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Sample records for prenatal stress anxiety

  1. The Relations Between Maternal Prenatal Anxiety or Stress and Child's Early Negative Reactivity or Self-Regulation: A Systematic Review.

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    Korja, Riikka; Nolvi, Saara; Grant, Kerry Ann; McMahon, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    In the present review, we examine the association between maternal prenatal stress or anxiety and children's early negative reactivity or self-regulation. The review includes 32 studies that focus on pregnancy-related anxiety, state or trait anxiety, perceived stress, and stressful life events in relation to child's crying, temperament, or behavior during the first 2 years of life. We searched four electronic databases and 32 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three studies found an association between maternal prenatal anxiety or stress and a child's negative reactivity or self-regulation, and typically the effect sizes varied from low to moderate. The association was found regardless of the form of prenatal stress or anxiety and the trimester in which the prenatal stress or anxiety was measured. In conclusion, several forms of prenatal anxiety and stress may increase the risk of emotional and self-regulatory difficulties during the first 2 years of life.

  2. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

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    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice.

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    Balsevich, Georgia; Baumann, Valentin; Uribe, Andres; Chen, Alon; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. We used a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity to investigate whether maternal obesity affects the response to adult chronic stress exposure in young adult (3-month-old) and aged adult (12-month-old) offspring. Long-lasting, delayed impairments to anxiety-like behaviors and stress coping strategies resulted on account of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity. Although maternal obesity did not change the offspring's behavioral response to chronic stress per se, we demonstrate that the behavioral outcomes induced by prenatal exposure to maternal obesity parallel the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure in aged male mice. We found that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, Nr3c1) is upregulated in various hypothalamic nuclei on account of maternal obesity. In addition, gene expression of a known regulator of the GR, FKBP51, is increased specifically within the paraventricular nucleus. These findings indicate that maternal obesity parallels the deleterious effects of adult chronic stress exposure, and furthermore identifies GR/FKBP51 signaling as a novel candidate pathway regulated by maternal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prenatal exposure to noise stress: anxiety, impaired spatial memory, and deteriorated hippocampal plasticity in postnatal life.

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    Barzegar, Marzieh; Sajjadi, Fatemeh Sadat; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Hamidi, Gholamali; Salami, Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Sound pollution is known as an annoying phenomenon in modern life. Especially, development of organisms during fetal life is more sensitive to environmental tensions. To address a link between the behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of brain function with action of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in stressed animals, this study was carried out on the male Wistar rats prenatally exposed to sound stress. Groups of pregnant rats were exposed to noise stress for 1, 2, and 4 hour(s). The degree of anxiety and the spatial memory were evaluated by elevated plus maze and Morris water maze, respectively. Basic synaptic activity and long-term potentiation (LTP) induction were assessed in the CA3-CA1 pathway of hippocampus. The serum level of corticosterone was measured in the pregnant mothers and the offspring. The behavioral experiments appeared that the stressed animals performed considerably weaker than the control rats. The prenatal stress negatively affected the basic synaptic responses and led to a lower level of LTP. The pregnant animals showed an increased serum corticosterone in comparison with the nonpregnant females. Also the offspring exposed to the noise stress had a more elevated level of corticosterone than the control rats. Our findings indicate that the corticosterone concentration changes markedly coincides the results of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments. We conclude that, similar to other environmental stresses, the sound stress during fetal life efficiently disturbs both cognitive abilities and synaptic activities. The changes in action of HPA axis may contribute to problems of the brain function in the prenatally stress exposed animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sleep in prenatally restraint stressed rats, a model of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

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    Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Gatta, Eleonora; Marrocco, Jordan; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Consolazione, Michol; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) can induce persisting changes in individual's development. PRS increases anxiety and depression-like behaviors and induces changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult PRS rats after exposure to stress. Since adaptive capabilities also depend on temporal organization and synchronization with the external environment, we studied the effects of PRS on circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, that are parameters altered in depression. Using a restraint stress during gestation, we showed that PRS induced phase advances in hormonal/behavioral circadian rhythms in adult rats, and an increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep, positively correlated to plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma corticosterone levels were also correlated with immobility in the forced swimming test, indicating a depressive-like profile in the PRS rats. We observed comorbidity with anxiety-like profile on PRS rats that was correlated with a reduced release of glutamate in the ventral hippocampus. Pharmacological approaches aimed at modulating glutamate release may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat stress-related disorders. Finally, since depressed patients exhibit changes in HPA axis activity and in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the paradoxical sleep regulation, we suggest that PRS could represent an original animal model of depression.

  6. Effects of prenatal stress on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors are sex-specific in prepubertal rats.

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    Iturra-Mena, Ann Mary; Arriagada-Solimano, Marcia; Luttecke-Anders, Ariane; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2018-05-17

    The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction. We also assessed maternal behaviors and two stress markers: basal vs. acute-evoked stress levels of serum corticosterone and body weight gain. Prenatal stress did not affect the maternal behavior, while both female and male offspring had higher body weight gain. On the other hand, lower levels of corticosterone after acute stress stimulation as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were only evident in stressed males compared to control males. These results suggest that prenatal stress induced sex-specific effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and on behavior during prepuberty. The HPA axis of prenatally stressed male rats was less active compared to control males, as well as they were more anxious and experienced depressive-like behaviors. Our results can be useful to study the neurobiological basis of childhood depression at a pre-clinical level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Obesity Alters Anxiety and Stress Coping Behaviors in Aged Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Balsevich, G.; Baumann, V.; Uribe, A.; Chen, A.; Schmidt, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that maternal obesity and prenatal exposure to a high-fat diet program fetal development to regulate the physiology and behavior of the offspring in adulthood. Yet the extent to which the maternal dietary environment contributes to adult disease vulnerability remains unclear. In the current study we tested whether prenatal exposure to maternal obesity increases the offspring's vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used a mouse...

  8. Prenatal stress produces anxiety prone female offspring and impaired maternal behaviour in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Donald, Ramona D; Robson, Sheena K; Ison, Sarah H; Jarvis, Susan; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2014-04-22

    Numerous studies have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) can have profound effects on postnatal well-being. Here, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used to investigate PNS effects owing to the direct relevance for farm animal welfare and the developing status of the pig as a large animal model in translational research. Pregnant primiparous sows were exposed, in mid-gestation, to either a social stressor (mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics) or were kept in stable social groups. The ratio of levels of mRNAs for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors 1 and 2 in the amygdala, measured for the first time in the pig, was substantially increased in 10-week-old female, but not male, PNS progeny indicating a neurobiological propensity for anxiety-related behaviour. Mature female offspring were observed at parturition in either a behaviourally restrictive crate or open pen. Such PNS sows showed abnormal maternal behaviour in either environment, following the birth of their first piglet. They spent more time lying ventrally, more time standing and showed a higher frequency of posture changes. They were also more reactive towards their piglets, and spent longer visually attending to their piglets compared to controls. Associated with this abnormal maternal care, piglet mortality was increased in the open pen environment, where protection for piglets is reduced. Overall, these data indicate that PNS females have their brain development shifted towards a pro-anxiety phenotype and that PNS can be causally related to subsequent impaired maternal behaviour in adult female offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Monochorionicity and Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome on Prenatal Attachment, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

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    Beauquier-Maccotta, Berengere; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Picquet, Anne-Laure; Carrier, Aude; Bussières, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Monochronioric (MC) twin pregnancies are considered as high-risk pregnancies with potential complications requiring in-utero interventions. We aimed to assess prenatal attachment, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms in MC pregnancies complicated with Twin-To-Twin-transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in comparison to uncomplicated monochorionic (UMC) and dichorionic pregnancies (DC). Auto-questionnaires were filled out at diagnosis of TTTS and at successive milestones. Prenatal attachment, PTSD, anxiety and perinatal depression were evaluated respectively by the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) completed for each twin, the Post-traumatic Checklist Scale (PCLS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS). There was no significant difference in the PAI scores between the two twins. In the DC and UMC groups, PAI scores increased throughout pregnancy, whilst it didn't for TTTS group. TTTS and DC had a similar prenatal attachment while MC mothers expressed a significantly higher attachment to their fetuses and expressed it earlier. At the announcement of TTTS, 72% of the patients present a score over the threshold at the EPDS Scale, with a higher score for TTTS than for DC (p = 0.005), and UMC (p = 0.007) at the same GA. 30% of mothers in TTTS group have PTSD during pregnancy. 50% of TTTS- patients present an anxiety score over the threshold (STAI-Scale), with a score significantly higher in TTTS than in UMC (panxiety and an alteration of the prenatal attachment. These results should guide the psychological support provided to these patients.

  10. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

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    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  11. Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress.

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    Laloux, Charlotte; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Giovine, Angela; Branchi, Igor; Bouret, Sebastien; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Bergonzelli, Gabriela; Malagodi, Marithé; Gradini, Roberto; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Maccari, Stefania

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ("PRS rats") represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration and anxiety behaviors in adult rat offspring.

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    Nakhjiri, Elnaz; Saboory, Ehsan; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Rasmi, Yousef; Khalafkhani, Davod

    2017-03-01

    Stressful events and exposure to opiates during gestation have important effects on the later mental health of the offspring. Anxiety is among the most common mental disorders. The present study aimed to identify effects of prenatal restraint stress and morphine co-administration on plasma vasopressin concentration (PVC) and anxiety behaviors in rats. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 6, each): saline, morphine, stress + saline and stress + morphine treatment. The stress procedure consisted of restraint twice per day, two hours per session, for three consecutive days starting on day 15 of pregnancy. Rats in the saline and morphine groups received either 0.9% saline or morphine intraperitoneally on the same days. In the morphine/saline + stress groups, rats were exposed to restraint stress and received either morphine or saline intraperitoneally. All offspring were tested in an elevated plus maze (EPM) on postnatal day 90 (n = 6, each sex), and anxiety behaviors of each rat were recorded. Finally, blood samples were collected to determine PVC. Prenatal morphine exposure reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of prenatal stress and morphine increased locomotor activity (LA) and PVC. PVC was significantly lower in female offspring of the morphine and morphine + stress groups compared with males in the same group, but the opposite was seen in the saline + stress group. These data emphasize the impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine development, with long-term changes in anxiety-like behaviors and vasopressin secretion. These changes are sex specific, indicating differential impact of prenatal stress and morphine on fetal neuroendocrine system development. Lay Summary Pregnant women are sometimes exposed to stressful and painful conditions which may lead to poor outcomes for offspring. Opiates may provide pain and stress relief to these mothers. In this study, we used an experimental model of

  13. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

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    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  14. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  15. Postnatal Treadmill Exercise Alleviates Prenatal Stress-Induced Anxiety in Offspring Rats by Enhancing Cell Proliferation Through 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A Receptor Activation

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    Sam Jun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stress during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of anxiety-related disorders in offspring later in life. The effects of treadmill exercise on anxiety-like behaviors and hippocampal cell proliferation were investigated using rats exposed to prenatal stress. Methods: Exposure of pregnant rats to a hunting dog in an enclosed room was used to induce stress. Anxiety-like behaviors of offspring were evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. Immunohistochemistry for the detection of 5-bromo-2ʹ- deoxyuridine and doublecortin (DCX in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors (5-HT1A in the dorsal raphe was conducted. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB levels in the hippocampus were evaluated by western blot analysis. Results: Offspring of maternal rats exposed to stress during pregnancy showed anxiety-like behaviors. Offspring also showed reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, and DCX in the dentate gyrus, decreased cell proliferation in the hippocampus, and reduced 5-HT1A expression in the dorsal raphe. Postnatal treadmill exercise by offspring, but not maternal exercise during pregnancy, enhanced cell proliferation and expression of these proteins. Conclusions: Postnatal treadmill exercise ameliorated anxiety-like behaviors in offspring of stressed pregnant rats, and the alleviating effect of exercise on these behaviors is hypothesized to result from enhancement of cell proliferation through 5-HT1A activation in offspring rats.

  16. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

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    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  17. Duloxetine prevents the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like and anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adult male offspring rats.

