent resiliency to stressful and metabolic challenges following prenatal exposure to high-fat diet in the p66(Shc-/-) mouse.

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    Bellisario, Veronica; Berry, Alessandra; Capoccia, Sara; Raggi, Carla; Panetta, Pamela; Branchi, Igor; Piccaro, Giovanni; Giorgio, Marco; Pelicci, Pier G; Cirulli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic stressful challenges during susceptible time windows, such as fetal life, can have important implications for health throughout life. Deletion of the p66(Shc) gene in mice leads to reduced oxidative stress (OS), resulting in a healthy and lean phenotype characterized by increased metabolic rate, resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and reduced emotionality at adulthood. Here we hypothesize that p66(Shc-/-) (KO) adult offspring might be protected from the detrimental effects induced by maternal HFD administered before and during pregnancy. To test such hypothesis, we fed p66(Shc+/+) (WT) and KO females with HFD for 13 weeks starting on 5 weeks of age until delivery and tested adult male and female offspring for their metabolic, neuroendocrine, and emotional profile. Prenatal diet affected stress responses and metabolic features in a gender-dependent fashion. In particular, prenatal HFD increased plasma leptin levels and decreased anxiety-like behavior in females, while increasing body weight, particularly in KO subjects. KO mice were overall characterized by metabolic resiliency, showing a blunted change in glycemia levels in response to glucose or insulin challenges. However, in p66(Shc-/-) mice, prenatal HFD affected glucose tolerance response in an opposite manner in the two genders, overriding the resilience in males and exacerbating it in females. Finally, KO females were protected from the disrupting effect of prenatal HFD on neuroendocrine response. These findings indicate that prenatal HFD alters the emotional profile and metabolic functionality of the adult individual in a gender-dependent fashion and suggest that exposure to high-caloric food during fetal life is a stressful condition interfering with the developmental programming of the adult phenotype. Deletion of the p66(Shc) gene attenuates such effects, acting as a protective factor.

  5. Gender-dependent resiliency to stressful and metabolic challenges following prenatal exposure to high-fat diet in the p66Shc-/- mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eBellisario

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic stressful challenges during susceptible time windows, such as fetal life, can have important implications for health throughout life. Deletion of the p66Shc gene in mice leads to reduced oxidative stress, resulting in a healthy and lean phenotype characterized by increased metabolic rate, resistance to high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and reduced emotionality at adulthood. Here we hypothesize that p66Shc-/- (KO adult offspring might be protected from the detrimental effects induced by maternal HFD administered before and during pregnancy. To test such hypothesis, we fed p66Shc+/+ (WT and KO females with HFD for 13 weeks starting on 5 weeks of age until delivery and tested adult male and female offspring for their metabolic, neuroendocrine and emotional profile. Prenatal diet affected stress responses and metabolic features in a gender-dependent fashion. In particular, prenatal HFD increased plasma leptin levels and decreased anxiety-like behavior in females, while increasing body weight, particularly in KO subjects. KO mice were overall characterized by metabolic resiliency, showing a blunted change in glycemia levels in response to glucose or insulin challenges. However, in p66Shc-/- mice, prenatal HFD affected glucose tolerance response in an opposite manner in the two genders, overriding the resilience in males and exacerbating it in females. Finally, KO females were protected from the disrupting effect of prenatal HFD on neuroendocrine response. These findings indicate that prenatal HFD alters the emotional profile and metabolic functionality of the adult individual in a gender-dependent fashion and suggest that exposure to high-caloric food during fetal life is a stressful condition interfering with the developmental programming of the adult phenotype. Deletion of the p66Shc gene attenuates such effects, acting as a protective factor.

  6. Characterization of the vessel geometry, flow mechanics and wall shear stress in the great arteries of wildtype prenatal mouse.

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    Choon Hwai Yap

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal fluid mechanical environment in the pre-natal cardiovascular system is hypothesized to play a significant role in causing structural heart malformations. It is thus important to improve our understanding of the prenatal cardiovascular fluid mechanical environment at multiple developmental time-points and vascular morphologies. We present such a study on fetal great arteries on the wildtype mouse from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 to near-term (E18.5. METHODS: Ultrasound bio-microscopy (UBM was used to measure blood velocity of the great arteries. Subsequently, specimens were cryo-embedded and sectioned using episcopic fluorescent image capture (EFIC to obtain high-resolution 2D serial image stacks, which were used for 3D reconstructions and quantitative measurement of great artery and aortic arch dimensions. EFIC and UBM data were input into subject-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD for modeling hemodynamics. RESULTS: In normal mouse fetuses between E14.5-18.5, ultrasound imaging showed gradual but statistically significant increase in blood velocity in the aorta, pulmonary trunk (with the ductus arteriosus, and descending aorta. Measurement by EFIC imaging displayed a similar increase in cross sectional area of these vessels. However, CFD modeling showed great artery average wall shear stress and wall shear rate remain relatively constant with age and with vessel size, indicating that hemodynamic shear had a relative constancy over gestational period considered here. CONCLUSION: Our EFIC-UBM-CFD method allowed reasonably detailed characterization of fetal mouse vascular geometry and fluid mechanics. Our results suggest that a homeostatic mechanism for restoring vascular wall shear magnitudes may exist during normal embryonic development. We speculate that this mechanism regulates the growth of the great vessels.

  7. Changes in the vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and amygdala are induced by prenatal dexamethasone and/or adult stress.

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    Neigh, Gretchen N; Owens, Michael J; Taylor, W Robert; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the neuronal and behavioral consequences of excess glucocorticoid exposure, the cerebrovascular system can also be adversely affected by stressors. This study determined that chronic stress in adulthood decreased the vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and increased the vascular area fraction of the amygdala. In addition, the data indicated that prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids modulated the effects of adult stress on vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and amygdala. These data indicate that in addition to the well-documented stress-induced changes in neurons and glia, cerebral vasculature is also altered by exposure to stressors.

  8. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

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    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR.

  9. Adrenergic Stress Protection of Human iPS Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes by Fast Kv7.1 Recycling

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    Ilaria Piccini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fight-or-flight response (FFR, a physiological acute stress reaction, involves positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on heart muscle cells mediated through β-adrenoceptor activation. Increased systolic calcium is required to enable stronger heart contractions whereas elevated potassium currents are to limit the duration of the action potentials and prevent arrhythmia. The latter effect is accomplished by an increased functional activity of the Kv7.1 channel encoded by KCNQ1. Current knowledge, however, does not sufficiently explain the full extent of rapid Kv7.1 activation and may hence be incomplete. Using inducible genetic KCNQ1 complementation in KCNQ1-deficient human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs, we here reinvestigate the functional role of Kv7.1 in adapting human CMs to adrenergic stress. Under baseline conditions, Kv7.1 was barely detectable at the plasma membrane of hiPSC-CMs, yet it fully protected these from adrenergic stress-induced beat-to-beat variability of repolarization and torsade des pointes-like arrhythmia. Furthermore, isoprenaline treatment increased field potential durations specifically in KCNQ1-deficient CMs to cause these adverse macroscopic effects. Mechanistically, we find that the protective action by Kv7.1 resides in a rapid translocation of channel proteins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, induced by adrenergic signaling. Gene silencing experiments targeting RAB GTPases, mediators of intracellular vesicle trafficking, showed that fast Kv7.1 recycling under acute stress conditions is RAB4A-dependent.Our data reveal a key mechanism underlying the rapid adaptation of human cardiomyocytes to adrenergic stress. These findings moreover aid to the understanding of disease pathology in long QT syndrome and bear important implications for safety pharmacological screening.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  11. Searsia chirindensis reverses the potentiating effect of prenatal stress on the development of febrile seizures and decreased plasma interleukin-1β levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, Willie M U; Russell, Vivienne; Mabandla, Musa V

    2016-02-01

    It is estimated that more than 80% of patients with epilepsy live in developing countries with 50-60% of them being children. This high prevalence is perpetuated by low socio-economic challenges, poor health care facilities and lack of drug affordability. Searsia chirindensis formerly known as rhus chirindensis and commonly known as 'Red Current' is a popular traditional medicinal plant, which has been used to treat a number of illnesses such as heart complaints and neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of S. chirindensis on the development of febrile seizure in a prenatally stressed rat. Febrile seizures were induced by administering lipopolysaccharide to 14-day-old rat pups followed by kainic acid. A subset of the rats was treated with Searsia after induction of febrile seizures. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were measured in plasma. Lipid peroxidation was determined in liver tissue. Our data shows that treatment with Searsia reduced interleukin-1β levels in plasma of the febrile seizure rats and prevented lipid oxidation in the liver. Prenatal stress is dampened by the beneficial effects of Searsia on seizure development in rat pups. These results highlight the potentiating effects of Searsia in the reversal of febrile seizures and prenatal stress effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal and early life exposure to stressful life events and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based studies in Sweden and England.

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    Dheeraj Rai

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential risk factor for offspring Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, but the literature is limited and inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to stressful life events would be associated with increased risks of offspring ASD, and that these risks would be highest for exposures during the prenatal period.We used prospectively collected data from two large population based studies in Sweden and England. In the Swedish study of 4429 ASD cases and 43277 controls, our exposure comprised the occurrence of any severe life event before and during pregnancy and the child's early life. In the English study (maximum n = 11554, ASD n = 72, we studied the risk of offspring ASD in relation to a combined maternal exposure to multiple (up to 42 common and rare life events, as well as their perceived impact upon the mother during pregnancy and early life. In crude and adjusted regression analyses in both studies, we found no evidence of an association between prenatal life events, or their number and perceived impact and the risk of offspring ASD. Sub-group analysis of ASD with and without intellectual disability in the Swedish study yielded similar results.We found no evidence to support the hypotheses that exposure to stressful life events during the prenatal period is associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD.

  13. Prenatal stress, development, health and disease risk: A psychobiological perspective-2015 Curt Richter Award Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2015-12-01

    The long-term consequences of exposure to excess stress, particularly during sensitive developmental windows, on the initiation and progression of many complex, common physical and mental disorders that confer a major global burden of disease are well established. The period of intrauterine life represents among the most sensitive of these windows, at which time the effects of stress may be transmitted inter-generationally from a mother to her as-yet-unborn child. As explicated by the concept of fetal or developmental programming of health and disease susceptibility, a growing body of evidence supports the notion that health and disease susceptibility is determined by the dynamic interplay between genetic makeup and environment, particularly during intrauterine and early postnatal life. Except in extreme cases, an adverse intrauterine exposure may not, per se, 'cause' disease, but, instead, may determine propensity for disease(s) in later life (by shaping phenotypic responsivity to endogenous and exogenous disease-related risk conditions). Accumulating evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during pregnancy represents one such condition that may adversely affect the developing child, with important implications for a diverse range of physical and mental health outcomes. In this paper we review primarily our own contributions to the field of maternal stress during pregnancy and child mental and physical health-related outcomes. We present findings on stress-related maternal-placental-fetal endocrine and immune/inflammatory processes that may mediate the effects of various adverse conditions during pregnancy on the developing human embryo and fetus. We enunciate conceptual and methodological issues related to the assessment of stress during pregnancy and discuss potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of the effects of stress. Lastly, we describe on-going research and some future directions of our program.

  14. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  15. Prenatal stress affects insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation in the brain of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Szczesny, Ewa; Glombik, Katarzyna; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Nalepa, Irena; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Rafa-Zablocka, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Boguslawa; Kubera, Marta; Leskiewicz, Monika; Lason, Wladyslaw

    2014-09-01

    It has been shown that stressful events occurring in early life have a powerful influence on the development of the central nervous system. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the growth, differentiation and survival of both neurons and glial cells and is thought to exert antidepressant-like activity. Thus, it is possible that disturbances in the function of the IGF-1 system may be responsible for disturbances observed over the course of depression. Prenatal stress was used as a valid model of depression. Adult male offspring of control and stressed rat dams were subjected to behavioural testing (forced swim test). The level of IGF-1 in the blood and the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, and IRS-1/2 in the hippocampus and frontal cortex using RT-PCR, ELISA and western blotting were measured. In addition the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered IGF-1 and/or the IGF-1R receptor antagonist JB1 in the forced swim test was studied. Prenatally stressed rats showed depressive like behaviour, including increased immobility time as well as decreased mobility and climbing. Intracerebroventricular administration of IGF-1 reversed these effects in stressed animals, whereas concomitant administration of the IGF-1R antagonist JB1 completely blocked the effects. Biochemical analysis of homogenates from the hippocampus and frontal cortex revealed decreases in IGF-1 level and IGF-1R phosphorylation along with disturbances in IRS-1 phosphorylation. These findings reveal that prenatal stress alters IGF-1 signalling, which may contribute to the behavioural changes observed in depression.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often pr

  17. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  18. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  19. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Prenatal Stress and Social Enrichment: Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-17

    corticosterone receptors in the hippocampus (Weinstock, 1998; Cratty, Ward, Johnson, Azzaro, & Birkle, 1995). Alterations in the HPA axis is worth...C. J., & Spear, L. P. (1994). Chronic variable stress or chronic morphine facilitates immobility in a forced swim test: reversal by naloxone

  20. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  1. The association between maternal and partner experienced racial discrimination and prenatal perceived stress, prenatal and postnatal depression: findings from the growing up in New Zealand cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Atatoa-Carr, Polly

    2016-09-22

    A growing number of studies document the association between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and adverse children's outcomes, but our understanding of how experiences of racial discrimination are associated with pre- and post-natal maternal mental health, is limited. In addition, existent literature rarely takes into consideration racial discrimination experienced by the partner. We analysed data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study to examine the burden of lifetime and past year experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal and postnatal mental health among Māori, Pacific, and Asian women in New Zealand (NZ), and to study the individual and joint contribution of mother's and partner's experiences of lifetime and past year racial discrimination to women's prenatal and postnatal mental health. Our findings show strong associations between lifetime and past year experiences of ethnically-motivated interpersonal attacks and unfair treatment on mother's mental health. Māori, Pacific, and Asian women who had experienced unfair treatment by a health professional in their lifetime were 66 % more likely to suffer from postnatal depression, compared to women who did not report these experiences. We found a cumulative effect of lifetime experiences of ethnically-motivated personal attacks on poor maternal mental health if both the mother and the partner had experienced a racist attack. Experiences of racial discrimination have severe direct consequences for the mother's mental health. Given the importance of mother's mental health for the basic human needs of a healthy child, racism and racial discrimination should be addressed.

  2. Observation of prenatal stress-induced depression-like behavior in offspring rats and its mechanism%产前应激孕鼠子代抑郁样行为观察及机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾宁; 孙钦儒; 苏倩

    2016-01-01

    马组织Glu含量及降低GABA、5-HT的水平有关。%Objective To observe the depression-like behavior of the offspring rats from pregnant rats with prenatal stress ( PS) and to investigate its mechanism.Methods Twenty pregnant rats were randomly divided into the PS group and control ( CON) group, 10 in each.From the 14th d of pregnancy ( in late pregnancy) , rats in the observation group were given restraint stress, 45 min/time, 3 times/d, a total of 7 d.Rats in the control group were conventionally fed with-out any treatment.We took 20 offspring rats ( male and female in half) which were born 30 d from each group to undergo sucrose preference test ( SPT) , and calculated the percentage of 1%sugar water consumption in male and female offspring rats of the two groups.Meanwhile, the concentrations of glutamate (Glu),γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin (5-HT) in hippocampus of the rats were measured by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) .Re-sults The percentages of 1%sugar water consumption in male and female offspring rats of the PS groups was 63.13 ± 3.47 and 59.67 ±3.33, respectively, and 79.22 ±7.07 and 78.67 ±4.72 in the control group (P<0.05).Further-more, the concentration of Glu was (24.30 ±1.00) ng/g in the female PS group which was more than that 〔(21.20 ± 0.90) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).Similarly, the concentration of Glu in male PS group was (31.22 ± 1.57)ng/g, which was more than that〔(24.01 ±0.28)ng/g〕 in the male CON group (P<0.05).Contrarily, the con-centration of GABA in female PS group was (7.42 ±0.36) ng/g, which was significantly lower than that〔(13.28 ±0.38) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).The concentration of GABA in male PS group was (8.35 ±0.39) ng/g, which was significantly lower than that〔(9.94 ±0.30) ng/g〕 in the female CON group (P<0.05).Only the female PS offspring showed lower 5-HT concentration 〔(0.27 ±0.02) ng/g〕 as compared with that of the CON group 〔(0.35 ± 0.03)ng/g〕(P<0

  3. Ozone oxidative postconditioning ameliorates joint damage and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress in PG/PS-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Jaqueline Dranguet; Fraga, Angela; Díaz, María Teresa; Mallok, A; Viebahn-Hänsler, Renate; Fahmy, Ziad; Barberá, Ariana; Delgado, Liván; Menéndez, Silvia; Fernández, Olga Sonia León

    2013-08-15

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent chronic condition present in ~1% of the adult population. Many pro-inflammatory mediators are increased in RA, including Reactive Oxygen Species such as nitric oxide NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and other molecules. Ozone oxidative postconditioning has regulatory effects on some pathological targets associated with RA. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in PG/PS-induced arthritis in rats in point of joints inflammation and morphology. Moreover, cytokines, nitric oxide and oxidative stress levels in spleen homogenates were evaluated. Ozone treatment ameliorated joint damage, reduced TNF-α concentrations as well as TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels. Besides, cellular redox balance, nitric oxide and fructolysine levels were reestablished after ozone oxidative postconditioning. It was concluded that pleiotropic ozone's effects clarify its therapeutic efficacy in RA. Decreasing inflammation and joint injury, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β transcripts and re-establishment of cellular redox balance after ozone treatment were demonstrated.

  4. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

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    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  5. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  7. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Learning and Memory Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease-Like Neuropathology in the PS19 and APP(Swe) Mouse Models of Tauopathy and Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Denise Isabelle; Defensor, Erwin; Memar Ardestani, Pooneh; Yi, Bitna; Halpain, Michelle; Seabrook, Guy; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, pharmacological modulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) pathway was achieved using an integrated stress response inhibitor (ISRIB). While members of this signaling cascade have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration, the biological significance of this pathway has not been comprehensively assessed in animal models of AD. The present study investigated the ER stress pathway and its long-term modulation utilizing in vitro and in vivo experimental models of tauopathy (MAPT P301S)PS19 and amyloidosis (APP(Swe)). We report that thapsigargin induces activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) in primary cortical neurons (PCNs) derived from rat and APP(Swe) nontransgenic (nTg) and transgenic (Tg) mice. ISRIB mitigated the induction of ATF4 in PCNs generated from wild-type (WT) but not APP(Swe) mice despite partially restoring thapsigargin-induced translational repression in nTg PCNs. In vivo, C57BL/6J and PS19 mice received prolonged, once-daily administration of ISRIB. While the compound was well tolerated by PS19 and C57BL/6J mice, APP(Swe) mice treated per this schedule displayed significant mortality. Thus, the dose was reduced and administered only on behavioral test days. ISRIB did not improve learning and memory function in APP(Swe) Tg mice. While ISRIB did not reduce tau-related neuropathology in PS19 Tg mice, no evidence of ER stress-related dysfunction was observed in either of these Tg models. Taken together, the significance of ER stress and the relevance of these models to the etiology of AD require further investigation.

  8. Expectant Mothers Maximizing Opportunities: Maternal Characteristics Moderate Multifactorial Prenatal Stress in the Prediction of Birth Weight in a Sample of Children Adopted at Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Brotnow

    Full Text Available Mothers' stress in pregnancy is considered an environmental risk factor in child development. Multiple stressors may combine to increase risk, and maternal personal characteristics may offset the effects of stress. This study aimed to test the effect of 1 multifactorial prenatal stress, integrating objective "stressors" and subjective "distress" and 2 the moderating effects of maternal characteristics (perceived social support, self-esteem and specific personality traits on infant birthweight.Hierarchical regression modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data on 403 birth mothers and their newborns from an adoption study.Distress during pregnancy showed a statistically significant association with birthweight (R2 = 0.032, F(2, 398 = 6.782, p = .001. The hierarchical regression model revealed an almost two-fold increase in variance of birthweight predicted by stressors as compared with distress measures (R2Δ = 0.049, F(4, 394 = 5.339, p < .001. Further, maternal characteristics moderated this association (R2Δ = 0.031, F(4, 389 = 3.413, p = .009. Specifically, the expected benefit to birthweight as a function of higher SES was observed only for mothers with lower levels of harm-avoidance and higher levels of perceived social support. Importantly, the results were not better explained by prematurity, pregnancy complications, exposure to drugs, alcohol or environmental toxins.The findings support multidimensional theoretical models of prenatal stress. Although both objective stressors and subjectively measured distress predict birthweight, they should be considered distinct and cumulative components of stress. This study further highlights that jointly considering risk factors and protective factors in pregnancy improves the ability to predict birthweight.

  9. Pharmacological activation of group-II metabotropic glutamate receptors corrects a schizophrenia-like phenotype induced by prenatal stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrisciano, Francesco; Tueting, Patricia; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to restraint stress causes long-lasting changes in neuroplasticity that likely reflect pathological modifications triggered by early-life stress. We found that the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy (here named 'prenatal restraint stress mice' or 'PRS mice') developed a schizophrenia-like phenotype, characterized by a decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an increased expression of type-1 DNA methyl transferase (DNMT1) in the frontal cortex, and a deficit in social interaction, locomotor activity, and prepulse inhibition. PRS mice also showed a marked decrease in metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) and mGlu3 receptor mRNA and protein levels in the frontal cortex, which was manifested at birth and persisted in adult life. This decrease was associated with an increased binding of DNMT1 to CpG-rich regions of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor promoters and an increased binding of MeCP2 to the mGlu2 receptor promoter. Systemic treatment with the selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., twice daily for 5 days), corrected all the biochemical and behavioral abnormalities shown in PRS mice. Our data show for the first time that PRS induces a schizophrenia-like phenotype in mice, and suggest that epigenetic changes in mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors lie at the core of the pathological programming induced by early-life stress.

  10. Potential in vivo amelioration by N-acetyl-L-cysteine of oxidative stress in brain in human double mutant APP/PS-1 knock-in mice: toward therapeutic modulation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quanzhen; Aluise, Christopher D; Joshi, Gururaj; Sultana, Rukhsana; St Clair, Daret K; Markesbery, William R; Butterfield, D Allan

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia among the elderly. Although the underlying cause has yet to be established, numerous data have shown that oxidative stress is implicated in AD as well as in preclinical stages of AD, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The oxidative stress observed in brains of subjects with AD and MCI may be due, either fully or in part, to increased free radicals mediated by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). By using double human mutant APP/PS-1 knock-in mice as the AD model, the present work demonstrates that the APP/PS-1 double mutation results in elevated protein oxidation (as indexed by protein carbonyls), protein nitration (as indexed by 3-nitrotyrosine), as well as lipid peroxidation (as indexed by protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) in brains of mice aged 9 months and 12 months. APP/PS-1 mice also exhibited lower levels of brain glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in both age groups studied, whereas glutathione reductase (GR) levels in brain were unaffected by the mutation. The activities of both of these antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased in APP/PS-1 mouse brains, whereas the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was increased relative to controls in both age groups. Levels of peptidyl prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1) were significantly decreased in APP/PS-1 mouse brain aged 9 and 12 months. Administration of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor, to APP/PS-1 mice via drinking water suppressed increased protein oxidation and nitration and also significantly augmented levels and activity of GPx in brain from both age groups. Oral administration of NAC also increased the diminished activity of GR and protected against lipid peroxidation in brains of 9-month-old APP/PS-1 mice only. Pin1 levels, GR levels, and G6PDH activity in brain were unaffected by oral administration of NAC in both age groups. These results are discussed with reference to the therapeutic potential of this brain

  11. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  12. Prenatal high-salt diet in the Sprague-Dawley rat programs blood pressure and heart rate hyperresponsiveness to stress in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, James P; King, Summer H; Honeycutt, April D

    2007-07-01

    Several animal models have been developed to study fetal programming of hypertension. One model involves feeding high-salt (HS) diet to rats before and during pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning for 10 days. In the present investigation, we limited HS diet to the prenatal period in an attempt to find a narrower critical window for fetal programming. The HS diet did not result in low-birth weight offspring. In the adult offspring, radiotelemetry was used to assess blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious unstressed state. As adults, the HS offspring were not hypertensive compared with normal-salt (NS) control animals. However, the pressor and tachycardic responses to 1-h of restraint were significantly enhanced in HS female offspring, and recovery after restraint was delayed. This was accompanied by an increase in relative expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus during basal and stressed conditions. There was no augmented stress response or relative increase in CRH mRNA in adult HS male offspring. When challenged with 1 wk of 8% NaCl diet as adults, neither HS male nor female offspring exhibited salt sensitivity compared with NS groups. These data show that a high-salt diet limited to the prenatal period is not sufficient to program hypertension in adult offspring. However, this narrower critical period is sufficient to imprint a lasting hyperresponsiveness to stress, at least in adult female offspring. These data indicate that excessive maternal salt intake during pregnancy can adversely affect the cardiovascular health of adult offspring.

  13. PS Booster - Festive colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    A festive colloquium will be held to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the PS Booster on Friday, 28 September at 2 p.m. in the CERN council chamber. The meeting will be open to everybody. Read more on the PS Booster in the CERN Bulletin and in the CERN Courier.

  14. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats.

  15. Prenatal nicotine and maternal deprivation stress de-regulate the development of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus neurons in hippocampus of infant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC, postnatal maternal deprivation (MD or the combination of the two (NIC+MD to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14 pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG, decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment.

  16. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans.

  17. The importin α subunit PsIMPA1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is required for the pathogenicity of Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; Ding, Fa; Zhang, Lei; Sheng, Yuting; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-09-01

    The sensing of extracellular signals and their transduction into an appropriate response are crucial for the survival and virulence of plant pathogens. Eukaryotic plant pathogens must overcome the obstacles posed by nuclear membranes to manipulate gene expression to adapt to the host challenge. A highly sophisticated mechanism is the use of importins to transport proteins into the nucleus. In this study, we identified a conserved importin α gene, PsIMPA1, in Phytophthora sojae that was differentially expressed during the life cycle of this soybean pathogen. PsIMPA1 expression was lowest in zoospores and cysts but relatively consistent during the other life cycle stages, except for a slight increase at 6h post infection. Silenced mutants Psimpa1 had a decreased growth rate, an aberrant mycelial morphology, and a severely impaired ability to form oospores and sporangia. In addition, the Psimpa1 mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity compared to the wild type. 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining and in vitro hydrogen peroxide tolerance assays showed that the scavenging of reactive oxygen species by these mutants was significantly impaired. Taken together, these results indicate that PsIMPA1 regulates multiple processes during the life cycle of P. sojae.

  18. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  19. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  20. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  1. Effects of prenatal chronic mild stress exposure on hippocampal cell proliferation, expression of GSK-3α, β and NR2B in adult offspring during fear extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Xiaobai; Zhang, Xinxin; Ren, Jintao; Jiang, Han; Wang, Yan; Ma, Yuchao; Cheng, Wenwen

    2014-06-01

    Stress during pregnancy has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of many mental disorders; however, the influence of prenatal stress on the fear or anxiety-related behaviors, especially the fear extinction in adult offspring has been little investigated. In order to investigate how prenatal stress affects fear extinction, which is regarded as a form of new learning that counteracts the expression of Pavlovian's conditioned fear, a rat model of prenatal chronic mild stress (PNS) was used to evaluate the effects of PNS on fear extinction in adult offspring. The expression of hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3s (GSK-3α, β), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs)-2B and the hippocampal cell proliferation in dentate gyrus in the adult offspring during fear extinction were studied. Our results showed that PNS significantly reduced body weight of pups, indicating PNS might induce growth retardation in offspring. Moreover, PNS significantly enhanced the freezing behavior of offspring at the phase of extinction, suggesting PNS impaired the abilities of fear extinction learning. In addition, PNS significantly increased the levels of GSK-3α, β and NR2B, but reduced hippocampal cell proliferation during fear extinction. Taken together, our findings suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy can impair the fear extinction of adult offspring, probably by affecting the neural plasticity of brain.

  2. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K C; Franco, Jeferson L; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C; Dafre, Alcir L; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O; Rocha, João B T; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-02-15

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F(2)-isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F(2)-isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F(2)-isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F(2)-isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at

  3. The ps in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, David W

    2012-01-01

    The decline of ps (pharmaceutical sciences) content and emphasis, especially pharmaceutics in pharmacy education, has been followed by pharmacy practice journals since the final BS to PharmD degree transition of 1990-2000. The particular deficit of drug compatibility, compounding, packaging, reactivity, solubility, stability and storage instruction, and information was a major impetus for the 1996 premier of the International journal of pharmaceutical compounding and the 2011 introduction of the Science and technology for the hospital pharmacist electronic newsletter. The four ps examples provided in this article to corroborate the introduction to Vol. 1, No. 2 of the Science and technology for the hospital pharmacist, which featured Dr. Richard Penna's prudent reflection that biological, chemical, and physical ps facts and knowledge are vital to patient care.

  4. The Beneficial Impact of Antidepressant Drugs on Prenatal Stress-Evoked Malfunction of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Protein Family in the Olfactory Bulbs of Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Roman, Adam; Lasoń, Władysław; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes the growth, differentiation, and survival of both neurons and glial cells, and it is believed to exert antidepressant-like activity. Thus, disturbances in the IGF-1 system could be responsible for the course of depression. To date, there have been no papers showing the impact of chronic antidepressant treatment on the IGF-1 network in the olfactory bulb (OB) in an animal model of depression. Prenatal stress was used as model of depression. Twenty-four 3-month-old male offspring of control and stressed mothers were subjected to behavioral testing (forced swim test). The mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the protein level of IGF-1 and its phosphorylation, as well as the concentrations of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-2, -4, -3, and -6), were measured in OBs before and after chronic imipramine, fluoxetine, or tianeptine administration. Adult rats exposed prenatally to stressful stimuli displayed not only depression-like behavior but also decreased IGF-1 expression, dysregulation in the IGFBP network, and diminished mRNA expression, as well as IGF-1R phosphorylation, in the OB. The administration of antidepressants normalized most of the changes in the IGF-1 system of the OB evoked by prenatal stress. These results suggested a beneficial effect of chronic antidepressant drug treatment in the alleviation of IGF-1 family malfunction in OBs in an animal model of depression.

  5. The Effect of Parenting Stress on Child Behavior Problems in High-Risk Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…

  6. Risk of prenatal depression and stress treatment: alteration on serotonin system of offspring through exposure to Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Siran; Liu, Li; Zhong, Zhaomin; Wang, Han; Lin, Shuo; Shang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Fluoxetine is widely used to treat depression, including depression in pregnant and postpartum women. Studies suggest that fluoxetine may have adverse effects on offspring, presumably through its action on various serotonin receptors (HTRs). However, definitive evidence and the underlying mechanisms are largely unavailable. As initial steps towards establishing a human cellular and animal model, we analyzed the expression patterns of several HTRs through the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into neuronal cells, and analyzed expression pattern in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of zebrafish embryos with fluoxetine significantly blocked the expression of multiple HTRs. Furthermore, fluoxetine gave rise to a change in neuropsychology. Embryos treated with fluoxetine continued to exhibit abnormal behavior upto 12 days post fertilization due to changes in HTRs. These findings support a possible long-term risk of serotonin pathway alteration, possibly resulting from the “placental drug transfer”. PMID:27703173

  7. Developmental model of depression applied to prenatal depression: role of present and past life events, past emotional disorders and pregnancy stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dayan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several risk factors for depression during pregnancy have already been established. However, very few studies have conducted a multivariate analysis incorporating both the major predictors of depression in women, in accordance with comprehensive developmental models of depression, and specific stressors associated with the biological and psychosocial state of the mother-to-be. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cross-sectional cohort design to analyze the associations between prenatal depression and potential risk factors. 693 French-speaking women with singleton pregnancies at 20-28 weeks' gestation were consecutively recruited at Caen University Hospital. Fifty women with missing values were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Risk factors were either extracted from the computerized obstetric records or assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. The associations between prenatal depression and the potential risk factors were assessed using log-binomial regression models to obtain a direct estimate of relative risk (RR. The following factors were found to be significant in the multivariate analysis: level of education (p<0.001, past psychiatric history (adjusted RR=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1;2.8, p=0.014, stress related to the health and viability of the fetus (adjusted RR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.6;4.1, p<0.001, and stress related to severe marital conflicts (adjusted RR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5;3.9, p<0.001 or to serious difficulties at work (adjusted RR=1.6, 95% CI :1.04;2.4, p=0.031. An association was also found with the previous delivery of a child with a major or minor birth defect (adjusted RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.04;4.0, p=0.038. Univariate analyses revealed a strong association with childhood adversity (parental rejection: RR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2;2.8, p=0.0055 and family secrets: RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2;3.1, p=0.0046 and with lack of partner

  8. Effect of prenatal temperature conditioning of laying hen embryos: Hatching, live performance and response to heat and cold stress during laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, S; Durmuş, I; Yalçın, S; Yıldırım, U; Meral, Ö

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of prenatal temperature conditioning on hatching and live performance of laying chickens, and response to heat and cold stress during laying period. A total of 3600 eggs obtained from ATAK-S brown parent stock were incubated at control (37.5°C, CONT-Inc), cyclic low (36.5°C/6h/d from 10 to 18d of incubation, LOW-Inc) or high (38.5°C/6h/d from 10-18d of incubation, HIGH-Inc) incubation temperatures. Hatched chicks per incubation temperature were reared under standard rearing conditions up to 26wk. From 27 to 30wk, hens from each incubation temperature were divided into 3 environmentally controlled rooms and reared at control (20±2°C, CONT-Room), low (12±2°C, COLDS) or high (32±2°C, HEATS) temperatures. Hatching performance, body weight, egg production, and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels and oxidant and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The highest hatchability was for LOW-Inc chicks while HIGH-Inc chick had similar hatchability to CONT-Inc. There was no effect of incubation temperatures on plasma MDA, GSH-Px, activities and T4 concentrations on day of hatch. LOW- Inc chicks had higher SOD activities and T3 concentrations compared to the other groups. Although chick weight was similar among incubation temperature groups, CONT-Inc chicks were heavier than those cyclic incubation temperature groups until 12wk of age. Incubation temperature had no effect on sexual maturity age and weight and egg production of laying hens. From 27 to 30wk, regardless of incubation temperature, HEATS hens lost weight from day 0 to 10, had the highest cloacal temperatures and lowest feed consumption and egg production while COLDS hens had the lowest cloacal temperatures. At day 5, T4 level was higher in LOW-Inc hens at COLDS but it was higher in HIGH-Inc hens at HEATS compared to CONT-Inc. These data may suggest a modification in thyroid activity of hens that were conditioned during the incubation period

  9. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  10. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  11. Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin β-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G,N(G-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3, and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA. In contrast, tubulin α-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment.