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    Zhang, Xiaosong; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Hu, Jingmin; Jiang, Han; Cheng, Wenwen; Ma, Yuchao; Liu, Mengxi; Sun, Anji; Zhang, Xinxin; Li, Xiaobai

    2016-12-01

    Stress during pregnancy may cause neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Currently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as a risk factor for depression and anxiety disorder. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effects of prenatal stress on the neuroinflammatory system of offspring. Moreover, the relationship between antidepressant treatment and cytokines in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, an important emotion modulation center, is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal chronic mild stress during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal cytokines in adult offspring, and to verify whether antidepressant (duloxetine) administration from early adulthood could prevent the harmful consequences. To do so, prenatally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either duloxetine (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle from postnatal day 60 for 21days. Adult offspring were divided into four groups: 1) prenatal stress+duloxetine treatment, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) duloxetine treatment alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adult offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the open field test and depression-like behavior using the forced swim test. Brains were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus via real-time PCR. Results demonstrate that prenatal stress-induced anxiety- and depression-like behaviors are associated with an increase in hippocampal inflammatory mediators, and duloxetine administration prevents the increased hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and anxiety- and depression-like behavior in prenatally stressed adult offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of PNS exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity to study the pathogenesis of depression and its therapeutic interventions

  18. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

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    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

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    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  20. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

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    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  1. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

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    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  2. The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effectiveness of Prenatal Intervention on Pain and Anxiety during the Process of ... and intensity of pain based on visual analogue scale and McGill scales. The data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software ...

  3. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

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    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  4. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  5. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

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    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  7. Maternal Active Mastication during Prenatal Stress Ameliorates Prenatal Stress-Induced Lower Bone Mass in Adult Mouse Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Ogura, Minori; Kondo, Hiroko; Suzuki, Ayumi; Hayashi, Sakurako; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2017-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuated the reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption, improved the lower trabecular bone volume and bone microstructural deterioration induced by prenatal stress in the offspring. These findings indicate that maternal active mastication during prenatal stress can ameliorate prenatal stress-induced lower bone mass of the vertebra and femur in adult offspring. Active mastication during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent lower bone mass in their offspring.

  8. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  9. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-07-01

    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  11. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  12. Prenatal stress puzzle, the oxytocin piece: Prenatal stress alters the behaviour and autonomic regulation in piglets, insights from oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental changes in response to prenatal stressors (PNS) may represent an adaptive strategy to enhance survival traits in the offspring. Yet, PNS could be maladaptive for captive animals, causing anxiety and abnormal social development. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety, whereas OT deficiencies are...

  13. The impact of life stress on adult depression and anxiety is dependent on gender and timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbison, Carly E; Allen, Karina; Robinson, Monique; Newnham, John; Pennell, Craig

    2017-10-01

    There is debate about the relative importance of timing of stressful events prenatally and over the life course and risk for subsequent depressive/anxious illness. The aim of this study was to examine the relative roles of prenatal stress and postnatal stress trajectories in predicting depression and anxiety in early adulthood in males and females. Exposure to life stress events was examined in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study during pregnancy and ages 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years. At age 20, offspring completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Prenatal stress and trajectories of stress events from age 1 to 17 were analyzed in linear regression analyses. Five postnatal stress trajectories were identified. In females, medium to high chronic stress exposure or exposure during puberty/adolescence predicted depression and anxiety symptoms while low or reduced stress exposure over the life course did not, after adjustment for relevant confounders. High stress early in pregnancy contributed to male depression/anxiety symptoms independent of postnatal stress trajectory. In females, postnatal stress trajectory was more important than prenatal stress in predicting depression/anxiety symptoms. Interventions focused on reducing and managing stress events around conception/pregnancy and exposure to chronic stress are likely to have beneficial outcomes on rates of depression and anxiety in adults.

  14. Environmental Enrichment during Gestation Improves Behavior Consequences and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus of Prenatal-Stressed Offspring Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingbo; Wang, Miao; Ding, Siqing; Li, Changqi; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal stress can result in various behavior deficits in offspring. Here we tested the effects of environmental enrichment during gestation used as a preventive strategy on the behavior deficits of prenatal-stressed offspring rats as well as the underlying structure basis. We compared the effect size of environmental enrichment during gestation on prenatal-stressed offspring to that of environmental enrichment after weaning. Our results showed that environmental enrichment during gestation partially prevented anxiety and the damage in learning and memory in prenatal-stressed offspring as evaluated by elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. At the same time, environmental enrichment during gestation inhibited the decrease in spine density of CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons and preserved the expression of synaptophysin and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus of prenatal-stressed offspring. There was no significant difference in offspring behavior between 7-day environmental enrichment during gestation and 14-day offspring environmental enrichment after weaning. These data suggest that environmental enrichment during gestation effectively prevented the behavior deficits and the abnormal synapse structures in prenatal-stressed offspring, and that it can be used as an efficient preventive strategy against prenatal stresses

  15. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  16. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  19. Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ślusarczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of inflammation to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases has recently received substantial attention. In the brain, the main immune cells are the microglia. As they are the main source of inflammatory factors, it is plausible that the regulation of their activation may be a potential therapeutic target. Fractalkine (CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 play a crucial role in the control of the biological activity of the microglia. In the present study, using microglial cultures we investigated whether fractalkine is able to reverse changes in microglia caused by a prenatal stress procedure. Our study found that the microglia do not express fractalkine. Prenatal stress decreases the expression of the fractalkine receptor, which in turn is enhanced by the administration of exogenous fractalkine. Moreover, treatment with fractalkine diminishes the prenatal stress-induced overproduction of proinflammatory factors such as IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, or NO in the microglial cells derived from prenatally stressed newborns. In conclusion, the present results revealed that the pathological activation of microglia in prenatally stressed newborns may be attenuated by fractalkine administration. Therefore, understanding of the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 system may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuron-microglia interaction and its role in pathological conditions in the brain.

  20. Can prenatal social stress impact sex characteristics in piglets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal stress (PNS) alters sex traits in rodents by androgenizing offspring resulting in reduced reproduction. In production, gestating sows are often exposed to social stress of mixing. This study examined if mixing gestating sows alters sexual development in piglets. At 34 ± 10 d of gestation, 6...

  1. Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.

  2. Sex differences in prenatal epigenetic programming of stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2011-07-01

    Maternal stress experience is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Recent studies have examined mechanisms by which changes in the maternal milieu may be transmitted to the developing embryo and potentially translated into programming of the epigenome. Animal models of prenatal stress have identified important sex- and temporal-specific effects on offspring stress responsivity. As dysregulation of stress pathways is a common feature in most neuropsychiatric diseases, molecular and epigenetic analyses at the maternal-embryo interface, especially in the placenta, may provide unique insight into identifying much-needed predictive biomarkers. In addition, as most neurodevelopmental disorders present with a sex bias, examination of sex differences in the inheritance of phenotypic outcomes may pinpoint gene targets and specific windows of vulnerability in neurodevelopment, which have been disrupted. This review discusses the association and possible contributing mechanisms of prenatal stress in programming offspring stress pathway dysregulation and the importance of sex.

  3. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at BetterHelp.com. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  4. Prenatal maternal stress in relation to the effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddler cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Lin, Yanfen; Jia, Yinan; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of maternal lead exposure during pregnancy on toddler cognitive development and the potential effect modification by maternal stress. We conducted a prospective birth-cohort study in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 and investigated 225 mother-infant pairs. The mothers were recruited in mid-to-late pregnancy and children were followed up until 24-36 months old. A self-administered Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) was used to assess maternal emotional stress during pregnancy. Maternal whole blood lead levels were measured during gestational weeks 28-36. The toddlers' cognitive levels were assessed using the Gesell Development Scale. Multiple linear regression models were established to explore the main effects of prenatal lead exposure on toddlers' cognitive abilities and the modifying effects of maternal stress. Covariate information was collected through interviews, questionnaires and medical records. The mean maternal blood lead concentration was 3.30 (95%CI: 3.05, 3.57) μg/dL. After adjusting for relevant confounders, no significant associations of maternal blood lead concentrations with toddlers' cognitive levels were observed in all five domains of the Gesell scale (P>0.05). However, the interaction between prenatal maternal blood lead and stress was significant in the domains of adaptive behavior, language and social behavior. When stratified by maternal stress levels, compared with non-significant associations (P>0.05) among low (P1-P75) prenatal stress group, adverse associations between maternal blood lead concentrations (log10-transformed) and toddlers' cognitive levels were observed among high (P75-P100) prenatal stress group in the domains of language (β=-33.82, 95%CI: -60.04, -7.59), social behavior (β=-41.00, 95%CI: -63.11, -18.89) and adaptive behavior (β=-17.93, 95%CI: -35.83, -0.03). Prenatal maternal stress may exacerbate the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to lead on toddler cognitive development

  5. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  6. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  7. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  8. Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS) on Bdnf DNA Methylation and Telomere Length in the Adult Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, A.; Moyer, E. L.; Roth, T. L.; Ronca, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to stress can shape neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in offspring, producing vulnerability to psychopathology later in life. Animal models of prenatal stress likewise have demonstrated long-­-term alterations in brain function and behavioral deficits in offspring. For example, using a rodent model of unpredictable variable prenatal stress (UVPS), in which dams are exposed to unpredictable, variable stress across pregnancy, we have found increased body weight and anxiety-­-like behavior in adult male, but not female, offspring. DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could be responsible for the long-­-term effects of UVPS. Here, we measured methylation of brain-­-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult offspring from the UVPS model. Results indicate that prenatally stressed adult males have greater methylation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) compared to non-­-stressed controls, while females have greater methylation in the ventral hippocampus compared to controls. Further, prenatally stressed males had shorter telomeres than controls in the mPFC. These findings demonstrate the ability of UVPS to produce epigenetic alterations and changes in telomere length across behaviorally-­-relevant brain regions, which may have linkages to the phenotypic outcomes.

  9. Effects of acculturation on prenatal anxiety among Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety in pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relatively few studies have investigated how acculturation affects mental health in pregnancy among Latinas. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with anxiety over the course of pregnancy in a sample of predominantly Puerto Rican women. Women were recruited in pregnancy for participation in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Latina women (n = 1412). Acculturation was measured via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference and generation in the USA. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Instrument. Linear and logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. After adjustment, women with bicultural identification had significantly lower trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = -3.62, SE = 1.1, p acculturated women. Women with higher levels of acculturation as indicated by English-language preference (β = 1.41, SE = 0.7, p = 0.04) and second or third generation in the USA had significantly higher trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = 1.83, SE = 0.6, p acculturation was associated with lower trait anxiety in early pregnancy, while English-language preference and higher generation in the USA were associated with higher trait anxiety in early pregnancy.

  10. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...

  12. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  13. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  14. Effects of prenatal stress on fetal and child development: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graignic-Philippe, R; Dayan, J; Chokron, S; Jacquet, A-Y; Tordjman, S

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have examined effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and fetal development, especially on prematurity and birthweight, and more recently long-term effects on child behavioral and emotional development. These studies are reviewed and their limitations are discussed with regard to definitions (including the concepts of stress and anxiety), stress measurements, samples, and control for confounds such as depression. It appears necessary to assess individual stress reactivity prospectively and separately at each trimester of pregnancy, to discriminate chronic from acute stress, and to take into consideration moderator variables such as past life events, sociocultural factors, predictability, social support and coping strategies. Furthermore, it might be useful to examine simultaneously, during but also after pregnancy, stress, anxiety and depression in order to understand better their relationships and to evaluate their specific effects on pregnancy and child development. Finally, further research could benefit from an integrated psychological and biological approach studying together subjective perceived stress and objective physiological stress responses in pregnant women, and their effects on fetal and child development as well as on mother-infant interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  16. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-05-24

    To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, prelationships (for depression b=-3.527, panxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.

  17. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, Franc C L; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2017-10-22

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture processing using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Mothers reported anxiety during the second trimester using the anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). At age 4 years, child affective picture processing (N = 86) was measured by recording ERPs during viewing of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System. The late positive potential (LPP)-an ERP component reflecting individual differences in affective processing-was used as child outcome. The expected positive association between maternal anxiety and LPP amplitude for unpleasant pictures was not found. Nevertheless, we found a positive association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and LPP amplitudes for neutral pictures in the middle and late time window at anterior locations (all p anxiety and gestational age at birth and after FDR correction for multiple comparisons. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence that children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures, but not to unpleasant pictures. Possibly, these children show enhanced vigilance for threat when viewing neutral pictures. Although useful in dangerous environments, this enhanced vigilance may predispose children prenatally exposed to higher maternal anxiety to developing behavioral and/or emotional problems later in life. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kEzYi6IS2HA. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Prenatal and early postnatal stress and later life inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during the prenatal period and in childhood represent an important condition that may adversely impact the anatomy and physiology of the developing child with implications for a number of health-related conditions...... and postnatal stressor data was collected at year one follow-up. A series of ordinary least square regression models were performed with the stress measures as the exposures and C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) separately as the outcomes...... in the first year of life, was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6. The accumulation of social stressors in the early postnatal period was associated with higher levels of CRP and IL-6 but not IL-10 and TNF-α. The accumulation of stressors in the prenatal and postnatal periods combined was associated...