  12. 产前慢性应激对子代大鼠学习记忆和海马神经元树突棘的影响%Influence of pregnant rats' prenatal chronic stress on hippocampal dendritic spines and the function of learning and memory in their offsprings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶玺宬; 吴德; 唐久来; 周自云; 朱静; 徐文成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of pregnant rats' prenatal chronic stress (PS) on learning and memory of their offspring rats and its possible molecular mechanisms.Methods Pregnant females were individually restrained for 45 min 3 times a day during pregnancy from day 14 to day 21.Control pregnant females were left undisturbed in their home cages.The rat offsprings were randomly assigned to PS group or control group.Males and females were kept for the study separately.The learning and memory of the developing rat offspring in the Morris water maze were examined.The basal levels of corticosterone (COR) and adreno-cortico-tropic-hormone (ACTH) were analyzed by using radioimmunoassay.The Golgi-Cox impregnation technique was used to compare density and morphology of the CA1 hippocampal dendritic spines.Results The escape latency (EL) to find the platform in the control group was significantly less than that in the PS group in female rat offspring (F =4.533,P < 0.05),and the difference was statistically significant on the 5th day (t =2.788,P < 0.01).EL to find the platform in the control group was significantly less than that in the PS group in male rat offspring (F =6.101,P <0.05),and the difference was statistically significant on the second day (t =3.051,P < 0.01).In the space exploration experiments of the water maze,the retention time observed for the control group and the PS group in the goal quadrant was similar(P > 0.05).The basal levels of the serum COR in the PS group were higher than those in the control group of female rat offspring(t =3.658,P < 0.01) and the basal levels of the serum ACTH in the PS group were higher than those in the control group of male rat offsprings(t =2.319,P < 0.05).A simplified pattern was observed in the CA1 hippocampal dendritic spines in the PS group,showing a less extent of dendritic arborization and the density was significantly lower than that in the control group(t =-3.072,P < 0.01).Conclusions Altered

  13. Long-term effects of prenatal atrazine exposure on physiology, body composition, and stress reactivity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low birth weight in humans is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes in adulthood. Experimental studies have also reported that undernutrition, stress or exposure to glucocorticoids during pregnancy is associated with hypertension, gl...

  14. Long-term effects of prenatal atrazine exposure on physiology, body composition, and stress reactivity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low birth weight in humans is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes in adulthood. Experimental studies have also reported that undernutrition, stress or exposure to glucocorticoids during pregnancy is associated with hypertension, gl...

  15. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  16. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  17. The PS booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The PS booster which accelerates protons from the linac at an energy of 50 MeV to an energy of 800 MeV before injecting them into the main magnet ring of the synchrotron. The booster consists of four superposed rings. In the photograph can be seen the input beam line from the linac and the output beam lines, where beams from the four booster levels have been combined into two beams before final recombination.

  18. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  19. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K

    2008-03-04

    Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood) and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived), difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving), accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving), or failure (despairing), and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  1. Qualitative analysis of low-lying resonances of the dipositronium emerging from Ps-Ps and Ps-Ps* collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, C G

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the channel wave functions is made to clarify the types of resonance emerging from Ps-Ps and Ps-Ps* collisions. The ordering of the energy levels of the states of the dipositronium is evaluated based on the inherent nodal structures of wave functions and on existing theoretical results. A few very probable low-lying narrower resonances, namely the 0+(A2), 1-(E),..., benefiting from the centrifugal barrier have been proposed.

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Low-Lying Resonances of the Dipositronium Emerging from Ps-Ps and Ps-Ps Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Cheng-Guang; SHI Ting-Yun

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of channel wave functions is made to clarify the types of resonance emergingfrom the Ps-Ps andPs-Ps* collisions. The ordering of the energy levels of the states of the dipositronium is evaluated based on theinherent nodal structures of wave functions and on the existing theoretical results. The existence of a few veryprobable low-lying narrower resonances, namely the 0+1 (A2), 1-1-(E), ..., benefiting from the centrifugal barrierhas been suggested.

  3. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  4. Composite Si/PS membrane pressure sensors with micro and macro-porous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Sujatha; Enakshi Bhattacharya

    2009-08-01

    Porous Silicon (PS) is a versatile material with many unique features making it viable in the field of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). In this paper, we discuss the optimization of formation parameters of micro and macro PS with different porosity and thickness for use in pressure sensors. The optimized material is used in the fabrication of composite Si/PS membranes in piezo-resistive pressure sensors and tested. Pressure sensors with composite membranes have higher sensitivity than those with single crystalline silicon membrane with the sensitivity increasing as the porosity increases. For the same porosity and thickness of the PS layer, Si/micro PS membranes exhibit higher sensitivity than Si/macro PS ones. The offset voltage in these sensors is found to be high and can be due to the stress induced in the membrane during PS formation. Offset voltage and stress values are found to be higher in composite membranes with micro PS as compared to macro PS.

  5. Sexual differences of the effects of prenatal stress on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinaseas in the hippocampus of offspring rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Cai; Zhongliang Zhu; Xiaoli Fan; Ning Jia; Qinghong Li; Liang Song; Hui Li; Jiankang Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, reduce hippocampal volume, and cause neuronal loss and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of offspring rats, but the sexual difference of the effects on offsprings is seldom referred to.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of prenatal stress to adult pregnant rats on expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in hippocampus of the offspring rats of different genders.DESIGN : A randomized and control animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the Key Laboratory of Environment and Gene Related Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education between October 2005 and March 2006. Fifteen female and five male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were adopted. Female rats weighing 230-250 g and male rats weighing 280-350 g were used.METHODS: The virgin female rats were placed overnight with adult male rats (3:1) for mating. A total of twelve pregnant rats were randomly assigned to prenatal stress group (PNS group, n=6) and control group (n=6). The pregnant rats of the PNS group were exposed to restraint stress on days 14-20 of pregnancy three times a day, 45 minutes for each time [9,13]. The restraint device was a transparent plastic tube (6.8 cm in diameter) with air holes for breathing and closed end. The length could be adjusted to accommodate the size of the animals. To prevent habituation of animals to the daily procedure, restraint periods were randomly shifted within certain time periods (8:00-11:00, 11:00-14:00, and 16:00-19:00). After birth,offsprings of all groups were culled to 8-10 litters in each group and housed in the same animal room, and kept together with their biologic mothers. The pregnant rats of the control group were left undisturbed. On day 21, after all the offspring were weaned, male and female pups

  6. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  7. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  8. Effects of prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure and maternal stress on postnatal morphological development of hippocampal neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa; Elibol, Birsen; Dursun, Ilknur; Yürüker, Sinan

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months. Ethanol was administered to the pregnant Wistar dams intragastrically, throughout gestation days (GD) 7-20, at a total dose of 6g/kg/day resulting in the mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 246.6±40.9mg/dl. Ten morphometric parameters of Golgi-stained hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule) from CA1, CA3, and DG areas were examined at critical postnatal days (PD): at birth (PD1), at the end of the brain growth spurt period (PD10), in juveniles (PD30), and in young adults (PD60). During postnatal development, the temporal pattern of morphometric changes was shown to be region-dependent with most significant alterations observed between PD1-30 in the CA region and between PD10-30 in the DG region. It was also parameter-dependent with the soma size (except for CA3 pyramids), number of primary dendrites, dendrite diameter, dendritic tortuosity and the branch angle demonstrating little changes, while the total dendritic field area, dendritic length, number of dendritic bifurcations, and spine density being highly increased in all hippocampal regions during the first postnatal month. Moderate ethanol intoxication and the maternal intubation stress during gestation, showed similar, transient effects on the neuron development manifested as a smaller soma size in granule cells, reduced dendritic parameters and lower spine density in pyramidal neurons

  9. Chronic agomelatine treatment corrects the abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of motor activity and sleep/wake cycle induced by prenatal restraint stress in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jerome; Silletti, Viviana; Laloux, Charlotte; Zuena, Anna Rita; Giovine, Angela; Consolazione, Michol; van Camp, Gilles; Malagodi, Marithe; Gaetani, Silvana; Cianci, Silvia; Catalani, Assia; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Mazzetta, Alessandro; van Reeth, Olivier; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaër, Elisabeth; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Maccari, Stefania

    2013-03-01

    Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.

  10. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  11. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal stress from trawl capture affects mothers and neonates: a case study using the southern fiddler ray (Trygonorrhina dumerilii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, L.; Awruch, C.; Walker, T. I.; Reina, R. D.

    2017-04-01

    Assessing fishing effects on chondrichthyan populations has predominantly focused on quantifying mortality rates. Consequently, sub-lethal effects of capture stress on the reproductive capacity of chondrichthyans are largely unknown. We investigated the reproductive consequences of capture on pregnant southern fiddler rays (Trygonorrhina dumerilii) collected from Swan Bay, Australia, in response to laboratory-simulated trawl capture (8 h) followed immediately by air exposure (30 min). Immediately prior to, and for up to 28 days post trawling, all females were measured for body mass (BM), sex steroid concentrations (17-β estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and granulocyte to lymphocyte (G:L) ratio. At parturition, neonates were measured for total length (TL), BM and G:L ratio. Trawling reduced maternal BM and elevated the G:L ratio for up to 28 days. Trawling did not significantly affect any sex steroid concentrations relative to controls. Neonates from trawled mothers were significantly lower in BM and TL than control animals, and had an elevated G:L ratio. Our results show that capture of pregnant T. dumerilii can influence their reproductive potential and affect the fitness of neonates. We suggest other viviparous species are likely to be similarly affected. Sub-lethal effects of capture, particularly on reproduction, require further study to improve fisheries management and conservation of chondrichthyans.

  13. Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Roberts, M C; Bedenbaugh, M N; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Riley, D G; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Amstalden, M; Randel, R D; Welsh, T H

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 were stressed by transportation at 5 stages of gestation and 48 were controls) produced a calf crop of 85 calves. All bulls (n = 46) from this calf crop were electroejaculated every 2 wk beginning at a scrotal circumference of 24 cm until sexual maturity (SM; i.e., 500 million sperm/ejaculate). The initial 11 control and 12 PNS bulls to reach SM were selected for the experiment. Within 7-21 d after reaching SM, bulls were fitted with jugular cannulas, from which blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 6 h prior to exogenous GnRH administration (10 ng/kg BW; i.v.) and for 6 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, and cortisol were determined by RIA. Age and body weight did not differ ( > 0.1) between PNS and control bulls at the time of the experiment. All bulls responded similarly to exogenous GnRH, indicating no influence of PNS on LH or testosterone response to GnRH. More ( < 0.01) PNS (9 of 11) than control (3 of 12) bulls exhibited an endogenous pre-GnRH LH pulse, and more ( = 0.02) PNS (9 of 11) than control bulls (4 of 12) exhibited a pre-GnRH testosterone response to LH. The average concentration of testosterone during the 60 min (time -60, -45, -30, -15, and 0 min relative to GnRH) immediately preceding GnRH, tended to be greater ( = 0.07) in PNS (1.46 ± 0.30 ng/mL) than control (0.68 ± 0.28 ng/mL) bulls. During that time span serum cortisol was lower ( < 0.01) in PNS (4.00 ± 0.91 ng/mL) than control (7.8 ± 0.87 ng/mL) bulls. A treatment by time interaction ( = 0.03) affected testosterone concentrations from time -240 to 360 min relative to GnRH. Results from this study indicate that PNS did not affect pituitary responsiveness to GnRH or testicular responsiveness to GnRH-induced LH secretion.

  14. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  15. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  18. Stress during development alters dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Carroll, C; Kolb, B

    2012-08-02

    The long-term effects of stress during development have been well characterized. However, the effects of developmental stress on the underlying neurological mechanisms related to the reward system are not well understood. The present report studied the long term effects of stress during development on the structural plasticity in the cortical and subcortical regions. Rats exposed to stress during embryonic development (prenatal stress; PS) or soon after birth (maternal separation; MS) were studied for structural alteration at the neuronal level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The findings show that stress during development increased dendritic branching, length, and spine density in the NAc, and subregions of the PFC. PS experience increased dendritic branching and length in the mPFC apical and basilar dendrites. In contrast, a PS-associated decrease in dendritic branching and length was observed in the basilar branches of the OFC. MS resulted in an increase in dendritic growth and spine density in the subregions of the PFC. The effect of PS on neuroanatomy was more robust than MS despite the shorter duration and intensity. The altered dendritic growth and spine density associated with stress during development could have potential impact on NAc and PFC related behaviors.

  19. PS: 10$^{13}$ ppp

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    An intensity of 10$^{13}$ protons per pulse was reached in the proton synchrotron (PS) in a test run held on 10 December. This test was a repeat of the one held on 7 November (see December COURIER, p. 423), finishing the year with a new record and achieving the required intensity set out in the PS improvement programme.

  20. Nonuse of Prenatal Care: Implications for Social Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie C.

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 44 women who did not obtain prenatal care. Identified four categories of reasons for nonuse: women's lifestyles differed from mainstream; stressful events took priority over prenatal care; women attempted to receive care but were discouraged, turned away, or given poor information by service delivery system personnel; and women did not…

  1. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  2. The Impact of Prenatal Stress on the Behavior and Neurochemistry of Offspring%产前应激对子代行为及神经生化的影响及机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德豪; 魏盛(综述); 薛玲(审校)

    2015-01-01

    人类神经内分泌系统在胎儿时期已经发育较为完整,因此生命早期环境对胎儿和新生儿的发育,以及成年后个体行为、情绪和机体功能等都具有深远影响。如果妊娠期间母代受到长期的情绪困扰或压力,可影响子代脑及中枢神经系统正常发育,导致子代智力活动和语言发育轻微受损及行为异常。该文就产前应激对子代的行为及神经生化的影响作简要概述,以期为产前应激相关工作的展开进行理论铺垫。%Human neuroendocrine system has been developed almost completely in the fetal period ,so early life environment has a profound influence on the growth of fetus and neonate ,as well as adult individual behaviors,feelings and body function.If long-term emotional distress or stress happens during pregnancy ,the normal development of children brain and central nervous system can be affected ,resulting in slight damage of intelligence activities and language development and abnormal behavior of the offspring .Here is to make a brief review of prenatal stress effects on children′s behavior and neural biochemistry,so as to lay out the theo-retical foundation of the prenatal stress works .

  3. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  4. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  5. "Yoga Was My Saving Grace": The Experience of Women Who Practice Prenatal Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20% of women in the United States practice prenatal yoga, but there is a paucity of information about the experience of these women. This study examines women's experiences participating in community-based prenatal yoga. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design used focus groups with a convenience sample of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 14) who engaged in prenatal yoga within the previous 6 months. Content analysis was employed to identify key themes and subthemes. Three themes arose: (a) stress and depressive symptoms commonly instigate women's interest in prenatal yoga, (b) prenatal yoga is perceived to be psychologically and physically beneficial, and (c) prenatal yoga is perceived as more beneficial than other group classes. Pregnant women with stress and depressive symptoms may be drawn to prenatal yoga for the psychological and physical benefits. It is imperative that health care providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies with this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. SPS performance with PS2

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E

    2007-01-01

    The upgrade of the PS to the PS2 would allow injection into the SPS at higher energy (up to 70 GeV/c). Possible advantages deriving from a higher injection energy into the SPS include the improvement of space charge at flat bottom, absence of transition crossing for all proton beams and a higher threshold for the horizontal electron cloud coupled bunch instability. Transverse Mode Coupling Instability (TMCI) and vertical Electron Cloud Instability (ECI) thresholds are studied in greater detail. Their dependence on energy is defined in simulations with the HEADTAIL code and the results of this study are presented.