  20. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.

  1. Effects of prenatal stress on vulnerability to stress in prepubertal and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fride, E; Dan, Y; Feldon, J; Halevy, G; Weinstock, M

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that unpredictable prenatal stress has effects on the offspring, similar to those induced by perinatal administration of glucocorticoids and increases the vulnerability to stressful situations at adulthood. Rats were exposed to random noise and light stress throughout pregnancy. Offspring were tested for the development of spontaneous alternation behavior (SA) and at adulthood, their response to novel or aversive situations, open field, extinction and punishment following acquisition of an appetitive response and two-way active avoidance, were assessed. In prenatally stressed rats, the development of SA was significantly delayed. On repeated exposure to an open field they were less active; control rats had elevated plasma corticosterone (CCS) on days 2 and 4 of open field exposure, while prenatally stressed rats had significantly raised plasma CCS after each exposure (days 1-8). Furthermore, punishment-induced suppression of an appetitive response was enhanced. Acquisition of active avoidance was faciliated in female but reduced in male prenatally stressed offspring. It is suggested that random prenatal noise and light stress may cause impairment of development of hippocampal function which lasts into adulthood. This impairment is manifested as an increase in vulnerability and a decrease in habituation to stressful stimuli.

  2. The role of glucocorticoid, interleukin-1β, and antioxidants in prenatal stress effects on embryonic microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Jada; Stevens, Hanna E

    2018-02-16

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. Resident immune cells of the brain, microglia, may be mediators of prenatal stress and altered neurodevelopment. Here, we demonstrate that neither the exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nor the glucocorticoid hormone, corticosterone, recapitulated the full effects of prenatal stress on the morphology of microglial cells in the cortical plate of embryonic mice; IL-1β effects showed greater similarity to prenatal stress effects on microglia. Unexpectedly, oil vehicle alone, which has antioxidant properties, moderated the effects of prenatal stress on microglia. Microglia changes with prenatal stress were also sensitive to the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, suggesting redox dysregulation as a mechanism of prenatal stress.

  3. Acculturative stress is associated with trajectory of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy in Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Andrea; D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly

    2017-05-01

    Over half of pregnant women report anxiety symptoms and these symptoms may be precipitated by stressful experiences. Anxiety rates may be higher in Mexican-American women who experience sociocultural stressors, such as acculturation, acculturative stress and discrimination. However, the role of such stressors on the trajectory of anxiety symptoms across pregnancy is not yet known. Mexican-American women (n=151) completed surveys across pregnancy about acculturation, acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and state anxiety. Multilevel modeling found that acculturation (Anglo orientation, b=0.050, SE=0.379, t (137.561)=0.134, p=0.894; Mexican orientation, b=0.775, SE=0.692, t (133.424)=1.121, p=0.264) and perceived discrimination (b=-1.259, SE=0.921, t (137.489)=-1.367, p=0.174) were not associated with the trajectory of anxiety symptoms. However, acculturative stress, even while controlling for perceived stress, was associated with high levels of anxiety symptoms that were elevated early in pregnancy (b=-0.045, SE=0.022, t (135.749)=-2, p=0.047). This work highlights the unique role of acculturative stress in risk for prenatal anxiety in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Impact of prenatal ultrasound consultation on maternal anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, I.; Ajmal, F.; Ahmed, H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether ultrasound consultation reduces maternal anxiety and increases feto-maternal attachment ( the desire to care for the fetus and care for self). Patients coming for routine obstetric ultrasound at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi were recruited in the study. The study was carried out over the period of two months from January-February 2007 in which sixty patients were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard care group or an ultrasound consultation group (30 patients in each arm). Both groups were required to fill a questionnaire before and after their ultrasound examination. The ultrasound consultation group in addition received counseling before they went in for the ultrasound regarding fetal development and maternal-fetal interaction. The two groups were then compared for difference of change in feto maternal attachment scores and change in anxiety levels regarding their pregnancies before and after the ultrasound. SPSS software (version 14) was used for compilation of the data and the statistical computations. Categorical data was compared using Chi-square test and continuous variables were analyzed with paired t-test. P value <0.05 was considered significant. A positive difference in feto-maternal attachment and reduction in anxiety levels was seen in both the groups but this difference was statistically significant in the ultrasound consultation group only. This study suggests that ultrasound examinations with prior consultation has a positive impact on patients as it strengthens bonding toward the fetus, reduces maternal anxiety and increases maternal investment in health during the pregnancy. (author)

  5. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, Natalia J; Brunton, Paula J

    2015-12-01

    An adverse environment in early life is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and higher rates of mood disorders in adulthood. In rats, exposure to social stress during pregnancy results in hyperactive HPA axis responses to stress in the adult offspring and heightened anxiety behavior in the males, but not the females. Here we tested whether, without further intervention, the effects of prenatal stress (PNS) in the first filial generation (F1) are transmitted to the F2 generation via the maternal line. F1 control and PNS female rats were mated with control males and housed under non-stress conditions throughout pregnancy. HPA axis responses to acute stress, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were assessed in the adult F2 offspring. ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute stressor were markedly enhanced in F2 PNS females compared with controls. This was associated with greater corticotropin releasing hormone (Crh) mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus and reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid (Gr) and mineralocorticoid receptor (Mr) mRNA expression. Conversely, in the F2 PNS males, HPA axis responses to acute stress were attenuated and hippocampal Gr mRNA expression was greater compared with controls. F2 PNS males exhibited heightened anxiety-like behavior (light-dark box and elevated plus maze) compared with F2 control males. Anxiety-like behavior did not differ between F2 control and PNS females during metestrus/diestrus, however at proestrus/estrus, F2 control females displayed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior, but this effect was not observed in the F2 PNS females. Heightened anxiety in the F2 PNS males was associated with greater Crh mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with controls. Moreover, Crh receptor-1 (Crhr1) mRNA expression was significantly increased, whereas Crhr2 mRNA was significantly decreased in discrete regions of the amygdala in F2 PNS males compared

  6. Prenatal stress, immunity and neonatal health in farm animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Quesnel, H; Prunier, A

    2013-12-01

    The high pre-weaning mortality in farm animal species and poor welfare conditions of reproductive females question modern industrial farming acceptability. A growing body of literature has been produced recently, investigating the impact of maternal stress during gestation on maternal and offspring physiology and behavior in farm animals. Until now, the possible impact of prenatal stress on neonatal health, growth and survival could not be consistently demonstrated, probably because experimental studies use small numbers of animals and thus do not allow accurate estimations. However, the data from literature synthesized in the present review show that in ungulates, maternal stress can sometimes alter important maternal parameters of neonatal survival such as colostrum production (ruminants) and maternal care to the newborn (pigs). Furthermore, maternal stress during gestation can affect maternal immune system and impair her health, which can have an impact on the transfer of pathogens from the mother to her fetus or neonate. Finally, prenatal stress can decrease the ability of the neonate to absorb colostral immunoglobulins, and alter its inflammatory response and lymphocyte functions during the first few weeks of life. Cortisol and reproductive hormones in the case of colostrogenesis are pointed out as possible hormonal mediators. Field data and epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the role of maternal welfare problems in neonatal health and survival.

  7. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p time in EPM open arms: p time to complete BW: p < .05). Hence, combined prenatal stressors exert non-additive effects on locomotion, exploration and balance control, but induce greater anxiety through additive effects. Terminal plasma ACTH concentration was increased by prenatal stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects

  8. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Combined Prenatal Ethanol and Prenatal Stress Exposures on Markers of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Miranda C.; Porch, Morgan W.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress can each cause long-lasting deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and disrupt learning and memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying these perturbations following a learning event are still poorly understood. We examined the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure and prenatal stress exposure, either alone or in combination, on the cytosolic expression of activity-regulated cytoskeletal (ARC) protein and the synaptosomal expression o...

  10. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  11. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  12. Grit, anxiety, and stress in emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Matthew L; Anderson, Jared; Knorr, Thomas; Joseph, Joshua W; Sanchez, Leon D

    2018-02-26

    The personality traits of emergency physicians are infrequently studied, though interest in physician wellness is increasing. The objective of this study is to acquire pilot data about the amount of grit, anxiety, and stress in emergency physicians using established psychological survey instruments, and to examine their associations of each of these traits with each other. Thirty-six emergency medicine resident and attending physicians from an urban academic medical center consented for enrollment. Participants were administered the Duckworth 12-point Grit Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), which measure grit, anxiousness, and perceived stress, respectively. These are the gold standard psychological instruments for each of their areas. We analyzed the results with descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and linear regression. Nineteen residents and 17 attending physicians completed the surveys during the first quarter of a new academic year. The mean grit score was 3.7 (95% CI 3.5-3.8, SD: 0.56), the mean trait-anxiety score was 32.61 (95% CI 30.15-35.07, SD: 7.26), and the mean PSS score was 12.28 (95% CI 10.58-13.97, SD: 4.99). Only trait-anxiety and perceived stress were significantly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.70, panxious reported more stress. Levels of grit were not associated with trait-anxiety. These psychological concepts should be studied further as they relate to the function and health of emergency medicine providers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayen, Ine; van den Hove, Daniël L; Prickaerts, Jos; Steinbusch, Harry W; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2011-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1). Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1) prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2) prenatal stress+vehicle, 3) fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4) vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  14. Fluoxetine during development reverses the effects of prenatal stress on depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ine Rayen

    Full Text Available Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is a growing health problem, which affects up to 20% of women. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs medications are commonly used for treatment of maternal depression. Unfortunately, there is very little research on the long-term effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on affective-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent offspring in a rodent model of maternal depression. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1 (P1. Adolescent male and female offspring were divided into 4 groups: 1 prenatal stress+fluoxetine exposure, 2 prenatal stress+vehicle, 3 fluoxetine exposure alone, and 4 vehicle alone. Adolescent offspring were assessed for anxiety-like behavior using the Open Field Test and depressive-like behavior using the Forced Swim Test. Brains were analyzed for endogenous markers of hippocampal neurogenesis via immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the reduction in immobility evident in prenatally stressed adolescent offspring. In addition, maternal fluoxetine exposure reverses the decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in maternally stressed adolescent offspring. This research provides important evidence on the long-term effect of fluoxetine exposure during development in a model of maternal adversity.

  15. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  16. Evidence of female-specific glial deficits in the hippocampus in a mouse model of prenatal stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Aine T

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) has been associated with an increased incidence of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism. To determine the effects of PS on hippocampal-dependent behaviour hippocampal morphology, we examined behavioural responses and hippocampal cytoarchitecture of a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 mice. Female offspring only showed a reduction in hippocampal glial count in the pyramidal layer following PS. Additionally, only PS females showed increased depressive-like behaviour with cognitive deficits predominantly in female offspring when compared to males. This data provides evidence for functional female-specific glial deficits within the hippocampus as a consequence of PS.

  17. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu-Katriina Pesonen

    Full Text Available We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation.Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records.One standard deviation (SD unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04-0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02, corresponding to only 0.1-0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02. Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks, birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions.This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight.

  18. Salutary effects of an attention bias modification mobile application on biobehavioral measures of stress and anxiety during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A; Denefrio, Samantha; Gelber, Shari

    2017-07-01

    Stress and anxiety during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, but there is an unmet need for low-barrier treatments that target stress and anxiety. One such treatment approach, attention bias modification training (ABMT), targets the anxiety-related threat bias, a disruption in attention to and neural processing of threat-related information. It remains unclear, however, whether reducing treatment barriers via mobile delivery of ABMT is effective and whether ABMT efficacy varies depending on individual differences in neural processing of threat. The present study tested whether mobile, gamified ABMT reduced prenatal threat bias, anxiety and stress, and whether ABMT efficacy varied with individual differences in neural responses to threat. Participants were 29 women in their 19th-29th week of pregnancy, randomized to four weeks of an ABMT or placebo training (PT) version of the mobile app using a double-blind design. Self-report of anxiety, depression, and stress were obtained; salivary cortisol was collected at home and in lab in response to stressors to index biological stress reactivity. Threat bias was measured using a computerized attention assay during which EEG was recorded to generate event-related potentials (ERPs) to threat cues. Results showed lower levels of lab cortisol following ABMT versus PT. Although the main effect of ABMT on subjective anxiety was not significant, the magnitude of cortisol reduction was correlated with lower levels of subjective anxiety and threat bias. Those receiving ABMT also reported less anxiety when showing smaller ERPs to threat (P1, P2) prior to training, but, conversely reported more anxiety when showing larger ERPs to threat. Use of gamified, mobile ABMT reduced biobehavioral indices of prenatal stress and anxiety, but effects on anxiety varied with individual differences in cortisol response and neurocognitive indices of early attention to threat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  20. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age....

  1. Prenatal Stress as a Risk-and an Opportunity-Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Freeman, Sara M; Bales, Karen L; Belsky, Jay

    2018-04-01

    Two separate lines of research indicate (a) that prenatal stress is associated with heightened behavioral and physiological reactivity and (b) that these postnatal phenotypes are associated with increased susceptibility to both positive and negative developmental experiences. Therefore, prenatal stress may increase sensitivity to the rearing environment. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating prenatal stress and rearing-environment quality, using a cross-fostering paradigm, in prairie voles. Results showed that prenatally stressed voles, as adults, displayed the highest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to low-contact (i.e., low-quality) rearing but the lowest behavioral and physiological reactivity when cross-fostered to high-contact (i.e., high-quality) rearing; non-prenatally stressed voles showed no effect of rearing condition. Additionally, while neither prenatal stress nor rearing condition affected oxytocin receptor binding, prenatally stressed voles cross-fostered to high-contact rearing showed the highest vasopressin-1a receptor binding in the amygdala. Results indicate that prenatal stress induces greater environmental sensitivity, making it both a risk and an opportunity factor.

  2. Effects of music listening on stress, anxiety, and sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, ChihChen Sophia; Yu, Chen-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal sleep disturbance has been associated with undesirable birthing outcomes. To determine the effectiveness of listening to music at home in improving sleep quality, 121 Taiwanese pregnant women with poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] score > 5) were systematically assigned, with a random start to music listening (n = 61) or control (n = 60) group. Participants in the music listening group self-regulated listening to music in addition to receiving general prenatal care similar to that in the control group for 2 weeks. The PSQI and State-Anxiety Inventory were used to assess outcomes. ANCOVA analyses were used with the pretest scores as covariates and showed significant improvement in sleep quality, stress, and anxiety in the music listening group compared with the control group. The most frequently used music genre by participants in the experimental group was lullabies, followed by classical music and crystal baby music. This study supported the theory that 2-week music listening interventions may reduce stress, anxiety, and yield better sleep quality for sleep-disturbed pregnant women. The analysis of participants' journals also implied that the expectant mothers' choices of musical genres may correlate more with perceived prenatal benefits or the desire to interact with their unborn child.

  3. Prenatal stress and balance of the child's cardiac autonomic nervous system at age 5-6 years.

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    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system (ANS misbalance is a potential causal factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The ANS may be programmed during pregnancy due to various maternal factors. Our aim is to study maternal prenatal psychosocial stress as a potential disruptor of cardiac ANS balance in the child. METHODS: Mothers from a prospective birth cohort (ABCD study filled out a questionnaire at gestational week 16 [IQR 12-20], that included validated instruments for state anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Indicators of cardiac ANS in the offspring at age 5-6 years are: pre-ejection period (PEP, heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA and cardiac autonomic balance (CAB, measured with electrocardiography and impedance cardiography in resting supine and sitting positions. RESULTS: 2,624 mother-child pairs, only single births, were available for analysis. The stress scales were not significantly associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.17. Accumulation of maternal stress was also not associated with HR, PEP, RSA and CAB (p≥0.07. CONCLUSION: Results did not support the hypothesis that prenatal maternal psychosocial stress deregulates cardiac ANS balance in the offspring, at least in rest, and at the age of five-six years.

  4. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  5. Associations among prenatal stress, maternal antioxidant intakes in pregnancy, and child temperament at age 30 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, L R; Brunst, K J; Kannan, S; Ni, Y-M; Ganguri, H B; Wright, R J; Bosquet Enlow, M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal stress and prenatal nutrition each have demonstrable impact on fetal development, with implications for child neurodevelopment and behavior. However, few studies have examined their joint influences despite evidence of potential interactive effects. We examined associations among prenatal stress, prenatal antioxidant intakes, and child temperament in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort (N=137 mother-child dyads). In mid-pregnancy, mothers completed an assessment of recent negative life events as a measure of prenatal stress and an assessment of prenatal diet. When the children were 30 months of age, mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short form, which provides scores on child Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Surgency/Extraversion. Linear regressions tested associations between maternal prenatal negative life events and child temperament, and effect modification by maternal prenatal antioxidant intakes (vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, zinc, selenium, β-carotene). Analyses revealed that increased maternal prenatal negative life events were associated with higher child Negative Affectivity (β=0.08, P=0.009) but not with child Effortful Control (β=-0.03, P=0.39) or Surgency/Extraversion (β=0.04, P=0.14). Prenatal intakes of zinc and selenium modified this effect: Maternal exposure to prenatal negative life events was associated with higher child Negative Affectivity in the presence of lower intakes of zinc and selenium. Modification effects approached significance for vitamins A and C. The results suggest that the combination of elevated stress exposures and lower antioxidant intakes in pregnancy increases the likelihood of heightened child temperamental negative affectivity. Increased antioxidant intakes during pregnancy may protect against influences of prenatal stress on child temperament.

  6. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    McCaul, Mary E.; Hutton, Heidi E.; Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol?related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self?report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, al...

  7. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress and the Risk of Asthma in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Douros

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicate that maternal prenatal stress (MPS can result in a range of long-term adverse effects in the offspring. The underlying mechanism of MPS is not fully understood. However, its complexity is emphasized by the number of purportedly involved pathways namely, placental deregulated metabolism of maternal steroids, impaired maturation of fetal HPA axis, imbalanced efflux of commensal bacteria across the placenta, and skewed immune development toward Th2. Fetal programming probably exerts a pivotal role in the end result of the above pathways through the modulation of gene expression. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge from epidemiological and experimental studies regarding the effects of MPS on asthma development in the offspring.

  9. Brain plasticity of rats exposed to prenatal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badalyan B. Yu.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This histochemical and immunohistochemical study was aimed at examining the brain cellular structures of newborn rats exposed to prenatal immobilization (IMO stress. Methods. Histochemical method on detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity and ABC immunohistochemical technique. Results. Cell structures with radial astrocytes marker GFAP, neuroepithelial stem cell marker gene nestin, stem-cells marker and the hypothalamic neuroprotective proline-rich polypeptide PRP-1 (Galarmin, a natural cytokine of a common precursor to neurophysin vasopressin associated glycoprotein have been revealed in several brain regions. Conclusions. Our findings indicate the process of generation of new neurons in response to IMO and PRP-1 involvement in this recovery mechanism, as PRP-1-Ir was detected in the above mentioned cell structures, as well as in the neurons and nerve fibers.

  10. Sleep patterning changes in a prenatal stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, C; Bastlund, Jesper F

    2018-01-01

    /wakefulness behavior around the change from light-to-dark phase. Control and PNS Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes for continuous monitoring of electroencephalic activity used to determine behavioral state. The distribution of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and wakefulness......Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several...... changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle. We, therefore, investigated whether PNS rats also exhibit alterations in sleep...

  11. Prenatal stress challenge impairs fetal lung development and asthma severity sex-specifically in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazara, Dimitra E; Perani, Clara V; Solano, María E; Arck, Petra C

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically. Whilst prenatal stress challenge did not profoundly affect lung development in male fetuses, it resulted in less extensive terminal sacs, surrounded by thicker mesenchymal tissue in female fetuses. Thus, prenatal stress disrupted fetal lung development sex-specifically. Interestingly, upon prenatal stress challenge, the airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation- two hallmarks of asthma - were significantly increased in adult female offspring, whilst regulatory CD4+ T cells were reduced. These findings strongly underpin the sex-specific association between s challenged fetal development and a sex-specific altered severity of asthma in adult offspring. Our model now allows to identify maternal markers through which the risk for asthma and possible other diseases is vertically transferred before birth in response to challenges. Such identification then opens avenues for primary disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal maternal stress and atopic diseases in the child: a systematic review of observational human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N W; Hansen, M V; Larsen, A D; Hougaard, K S; Kolstad, H A; Schlünssen, V

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy promotes atopic disorders in the offspring. This is the first systematic review to address prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and the subsequent risk of atopy-related outcomes in the child. The review was performed in accordance to the PRISMA criteria. We searched and selected studies in PubMed, Scopus, Embase and PsychINFO until November 2014. Sixteen (with 25 analyses) of 426 identified articles met the review criteria. Five main PNMS exposures (negative life events, anxiety/depression, bereavement, distress and job strain) and five main atopic outcomes (asthma, wheeze, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and IgE) were assessed across the studies. Overall, 21 of the 25 analyses suggested a positive association between PNMS and atopic outcomes. Of the 11 exposure-response analyses reported, six found statistically significant trends. This systematic review suggests a relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy and atopic disorders in the child. However, the existing studies are of diverse quality. The wide definitions of often self-reported stress exposures imply a substantial risk for information bias and false-positive results. Research comparing objective and subjective measures of PNMS exposure as well as objective measures for atopic outcome is needed. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prenatal stress has been linked to several adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, which may share a common pathophysiology with autism. We aimed to examine whether prenatal stress exposure after maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of autism later in life. METHODS: We...... compared with those in the unexposed group. RESULTS: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was not associated with an increased risk of autism in the offspring. The hazard ratios did not differ by the nature of the exposure (maternal relationship to the deceased or cause of death). The hazard...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  14. Prenatal stress and cerebral palsy: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to prenatal stress may affect neurodevelopment of the fetus, but whether this exposure increases the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) later in life is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between maternal bereavement during the prenatal time period and CP in childhood...

  15. Impact of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and maternal obesity on infant microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, P.D.; Berg, E. van den; Weerth, C. de; Browne, P.D.; Claassen, E.; Cabena, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    The prenatal period is a critical window of development for all major physiological systems in the human body. During pregnancy, maternal prenatal psychosocial stress (PNS) and maternal obesity are identified as risk factors for infant and child health. Several possible mechanisms have been

  16. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Maternal Prenatal and Early Childhood Nutrition and Maternal Prenatal Stress on Offspring Immune System Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of prenatal maternal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood as well as prenatal maternal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early

  18. Prenatal stress down-regulates Reelin expression by methylation of its promoter and induces adult behavioral impairments in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Palacios-García

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress causes predisposition to cognitive and emotional disturbances and is a risk factor towards the development of neuropsychiatric conditions like depression, bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. The extracellular protein Reelin, expressed by Cajal-Retzius cells during cortical development, plays critical roles on cortical lamination and synaptic maturation, and its deregulation has been associated with maladaptive conditions. In the present study, we address the effect of prenatal restraint stress (PNS upon Reelin expression and signaling in pregnant rats during the last 10 days of pregnancy. Animals from one group, including control and PNS exposed fetuses, were sacrificed and analyzed using immunohistochemical, biochemical, cell biology and molecular biology approaches. We scored changes in the expression of Reelin, its signaling pathway and in the methylation of its promoter. A second group included control and PNS exposed animals maintained until young adulthood for behavioral studies. Using the optical dissector, we show decreased numbers of Reelin-positive neurons in cortical layer I of PNS exposed animals. In addition, neurons from PNS exposed animals display decreased Reelin expression that is paralleled by changes in components of the Reelin-signaling cascade, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, PNS induced changes in the DNA methylation levels of the Reelin promoter in culture and in histological samples. PNS adult rats display excessive spontaneous locomotor activity, high anxiety levels and problems of learning and memory consolidation. No significant visuo-spatial memory impairment was detected on the Morris water maze. These results highlight the effects of prenatal stress on the Cajal-Retzius neuronal population, and the persistence of behavioral consequences using this treatment in adults, thereby supporting a relevant role of PNS in the genesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. We also propose an in vitro model that