  7. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  8. A note on fuzzy PS-ideals in PS-algebra and its level subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Thirugapillai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new notion, named fuzzification of PS – Algebra, which is a generalization of BCK/BCI/TM/BH/Q/d/KU-algebras, is introduced, along with PS-ideal and we have discussed some of their properties in detail. Keywords: PS-Algebra, PS-ideal, Fuzzy PS-Ideal, Level Subsets, PS-Subalgebra and Fuzzy PS-Subalgebra.

  9. Influence of a prenatal stressor on ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in yearling Brahman heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test whether prenatal stress affects postnatal adrenocortical responsiveness to exogenous adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH) in calves of Brahman cows transported for 2-hour periods at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed yearl...

  10. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  11. The PS Booster hits 40

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Many accelerators’ "round" birthdays are being celebrated at CERN these days – the PS turned 50 in 2009, the SPS was 35 in 2011, and this year it's the turn of the PS Booster to mark its 40th anniversary. Originally designed to accelerate 1013 protons to 800 MeV, it has far exceeded its initial design performance over the years.   The PS Booster in the 1970s. Imagine the scene: a group of accelerator physicists staring expectantly at a monitor, when suddenly a shout of joy goes up as a signal flickers across the screen. Does that sound familiar? Well, turn the clock back 40 years (longer hair, wider trouser legs) and you have the situation at the PS Booster on 26 May 1972. On that day, beam was injected into the Booster for the first time. “It was a real buzz,” says Heribert Koziol, then Chairman of the Running-in Committee. “We were very happy – and also a little relieved – when the beam finally...

  12. Reference: RBCSBOX3PS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RBCSBOX3PS Green PJ, Yong M-H, Cuozzo M, Kano-Murakami Y, Silverstein P, Chua N-H Binding site require...ments for pea nuclear protein factor GT-1 correlate with sequences required for light-dep

  13. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  14. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  15. Childhood maltreatment history, posttraumatic relational sequelae, and prenatal care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or had used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Evidence for Ancestral Programming of Resilience in a Two-Hit Stress Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faraji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously stressful environment, the effects of recurrent prenatal stress (PS may accumulate across generations and alter stress vulnerability and resilience. Here, we report in female rats that a family history of recurrent ancestral PS facilitates certain aspects of movement performance, and that these benefits are abolished by the experience of a second hit, induced by a silent ischemia during adulthood. Female F4-generation rats with and without a family history of cumulative multigenerational PS (MPS were tested for skilled motor function before and after the induction of a minor ischemic insult by endothelin-1 infusion into the primary motor cortex. MPS resulted in improved skilled motor abilities and blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function compared to non-stressed rats. Deep sequencing revealed downregulation of miR-708 in MPS rats along with upregulation of its predicted target genes Mapk10 and Rasd2. Through miR-708 stress may regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activity. Hair trace elemental analysis revealed an increased Na/K ratio, which suggests a chronic shift in adrenal gland function. The ischemic lesion activated the HPA axis in MPS rats only; the lesion, however, abolished the advantage of MPS in skilled reaching. The findings indicate that MPS generates adaptive flexibility in movement, which is challenged by a second stressor, such as a neuropathological condition. Thus, a second “hit” by a stressor may limit behavioral flexibility and neural plasticity associated with ancestral stress.

  17. Psychological Maternal Stress as a Possible Prenatal Risk factor for the development of Cognitive Problems: Neuropsychological characterization of a Colombian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Pinto-Dussán

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an adaptive response that may involve adverse changes in the medium and long term. Research showed that maternal stress during pregnancy may have variables effects on the offspring development. The objective of this study was to describe the cognitive characteristics of children from Bogota- Colombia, whose mothers during neuropsychological consultation, reported stress during pregnancy as the only risk factor. Cognitive profiles are described from neuropsychological assessments, highlighting significant scores in the subtest and global indices of the WISC IV scale. It was foundthat children whose mothers suffer stress during pregnancy have deficits in attention, executive functions and processing speed.

  18. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  19. Prenatal Substance Exposure: Neurobiological Organization at One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge among 1-month old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Study design We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) in 1,129, 1-month infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (i.e. alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). Results Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had the highest HRs and lowest levels of RSA during a sustained visual attention procedure compared with the other three groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the NNNS exam compared with the other three exposure groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal cocaine exposure only and infants with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Conclusions Problems with arousal regulation were identified among infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with both prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, which may place these infants at risk for developing problems associated with physiological and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. PMID:23743094

  20. Inhibition of Ps Formation by Strong Ps Quenchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Shantarovich, V. P.; Mogensen, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    in some detail. The Ps quenching and inhibition constants were found to be 2.6 × 1010, 2.6 × 1010, 1.6 × 1010, 2.7 × 109 M−1 s−1 and 18, 18, 13, 2.5 M−1 for the ions IO−4, MnO−4, Cr2O2−7, and Cu2+ respectively, and the quenching constants for CuCl+ and CuCl2 to be (5 ± 3) × 109 and (12 ± 7) × 109...

  1. Effect and Mechanism of Music Exposure on Fearful Behavior of Prenatal Stressed Rats%音乐干预对孕期应激仔鼠恐惧行为的影响及相关机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱静; 宓秀菊; 刘树青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of postnatal music exposure on fearful behavior of prenatal stressed rats in defensive withdrawal test and the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the amygdala. Methods Wistar pregnant rats were divid-ed in stress group (n=8) and control group (n=8). The stress group were immobilized and bright lighted 45 min, 3 times a day, when gesta-tion 11-20 days, while the control group without any stress. The new born rats from the stress group were exposed in music (SM group) or white noise (SW group) for 45 min twice a day since 1 day after born, and the rats from the control (SC) group left undisturbed. They were tested with defensive withdrawal test 60 days after birth, and the GRPR levels in the amygdala were measured with immunofluorescence and real-time PCR. Results The latency was shorter and the frequence out of the chamber was the most in the SM group of the defensive withdrawal test (P<0.001), while GRPR-positive cells and GRPR mRNA increased in amygdala (P<0.001). Conclusion Postnatal music ex-posure can counteract the abnormal behavior response of prenatal stressed offspring and accompany with increased expression of GRPR in the amygdala.%目的:研究音乐干预对孕期应激仔鼠恐惧行为和杏仁核胃泌素释放肽受体(GRPR)表达的影响。方法 Wistar孕鼠16只随机分为应激组(n=8)和对照组(n=8)。应激组妊娠11~20 d每天将其置于窄小的固定器中并给予强光照射。对照组不给予刺激。应激组仔鼠出生后第1天起,予播放音乐(SM组)或相同分贝的白噪音(SW组),SC组不给予刺激。生后60 d行防御退缩试验,免疫荧光组织化学和荧光实时定量PCR测定杏仁核GRPR及其mRNA表达。结果与其他两组比较,SM组仔鼠潜伏期显著缩短(P<0.001),出小室次数显著增多(P<0.001);杏仁核GRPR阳性细胞计数及mRNA表达显著增加(P<0.001)。结论生后给予音乐干预可以纠正孕期应激仔

  2. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... about the birth.[4]. Over 90% of prenatal stress and anxiety is related to the process ... stress hormones increases and can lead to preterm birth, lack ... Results: The result of this study showed that the parent with a high level of education was more ..... the benefits of educational programs to participants and their newborns ...

  3. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  6. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  7. Cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subat Turdi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Ample clinical and experimental evidence indicated that patients with Alzheimer's disease display a high incidence of cardiovascular events. This study was designed to examine myocardial histology, cardiomyocyte shortening, intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis and regulatory proteins, electrocardiogram, adrenergic response, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and protein carbonyl formation in C57 wild-type (WT mice and an APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic (APP/PS1 model for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte mechanical properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS, time-to-PS (TPS, time-to-relengthening (TR, maximal velocity of shortening and relengthening (+/-dL/dt, intracellular Ca(2+ transient rise and decay. RESULTS: Little histological changes were observed in APP/PS1 myocardium. Cardiomyocytes from APP/PS1 but not APP or PS1 single mutation mice exhibited depressed PS, reduced+/-dL/dt, normal TPS and TR compared with WT mice(. Rise in intracellular Ca(2+ was lower accompanied by unchanged resting/peak intracellular Ca(2+ levels and intracellular Ca(2+ decay in APP/PS1 mice. Cardiomyocytes from APP/PS1 mice exhibited a steeper decline in PS at high frequencies. The responsiveness to adrenergic agonists was dampened although beta(1-adrenergic receptor expression was unchanged in APP/PS1 hearts. Expression of the Ca(2+ regulatory protein phospholamban and protein carbonyl formation were downregulated and elevated, respectively, associated with unchanged SERCA2a, Na(+-Ca(2+ exchanger and ER stress markers in APP/PS1 hearts. Our further study revealed that antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the contractile dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results depicted overt cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction in the APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease model, possibly due to oxidative stress.

  8. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  9. Prevalence and predictors of inadequate prenatal care: a comparison of aboriginal and non-aboriginal women in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Gupton, Annette L; Moffatt, Michael E

    2005-03-01

    Despite the importance of prenatal care, there are no national data and limited provincial data on use of prenatal care by women in Canada, nor is there much information on racial/ethnic disparities in access to prenatal care. This study describes and compares the prevalence and predictors of inadequate prenatal care among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women giving birth in Manitoba. Data were obtained from interviews with 652 postpartum women who delivered a live singleton infant in 2 tertiary hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We identified inadequate prenatal care, using the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index. We used stratified analysis to describe effect-measure modification for predictors of inadequate prenatal care among the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal subgroups. We conducted a multivariable logistic regression analysis for the total sample. A significantly higher proportion of Aboriginal women (15.7%) than non-Aboriginal women (3.6%) received inadequate prenatal care. After controlling for other factors, significant predictors of inadequate prenatal care included low income, low self-esteem, high levels of perceived stress, and Aboriginal background. Women who do not receive adequate prenatal care are more likely to live in poverty, experience highly stressed lives, have low levels of self-esteem, and be Aboriginal. Efforts to improve the provision of prenatal care should be directed toward these women. Racial/ethnic disparities in use of prenatal care need to be addressed.

  10. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  11. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-06-22

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  12. Production Ratio for Para- and Ortho-Ps in Photodetachment of Ps^-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Para- and ortho-Ps atoms are formed in the photodetachment of positronium negative ion. Since the lifetime against the pair annihilation is much shorter for para-Ps( ns) than for ortho-Ps( ns), the production ratio of para- and ortho-Ps atoms is important for the photodetachment experiments. We have derived the ratio explicitly.

  13. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  14. Timing matters : Long term effects of adversities from prenatal period up to adolescence on adolescents' cortisol stress response. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bakker, Martin P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Altered cortisol response is a vulnerability marker for a variety of stress-related diseases and psychiatric disorders. Childhood adversity has been shown to modify this response, but evidence is inconsistent. Effects may differ depending on the timing of exposure, or due to the interplay

  15. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  16. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  17. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  18. Maternal Stress during Pregnancy Predicts Cognitive Ability and Fearfulness in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Modi, Neena; Glover, Vivette

    2007-01-01

    The effects of prenatal stress on cognition and behavioral fearfulness in infants are studied. The findings suggest that mechanisms by which mental development and fearfulness are affected by prenatal stress are different and do not present a consistent relation.

  19. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. PMID:24655090

  20. [iPS cells in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which enables us to produce pluripotent stem cells by introducing a few genetic factors, commands considerable attention in the field of dentistry. These iPS cells may be of particular importance for developing innovative technologies to regenerate missing jaw bones and lost teeth, and there are expectations that several types of tissue stem cells and mucosal cells in the oral area can be used as an ideal iPS cell source. We previously reported that the gingiva, which is often resected during general dental treatments and treated as biomedical waste, is a promising source of iPS cells. In this review, the current trends in iPS cell research in dentistry are outlined, and future aspects of potential applications of the iPS cell technologies to dental treatments will be discussed.

  1. Creative PlayWorks PS2000 Digital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸宇杰

    2001-01-01

    @@ 日本最先推出 Creative的PlayWorks PS2000 Digital虽然还没有在国内正式上市,但在日本已推出有一段时间.Creative对PS2000的上市算是很低调的了,没有第一时间邀请传媒测试,是与其产品的定位有关.事实上,PS2000主要针对的并非PC用户,反而是PS2游戏机,或者DVD机用户.

  2. Mercury and psychosocial stress exposure interact to predict maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O

    2015-03-27

    Disrupted maternal prenatal cortisol production influences offspring development. Factors influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis include social (e.g., stressful life events) and physical/chemical (e.g., toxic metals) pollutants. Mercury (Hg) is a common contaminant of fish and exposure is widespread in the US. No prior study has examined the joint associations of stress and mercury with maternal cortisol profiles in pregnancy. To investigate potential synergistic influences of prenatal stress and Hg exposures on diurnal cortisol in pregnant women. Analyses included 732 women (aged 27.4 ± 5.6 years) from a Mexico City pregnancy cohort. Participants collected saliva samples on two consecutive days (mean 19.52 ± 3.00 weeks gestation) and reported life stressors over the past 6 months. Hg was assessed in toe nail clippings collected during pregnancy. There were no main effects of Hg or psychosocial stress exposure on diurnal cortisol (ps > .20) but strong evidence of interaction effects on cortisol slope (interaction B = .006, SE = .003, p = .034) and cortisol at times 1 and 2 (interaction B = -.071, SE = .028, p = .013; B = -.078, SE = .032, p = .014). Women above the median for Hg and psychosocial stress exposure experienced a blunted morning cortisol response compared to women exposed to higher stress but lower Hg levels. Social and physical environmental factors interact to alter aspects of maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy. Research focusing solely on either domain may miss synergistic influences with potentially important consequences to the offspring.

  3. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  4. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  5. Sulindac attenuates valproic acid-induced oxidative stress levels in primary cultured cortical neurons and ameliorates repetitive/stereotypic-like movement disorders in Wistar rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Cailing; Yuan, Guoyan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Li, Ruixi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants have neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodevelopental disorders, such as autism. In the present study, the possible neuroprotective properties of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were investigated in vitro using cultured cortical neurons with valproic acid (VPA)-induced neurotoxicity, as well as in vivo through the behavioral analysis of rats prenatally exposed to VPA as a model of autism. VPA induced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cell viability in primary cultured cortical neurons established from timed-pregnant (embryonic day 18) Wistar rat pups. However, co-incubation of the neurons with VPA and sulindac reduced oxidative stress and increased cell viability. The rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection with one of the following: VPA, sulindac, VPA and sulindac, or physiological saline, and their offspring were subjected to the open field test. During the test trials, repetitive/stereotypic-like movements for each rat were recorded and analyzed. The results revealed that treatment with both sulindac and VPA reduced the VPA-induced repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and the sulindac and VPA-treated animals responded better in the open field test compared to the VPA-treated animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of sulindac may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autism, suggesting that the upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway disrupts oxidative homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to autism.

  6. Levels of the Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) are altered in the prenatal restrain stress mouse model of schizophrenia and are differentially regulated by the mGlu2/3 receptor agonists, LY379268 and LY354740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Rosamaria; Borro, Marina; Motolese, Marta; Molinaro, Gemma; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Caruso, Alessandra; di Nuzzo, Luigi; Caraci, Filippo; Matrisciano, Francesco; Pittaluga, Anna; Mairesse, Jerome; Simmaco, Maurizio; Nisticò, Robert; Monn, James A; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2014-11-01

    LY379268 and LY354740, two agonists of mGlu2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, display different potencies in mouse models of schizophrenia. This differential effect of the two drugs remains unexplained. We performed a proteomic analysis in cultured cortical neurons challenged with either LY379268 or LY354740. Among the few proteins that were differentially influenced by the two drugs, Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor-β (Rab GDIβ) was down-regulated by LY379268 and showed a trend to an up-regulation in response to LY354740. In cultured hippocampal neurons, LY379268 selectively down-regulated the α isoform of Rab GDI. Rab GDI inhibits the activity of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, Rab3A, and is reduced in the brain of schizophrenic patients. We examined the expression of Rab GDI in mice exposed to prenatal stress ("PRS mice"), which have been described as a putative model of schizophrenia. Rab GDIα protein levels were increased in the hippocampus of PRS mice at postnatal days (PND)1 and 21, but not at PND60. At PND21, PRS mice also showed a reduced depolarization-evoked [(3)H]d-aspartate release in hippocampal synaptosomes. The increase in Rab GDIα levels in the hippocampus of PRS mice was reversed by a 7-days treatment with LY379268 (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), but not by treatment with equal doses of LY354740. These data strengthen the validity of PRS mice as a model of schizophrenia, and show for the first time a pharmacodynamic difference between LY379268 and LY354740 which might be taken into account in an attempt to explain the differential effect of the two drugs across mouse models.

  7. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced personal protection at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier Genoud

    2013-01-01

    Pictures 03, 06, 07 08 : Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system.Pictures 10, 12 ,13 : View of Building 271, the future control centre of the new PS complex safety system.

  10. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...

  12. 渍害胁迫及其恢复对油菜幼苗叶片PSⅡ光化学特性的影响%Effects of Waterlogging Stress and Recovery Process on PS Ⅱ Photochemical Characteristics of Rape at Seedling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗梅; 穆丹; 范志强

    2012-01-01

    With zhongleyou -2 and rongyou - 11 of main rapes as test objects, a pot experiment was conducted to study on PS Ⅱ photochemical characteristics of rapes at seedling stage under waterlogging stress and recovery process. The result showed that minimum chlorophyll florescence (F0) and coefficient of non - photochemical quenching (qN) increased with waterlogging stress exacerbating, maximum chlorophyll florescence (Fin), the maxi- mal quantum yield of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PS Ⅱ photochemistry(Yield), estimated electron transport rate (ETR) and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) had declined. This shows that the partial response center of PS Ⅱ was destructed, and photosynthetic electron transport was obstructed, and the conversion efficiency of light energy declined. It resulted in an obvious photoinhibition. Recovery processed from the 13th day,with F0 and qN declining slightly, Fm, Fv/Fm, Yield, ETR and qP increasing slightly, but all not recovering to control level. This showed that the partial photosynthetic organ had got the irreversible destruction. In the,, end the normal growth of rape had been affected, and waterlogging stress had exceeded the self - adjusting threshold of the ripe body.%以中乐油2号和蓉油11号油菜为材料,通过盆栽试验,研究渍害胁迫及恢复进程中油菜幼苗叶片光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)光化学特性的变化.结果表明:随着渍害胁迫的加剧,两品种油菜叶片初始荧光(F0)、非光化学淬灭系数(qN)不断上升,最大荧光(Fm)、PSⅡ最大光化学量子产量(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ实际光化学量子产量(Yield)、表观光合电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)不断下降,说明随着渍害胁迫的加剧,PSⅡ部分反应中心受到破坏,光合电子传递受阻,光能转换效率下降,发生明显光抑制;从第13d起进行恢复处理,所有叶绿素荧光参数均有所恢复,但仍未达到对

  13. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  14. iPS cell modeling of Best disease: insights into the pathophysiology of an inherited macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchira; Shen, Wei; Kuai, David; Martin, Jessica M; Guo, Xiangrong; Smith, Molly A; Perez, Enio T; Phillips, M Joseph; Simonett, Joseph M; Wallace, Kyle A; Verhoeven, Amelia D; Capowski, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yingnan; Halbach, Patrick J; Fishman, Gerald A; Wright, Lynda S; Pattnaik, Bikash R; Gamm, David M

    2013-02-01

    Best disease (BD) is an inherited degenerative disease of the human macula that results in progressive and irreversible central vision loss. It is caused by mutations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) gene BESTROPHIN1 (BEST1), which, through mechanism(s) that remain unclear, lead to the accumulation of subretinal fluid and autofluorescent waste products from shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs). We employed human iPS cell (hiPSC) technology to generate RPE from BD patients and unaffected siblings in order to examine the cellular and molecular processes underlying this disease. Consistent with the clinical phenotype of BD, RPE from mutant hiPSCs displayed disrupted fluid flux and increased accrual of autofluorescent material after long-term POS feeding when compared with hiPSC-RPE from unaffected siblings. On a molecular level, RHODOPSIN degradation after POS feeding was delayed in BD hiPSC-RPE relative to unaffected sibling hiPSC-RPE, directly implicating impaired POS handling in the pathophysiology of the disease. In addition, stimulated calcium responses differed between BD and normal sibling hiPSC-RPE, as did oxidative stress levels after chronic POS feeding. Subcellular localization, fractionation and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in hiPSC-RPE and human prenatal RPE further linked BEST1 to the regulation and release of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Since calcium signaling and oxidative stress are critical regulators of fluid flow and protein degradation, these findings likely contribute to the clinical picture of BD. In a larger context, this report demonstrates the potential to use patient-specific hiPSCs to model and study maculopathies, an important class of blinding disorders in humans.

  15. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  16. On the crystallization behavior of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers, atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends, and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Liana, E-mail: liana.annunziatta@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Monasse, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.monasse@mines-paristech.fr [Mines-ParisTech, CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7635, Sophia Antipolis (France); Rizzo, Paola; Guerra, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università degli studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Duc, Michel [Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy, Zone Industrielle Feluy C, B-7181 Seneffe (Belgium); Carpentier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carpentier@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-09-16

    Crystallization and morphological features of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers (sPS-b-aPS), atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends (aPS/sPS), and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS, with different compositions in aPS and sPS, have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) techniques. For comparative purposes, the properties of parent pristine sPS samples were also studied. WAXRD analyses revealed for all the samples, independently from their composition (aPS/sPS ratio) and structure (blends, block copolymers, blends modified with block copolymers), the same polymorphic β form of sPS. The molecular weight of aPS and sPS showed opposite effects on the crystallization of 50:50 aPS/sPS blends: the lower the molecular weight of aPS, the slower the crystallization while the lower the molecular weight of sPS, the faster the crystallization. DSC studies performed under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, independently confirmed by POM studies, led to a clear trend for the crystallization rate at a given sPS/aPS ratio (ca. 50:50 and 20:80): sPS homopolymers > sPS-b-aPS block copolymers ∼sPS/aPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS copolymers > sPS/aPS blends. Interestingly, sPS-b-aPS block copolymers not only crystallized faster than blends, but also affected positively the crystallization behavior of blends. At 50:50 sPS/aPS ratio, blends (Blend-2), block copolymers (Cop-1) and blends modified with block copolymers (Blend-2-mod) crystallized via spherulitic crystalline growth controlled by an interfacial process. In all cases, an instantaneous nucleation was observed. The density of nuclei in block copolymers (160,000−190,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}) was always higher than that in blends and modified blends (30,000−60,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}), even for quite different sPS/aPS ratio. At 20:80 sPS/aPS ratio, the block copolymers

  17. The Ames dwarf mutation attenuates Alzheimer's disease phenotype of APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Kendra L; Kulas, Joshua A; Franklin, Whitney; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Taglialatela, Giulio; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Combs, Colin K

    2016-04-01

    APP/PS1 double transgenic mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) demonstrate robust brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide containing plaque deposition, increased markers of oxidative stress, behavioral dysfunction, and proinflammatory gliosis. On the other hand, lack of growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone due to a recessive mutation in the Prop 1 gene (Prop1df) in Ames dwarf mice results in a phenotype characterized by potentiated antioxidant mechanisms, improved learning and memory, and significantly increased longevity in homozygous mice. Based on this, we hypothesized that a similar hormone deficiency might attenuate disease changes in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. To test this idea, APP/PS1 mice were crossed to the Ames dwarf mouse line. APP/PS1, wild-type, df/+, df/df, df/+/APP/PS1, and df/df/APP/PS1 mice were compared at 6 months of age through behavioral testing and assessing amyloid burden, reactive gliosis, and brain cytokine levels. df/df mice demonstrated lower brain growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. This correlated with decreased astrogliosis and microgliosis in the df/df/APP/PS1 mice and, surprisingly, reduced Aβ plaque deposition and Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 concentrations. The df/df/APP/PS1 mice also demonstrated significantly elevated brain levels of multiple cytokines in spite of the attenuated gliosis. These data indicate that the df/df/APP/PS1 line is a unique resource in which to study aging and resistance to disease and suggest that the affected pituitary hormones may have a role in regulating disease progression.

  18. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PS, septum magnet for ejection of antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiprotons circulated in the PS in the sense opposite to that of the so far normal protons (or positive ions). A new ejection system with a new septum magnet was installed in straight section 58 for antiproton ejection, first towards the ISR and then to the principal customer, the SPS p-pbar Collider. Later on, when the PS delivered leptons for LEP, the antiproton ejection system was use for the ejection of electrons.

  1. The Proton Synchrotron (PS) in its tunnel.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    1996-01-01

    The PS accelerated protons for the first time on 24 November 1959. Since then, the intensity of its proton beam has increased a thousandfold, and in the course of its history it has accelerated many other kinds of particles. Permanently rejuvenated and upgraded, the PS is still the central workhorse of CERN's accelerator complex. The combined-function magnets, prominently visible in this picture, are still the original ones.

  2. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see the PS magnet string awaiting the replacement no. 6 magnet.

  3. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  4. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent ...

  5. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  6. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  7. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  9. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  10. Accelerators for the PS neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Steerenberg, R; Gschwendtner, E; Pardons, A; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    A recent memorandum for an experimental proposal [1] was discussed during the CERN PS and SPS experimental committee (SPSC) of April 2011 and at the Research Board of June 2011. The proposed experiment, with objective to investigate the anomalous ν(μ) → ν(e) oscillations, aims at re-using the discontinued CERN PS Neutrino Facility (PSNF) and experimental zones to install a 150 ton liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) as near detector and a 600 ton LArTPC as far detector. This article will summarize the experimental needs, the proposed facility layout, a primary beam production scheme and the requirements for the reconstruction of the PSNF.

  11. PS Main Control Room (partial view)

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Potier (turning buttons) and Bertran Frammery (telephoning) on shift. The 26 GeV Synchrotron and later also its related machines (Linacs 1,2,3; PS-Booster; LEP-Injector Linacs and Electron-Positron Accumulator; Antiproton Accumulator, Antiproton Collector, Low Energy Antiproton Ring and more recently Antiproton Decelerator) were all controlled from the PS control room situated on the Meyrin site. The SPS and LEP were controlled from a separat control centre on the Prevessin site. In 2005 all controls were transferred to the Prevessin centre.

  12. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. These pictures show one of the magnets (no. 19) on the PS locomotive brought back into service for the removal and replacement operations.

  13. Energy Matching Between LEIR and PS

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This note gives an operations procedure based on the PS Tomoscope and Trajectory Measurement System (TMS) to adjust the ion beam momentum at transfer from LEIR to the PS in a way that guarantees a correct transfer between the two machines without any modification of the LEIR magnetic cycle. The method was developed in response to the technical and manpower difficulties that altering the LEIR cycle would otherwise have entailed and is only possible because the liaison frequency to which the two machines both synchronize can be considered a free parameter.

  14. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  15. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  16. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  17. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  18. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η(2) = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014

  19. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  2. The Epigenetic Link between Prenatal Adverse Environments and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundakovic, Marija; Jaric, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal adverse environments, such as maternal stress, toxicological exposures, and viral infections, can disrupt normal brain development and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and autism. Increasing evidence shows that these short- and long-term effects of prenatal exposures on brain structure and function are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to stress, toxins, viral mimetics, and drugs induces lasting epigenetic changes in the brain, including genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). These epigenetic changes have been linked to changes in brain gene expression, stress reactivity, and behavior, and often times, these effects are shown to be dependent on the gestational window of exposure, sex, and exposure level. Although evidence from human studies is more limited, gestational exposure to environmental risks in humans is associated with epigenetic changes in peripheral tissues, and future studies are required to understand whether we can use peripheral biomarkers to predict neurobehavioral outcomes. An extensive research effort combining well-designed human and animal studies, with comprehensive epigenomic analyses of peripheral and brain tissues over time, will be necessary to improve our understanding of the epigenetic basis of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28335457

  3. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  4. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  5. COMPATIBILITY AND PHASE BEHAVIOR OF PS / SBR BLEND Ⅰ. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF PS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yingkun; FENG Zhiliu

    1990-01-01

    The results of this study reveals not only the sensitivity of the compatibility of PS with SBR to the molecular weight (MW) of PS and temperature,but also some other interesting characteristics,i.e.,unusual morphology change during the process of mixing with increase in temperature of specimen preparation observed under optical microscope and double-peak UCST curves for three blends with PS of low MW from DSC data.According to the amount of inward shift of the component Tg's and the broadening of the transition regions, it may be said that this polymer pair is compatible only when the MW of PS is low, and even then there still exists micro-heterogeneity.

  6. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  7. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  8. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  9. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets (no.'s 6 and 19)and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Pictured here are members of the PS team with the replacement no. 6 magnet. From left to right: In the back row, Frédéric Roussel (Transport DBS), Yves Bernard (Transport DBS), Luc Moreno (Cegelec), Thierry Battimanza (Transport DBS), Raymond Brown (AB/ABP), Thomas Zickler (AT/MEL); at the front, Steven Southern (AT/VAC), Thierry Gaidon (Brun & Sorensen), Philippe Vidales (Cegelec), Daniel Aubert (Cegelec), Jerome Cachet (Transport DBS), Jose Manual Gomes de Faria (AT/MEL), Eric Page (AT/VAC).

  10. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  11. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  12. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators´ spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 19) being prepared.

  13. The PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks.

  14. iPS cells and personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    iPS cells and personalized medicine Personalized medicine uses patient's genotype and/or level of gene expression for selection of medication, therapy or preventative measures. One of the best approaches for developing patient specific therapy is to use patient specific cells as in vitro drug testing model. Furthermore, patent specific cells in vitro enriched and modified can be used for autologous cell transplantation for treating numerous degenerative conditions.

  15. Successful online learning the five Ps

    OpenAIRE

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-01-01

    Successful online learning the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK Key learning points An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagementand learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. Online learning poses a challenging experience for learnersand they need support t...

  16. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 6) being prepared.

  17. Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Line Skov; Lova, Lotte; Hansen, Zandra Kulikovsky; Schønemann, Emilie; Larsen, Line Lyngby; Colberg Olsen, Maria Sophia; Juhl, Nadja; Magnussen, Bogi Roin

    2012-01-01

    Stress er en tilstand som er meget omdiskuteret i samfundet, og dette besværliggør i en vis grad konkretiseringen af mulige løsningsforslag i bestræbelsen på at forebygge den såkaldte folkesygdom. Hovedkonklusionen er, at selv om der bliver gjort meget for at forebygge, er der ikke meget der aktivt kan sættes i værk for at reducere antallet af stressramte, før en fælles forståelse af stressårsager og effektiv stresshåndtering er fremlagt. Problemformuleringen er besvaret gennem en undersø...

  18. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  19. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  20. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16ccj with Mayall/KOSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16ccj from spectroscopic observation with KOSMOS on the Mayall telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 05 UT. We classify PS16ccj as a SN Ia near maximum light.

  4. Safeguarding nonhuman primate iPS cells with suicide genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bonan; Watts, Korashon L; Gori, Jennifer L; Wohlfahrt, Martin E; Enssle, Joerg; Adair, Jennifer E; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The development of technology to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells constitutes one of the most exciting scientific breakthroughs because of the enormous potential for regenerative medicine. However, the safety of iPS cell-related products is a major concern for clinical translation. Insertional mutagenesis, possible oncogenic transformation of iPS cells or their derivatives, or the contamination of differentiated iPS cells with undifferentiated cells, resulting in the formation of teratomas, have remained considerable obstacles. Here, we demonstrate the utility of suicide genes to safeguard iPS cells and their derivatives. We found suicide genes can control the cell fate of iPS cells in vitro and in vivo without interfering with their pluripotency and self-renewal capacity. This study will be useful to evaluate the safety of iPS cell technology in a clinically highly relevant, large animal model and further benefit the clinical use of human iPS cells.

  5. Stress: pregnancy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Stress-induced pregnancy complications represent a significant cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality due to preterm labor, low-birth-weight babies, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and neuropsychological developmental delays of affected offspring. Psychosocial factors such as socioeconomic status, work status, marital status, level of education, access to prenatal care, substance abuse, ethnicity, cultural background, and quality of relationships with partners and parents have been identified as determinants of stress during pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model of health and disease aptly explains the interactions of these psychosocial factors in the genesis of stress-induced pregnancy complications. Prenatal screening and intervention for relevant biopsychosocial risk factors may be useful in preventing stress-related perinatal complications. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to describe how stress is manifested biologically, discuss stress and its impact from the biopsychosocial model of health and disease, recognize how stress may lead to pregnancy complications such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and low-birth-weight infants, explain how stress may impact the neuropsychological development of children whose mothers experienced perinatal stress, and demonstrate how prenatal screening and appropriate interventions may reduce perinatal stress and associated pregnancy complications.