  19. Increased precipitation of spasms in an animal model of infantile spasms by prenatal stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Juan; Shang, Ning-Xiu; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) represent a serious epileptic syndrome, called West syndrome (WS) that occurs in the early infantile age. Although several hypotheses and animal models have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of IS, the pathophysiology of IS has not been elucidated. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis for IS under prenatal stress exposure (also called Zou's hypothesis) by correlating diverse etiologies and prenatal stresses with IS development. This research aims to determine the mechanism through which prenatal stress affects the offspring and establish the potential underlying mechanisms. Pregnant rats were subjected to forced swimming in cold water. Rat pups exposed to prenatal stress were administered with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exposure to prenatal stress sensitized the rats against development of NMDA-induced spasms. However, this phenomenon was altered by administering adrenocorticotropin. Prenatal stress exposure also altered the hormonal levels and neurotransmitter receptor expression of the developing rats as well as influenced the tissue structure of the brain. These findings suggest that maternal stress could alter the level of endogenous glucocorticoid, which is the basis of IS, and cerebral dysplasia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), inherited metabolic diseases, and other factors activated this disease in developmental brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  1. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  2. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Prenatal Stress and Social Enrichment: Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-17

    whom I am eternally grateful. The first person is my coach and mentor, Neil E. Grunberg, Ph.D. There is no one who knows the " sport " of training...reported that prenatally stressed male rats actually showed a demasculinization and feminization of their sexual behavior. If female rats show a...masculinization in response to prenatal stress and males show a feminization , then the current findings could be viewed in the context of femaleS

  3. Re-examining the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child emotional difficulties, using a sibling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkhus, Mona; Lee, Yunsung; Nordhagen, Rannveig; Magnus, Per; Samuelsen, Sven O; Borge, Anne I H

    2018-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety has been associated with child emotional difficulties in a number of epidemiological studies. One key concern, however, is that this link is vulnerable to confounding by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. Data on 82 383 mothers and children from the population-based Mother and Child Cohort Study and data on 21 980 siblings were used in this study. Mothers filled out questionnaires for each unique pregnancy, for infant difficulties at 6 months and for emotional difficulties at 36 months. The link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties were examined using logistic regression analyses and multiple linear regression analyses for the full study sample and the sibling sample. In the conventional full-cohort analyses, prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety was associated with child difficulties at both 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 (1.94-2.27)] and 36 months [OR = 2.72 (2.47-2.99)]. The findings were essentially the same whether we examined difficulties at 6 months or at 36 months. However, these associations were no longer present once we controlled for potential social and genetic confounders in the sibling comparison analyses, either at 6 months [OR = 1.32 (0.91-1.90)] or at 36 months [OR = 1.28 (0.63-2.60)]. Findings from multiple regression analyses with continuous measures were essentially the same. Our finding lends little support for there being an independent prenatal effect on child emotional difficulties; rather, our findings suggest that the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties could be confounded by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  4. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  5. Impact of occupation on stress and anxiety among Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinal A; Patel, Prerna P; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, S A; Patel, Ashish D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess the prevalence of anxiety and stress in Indian women; and (2) evaluate the relationship of occupation to the prevalence of anxiety and stress. A cross-sectional study was performed from January 2013 to June 2014, on women (aged 18-50 years) randomly selected from different occupations in Gujarat, India. Anxiety was evaluated using Spielberg's State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scale and stress was assessed using the International Stress Management Association questionnaire. Serum cortisol concentration was measured in a sub-sample. The association of occupation with stress and anxiety was analyzed by a generalized linear model adjusted for age. Among all participants, 26% were the most prone and 66% were somewhat more prone to stress; 35% of women showed high anxiety levels. Homemakers had 1.2 times higher anxiety and 1.3 times higher stress than working women (p women and students. Serum cortisol levels did not differ significantly (p > .05) by occupation. This study revealed high prevalence rates of stress and anxiety in Indian women. Involvement in activities outside the home may help women to reduce stress.

  6. Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Prince, Judy; Hayashino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results…

  7. Relationships between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to investigate the relationship between adolescents' test anxiety, stress and different aspects of sleep. Method. 175 adolescents (70.8% girls, mean age 15.14 years) participated in the study. Test anxiety, stress and chronic sleep reduction were assessed at baseline using

  8. Corticosterone mediates some but not other behavioural changes induced by prenatal stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, S; Bejar, C; Schorer-Apelbaum, D; Weinstock, M

    2011-02-01

    The effect of daily varied stress from days 13-21 of gestation in Wistar rats was investigated by tests of learning and memory and anxiogenic behaviour in the 60-day-old offspring of both sexes. Prenatal stress decreased the anogenital distance in males at 1 day of age. Anxiogenic behaviour in the elevated plus maze was seen in prenatally-stressed rats of both genders. There was no significant gender difference in the rate of spatial learning in the Morris water maze but prenatal stress only slowed that of males. In the object recognition test with an inter-trial interval of 40 min, females but not males, discriminated between a familiar and novel object. Prenatal stress did not affect object discrimination in females but feminised that in males. Maternal adrenalectomy with replacement of basal corticosterone levels in the drinking fluid prevented all of the above effects of prenatal stress in the offspring. To mimic the peak corticosterone levels and time course of elevation in response to stress, corticosterone (3 mg/kg) was injected twice (0 and 30 min) on days 13-16 and once on days 17-20 of gestation to adrenalectomised mothers. This treatment re-instated anxiogenic behaviour similar to that induced by prenatal stress, indicating that it is mediated by exposure of the foetal brain to raised levels of corticosterone. However, steroid administration to adrenalectomised dams did not decrease anogenital distance, feminise object recognition memory or slow spatial learning in their male offspring. The findings indicate that other adrenal hormones are necessary to induce these effects of prenatal stress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effects of prenatal and postnatal maternal emotional stress on toddlers' cognitive and temperamental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Huang, Jun; Jia, Yinan; Zhang, Jinsong; Yan, Chonghuai; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Maternal stress is associated with impairments in the neurodevelopment of offspring; however, the effects of the timing of exposure to maternal stress on a child's neurodevelopment are unclear. In 2010, we studied 225 mother-child pairs in Shanghai, recruiting mothers in mid-to-late pregnancy and monitoring offspring from birth until 30 months of age. Maternal stress was assessed prenatally (at 28-36 weeks of gestation) and postnatally (at 24-30 months postpartum) using the Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised Scale (SCL-90-R) and Life-Event-Stress Scale to evaluate mothers' emotional stress and life event stress levels, respectively. Children's cognition and temperament were assessed at 24-30 months of age using the Gesell Development Scale and Toddler Temperament Scale, respectively. Multi-variable linear regression models were used to associate prenatal and postnatal stress with child cognitive and temperamental development. Maternal prenatal and postnatal Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R were moderately correlated (ICC r=0.30, Ptoddlers' gross motor, fine motor, adaptive and social behavior development independently of postnatal GSI, while the increase in postnatal GSI was associated with changes in multiple temperament dimensions independently of prenatal GSI. The effects of prenatal and postnatal depression scores of SCL-90-R were similar to those of GSI. Relatively small sample size. Compared with postnatal exposure, children's cognitive development may be more susceptible to prenatal exposure to maternal emotional stress, whereas temperamental development may be more affected by postnatal exposure to maternal emotional stress compared with prenatal exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  11. Effects of prenatal music stimulation on state/trait anxiety in full-term pregnancy and its influence on childbirth: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J; Ventura Miranda, M I; Requena Mullor, M; Parron Carreño, T; Alarcón Rodriguez, R

    2018-04-01

    Many researchers have pointed out the strong relationship between maternal psychological well-being and fetal welfare during pregnancy. The impact of music interventions during pregnancy should be examined in depth, as they could have an impact on stress reduction, not only during pregnancy but also during the course of delivery, and furthermore induce fetal awareness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of music on the birthing process. The four hundred and nine pregnant women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music (n = 204) or no music (n = 205) stimulation during an NST. The primary outcome was considered as the maternal state anxiety score before and after the NST, and the secondary outcome was the birthing process. Before their NST, full-term pregnant women who had received music intervention were found to have a similar state-trait anxiety score to those from the control group, with 38.10 ± 8.8 and 38.08 ± 8.2, respectively (p = .97). After the NST, the mean state-trait anxiety score of each group was recorded, with results of 30.58 ± 13.2 for those with music intervention, and 43.11 ± 15.0 for those without music intervention (p < .001). In the control group, the NST was followed by a statistically significant increase in the state-trait anxiety score (38.08 ± 8.2 versus 43.11 ± 15.0, p < .001). However, listening to music during the NST resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the state-trait anxiety score of the study group (38.10 ± 8.8 versus 30.58 ± 13.2, OR = 0.87, p < .001). Furthermore, the first stage of labor was shorter in women who received music stimulation (OR = 0.92, p < .004). They also presented a more natural delivery beginning (spontaneous) and less medication (stimulated and induced) than those who were

  12. [College students social anxiety associated with stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng

    2007-03-01

    To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.

  13. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  14. Prenatal Stress, Methylation in Inflammation-Related Genes, and Adiposity Measures in Early Childhood: the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J; Wilson, Ander; Burris, Heather H; Just, Allan C; Braun, Joseph M; Svensson, Katherine; Zhong, Jia; Brennan, Kasey J M; Dereix, Alexandra; Cantoral, Alejandra; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.

  15. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  16. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Do the effects of prenatal exposure and acute treatment of methamphetamine on anxiety vary depending on the animal model used?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlamberová, R.; Pometlová, M.; Macúchová, E.; Nohejlová, K.; Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 292, Oct 1 (2015), s. 361-369 ISSN 0166-4328 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03708S; GA MZd(CZ) NT14484 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : drug abuse * prenatal exposure * methamphetamine * anxiety * elevated plus-maze * social interaction text * ultrasound vocalization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  18. Exams? Why worry? Interpreting anxiety as facilitative and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Juliane; Esteves, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined why people differ in how they appraise the same stressful situation (an approaching exam). We explored whether interpreting anxiety as a facilitative emotion can affect the type of stress appraisal people make. One hundred and three undergraduate students took part in this study, which lasted for 10 days (leading up to an exam). The students completed a daily self-reported evaluation of anxiety, emotional exhaustion, and stress experienced. The findings suggest a process by which a stressful time can be experienced as motivating rather than threatening or emotionally exhausting. For example, interpreting anxiety as facilitative moderated the relationship between anxiety and stress appraisals. When interpreting their anxiety as facilitative, individuals showed a higher tendency to make challenge stress appraisals and a lower tendency to appraising the stressor as a threat. These differences were especially visible with high levels of anxiety. Furthermore, interpreting anxiety as facilitative was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion, but positively associated with the academic performance. These findings suggest an explanation why people differ in how they appraise the same stressor: how people interpret their anxiety may to a large part affect how they appraise difficult events and situations.

  19. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at BetterHelp.com. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  20. Impulsivity and its relationship with anxiety, depression and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tindle, Richard; Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, Błażej

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to assess the association between depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity with respect to age. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) were administered to 145 individuals. Due to a negative correlation between age, BIS-11 and DASS-42 subscales, participants were divided into three groups: young-aged (18-30years), middle-aged (31-49years) and old-aged (≥50years). Subjects from old-aged group had significantly lower scores of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity compared to those from younger groups. Anxiety, followed by stress and depression, was the strongest predictor of BIS-11 total score in young-aged and middle-aged individuals. There were no significant differences in the correlations between BIS-11 total score, depression, anxiety and stress in old-aged individuals. Our results indicate that the levels of depression, anxiety, stress and impulsivity decrease with age. Additionally, age might moderate the effect of depression, anxiety and stress on impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  2. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pcontrol group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pPrenatal yoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prenatal and postnatal stress and asthma in children: Temporal- and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Rosa, Maria José; Jara, Calvin; Wright, Robert O; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-09-01

    Temporal- and sex-specific effects of perinatal stress have not been examined for childhood asthma. We examined associations between prenatal and/or postnatal stress and children's asthma (n = 765) and effect modification by sex in a prospective cohort study. Maternal negative life events were ascertained prenatally and postpartum. Negative life event scores were categorized as 0, 1 to 2, 3 to 4, or 5 or greater to assess exposure-response relationships. We examined effects of prenatal and postnatal stress on children's asthma by age 6 years, modeling each as independent predictors, mutually adjusting for prenatal and postnatal stress, and finally considering interactions between prenatal and postnatal stress. Effect modification by sex was examined in stratified analyses and by fitting interaction terms. When considering stress in each period independently, among boys, a dose-response relationship was evident for each level increase on the ordinal scale prenatally (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.79; P value for trend = .03) and postnatally (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P value for trend = .001); among girls, only the postnatal trend was significant (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14-2.22; P value for trend = .005). Higher stress in both the prenatal and postnatal periods was associated with increased odds of receiving a diagnosis of asthma in girls (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.98-1.91; Pinteraction = .07) but not boys (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.82-1.42; Pinteraction = .61). Although boys were more vulnerable to stress during the prenatal period, girls were more affected by postnatal stress and cumulative stress across both periods in relation to asthma. Understanding sex and temporal differences in response to early-life stress might provide unique insight into the cause and natural history of asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  5. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal late pregnancy anxiety and stress is associated with children's health: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-09-01