  6. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  7. Maternal depression and neurobehavior in newborns prenatally exposed to methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Monica S.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of maternal depression on neonatal neurodevelopment in MA exposed neonates have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neonates exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Design The purpose of the IDEAL study is to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on child outcome. IDEAL screened 13,808 subjects, 1632 were eligible and consented and 176 mothers were enrolled. Only biological mothers with custody of their child at the one-month visit (n=50 MA; n=86 comparison) had the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) administered. The NNNS was administered to the neonate by an examiner blinded to MA exposure within the first five days of life. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS outcomes, with and without covariates. Significance was accepted at p<.05. Results After adjusting for covariates, regardless of exposure status, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower handling and arousal scores, elevated physiological stress scores and an increased incidence of hypotonicity. When adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and higher lethargy scores. Conclusions Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of decreased arousal and increased stress. Prenatal MA exposure combined with maternal depression was not associated with any additional neonatal neurodevelopmental differences. PMID:19059478

  8. Longitudinal study of maternal report of sleep problems in children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; High, Pamela C; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Lagasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow up of cocaine-exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 participants: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups including birth size, caretaker changes, maternal socioeconomic status, and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all ps effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors.

  9. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  10. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  11. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  12. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip osteoarthr......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip...

  13. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  14. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  15. Chemotherapy and quality of life in NSCLC PS 2 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Strøm, Hans H; Sundstrøm, Stein H

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40% of patients with advanced NSCLC are in performance status (PS) 2. These patients have a shorter life expectancy than PS 0/1 patients and they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Data on how platinum-based combination chemotherapy affects Health Related Quality of Life...... (HRQOL) of patients with PS 2 are scarce and the treatment of this important group of patients is controversial. METHODS: A national multicenter phase III study on platinum based chemotherapy to 432 advanced NSCLC patients included 123 patients with PS 2. To explore the treatment impact on HRQOL......: Whereas the demographic data at baseline were well balanced between the groups, the PS 2 patients had significantly worse function and more severe symptoms than the PS 0/1 patients. In response to combination chemotherapy, the PS 2 patients had a more profound improvement of global QOL, cognitive function...

  16. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  17. A New CERN PS Transverse Damper

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, A; Benedetto, E; Caspers, Friedhelm; Glenat, D C; Louwerse, R; Martini, M; Métral, E; Rossi, V; Sladen, J

    2010-01-01

    Since 1999 the PS has been operated without active transverse damping thanks to an increase of the coupling between the transverse planes and the reduction of injection steering errors. Although the LHC requirements are met by these means, a new transverse feedback system has been commissioned to reinforce the robustness of operation and avoid the blow-up generated by residual injection steering errors. This system could also allow the reduction of the chromaticity and reduce the slow incoherent losses during the long PS injection plateau. It could also stabilize the high energy instabilities that appear occasionally with the LHC nominal beam and may be a limiting factor for ultimate LHC beam. Highlights include a signal processing with an automatic delay adapting itself to the varying revolution frequency, a programmable betatron phase adjustment along the cycle, pick-ups that have been re-furbished with electronics covering the very low frequency of the first betatron line and a compact wideband high-power ...

  18. Internal gastargets in AmPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaan, A. P.; Postma, O.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Doets, M.; Kraan, M.

    1997-05-01

    Internal gas targets in AmPS A.P. Kaan, O. Postma, J.F.J. van den Brand, E. van Leeuwen, M. Doets, M. Kra= an National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics; Kruislaan 409; 1098 SJ Amsterdam; Holland In the Amsterdam Puls Stretcher/storage ring AmPS(1 GeV electrons), we designed a set-up in order to accommodate a gas target with a density of 1016 mol/cm2. The storage cell needed for this purpose is a aluminium tube with a length of 40 cm, a diameter of 15 mm and a wall thickness of 25 =B5m. Three sets of conductance limiters on both sides of the target, combined with dry turbopumps are designed to be used as differential pumping stations. These limiters cause discontinuities in the beam path and must therefor be retractable and radio frequency compatible in both positions. Low =B5 materials must be used because of the depolarisation effects of changing magnetic fields. The calculations show that the flow resistance's are sufficient to reduce the load of the getter pumps to a level with which the lifetime of the pump elements remain acceptable. The design of the mechanics and the vacuum system will be explained. Recent results from the measurements after installation in combination with the influence on the lifetime on the beam will be presented

  19. Sofrimento psíquico e trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rosa Salles Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aprofunda questões clínico-téoricas relacionadas especificamente ao trabalho docente e ao sofrimento psíquico a ele relacionado a partir da observação clínica e vivência grupal nos atendimentos terapêuticos ocupacionais realizados no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" (HSPE-FMO. Partindo dos estudos acerca da Psicopatologia do Trabalho de Christophe Dejours, do trabalho docente e do relato de um caso clínico, caracteriza a problemática do sofrimento no trabalho, os sistemas de defesa contra este sofrimento, a ameaça à subjetividade do próprio trabalhador, as representações e conflitos vivenciados no trabalho docente, bem como a relação aditiva estabelecida como uma estratégia inconsciente de sobrevivência psíquica.

  20. Analysis of the status and influencing factors of stress urinary incontinence among community prenatal and postnatal females%社区女性孕期和产后压力性尿失禁情况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子樱; 郝岩; 李爱平; 赵红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and influencing factors of stress urinary incontinence among community prenatal and postnatal females. Methods A tatal of 101 3 - year - after - delivery women from one community of Beijing were recruited and investigated with the Short Term of International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ -SF). Results Among all the famales,41. 58% of them once had stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy or after delivery. The influencing factors of postpartum stress urinary incontinence were age and delivery mode. Conclusion It is common for community women to have stress urinary incontinence, and it is necessary to develop health education for this disease in the community, popularize the disease knowledge and promoting the prevention and treatment.%目的 调查社区女性孕期及产后压力性尿失禁的患病情况及其影响因素.方法 采用尿失禁问卷对北京市某社区101名产后3年内的女性进行问卷调查.结果 41.58%的女性在孕期或产后发生压力性尿失禁.产后压力性尿失禁的影响因素为年龄和分娩方式.结论 社区产后女性发生压力性尿失禁的情况较普遍,今后有必要就这一方面在社区开展健康教育,并对该病的防治手段进行推广.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  4. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  5. KAJIAN INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL (iPS (HARAPAN DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  7. Controlling internal corrosion of oil and gas pipelines : the systematic treatment of pitting sequence (SToPS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, A.; Chu, F.Y.; Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas pipeline industry relies on the use of carbon and low-alloy steels. As such, there is a need to predict the corrosivity of brines containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) when designing production equipment and transportation facilities. A true industry-standard approach to predicting CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) corrosion does not exist, but there are similarities in existing approaches and models. This paper reviewed the Systematic Treatment of Pitting Sequence (SToPS) software program developed by the materials assessment team at Natural Resources Canada to predict the internal pitting corrosion rate of multiphase, oil producing, gas producing, oil transmission, and gas transmission pipelines. The main output of SToPS is the prediction of how long the pipe is safe. SToPS considers the pipeline to be safe until the depth of the deepest pit is 50 percent of the pipe wall thickness. In addition, SToPS predicts pH, wall shear stress, flow regime, as well as the probability of pitting corrosion. SToPS requires details about pipeline properties, production conditions of the pipeline and gas composition in order to accurately predict the pitting corrosion. SToPS calculates the pitting corrosion rate by combining the effect of 11 different operational parameters. This paper explained how each of these components affects the pitting corrosion rate and how to calculate their individual corrosion rates. The paper showed that each operational parameter can alter the pitting corrosion rate. There are currently 2 versions of SToPS, notably SToPS v1.1, and SToPS v2.0 which produces 7 different graphs to help the user understand the corrosion occurring in their pipeline over the production periods. 16 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  8. [Do the quality of prenatal care have an impact on obstetrical outcomes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léticée, N; Vendittelli, F; Ughetto, S; Janky, E

    2013-05-01

    To assess the rate of pregnant women not having accurate prenatal care utilization. The others goals were to assess the impact of an inadequate quantitative or qualitative prenatal care on obstetrical outcomes. Historical cohort study with a prospective data registration. Hospitalised patients at the maternity ward of the University Hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre were eligible if they gave birth after 22 weeks (or≥500g) at home, outside a maternity ward or in another maternity ward. Early postpartum maternal transfers were included but not medical abortions. The principal outcome was preterm birth (before 37 weeks' gestation). Patients without an appointment before 15weeks or without an appointment each month before their delivery represented 27.4% of women (n=2344). We stressed more preterm deliveries outside the maternity ward among the group with an inadequate prenatal care utilization vs. the other group (3,89% vs. 0,88%) (pinadequate quality prenatal care. Our study did not stress a difference concerning perinatal outcomes among women with an inadequate quantitative or qualitative prenatal care utilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  10. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  11. Photoregulated expression of the PsPK3 and PsPK5 genes in pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Lin, X; Watson, J C

    1999-01-01

    The PsPK3 and PsPK5 genes of the garden pea encode protein-serine/threonine kinases whose catalytic domains are closely related to known signal transducing kinases from animals and fungi. The PsPK3 polypeptide is predicted to be located in the nucleus, whereas PsPK5 is a homologue of NPH1, the probable blue light receptor for phototropism from Arabidopsis. We found previously that when etiolated pea seedlings are illuminated with continuous white light, PsPK3 and PsPK5 transcript levels within apical buds decline substantially, reaching their minimum levels within one day of exposure to light. The role of light in regulating the expression of the PsPK3 and PsPK5 genes was investigated further. To gain insight into the rapidity with which expression changes, 6-day old, dark-grown pea seedlings were transferred to continuous white light, and PsPK3 and PsPK5 RNA levels monitored over the ensuing 24 h. While transcripts from the RbcS gene family increase, the PsPK3 and PsPK5 mRNAs decline rapidly to their minimum levels. PsPK5 mRNA declines 10-fold in ca. 2 h, whereas PsPK3 mRNA declines 4-fold in ca. 8 h. We used single pulses of light to elucidate which photoreceptor triggers the negative regulation of PsPK3 and PsPK5 gene expression. To assess phytochrome involvement, etiolated seedlings were treated with single pulses of red light, red followed by far-red light, or far-red light alone. RbcS induction by a red light pulse is reversible with a subsequent far-red light pulse, clearly showing that phytochrome mediates its induction. Likewise, RbcS expression is induced with a single pulse of blue light or a dichromatic pulse of red+blue light. However, none of these pulses trigger the PsPK3 and PsPK5 mRNA levels to decline. Given the lack of effectiveness of light pulses, etiolated seedlings were transferred to continuous light of three different qualities to determine the spectral sensitivity of PsPK3 and PsPK5 gene expression. Exposure to continuous red, continuous

  12. Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation in Ps-H scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasi Ray

    2006-02-01

    To improve the Coulomb-Born approximation (CBA) theory of ionization in positronium (Ps) and atom scattering, the effect of exchange is introduced. The nine-dimensional exchange amplitude for ionization of Ps in Ps-H scattering is reduced to a two-dimensional integral using the present Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation (CBOA). The methodology is extremely useful to evaluate ionization parameters for different target systems and for different types of ionization processes. It is then applied to evaluate the Ps-ionization cross-section and to estimate the effect of exchange on Ps-ionization in Ps-H system. We establish the importance of exchange at lower energy region.

  13. Gender-dependent resiliency to stressful and metabolic challenges following prenatal exposure to high-fat diet in the p66Shc−/− mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Bellisario, Veronica; Berry, Alessandra; Capoccia, Sara; Raggi, Carla; Panetta, Pamela; Branchi, Igor; Piccaro, Giovanni; Giorgio, Marco; Pelicci, Pier G.; Cirulli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic stressful challenges during susceptible time windows, such as fetal life, can have important implications for health throughout life. Deletion of the p66Shc gene in mice leads to reduced oxidative stress (OS), resulting in a healthy and lean phenotype characterized by increased metabolic rate, resistance to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and reduced emotionality at adulthood. Here we hypothesize that p66Shc−/− (KO) adult offspring might be protected from the detrimental effects...

  14. Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The reasons why women do not obtain prenatal care even when it is available and accessible are complex. Despite Canada’s universally funded health care system, use of prenatal care varies widely across neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care found in eight inner-city neighborhoods. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers, motivators and facilitators related to use of prenatal care among women living in these inner-city neighborhoods. Methods We conducted a case–control study with 202 cases (inadequate prenatal care) and 406 controls (adequate prenatal care), frequency matched 1:2 by neighborhood. Women were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay, and were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Stratified analyses of barriers and motivators associated with inadequate prenatal care were conducted, and the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio (OR) was reported when the results were homogeneous across neighborhoods. Chi square analysis was used to test for differences in proportions of cases and controls reporting facilitators that would have helped them get more prenatal care. Results Of the 39 barriers assessed, 35 significantly increased the odds of inadequate prenatal care for inner-city women. Psychosocial issues that increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care included being under stress, having family problems, feeling depressed, “not thinking straight”, and being worried that the baby would be apprehended by the child welfare agency. Structural barriers included not knowing where to get prenatal care, having a long wait to get an appointment, and having problems with child care or transportation. Attitudinal barriers included not planning or knowing about the pregnancy, thinking of having an abortion, and believing they did not need prenatal care. Of the 10 motivators assessed, four had a protective effect, such as the desire to learn how to protect one

  15. Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Moffatt, Michael; Elliott, Lawrence; Sword, Wendy; Helewa, Michael E; Morris, Heather; Gregory, Patricia; Tjaden, Lynda; Cook, Catherine

    2014-07-15

    The reasons why women do not obtain prenatal care even when it is available and accessible are complex. Despite Canada's universally funded health care system, use of prenatal care varies widely across neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Manitoba, with the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care found in eight inner-city neighborhoods. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers, motivators and facilitators related to use of prenatal care among women living in these inner-city neighborhoods. We conducted a case-control study with 202 cases (inadequate prenatal care) and 406 controls (adequate prenatal care), frequency matched 1:2 by neighborhood. Women were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay, and were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Stratified analyses of barriers and motivators associated with inadequate prenatal care were conducted, and the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio (OR) was reported when the results were homogeneous across neighborhoods. Chi square analysis was used to test for differences in proportions of cases and controls reporting facilitators that would have helped them get more prenatal care. Of the 39 barriers assessed, 35 significantly increased the odds of inadequate prenatal care for inner-city women. Psychosocial issues that increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care included being under stress, having family problems, feeling depressed, "not thinking straight", and being worried that the baby would be apprehended by the child welfare agency. Structural barriers included not knowing where to get prenatal care, having a long wait to get an appointment, and having problems with child care or transportation. Attitudinal barriers included not planning or knowing about the pregnancy, thinking of having an abortion, and believing they did not need prenatal care. Of the 10 motivators assessed, four had a protective effect, such as the desire to learn how to protect one's health. Receiving incentives and getting

  16. La estimulación prenatal: Resultados relevantes en el periparto Prenatal stimulation: Results in the peripartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Aguilar Cordero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el proceso gestacional, el estrés prolongado y las preocupaciones que genera este período pueden alterar el desarrollo y la función del hemisferio derecho; de ahí la importancia que se atribuye a los distintos programas de estimulación temprana dirigido a las mujeres gestantes. Objetivos: Determinar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Material: Se realizó un estudio experimental en cinco áreas de salud del municipio de Cienfuegos (Cuba para identificar los resultados perinatales en el momento del parto y de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación prenatal. Metodología: Se efectuó una muestra intencional de la totalidad del universo, correspondiente a una n = 200 embarazadas, entre las 20 y las 28 semanas de gestación. Las variables estudiadas fueron la duración del trabajo del parto, el peso del recién nacido, el apgar al nacimiento, el tipo de parto y la opinión que las mujeres estudiadas tenían sobre el programa. Resultados: En el 36% de la población estudiada, el trabajo del parto fue menor de 6 horas. En el 67,5%, el recién nacido tuvo un peso comprendido entre 2.500 y 3.000 gramos y para el 96,5% de los hijos de las madres estimuladas, el apgar al nacer fue evaluado entre 8 y 9. En el 68,5% de las mujeres que recibieron el programa de estimulación, su parto fue eutócico y el 96% de las mujeres participantes está satisfecha con el programa recibido. Conclusiones: Se ha demostrado que estos nuevos programas de estimulación prenatal son bien aceptadas por la embarazada.During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. Objectives: To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation

  17. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U;

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  18. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  19. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  20. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  1. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  3. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Ohno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1 the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2 the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  4. Electron spin resonance studies on PS, PP and PS/PP blends under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Jacobo E-mail: reyesj@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Albano, Carmen E-mail: calbano@ivic.vealbanoc@camelot.rect.ucv.ve; Claro, Marjorie; Moronta, Delfin

    2003-06-01

    Electron spin resonance studies on polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and on 80/20 PS/PP blends with and without compatibilizer (block SBS), at 7.5 wt%, irradiated with gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h and at integral irradiation doses of 10, 25, 50, 60, 70, 400, 800 and 1300 kGy in the presence of air and at room temperature are reported. Dependence of resonance line width, Hpp, resonance line shapes, K, and resonance line intensity, Ipp, on the integral dose of irradiation is investigated. Nature of free radicals after 10 days of air storage is discussed.