    Maternal prenatal anxiety and stress (PNS) have been positively associated to physical health prob lems in offspring in the first year of life. Whether these associations are transient, persistent, or even progressive over time, is as yet unknown. The goal of this study is to investigate associations between late pregnancy PNS and child health from 18 months to age 6. Mothers were recruited in late pregnancy, and had uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without physical health problems. Around week 37 of pregnancy, mothers reported on their PNS by means of questionnaires, and provided saliva for determination of circadian cortisol concentrations. Children's illnesses in the preceding year were assessed using maternal reports at 30, 48, 60, and 72 months. Antibiotic use was obtained from medical records between one and six years. Multilevel models (N¼174) showed a positive relation between maternal prenatal general and pregnancy-specific anxiety during late pregnancy and offspring respiratory illnesses and symptoms. Interaction effects with time indicated that more PNS was related to more respiratory illnesses until toddlerhood, but not later in life. Furthermore, maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations were related to child digestive illnesses. A steeper maternal cortisol decline over the day was related to more child digestive illnesses, until around three years of age. Finally, children of mothers who suffered more from daily hassles during pregnancy received more antibiotics between one and six years of age. PNS was not related to general and skin illnesses. Summarizing, this study showed that late pregnancy anxiety and cortisol was associated with children's respiratory and digestive illnesses till the age of 3.0-3.5 years. Additionally, more daily hassles were related to more prescribed antibiotics between one and six years. These findings point in the direction of possible effects of PNS persisting beyond the first year of life and into toddlerhood, but

  7. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, and stress in parents of children with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Brynjar; Draisey, Jenny; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2018-06-01

    It has been suggested that elevated maternal social anxiety may play a disorder-specific role in maintaining childhood social anxiety disorder (SAD), but few studies have examined whether mothers of children with SAD are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders (ANX). This study set out to examine whether symptoms of social anxiety were more severe amongst mothers of 7-12 year old children presenting for treatment with SAD (n = 260) compared to those presenting with ANX (n = 138). In addition, we examined whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of maternal and paternal general anxiety, depression, and stress. Parents of 7-12 year old children referred for treatment of SAD or ANX completed self-report questionnaire measures of emotional symptoms. Compared to mothers of children with ANX, mothers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. In addition, fathers of children with SAD reported significantly higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression than fathers of children with ANX. This study is one of the few existing studies that have examined mothers' and fathers' psychopathology across different childhood anxiety disorders. Compared to parents of children with ANX, parents of children with SAD may have poorer mental health which may inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes for children with SAD. Thus, targeting parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood SAD. Consideration of parental psychopathology may be particularly important in the treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Mothers of children with social anxiety disorder are more socially anxious than mothers of children with other anxiety disorders Fathers of children with social anxiety disorder are more anxious and depressed than fathers of children with other anxiety disorders Participants were predominantly of high

  8. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  9. Prenatal stress perception and coping strategies: Insights from a longitudinal prospective pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, J; Kocalevent, R-D; Hansen, G; Rose, M; Becher, H; Hecher, K; Arck, P C; Diemert, A

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal distress has been linked to pregnancy complications and poor offspring's health, despite the fact that longitudinal assessments of various stress dimensions are still lacking. Hence, we aimed to assess perceived stress over the course of pregnancy. Moreover, we examined whether social support and coping styles are linked to prenatal stress trajectories. Data from 543 women participating in the PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children Health) study, a prospective population-based cohort study, was used for the present analyses. Once per trimester the women completed questionnaires regarding different psychometric measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Linear mixed regression models were used to examine perceived stress development longitudinally and to relate social support and coping styles to stress trajectories during pregnancy. A significant decrease of perceived stress was observed over the course of pregnancy. Stratifying the study sample according to parity, women delivering their first child had continuously lower perceived stress scores compared to women having already one or more children, and a significant decrease during pregnancy was exclusively observed in primiparous women. Both, positive coping strategies and higher perceived and received social support were independently associated with lower perceived stress, while evasive coping strategies were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Our study reveals stress perception trajectories during pregnancies in primi- and multiparous women. Our findings underscore the need for intervention strategies aiming to improve social support and positive coping strategies especially in multiparous women in order to reduce the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anxiety and Stress--How They Affect Teachers, Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Bettie Burres

    1978-01-01

    Principals can play an important role in the interpersonal relationships within a school building by exploring and assessing issues regarding cause and effect of the anxiety, stress, and tension that exist among personnel. (Author/MLF)

  11. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2nd-year medical students, followed by an interview to confirm the diagnosis. They found an ... Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. .... Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21),[11] and questions on alcohol and drug use.

  12. Prenatal zinc reduces stress response in adult rat offspring exposed to lipopolysaccharide during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Marcella C; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Carvalho, Virgínia M; Bernardi, Maria M; Kirsten, Thiago B

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) on gestation day (GD) 9.5 in rats, which mimics infections by Gram-negative bacteria, induces short- and long-term behavioral and neuroimmune changes in the offspring. Because LPS induces hypozincemia, dams were treated with zinc after LPS in an attempt to prevent or ameliorate the impairments induced by prenatal LPS exposure. LPS can also interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis development; thus, behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters linked to HPA axis were evaluated in adult offspring after a restraint stress session. We prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on GD 9.5). One hour later they received zinc (ZnSO4, 2 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Adult female offspring that were in metestrus/diestrus were submitted to a 2 h restraint stress session. Immediately after the stressor, 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open field behavior, serum corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and striatal and hypothalamic neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were assessed. Offspring that received prenatal zinc after LPS presented longer periods in silence, increased locomotion, and reduced serum corticosterone and striatal norepinephrine turnover compared with rats treated with LPS and saline. Prenatal zinc reduced acute restraint stress response in adult rats prenatally exposed to LPS. Our findings suggest a potential beneficial effect of prenatal zinc, in which the stress response was reduced in offspring that were stricken with infectious/inflammatory processes during gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A prospective examination of depression, anxiety and stress throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Sofia; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal distress has largely been conceptualised as the experience of depression and/or anxiety. Recent research has shown that the affective state of stress is also present during the perinatal period and thus may add to a broader understanding of perinatal distress. The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in depression, anxiety and stress symptoms across pregnancy, and to explore the prospective relationships between these symptoms. Two-hundred and fourteen pregnant women were recruited when they were less than 16 weeks gestation. Women completed depression, anxiety and stress measures on a monthly basis, from 16 weeks gestation through to 36 weeks gestation. The covariate measures of sleep quality and social support were assessed bi-monthly at 16, 24 and 32 weeks gestation. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms were all shown to change over time, with women experiencing fewer symptoms during the middle of their pregnancy. Higher symptoms early in pregnancy predicted higher symptom levels throughout the rest of pregnancy. Higher depression scores early in pregnancy were also shown to predict higher anxiety and higher stress scores in late pregnancy. Increased stress scores during mid pregnancy also predicted higher anxiety scores in late pregnancy. Current findings indicate that symptom levels of depression, anxiety and stress vary over the course of pregnancy. Increased depression in early pregnancy seemed to be particularly pertinent as it not only predicted later depression symptoms, but also increased anxiety and stress in late pregnancy. Collectively, these results further highlight the importance of emotional health screening early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Music Therapy on Anxiety, Stress and Maternal-fetal Attachment in Pregnant Women During Transvaginal Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The finding provides evidence for use of nursing intervention in prenatal care unit to reduce pregnant women's anxiety. Further research is necessary to test the benefits of music therapy with different frequency and duration.

  15. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. [Free radical modification of proteins in brain structure of Sprague-Dawley rats and some behaviour indicators after prenatal stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    V'iushina, A V; Pritvorova, A V; Flerov, M A

    2012-08-01

    We studied the influence of late prenatal stress on free radical oxidation processes in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex, striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus proteins. It was shown that after prenatal stress most changes were observed in hypothalamus and hippocampus. It was shown that in hypothalamus spontaneous oxidation level increased, but level of induced oxidation decreased, the opposite changes were found in hippocampus. Simultaneously minor changes of protein modification were observed in cortex and striatum. It was shown that prenatal stress changed both correlation of proteins free radical oxidation in studied structures and values of these data regarding to control. In test of "open field" motor activity in rats after prenatal stress decreased and time of freezing and grooming increased; opposite, in T-labyrinth motor activity and time of grooming in rats after prenatal stress increased, but time of freezing decreased.

  17. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rahardjo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of course assignments. The aim of this research is to investigate contribution of anxiety in operating computer and academic stress toward procrastination on students. As much as 65 students majoring in psychology became participants in this study. The results showed that anxiety in operating computer and academic stress play significant role in influencing academic procrastination among social sciences students. In terms of academic procrastination tendencies, anxiety in operating computer and academic stress, male students have higher percentage than female students.

  19. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  20. Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Prakash; Acharya, Lumeshor; Bhatta, Bhup Dev; Paneru, Suman Bhatta; Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Chakraborty, Prashant Kumar; Sharma, Rajasee

    2018-03-13

    Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder is high after earthquake. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence and comorbidity of commonly occurring psychological symptoms in people exposed to Nepal mega earthquake in 2015 after a year of the event. A community based, cross sectional, descriptive study was carried out in Bhumlichaur area of Gorkha district, Nepal after around 14 months of the first major earthquake. We used self-reporting questionnaire 20, Post-traumatic stress disorder 8 and hospital anxiety and depression scale to screen for presence of symptoms of anxiety and depression or post-traumatic stress disorder in this population. The risk of having these disorders according to different socio-demographic variable was assessed by calculating odds ratio. All calculations were done using predictive and analytical software (PASW) version 16.0. A total of 198 participants were included in the final data analysis. The mean age of study participants was 35.13 years (SD=18.04). Borderline anxiety symptoms were found in 104 (52.5%) while significant anxiety symptoms were found in 40 (20%) of respondents. Borderline depressive symptoms were seen in 40 (20%) while significant depressive symptoms were seen in 16 (8%) of subjects. Around 27% (n= 53) of respondents were classified as having post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder seems to be high even after one year in people exposed to earthquake.

  1. Work and home stress: associations with anxiety and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L-B; Blumenthal, J A; Watkins, L L; Sherwood, A

    2015-03-01

    In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response....... The corticosterone response to restraint seemed modified by prenatal exposure to toluene. Lactational body weight was decreased in offsprings subjected to CMS, primarily due to effects in the combined exposure group. Cognitive function was investigated in the Morris water maze, and some indications of improved...

  3. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  5. Emotional stability, anxiety, and natural killer activity under examination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, P; Bargellini, A; Rovesti, S; Pinelli, M; Vivoli, R; Solfrini, V; Vivoli, G

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relation between a stable personality trait, a mood state and immune response to an examination stress. A self-reported measure of emotional stability (BFQ-ES scale) was obtained in a sample (n = 39) randomly selected from 277 cadets; this personality trait was also investigated by completing a neuroticism scale (Eysenck personality inventory) and a trait-anxiety scale (STAI). Natural killer (NK) cell activity was measured at baseline, long before the examination time and the examination day. The state-anxiety scale evaluated the response to the stressful stimulus. Taking subjects all together, the academic task did not result in significant modification over baseline in NK cell activity. Subjects were then divided into three groups based on emotional stability and state-anxiety scores: high emotional stability/low anxiety, medium, and low emotional stability/high anxiety. Examination stress induced significant increases in NK cell activity in the high emotional stability/low anxiety group, no effect in the medium group, and significant decreases in the low emotional stability/high anxiety group. The repeated-measure ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of group x period (baseline vs. examination) for both lytic units and percent cytolysis. The results did not change after introducing coffee and smoking habits as covariates. Our findings suggest that the state-anxiety acts in concert with a stable personality trait to modulate NK response in healthy subjects exposed to a psychological naturalistic stress. The relation between anxiety and poor immune control has been already described, whereas the ability of emotional stability to associate with an immunoenhancement has not yet reported. The peculiarity of our population, a very homogeneous and healthy group for life style and habits, can have highlighted the role of emotional stability, and may account for the difference with other studies.

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  7. Low dose prenatal ethanol exposure induces anxiety-like behaviour and alters dendritic morphology in the basolateral amygdala of rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol is strongly associated with poor cognitive outcomes particularly in relation to learning and memory. It is also becoming more evident that anxiety disorders and anxiety-like behaviour can be associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to a relatively small amount of alcohol would result in anxiety-like behaviour and to determine if this was associated with morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing either no alcohol (Control or 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 months (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Rats were perfusion fixed and brains were collected at the end of behavioural testing for morphological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the basolateral amygdala. EtOH exposed offspring displayed anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus maze, holeboard and emergence tests. Although sexually dimorphic behaviour was apparent, sex did not impact anxiety-like behaviour induced by prenatal alcohol exposure. This increase in anxiety - like behaviour could not be attributed to a change in pyramidal cell number within the BLA but rather was associated with an increase in dendritic spines along the apical dendrite which is indicative of an increase in synaptic connectivity and activity within these neurons. This study is the first to link increases in anxiety like behaviour to structural changes within the basolateral amygdala in a model of prenatal ethanol exposure. In addition, this study has shown that exposure to even a relatively small amount of alcohol during development leads to long term alterations in anxiety-like behaviour.

  8. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  9. Anxiety, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Perceived Stress as Predictors of Recent Drinking, Alcohol Craving, and Social Stress Response in Heavy Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Stephens, Mary Ann C; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Wand, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Stress and anxiety are widely considered to be causally related to alcohol craving and consumption, as well as development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, numerous preclinical and human studies examining effects of stress or anxiety on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems have been equivocal. This study examined relationships between scores on self-report anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and stress measures and frequency and intensity of recent drinking, alcohol craving during early withdrawal, as well as laboratory measures of alcohol craving and stress reactivity among heavy drinkers with AUD. Media-recruited, heavy drinkers with AUD (N = 87) were assessed for recent alcohol consumption. Anxiety and stress levels were characterized using paper-and-pencil measures, including the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Eligible subjects (N = 30) underwent alcohol abstinence on the Clinical Research Unit; twice daily measures of alcohol craving were collected. On day 4, subjects participated in the Trier Social Stress Test; measures of cortisol and alcohol craving were collected. In multivariate analyses, higher BAI scores were associated with lower drinking frequency and reduced drinks/drinking day; in contrast, higher ASI-3 scores were associated with higher drinking frequency. BAI anxiety symptom and ASI-3 scores also were positively related to Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total scores and AUD symptom and problem subscale measures. Higher BAI and ASI-3 scores but not PSS scores were related to greater self-reported alcohol craving during early alcohol abstinence. Finally, BAI scores were positively related to laboratory stress-induced cortisol and alcohol craving. In contrast, the PSS showed no relationship with most measures of alcohol craving or stress reactivity. Overall, clinically oriented measures of anxiety compared with perceived stress were more

  10. Occupational stress, anxiety and depression among Egyptian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Dalia; Allam, Heba

    2017-09-01

    Occupational stress (OS) among teachers predispose to depression and anxiety. No study was done to assess these problems among Egyptian teachers. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of OS, depression and anxiety among Egyptian teachers. A cross sectional study was done on 568 Egyptian teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and the Arabic version of the Occupational Stress Index (OSI), the Arabic validated versions of Taylor manifest anxiety scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess OS, anxiety and depression respectively. The prevalence of OS, anxiety and depression among teachers was (100%, 67.5% and 23.2%) respectively. OS, anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher among teachers with an age more than 40years, female teachers, primary school teachers, those with inadequate salary, higher teaching experience, higher qualifications and higher workload. A significant weak positive correlation was found between OS scores and anxiety and depression scores. This study indicated the need for future researches to address risk factors of OS and mental disorders among Egyptian teachers, and the need of periodical medical evaluation of teachers and medical and psychological support for the identified cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Prenatal maternal stress and wheeze in children: novel insights into epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Saskia; Bieg, Matthias; Gu, Zuguang; Thürmann, Loreen; Bauer, Tobias; Bauer, Mario; Ishaque, Naveed; Röder, Stefan; Gu, Lei; Herberth, Gunda; Lawerenz, Christian; Borte, Michael; Schlesner, Matthias; Plass, Christoph; Diessl, Nicolle; Eszlinger, Markus; Mücke, Oliver; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Herrmann, Carl; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wright, Rosalind J; Lehmann, Irina; Eils, Roland

    2016-06-28

    Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs. These data were complemented by longitudinal targeted methylation and transcriptional analyses in children from our prospective mother-child cohort LINA for whom maternal stress and wheezing information was available (n = 443). High maternal stress was associated with an increased risk for persistent wheezing in the child until the age of 5. Both mothers and children showed genome-wide alterations in DNA-methylation specifically in enhancer elements. Deregulated neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter receptor interactions were observed in stressed mothers and their children. In children but not in mothers, calcium- and Wnt-signaling required for lung maturation in the prenatal period were epigenetically deregulated and could be linked with wheezing later in children's life.

  12. Prenatal psychosocial stress exposure is associated with subsequent working memory performance in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Kumsta, Robert; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Wüst, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prenatal psychosocial stress exposure and subsequent prefrontal cortex-dependent working memory performance in human adults. Working memory performance was assessed using an item-recognition task under 10 mg hydrocortisone (cortisol) and placebo conditions in a sample of 32 healthy young women (mean age = 25 +/- 4.34 years) whose mothers experienced a major negative life event during their pregnancy (Prenatal Stress, PS group), and in a comparison group of 27 healthy young women (mean age = 24 +/- 3.4 years). The two groups did not differ in the placebo condition, however, subjects in the PS group showed longer reaction times after hydrocortisone administration compared with subjects in the comparison group (p = .02). These findings provide support for an association between prenatal stress exposure and the potential modulatory effect of cortisol on working memory performance in young adults, which may reflect compromised development of the prefrontal cortex in prenatal life. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression; however, it is possible this link is bidirectional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Stressful life events, depression, and anxiety symptoms were measured twice five years apart. Cross-lagged panel analysis examined the mutual influences of stressful life events on depression and on anxiety over time. Life events predicted later depressive symptomatology (p = .01), but the depression predicting life events relationship was less strong (p = .06), whereas earlier anxiety predicted life events five years later (p = .001). There was evidence of sex differences in the extent to which life events predicted later anxiety. This study provides evidence of stress causation for depression and weaker evidence for stress generation. In contrast, there was strong evidence of stress generation for anxiety but weaker evidence for stress causation, and that differed for men and women.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  15. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  16. Does prenatal valproate interact with a genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter?A rat study on anxiety and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Ellenbroek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that prenatal exposure to valproate (or valproic acid, VPA enhances the risk of developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. In line with this, a single injection of VPA induces a multitude of ASD-like symptoms in animals such as rats and mice. However, there is equally strong evidence that genetic factors contribute significantly to the risk of ASD and indeed, like most other psychiatric disorders, ASD is now generally thought to results from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Given that VPA significantly impacts on the serotonergic system, and serotonin has strong biochemical and genetic links to ASD, we aimed to investigate the interaction between genetic reduction in the serotonin transporter and prenatal valproate administration. More specifically, we exposed both wildtype (SERT+/+ rats and rats heterozygous for the serotonin transporter deletion (SERT+/- to a single injection of 400 mg/kg VPA at gestational day (GD 12. The offspring, in adulthood, was assessed in four different tests: Elevated Plus Maze and Novelty Suppressed Feeding as measures for anxiety and prepulse inhibition (PPI and latent inhibition as measures for cognition and information processing. The results show that prenatal VPA significantly increased anxiety in both paradigm, reduced PPI and reduced conditioning in the latent inhibition paradigm. However, we failed to find a significant gene – environment interaction. We propose that this may be related to the timing of the VPA injection and suggest that whereas GD12 might be optimal for affecting normal rat, rats with a genetically compromised serotonergic system may be more sensitive to VPA at earlier time points during gestation. Overall our data are the first to investigate gene * environmental interactions in a genetic rat model for ASD suggest that timing may be of crucial importance to the long-term outcome.

  17. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Children prenatally exposed to maternal anxiety devote more attentional resources to neutral pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.; Henrichs, Jens; Donkers, F.C.L.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy can negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment, predisposing the offspring to a higher risk of behavioral and emotional problems later in life. The current study investigates the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and child affective picture

  19. Perceived social stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, depression and subjective social status among pregnant Mexican and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in subjective social status, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety between pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women. Three hundred pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in South Texas were surveyed for pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress, depressive symptoms, and subjective social status. Pregnant Mexican immigrant women had higher levels of pregnancy-related anxiety and lower levels of depression and perceived social stress than pregnant Mexican American women. Change in these variables among Mexican immigrant women was relatively linear as time of residence in the United States increased. Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women had significantly different correlations between subjective social status, self-esteem and perceived social stress. Results indicate that subjective social status is an important psychosocial variable among pregnant Hispanic women. Results contribute to ongoing efforts to provide culturally responsive prenatal psychosocial support services.

  20. Occupational stress, anxiety and coping strategies in police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, D; Varetto, A; Zedda, M; Ieraci, V

    2015-08-01

    Studies on occupational stress have shown that police officers are exposed to stressful events more often than other workers and this can result in impaired psychosocial well-being and physical health. To measure the level of stress experienced, the consequences in terms of anxiety and the coping strategies adopted in a sample of police officers working in a large city in northern Italy. We used the Police Stress Questionnaire and the Distress Thermometer to measure occupational stress, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to measure anxiety and the Brief COPE questionnaire to measure coping strategies. Six hundred seventeen police officers completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 34%. Differences between genders, sectors and roles emerged, but overall the study population generally demonstrated good use of positive coping strategies. Women in all operational service roles were more vulnerable to both organizational and operational stressors than men (P occupational stress should take into account gender, role and type of work. Tailored training courses and support programmes could be useful and effective tools for preventing stress before it becomes chronic. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Sex-specific impact of prenatal stress on growth and reproductive parameters of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpper, Hanna; Klaus, Teresa; Palme, Rupert; Ruf, Thomas; Huber, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Body condition and reproductive maturation are parameters of reproductive success that are influenced by sexual hormones rising in the circulation during the time of puberty. Various endocrine systems can be programmed by conditions experienced during early life. Stress for instance is supposed to be capable of influencing fetal development, leading to adjustments of offspring's later physiology. We examined whether prenatal stress (induced by exposure to strobe light) during early- to mid-gestation was capable of affecting later reproductive parameters in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Therefore, we measured the levels of testosterone and progesterone from the age of day 12-124 in prenatally stressed (PS, n = 20) and unaffected control animals (n = 24). Furthermore, we determined the timing of puberty and growth. Body weight development revealed significantly faster growth in PS females compared to control animals. The onset of first estrus was slightly earlier in PS females, however not significantly so. Cycle lengths and levels of progesterone differed between groups over the course of time with higher progesterone levels and more constant cycles among PS females compared to control females who displayed marked differences between first and subsequent cycles. Levels of testosterone did not differ between groups. We conclude that prenatal stress accelerates growth and maturity in females, but not in males.

  2. Effects of prenatal stress and emotional reactivity of the mother on emotional and cognitive abilities in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stephane; Petit, Bérengère; Lévy, Frédéric; Boissy, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on emotional reactivity and cognitive abilities in offspring are under-documented in precocial mammals. Here, we investigated to what extent emotional reactivity, judgment bias and spatial learning abilities of lambs are affected by chronic stress during late pregnancy and by their dams' emotional reactivity. The 20 highest-responsive (HR) and 20 lowest-responsive (LR) ewes from a population of 120 Romane ewes were selected according to their pre-mating reactivity to social isolation in a new environment. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various unpredictable aversive events such as restraint, mixing groups and transport while the other 20 selected ewes were not. In a human and an object test, prenatally-stressed lambs were more fearful than control lambs, but the prenatal stress effect was moderated by the reactivity of the mothers: prenatally-stressed lambs from ewes with high emotional reactivity were more affected. Prenatally-stressed lambs did not perform as well as control lambs in a maze test and showed pessimistic-like judgment in a cognitive bias test. Prenatally-stressed lambs were thus characterized by a negative affective state with increased fear reactions and impaired cognitive evaluation. The development of negative moods could have long-lasting consequences on the coping strategies of the lambs in response to their rearing conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sex-Specific Effects of Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress: Implications for Mammalian Developmental Programming During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyansky, Y.; Moyer, E. L.; Oijala, E.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    During adaptation to the microgravity environment, adult mammals experience stress mediated by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis. In our previous studies of pregnant rats exposed to 2-g hypergravity via centrifugation, we reported decreased corticosterone and increased body mass and leptin in adult male, but not female, offspring. In this study, we utilized Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress to simulate the stressors of spaceflight by exposing dams to different stressors. Stress response modulation occurs via both positive and negative feedback in the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex resulting in the differential release of corticosterone (CORT), a murine analog to human cortisol.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of stress, anxiety and depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wafaa Yousif Abdel Wahed

    2016-02-20

    Feb 20, 2016 ... sion Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), along with a pretested Sociodemographic questionnaire. .... sons.26 Most of them live in rural communities and work in ..... ing period.39 Results of other studies in North America also suggest that .... NIMH. National Institute of Mental Health; 2008.