  5. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces damages to freezing temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN, on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers.Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyllImpact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation and their effects overnight at 0, -1 or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A

  6. Design Differences between the Pan-STARRS PS1 and PS2 Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Jeffrey S; Moreau, Vincent; Anderson, David; Burgett, William

    2012-01-01

    The PS2 telescope is the second in an array of wide-field telescopes that is being built for the Panoramic-Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) on Haleakala. The PS2 design has evolved incrementally based on lessons learned from PS1, but these changes should result in significant improvements in image quality, tracking performance in windy conditions, and reductions in scattered light. The optics for this telescope are finished save for their coatings and the fabrication for the telescope structure itself is well on the way towards completion and installation on-site late this year (2012). The most significant differences between the two telescopes include the following: secondary mirror support changes, improvements in the optical polishing, changes in the optical coatings to improve throughput and decrease ghosting, removal of heat sources inside the mirror cell, expansion of the primary mirror figure control system, changes in the baffle designs, and an improved cable wrap design. This p...

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  8. Geniposide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cui; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongjuan; Chen, Tong; Zhang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear early and contribute to the disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be detected extensively in AD patients brains as well as in transgenic AD mice brains. Thus, treatments that result in attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may hold potential for AD treatment. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic properties. However, whether geniposide has any protective effect on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD transgenic mouse model has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that intragastric administration of geniposide significantly reduces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to improving learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Geniposide exerts protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice through suppressing the mitochondrial oxidative damage and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of cytochrome c oxidase. These studies indicate that geniposide may attenuate memory deficits through the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic reagent for halting and preventing AD progress.

  9. Spatio-temporal responses of Arabidopsis leaves in photosynthetic performance and metabolite contents to Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A valuable strategy to improve crop yield consists in the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs. However, the influence of PGPR colonization on plant physiology is largely unknown. PGPR Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN colonized only Arabidopsis thaliana roots after seed or soil inoculation. Foliar bacteria were detected only after leaf infiltration. Since different bacterial times of presence and/or locations in host plant could lead to different plant physiological responses, photosynthesis and metabolite profiles in A. thaliana leaves were thus investigated following leaf, root or seed inoculation with Bp PsJN. Only Bp PsJN leaf colonization transiently decreased cyclic electron transport and effective quantum yield of photosystem I (PSI, and prevented a decrease in net photosynthesis and stomatal opening compared to the corresponding control. Metabolomic analysis revealed that soluble sugars, amino acids or their derivatives accumulated differently in all Bp PsJN-inoculated plants. Octanoic acid accumulated only in case of inoculated plants. Modifications in vitamin, organic acid such as tricarboxylic acid intermediates, and hormone amounts were dependent on bacterial time of presence and location. Additionally, a larger array of amino acids and hormones (auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid were modified by seed inoculation with Bp PsJN. Our work thereby provides evidence that relative short-term inoculation with Bp PsJN altered physiological status of A.thaliana leaves, whereas long-term bacterization triggered modifications on a larger set of metabolites. Our data highlighted the changes displayed during this plant-microbe interaction to trigger physiological and metabolic responses that could explain the increase in plant growth or stress tolerance conferred by the presence of Bp PsJN.

  10. Maternal stress in pregnancy affects myelination and neurosteroid regulatory pathways in the guinea pig cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Shaw, Julia C; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Walker, David W; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2017-10-02

    Prenatal stress predisposes offspring to behavioral pathologies. These may be attributed to effects on cerebellar neurosteroids and GABAergic inhibitory signaling, which can be linked to hyperactivity disorders. The aims were to determine the effect of prenatal stress on markers of cerebellar development, a key enzyme in neurosteroid synthesis and the expression of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits involved in neurosteroid signaling. We used a model of prenatal stress (strobe light exposure, 2 h on gestational day 50, 55, 60 and 65) in guinea pigs, in which we have characterized anxiety and neophobic behavioral outcomes. The cerebellum and plasma were collected from control and prenatally stressed offspring at term (control fetus: n = 9 male, n = 7 female; stressed fetus: n = 7 male, n = 8 female) and postnatal day (PND) 21 (control: n = 8 male, n = 8 female; stressed: n = 9 male, n = 6 female). We found that term female offspring exposed to prenatal stress showed decreased expression of mature oligodendrocytes (∼40% reduction) and these deficits improved to control levels by PND21. Reactive astrocyte expression was lower (∼40% reduction) following prenatal stress. GABAAR subunit (δ and α6) expression and circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were not affected by prenatal stress. Prenatal stress increased expression (∼150-250% increase) of 5α-reductase type-1 mRNA in the cerebellum, which may be a neuroprotective response to promote GABAergic inhibition and aid in repair. These observations indicate that prenatal stress exposure has marked effects on the development of the cerebellum. These findings suggest cerebellar changes after prenatal stress may contribute to adverse behavioral outcomes after exposure to these stresses.

  11. The HARP detector at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gößling, C; Mass, M; Bunyatov, S; Chukanov, A; Klimov, O; Krasin, I; Krasnoperov, A; Kustov, D; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereshchenko, V; Carassiti, V; Di Capua, E; Evangelisti, F; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Brocard, R; Decreuse, G; Friend, B; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, p; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Legrand, J C; Kayis-Topaksu,A; Panman, P; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; van der Vlugt, R; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Ferri, F; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Postoev, V; Bagulya A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Barichello, G; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Laveder, M; Menegolli, A; Mezzetto M; Pepato, Adriano; Dumarchez, J; Troquereau, S; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Iaciofano, A; Lobello, M; Marinilli, F; Orestano, D; Panayotov, D; Pasquali, M; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Bogomilovw, M; Burin, K; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Petev, P; Rusinov, I; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2007-01-01

    HARP is a high-statistics, large solid angle experiment to measure hadron production using proton and pion beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c impinging on many different solid and liquid targets from low to high Z. The experiment, located in the T9 beam of the CERN PS, took data in 2001 and 2002. For the measurement of momenta of produced particles and for the identification of particle types, the experiment includes a large-angle spectrometer, based on a Time Projection Chamber and a system of Resistive Plate Chambers, and a forward spectrometer equipped with a set of large drift chambers, a threshold Cherenkov detector, a time-of-flight wall and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The large angle system uses a solenoidal magnet, while the forward spectrometer is based on a dipole magnet. Redundancy in particle identification has been sought, to enable the cross-calibration of efficiencies and to obtain a few percent overall accuracy in the cross-section measurements. Detector construction, operation an...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  14. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  15. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi

    2010-01-01

    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  16. Motor-Generator powering the PS (Proton Synchrotron) main magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This motor-generator,30 MW peak, 1500 r.p.m.,pulsed power supply for the PS main magnet replaced in 1968 the initial 3000 r.p.m. motor-generator-flywheel set which had served from the PS start-up in 1959 until end 1967. See also photo 8302337 and its abstract.

  17. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi

    2010-01-01

    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  18. Interleaving of beam lines inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The PS ring (section 26) is on the left. The injection tunnel for LEAR leaving from here has increased the trafic in this already busy area where the two Linacs and the transfer tunnel leading to the SPS, ISR and AA join the PS ring (cf. photo 7802260, 7802261, Annual Report 1981, p. 89, fig. 12).

  19. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16chs with SOAR/Goodman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16chs from spectroscopic observation with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 08 UT. We classify PS16chs as a SN Ia near maximum light at z = 0.19.

  20. Transfer line TT70 (electrons from PS to SPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    As injectors for LEP, PS and SPS had to be converted to the acceleration of electrons and positrons. So far, only positively charged particles had been transferred from the PS to the SPS, for the negatively charged electrons a new transfer line, TT70, had to be built. Due to the difference in level of the two machines, the transfer line slopes and tilts.

  1. Comparison of D1´- and D1-containing PS II reaction centre complexes under different environmental conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Tim S; Hanning, Kyrin R; Chua, Jocelyn P S; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Summerfield, Tina C

    2016-08-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, the D1 protein of Photosystem II is the primary target of photodamage and environmental stress can accelerate this process. The cyanobacterial response to stress includes transcriptional regulation of genes encoding D1, including low-oxygen-induction of psbA1 encoding the D1´ protein in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The psbA1 gene is also transiently up-regulated in high light, and its deletion has been reported to increase ammonium-induced photoinhibition. Therefore we investigated the role of D1´-containing PS II centres under different environmental conditions. A strain containing only D1´-PS II centres under aerobic conditions exhibited increased sensitivity to ammonium chloride and high light compared to a D1-containing strain. Additionally a D1´-PS II strain was outperformed by a D1-PS II strain under normal conditions; however, a strain containing low-oxygen-induced D1´-PS II centres was more resilient under high light than an equivalent D1 strain. These D1´-containing centres had chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics indicative of altered forward electron transport and back charge recombination with the donor side of PS II. Our results indicate D1´-PS II centres are important in the reconfiguration of thylakoid electron transport in response to high light and low oxygen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful online learning – the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK jimflood@btinternet.com Key learning points • An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. • Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. • Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagement–and learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. • Online learning poses a challenging experience for learners–and they need support to cope with it. • A key goal to achieve Praxis – being able to put learning into practice. Many of you will be familiar with the three (or more Ps of marketing and even if not, as trainers or teachers you are likely to have used mnemonics as an aid to retention and recall. Mnemonics are especially useful when you need to get the key points to ‘stick’ in the minds of your audience. With this in mind I offer you the 5 Ps of online learning: Presentation, Pedagogy, Promotion, Preparation and Props. What I offer is not new; in fact much of it results from the eleven years of online teaching and learning at The Open University, the £22 million it has spent on research and evaluation 1, and the worldwide community that have been sharing experience in recent years. You can therefore consider these 5 Ps to be a convenient re-packing of the information and experience that can be found in abundance on the Internet. Presentation Good graphic design appeals to the subtle process by which the brain processes information and, as a result, we decide if we like the ‘look and feel’ of a visual environment. Part of liking this ‘look and feel’ is the way the text and pictorial layout can appear inviting and encouraging–a vital aspect of any online learning environment. Another aspect of presentation is how the text reads in terms of engaging the learner and introducing the story to be told–as well as being written in clear and concise English When browsing through books

  3. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Effect of prenatal cocaine on early postnatal thermoregulation and ultrasonic vocalization production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stephen McMurray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cocaine exposure can alter the postnatal care received by rat pups. Such effects could be caused in part by alterations in pup-produced stimuli that elicit early postnatal maternal care. Pup ultrasonic vocalizations are thought to be a particularly salient stimulus, and when paired with other cues, may elicit maternal attention. Cocaine is known to acutely alter thermoregulatory and cardiac function, thus prenatal cocaine may affect vocalizations through altering these functions. The data presented here determine the impact of full term prenatal cocaine exposure , saline exposure, or no exposure on thermogenic capacity, cardiac function, and the resulting ultrasonic vocalizations across the early postnatal period (days 1-5. Results indicated that while sharing many similar characteristics with saline-exposed and untreated animals, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with specific alterations in vocalization characteristics on postnatal day 1 (PND 1, including call amplitude. Furthermore, numerous spectral parameters of their vocalizations were found altered on PND 3, including rate, call duration, and frequency, while no alterations were found on PND 5. Additionally, cocaine-exposed pups also showed a reduced thermoregulatory capacity compared to saline animals and reduced cardiac mass compared to untreated animals on PND 5. Together, these findings indicate that prenatal cocaine may be altering the elicitation of maternal care through its impact on vocalizations and thermoregulation, and suggests a potential mechanism for these effects through cocaine’s impact on developing stress systems.

  5. Solving time-dependent problems by an RBF-PS method with an optimal shape parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, A M A; Roque, C M C; Ferreira, A J M; Jorge, R M N [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Soares, C M M, E-mail: ana.m.neves@fe.up.p, E-mail: croque@fe.up.p, E-mail: ferreira@fe.up.p, E-mail: cristovao.mota.soares@dem.ist.utl.p, E-mail: rnatal@fe.up.p [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1096 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)

    2009-08-01

    An hybrid technique is used for the solutions of static and time-dependent problems. The idea is to combine the radial basis function (RBF) collocation method and the pseudospectal (PS) method getting to the RBF-PS method. The approach presented in this paper includes a shape parameter optimization and produces highly accurate results. Different examples of the procedure are presented and different radial basis functions are used. One and two-dimensional problems are considered with various boundary and initial conditions. We consider generic problems, but also results on beams and plates. The displacement and the stress analysis are conducted for static and transient dynamic situations. Results obtained are in good agreement with exact solutions or references considered.

  6. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  7. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  8. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  9. An Intergenic Stem-Loop Mutation in the Bacillus subtilis ccpA-motPS Operon Increases motPS Transcription and the MotPS Contribution to Motility†

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A stem-loop mutation between ccpA and motP in the Bacillus subtilis ccpA-motPS operon increased motPS transcription and membrane-associated MotPS levels, motility, and number of flagella/cell when MotPS is the sole stator and the MotPS contribution to motility at high pH, Na+, and viscosity when MotAB is also present.

  10. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A.; Miyazawa, M.; Azuma, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. iPS cells: a source of cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2011-02-01

    For the treatment of heart failure, a new strategy to improve cardiac function and inhibit cardiac remodeling needs to be established. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of ES/iPS cell-derived progeny was reported in animal model. Mouse and human somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transduction of four transcription factors, Oct 3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, the low induction efficiency hinders the clinical application of iPS technology, and efforts have been made to improve the reprogramming efficiency. There are variations in the characteristics in ES/iPS cell lines, and the further understanding is necessary for the applications of ES/iPS cell technology. Some improvements were also made in the methods to induce cardiomyocytes from ES/iPS cells efficiently. This review article is focused on generation of iPS cells, cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES/iPS cells, and transplantation of derived cardiomyocytes.This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  13. MECHANICAL PROPERTY RESEARCH OF sPS/PET/SsPS/MTA COMPOSITES%sPS/PET/SsPS/MTA复合材料的力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 祝方明; 林尚安

    2002-01-01

    用保持正常熔体插层法制备了新型的间规聚苯乙烯(sPS)/聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯(PET)/磺化间规聚苯乙烯(SsPS-H)及其锌盐(SsPS-Zn)/11-氨基酸改性蒙脱土(MTA)复合材料,该材料的综合力学性能较未加MTA材料显著提高.加入2份MTA时,sPS/PET/SsPS-H/MTA(质量比为85/15/4/2)和sPS/PET/SsPS-Zn/MTA(质量比为85/15/2/2)复合材料的冲击强度达到最大值,分别为15.6 kJ/m2和14.7 kJ/m2,约是纯sPS的3.5倍,是未加MTA材料的1.5倍.拉伸强度和弯曲强度比未填充材料都提高了约30 MPa.

  14. Photoinhibition induced alterations in energy transfer process in phycobilisomes of PS II in the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Duvvuri Prasanna; Murthy, Sistla D S

    2007-09-30

    Exposure of algae or plants to irradiance from above the light saturation point of photosynthesis is known as high light stress. This high light stress induces various responses including photoinhibition of the photosynthetic apparatus. The degree of photoinhibition could be clearly determined by measuring the parameters such as absorption and fluorescence of chromoproteins. In cyanobacteria and red algae, most of the photosystem (PS) II associated light harvesting is performed by a membrane attached complex called the phycobilisome (PBS). The effects of high intensity light (1000-4000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on excitation energy transfer from PBSs to PS II in a cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis were studied by measuring room temperature PC fluorescence emission spectra. High light (3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) stress had a significant effect on PC fluorescence emission spectra. On the other hand, light stress induced an increase in the ratio of PC fluorescence intensity of PBS indicating that light stress inhibits excitation energy transfer from PBS to PS II. The high light treatment to 3000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1) caused disappearance of 31.5 kDa linker polypeptide which is known to link PC discs together. In addition we observed the similar decrease in the other polypeptide contents. Our data concludes that the Spirulina cells upon light treatment causes alterations in the phycobiliproteins (PBPs) and affects the energy transfer process within the PBSs.

  15. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  16. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  17. Marketing higher education using the 7 Ps framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enache, I. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop the use of 7 Ps framework in the educational marketing field. By presenting several important educational market forces the context of the discussion is revealed. Then the 7Ps framework is used to gather information. One by one the product, price, placement, promotion, people, process and physical evidence strategies are presented. It is shown that each has a particular role when it comes to educational market and the synergy effects are important. The advantages of the 7Ps approach are underlined.

  18. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paublo M,Mario; Bustos V.,Juan Carlos; Ramírez H,Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.

  20. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  1. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  2. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  4. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  5. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure, home environment, and primary caregiver risk factors predict child behavioral problems at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children's developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child's caregiving environment.

  6. New safety training for access to the PS complex areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Since 10/08/2012, a new course dedicated to the specific radiological risks in the accelerators of the PS complex has been available on SIR (https://sir.cern.ch/). This course complements the general classroom-based Radiation Safety training. Successful completion of the course will be obligatory and verified by the access system as from 01/11/2012 for access to the following accelerator areas: LINAC2, BOOSTER, PS and TT2. Information and reminder e-mails will be sent to all persons currently authorized to access the accelerators of the PS complex. For questions please contact the HSE unit and in particular, the Radiation Protection Group (+41227672504 or safety-rp-ps-complex@cern.ch).

  7. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  8. The influence of eleven Ps: An internal marketing and brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of eleven Ps: An internal marketing and brand awareness perspective ... their loyalty and commitment to deliver service excellence to customers. ... the 11 internal marketing mix elements (product, price, place, promotion, people, ...

  9. Marketing higher education using the 7 Ps framework

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop the use of 7 Ps framework in the educational marketing field. By presenting several important educational market forces the context of the discussion is revealed. Then the 7Ps framework is used to gather information. One by one the product, price, placement, promotion, people, process and physical evidence strategies are presented. It is shown that each has a particular role when it comes to educational market and the synergy effects are important. The advantages of...

  10. Motor-generator set of the PS main supply

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    Already in 1964, the PS improvement programme included a new main magnet supply with more power for the longer cycles needed for slow extraction at the full energy of 26 GeV. This motor-generator set was installed in 1967 and took up service at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern electronic regulation, it pulses the PS to this day.

  11. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : Testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; Van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  12. Stressful events and psychological difficulties : testing alternative candidates for sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; O'Donnell, Kieran; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Ormel, Johan; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the longitudinal, reciprocal associations between stressful events and psychological difficulties from early childhood to mid-adolescence. Child age, sex, prenatal maternal anxiety, and difficult temperament were tested as sources of sensitivity, that is, factors that

  13. PS2 integrin requirements in Drosophila embryo and wing morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, M C; Brower, D L

    1993-05-01

    The Drosophila inflated (if) gene encodes the alpha PS2 subunit of the PS integrins. We describe the generation of new if mutations, their lethal embryonic phenotype, and experiments that examine the spatial and temporal requirements for integrins in adult wing morphogenesis. Embryos hemizygous for either new allele, ifA7 or ifB2, make reduced amounts of alpha PS2. In a variety of genetic tests, these alleles behave similarly to ifk27e, which makes no detectable alpha PS2, and all three alleles display the same embryonic phenotype. We therefore conclude that all of the lethal alleles retain little or no wild-type alpha PS2 function. As seen for strong mutations at the myospheroid (mys) locus, which encodes the beta PS integrin subunit, if mutants show extreme defects in somatic muscle attachments and in midgut morphogenesis. Unlike mys, however, there is no dorsal herniation of the if mutant embryos. With respect to wing morphogenesis, clonal analysis experiments demonstrate that if+ function is required only in cells of the ventral wing surface. We have rescued the wing blister phenotype of double mutants for the hypomorphic mysnj42 and if3 alleles using a heat shock-inducible mys+ transgene. By varying times of transgene induction, we find that integrin function is required from very early in metamorphosis until at least the last 24-48 hr of wing development.

  14. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development.

  15. Listening to PS II: enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Harvey J M; Mauzerall, David

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, uses sunlight to split water into protons, electrons, and a dioxygen molecule. The mechanism of its electron transfers and oxygen evolution including the structure of the protein and rates of the S-state cycle has been extensively investigated. Substantial progress has been made; however, the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and of the oxygen cycle are poorly understood. Recent progress in thermodynamic measurements in photosynthesis provides novel insights on the enthalpic and entropic contribution to electron transfer in proteins. In this review the thermodynamic parameters including quantum yield, enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes of PS II photochemistry determined by photoacoustics and other laser techniques are summarized and evaluated. Light-driven volume changes via electrostriction are directly related to the photoreaction in PS II and thus can be a useful measurement of PS II activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the reactions observed can be directly measured by photoacoustics. The apparent reaction entropy can also be estimated when the free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components provides critical information about mechanisms of PS II function. Potential limitations and future direction of the study of the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and oxygen evolution are presented.

  16. The PS will soon be back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The PS's power supply system is undergoing repairs for the accelerator to restart on 26 June. The AB Department's Power Converter Group is working flat out with Siemens to return the PS's power supply system to working order. A problem appeared on the insulation of the power cables of the rotor of the rotating machine (photo) which supplies power to the PS magnets. To prevent more significant damage to the rotating machine, the AB Department, with the approval of the CERN Management, decided to shut down the PS which had started running on 15 May. Everything is being done to restart the accelerator on 26 June. The PS's rotating machine comprises a motor coupled to a generator. The generator's rotor acts like a flywheel, supplying high-power pulses of 40 to 50 megawatts to the PS magnets. The 6 megawatt motor drives the installation at 1000 revolutions per minute and compensates only for variations in speed. It is an essential interface since it would be hard to imagine connecting such an electrical charge, p...

  17. The new heart of the PS is beating strongly

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    The PS has resumed operation with a brand new electrical power system called POPS; this enormous system comprising power electronics and capacitors is crucial because if it broke down practically no particles would be able to circulate at CERN. As soon as it started, POPS passed all the tests with flying colours and is now pulsing at full power.   The new PS power system is made up of 6 containers, each with 60 tonnes of capacitors and 8 power converters. The date 11/02/11 will always be remembered with affection by the engineers in the Electrical Power Converters Group. At 11:11 in the morning (no joke), the first beams powered by the new system began to circulate in the PS. The cutely-named POPS (POwer for PS) took over from the old rotating machine that had been working since 1968. From now on it will be POPS that supplies the PS main magnets with the electrical pulses needed to accelerate the beams for the LHC and all CERN's other facilities. The system is crucial as the PS is one of the lyn...

  18. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  19. Toughening mechanisms in melt manipulated thermoplastics (PS and PC) and in novel modified epoxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydro, Ryan Michael

    This study examined the deformation mechanisms associated with the fatigue and fracture of polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) processed using a novel polymer melt manipulation technique, vibration-assisted injection molding (VAIM), as well as the toughening mechanisms of several epoxy resins modified with several novel block co-polymers. VAIM processed PS was found to possess a tensile strength 28% greater than conventionally processed PS, which is in agreement with previous research. The increase in tensile strength is due to the higher craze initiation stress required to overcome the thicker "frozen in" layer of the VAIM processed specimens. Also, the residual orientation present in VAIM specimens appears to retard craze propagation and this is evident by shear banding. Unfortunately, VAIM processed PS did not result in a fatigue lifetime improvement. In fatigue, the PS specimens processed either way usually resulted in the initiation and propagation of a single "killer craze" that caused failure. In contrast, the VAIM processed PC did not exhibit a significant improvement in tensile strength compared against the conventionally molded specimens. In cyclic loading, for the two stress levels examined, both the VAIM and conventional PC specimens were found to perform equally---when examining the average lifetimes and their corresponding standard deviations. In addition, this work studied the deformation mechanisms associated with novel block co-polymer modified epoxies. It was found that the plane strain fracture toughness, KIC, was on the order of 3.0MPa√m for the NanoStrength(TM) E20 modified AEP and PIP cured systems, which is comparable to micro-segregated core-shell particles. Toughness improvements significantly depended on cross-link density of the epoxy matrix, curing agent, and on the amount of polybutadiene present in the toughening agents examined. The system with the highest, KIC, was selected to make a conductive adhesive using 30nm diameter Ag

  20. BRAIN DAMAGE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD: MELATONIN AS A NEUROPROTECTIVE NEW DRUG

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    S. Perrone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal factors represent the main determinants of hypoxicischemic encephalopathy (HIE rather than intra- or post-partum conditions in perinatal period. Oxidative stress (OS plays a key role in perinatal brain damage. The development of therapeutic strategies to improve the outcomes of babies with HIE is still mandatory. Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin as a neuroprotective drug. To investigate the influence of Melatonin on the OS biomarkers production in an animal model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Methods: 30 rat pups were subjected to ligation of the right common carotid artery and exposed for 2.5 hours at an hypoxic condition. A group of 15 rats was administered melatonin at a dose of 15 mg/kg 5 minutes after the procedure (Mel GROUP. At the same time 15 rats received placebo (HI GROUP. A group of 5 healthy rats was used as sham operated (S GROUP. Isoprostanes (IsoPs, neuroprostanes (NPs and neurofurans (NFs, all markers of OS were measured at 1, 24 and 48 h from ischemic injury in homogenized cerebral cortex of the two sides, right (hypoxia and ischemia and left (hypoxia. Results: In the HI group were observed: a significant increase of IsoPs on the left side of cortex after 1 h from HI injury (p<0.001; a significant increase of NPs on both sides after 24 h (p<0.05 and a significant increase of NFs on the left (p<0.05 after 24 h. After 48 h in the Mel group was observed a significant increase of IsoPs on the left (p<0.05 and of NPs on both sides of cerebral cortex (p<0.05. Conclusions: Melatonin reduces OS biomarkers in cerebral cortex of HI rats after 24 h from its administration. The drug is no longer effective after 48 h. These results lay the groundwork for future clinical studies in infants.

  1. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

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    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  2. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  3. Mechanism of H2S Oxidation by the Dissimilatory Perchlorate-Reducing Microorganism Azospira suillum PS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta-Kolte, Misha G.; Loutey, Dana; Wang, Ouwei; Youngblut, Matthew D.; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Conrad, Mark E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic and biochemical basis of perchlorate-dependent H2S oxidation (PSOX) was investigated in the dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing microorganism (DPRM) Azospira suillum PS (PS). Previously, it was shown that all known DPRMs innately oxidize H2S, producing elemental sulfur (So). Although the process involving PSOX is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG°′ = −206 kJ ⋅ mol−1 H2S), the underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms are currently unknown. Interestingly, H2S is preferentially utilized over physiological electron donors such as lactate or acetate although no growth benefit is obtained from the metabolism. Here, we determined that PSOX is due to a combination of enzymatic and abiotic interactions involving reactive intermediates of perchlorate respiration. Using various approaches, including barcode analysis by sequencing (Bar-seq), transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), and proteomics, along with targeted mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we identified all facets of PSOX in PS. In support of our proposed model, deletion of identified upregulated PS genes traditionally known to be involved in sulfur redox cycling (e.g., Sox, sulfide:quinone reductase [SQR]) showed no defect in PSOX activity. Proteomic analysis revealed differential abundances of a variety of stress response metal efflux pumps and divalent heavy-metal transporter proteins, suggesting a general toxicity response. Furthermore, in vitro biochemical studies demonstrated direct PSOX mediated by purified perchlorate reductase (PcrAB) in the absence of other electron transfer proteins. The results of these studies support a model in which H2S oxidation is mediated by electron transport chain short-circuiting in the periplasmic space where the PcrAB directly oxidizes H2S to So. The biogenically formed reactive intermediates (ClO2− and O2) subsequently react with additional H2S, producing polysulfide and So as end products. PMID:28223460

  4. The study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by PS-OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Weightman, Alan; Wimpenny, Ian; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Ahearne, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Tendons are load-bearing collagenous tissues consisting mainly of type I collagen and various proteoglycans (PGs) including decorin and versican. It is widely accepted that highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons a play critical role for transferring tensile stress and demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. Tendinopathy (defined as a syndrome of tendon pain, tenderness and swelling that affects the normal function of the tissue) is a common disease associated with sporting injuries or degeneration. PG's are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathy. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between proteoglycan content/location and birefringent properties of tendons. Tendons dissected from freshly slaughtered chickens were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarizing light microscope during the extraction of PGs or glycosaminoglycans using established protocols (guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) or proteinase K solution). The macroscopic and microscopic time lapsed images are complimentary; mutually demonstrating that there was a higher concentration of PG's in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles; and the integrity of the sheath affected extraction process and the OCT birefringence bands. Extraction of PGs using GuHCl disturbed the organization of local collagen bundles, which corresponded to a reduction in the frequency of birefringence bands and the band width by PS-OCT. The feature of OCT penetration depth helped us to define the heterogeneous distribution of PG's in tendon, which was complimented by polarizing light microscopy. The results provide new insight of tendon structure and also demonstrate a great potential for using PS-OCT as a

  5. Current issues and perspectives in prenatal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison JC

    2011-05-01

    intrauterine growth restriction. There is not enough evidence to support routine use of antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E during pregnancy, but coenzyme Q10 and lycopene are additional antioxidants under study and are yielding promising results by decreasing the occurrence of maternal complications.Keywords: prenatal nutrition, oxidative stress, coenzyme Q10, lycopene

  6. The prenatal roots of music

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    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  7. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  8. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  9. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  10. Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Wonder if you need to take prenatal vitamins? Which brand is best? Or what ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-vitamins/art- ...

  11. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  12. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  13. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  14. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  15. Early-life Stress Impacts the Developing Hippocampus and Primes Seizure Occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tung eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed.

  16. The function of PS integrins in Drosophila wing morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, M; DiAntonio, A; Leptin, M

    1989-12-01

    Integrins are found on many cell types during the development of most organisms. In Drosophila their functions can be analysed genetically. An analysis of lethal mutations in a PS integrin gene showed that the integrins were required for muscle attachment and for certain cell sheet migrations during embryogenesis. In this paper we use viable mutations in integrin component genes to look at integrin function in the later stages of development of one adult structure, the wing. We show that two known viable mutations, one which has its primary effect on the fly's escape response, the other on wing morphogenesis, are mutations in the beta and PS2alpha subunits, respectively, of the PS integrins. The mutation non-jumper (mys(mj42)) in the beta subunit leads to wasting of the thoracic jump muscles. Flies in which the dosage of this allele is reduced (and no wildtype copy is present) show defects also in wing morphogenesis. The two surfaces of the wing fail to connect properly, resulting in 'blistering' of the wing and the formation of extra crossveins. The mutation in the gene for the PS2alpha integrin subunit, inflated, also leads to a failure in wing surface apposition and consequent wing blistering. When the two mutations are combined, the mutant phenotype is greatly enhanced. Thus, one of the roles of the PS integrins in late Drosophila development is to ensure the correct apposition and patterning of the wing epithelia.

  17. Cs0.49NbPS6

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    Hoseop Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quaternary thiophosphate, Cs0.49NbPS6, caesium hexathioniobiophosphate(V, has been synthesized by the reactive halide flux method. The title compound is isotypic with Rb0.46TaPS6 and is made up of a bicapped trigonal–biprismatic [Nb2S12] unit and a tetrahedral [PS4] group. The [Nb2S12] units linked by the [PS4] tetrahedra form infinite chains, yielding a three-dimensional network with rather large van der Waals gaps along the c axis in which the disordered Cs+ ions reside. The electrons released by the Cs atoms are transferred to the pairwise niobium metal site and there are substantial intermetallic Nb—Nb bonding interactions. This leads to a significant decrease of the intermetallic distance in the title compound compared to that in TaPS6. The classical charge balance of the title compound may be represented as [Cs+]0.49[Nb4.51+][P5+][S2−]4[S22−].

  18. Study of Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/n-Si/p-Si and n-PS/p-PS/Si%TiO2/n-Si/p-Si及n-PS/p-PS/Si的光伏特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向梅; 贾振红; 涂楚辙

    2007-01-01

    在抛光的p型单晶硅上通过扩散工艺制备pn结,采用此种硅片利用阳极腐蚀法制备多孔硅(PS).用磁控溅射镀膜机在有pn结的单晶硅表面镀上一层TiO2纳米结构薄膜,并用表面光电压谱(SPS)研究了n-PS/p-PS/Si和TiO2/n-Si/p-Si的表面光伏特性.结果表明TiO2/n-Si/p-Si和n-PS/p-PS/Si的光伏效应比n-Si/p-Si在不同程度上有所提高.在300~600 ℃热处理温度范围内TiO2/n-Si/p-Si的光伏效应随温度的升高而增强,600~800 ℃范围内随温度的升高而降低.

  19. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  20. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.