  5. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Pop-Jordanova

    2018-04-01

    CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that moderate stress level and anxiety are present in both groups of patients (orthodontic and dental. Obtained scores are depending on gender and age. As more used coping patterns in both groups are developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity. Some strategies for managing this problem are discussed.

  6. Abundance of Stress, Anxiety and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dehghan

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research revealed high stress, anxiety and depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients that can jeopardize their health. Hence the providing appropriate education for coping and adapting with the symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis Patients seems to be necessary.

  7. Impact on family and parental stress of prenatal vs postnatal repair of myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M; Adzick, N Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A; Burrows, Pamela K; Farmer, Diana L; Brock, John W; Howell, Lori J; Farrell, Jody A; Houtrow, Amy J

    2016-10-01

    The Management of Myelomeningocele Study was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflected more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale and Family Resource Scale scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the Impact on Family Scale and 172 completed the Parenting Stress Index at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower revised 15-item Impact on Family Scale scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (P = .02 and .004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the 2 groups (P = .89) or in any of the Parenting Stress Index Short Form subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months were associated with both family impact and parental stress. The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervical pain in nursing professionals under stress at work

    OpenAIRE

    Pozzebon,Daniela; Piccin,Chaiane Facco; Silva,Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa,Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and...

  9. Prenatal stress and risk of febrile seizures in children: a nationwide longitudinal study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost...... a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year before the pregnancy and they were included in the exposed group. The exposed children had a risk of febrile seizures similar to that of the unexposed children (hazard ratio (HR) 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.06). The HRs did not differ according to the nature...... or timing of bereavement. Our data do not suggest any causal link between exposure to prenatal stress and febrile seizures in childhood....

  10. Relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervical pain in nursing professionals under stress at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pozzebon

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and Methods: Forty-three women under stress at work, according to the Job Stress Scale (JSS, were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, pressure pain threshold, measured by algometry, and muscle sensitivity to hand palpation of the masticatory and cervical muscles. Results: A low moderate level of perceived stress was found in 62.79% of the sample, anxiety in 11.63% and depression in 9.30%. The psychosocial scales correlated with each other. No correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and perceived stress, anxiety and depression. The level of pain to hand palpation correlated with the perceived stress scores. Conclusion: Pressure pain threshold was not influenced by the psychosocial factors assessed. Pain intensity to hand palpation, however, was higher as the perception of stress increased.

  11. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  12. Validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in assessing depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Jane; Wong, Dana; Ponsford, Jennie

    2013-10-01

    Anxiety and depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are associated with poorer outcomes. A brief self-report questionnaire would assist in identifying those at risk, however validity of such measures is complicated by confounding symptoms of the injury. This study investigated the validity of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in screening for clinical diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders following TBI. One hundred and twenty-three participants with mild to severe TBI were interviewed using the SCID (Axis I) and completed the DASS and HADS. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS scales demonstrated validity compared with SCID diagnoses of anxiety and mood disorders as measured by Area Under ROC Curve, sensitivity and specificity. Validity of the DASS depression scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of devaluation of life, self-deprecation, and hopelessness that are not present on the HADS. Validity of the HADS anxiety scale benefited from items reflecting symptoms of tension and worry that are measured separately for the DASS on the stress scale. Participants were predominantly drawn from a rehabilitation centre which may limit the extent to which results can be generalized. Scores for the DASS21 were derived from the DASS rather than being administered separately. The DASS, DASS21 and HADS demonstrated validity as screening measures of anxiety and mood disorders in this TBI sample. The findings support use of these self-report questionnaires for individuals with TBI to identify those who should be referred for clinical diagnostic follow-up. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alterations of proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal cells in prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Su, Qian; Zhang, Huifang; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Huiping; Ding, Ding; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the alterations of proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal cells in prenatally stressed rats. We investigated the impact of prenatal restraint stress on the hipocampal cell proliferation in the progeny with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), which is a marker of proliferating cells and their progeny. In addition, we observed the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with double labeling of BrdU/neurofilament (NF), BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hipocampus. Prenatal stress (PS) increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) only in female and neuron differentiation of newly divided cells in the DG and CA4 in both male and female. Moreover, the NF and GFAP-positive cells, but not the BrdU-positive cells, BrdU/NF and BrdU/GFAP-positive cells, were found frequently in the CA3 and CA1 in the offspring of each group. These results possibly suggest a compensatory adaptive response to neuronal damage or loss in hippocampus induced by PS. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  15. Prenatal changes in parenting self-efficacy: Linkages with anxiety and depressive symptoms in primiparous women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernand, J.J.; Kunseler, F.C.; Oosterman, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Schuengel, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine parenting self-efficacy in relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Five hundred thirty-three first-time pregnant women completed questionnaires at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of pregnancy that measure parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive

  16. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-08-01

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  17. Impact on Family and Parental Stress of Prenatal versus Postnatal Repair of Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiel, Ryan M.; Adzick, N. Scott; Thom, Elizabeth A.; Burrows, Pamela K.; Farmer, Diana L.; Brock, John W.; Howell, Lori J.; Farrell, Jody A.; Houtrow, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) was a multicenter, randomized controlled trial that compared prenatal repair with standard postnatal repair for fetal myelomeningocele. OBJECTIVE We sought to describe the long-term impact on the families of the women who participated and to evaluate how the timing of repair influenced the impact on families and parental stress. STUDY DESIGN Randomized women completed the 24-item Impact on Family Scale (IFS) and the 36-item Parenting Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF) at 12 and 30 months after delivery. A revised 15-item score of the IFS (RIFS) describing overall impact was also computed. Higher scores reflect more negative impacts or greater stress. In addition, we examined Family Support Scale (FSS) and Family Resource Scale (FRS) scores along with various neonatal outcomes. Repeated measures analysis was conducted for each scale and subscale. RESULTS Of 183 women randomized, 171 women completed the IFS and 172 completed the PSI at both 12 and 30 months. The prenatal surgery group had significantly lower RIFS scores as well as familial-social impact subscale scores compared to the postnatal surgery group (p=0.02 and 0.004, respectively). There was no difference in total parental stress between the two groups (p=0.89) or in any of the PSI-SF subscales. In addition, walking independently at 30 months and family resources at 12 months are associated with both family impact and parental stress. CONCLUSION The overall negative family impact of caring for a child with spina bifida, up to 30 months of age, was significantly lower in the prenatal surgery group compared to the postnatal surgery group. Ambulation status and family resources were predictive of impact on family and parental stress. PMID:27263997

  18. Separation anxiety: Stress, tension and cytokinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Krithika; Iglesias, Pablo A.; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinesis, the physical separation of a mother cell into two daughter cells, progresses through a series of well-defined changes in morphology. These changes involve distinct biochemical and mechanical processes. Here, we review the mechanical features of cells during cytokinesis, discussing both the material properties as well as sources of stresses, both active and passive, which lead to the observed changes in morphology. We also describe a mechanosensory feedback control system that regulates protein localization and shape progression during cytokinesis. -- Highlights: ► Cytokinesis progresses through three distinct mechanical phases. ► Cortical tension initially resists deformation of mother cell. ► Late in cytokinesis, cortical tension provides stress, enabling furrow ingression. ► A mechanosensory feedback control system regulates cytokinesis.

  19. Negative life events and symptoms of depression and anxiety: stress causation and/or stress generation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas; Der, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Stressful life events are known to contribute to development of depression, however, it is possible this link is bi-directional. The present study examined whether such stress generation effects are greater than the effects of stressful life events on depression, and whether stress generation is also evident with anxiety. Design: Participants were two large age cohorts (N = 732 aged 44 years; N = 705 aged 63 years) from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Methods:...

  20. Relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality in Chinese pregnant women: the mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Fang, Yueyan; Li, Ping

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, and to determine whether resilience plays a mediating role in the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality among pregnant women. Two hundred and thirty-one pregnant women in their second trimester participated in the study. They completed questionnaires, including: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS), and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10). A structural equation model was used to analyze the relationships among prenatal maternal stress, resilience, and sleep quality, with resilience as a mediator. Prenatal maternal stress was negatively associated with sleep quality in pregnant women (p relationship between prenatal maternal stress and sleep quality, and the mediation effect ratio was 22.0% (p stress; however, the protective factor for sleep quality was resilience. This finding could provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention strategies with which to improve sleep quality in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal Prenatal Stress and Other Developmental Risk Factors for Adolescent Depression: Spotlight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Seth D; Fineberg, Anna M; Drabick, Deborah A; Murphy, Shannon K; Ellman, Lauren M

    2018-02-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct subgroups of offspring based on exposure to maternal prenatal stress and other developmental factors from the prenatal, childhood, and adolescent periods that have been associated with depression and/or maternal prenatal stress. LCA identified subgroups that were compared to determine whether and to what extent they differed on adolescent depressive symptoms. LCA revealed a subgroup of "high-risk" individuals, characterized by maternal factors during pregnancy (higher ambivalence/negativity and lower positivity towards the pregnancy, higher levels of hassles, lower maternal education and higher maternal age at birth, higher pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring developmental factors (decreased cognitive functioning during childhood and adolescence, lower perceived parental support during adolescence, and higher levels of maternal depression during adolescence). High-risk females exhibited elevated conduct symptoms and higher birth order, while high-risk males exhibited decreased internalizing symptoms and lower birth order. Both high-risk males and females reported elevated depressive symptoms during adolescence relative to their "low-risk" counterparts.

  2. Effects of Stress Inoculation Training on Anxiety, Stress, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Mark S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of preventive stress inoculation program for adolescents (n=48) that consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive restructuring, and assertiveness training. Compared with control subjects, trainees showed significantly greater improvements on self-report measures of trait anxiety and stress-related symptoms at…

  3. The relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinay Dikmen, Pinar; Yavuz, Burcu Goksan; Aydinlar, Elif Ilgaz

    2015-06-01

    To assess the relationships between migraine, depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep problems. Psychiatric conditions and sleep disturbances are common in migraineurs. Depression, anxiety, stress, migraine, and sleep problems frequently coexist as comorbidities. Eighty-seven episodic migraineurs (62 females, 25 males; 32.8 ± 6.9) and 41 control subjects (25 females, 16 males; 31.5 ± 5.6) were prospectively enrolled for the study. The participants completed a sociodemographic data form and a migraine disability assessment scale (MIDAS), depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In migraineurs, a significant positive correlation was found between PSQI total scores and MIDAS scores (migraine related disability for at least three consecutive months) (r = 0. 234, p = 0.04). Only 24.1 % of migraineus (n = 21) had minimal or no disability, 75.9 % of the patients (n = 66) had more than a little disability according to MIDAS scores. PSQI total scores were also correlated with pain intensity over a three month period (MIDAS B) (r = 0.221, p = 0.04). While PSQI scores were found significantly different between migraineurs and control subjects (5.5 ± 2.9 vs 4.5 ± 2.5; p = 0.04), the correlation of all the DASS subscale scores between the groups was not statistically significant. Our findings showed that episodic migraine was a risk factor on its own for sleep disturbances without comorbid depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, migraine-related disability and pain intensity in migraine attacks were related to poor sleep quality.

  4. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  5. Sleep Changes in a Rat Prenatal Stress Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoven, Christian; Sickman, Helle M.; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    Major depression is one of the most frequently occurring mental health disorders, but is characterized by diverse symptomatology. Sleep disturbances, however, are commonplace in depressive patients. These alterations include increased duration of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REMS) and increased sleep...... determination of sleep-wakefulness state. As traumatic episodes can trigger episodes of clinical depression, we also investigated effects of an acute stressor during the recording period. PNS animals (n=21) had an 82% increase in amount of REMS (11.6±1.4% vs 6.3±0.9%; p...-related increase in REMS after lights-off (pREMS rebound thus seems blunted in PNS animals. PNS alters sleep-wakefulness behavior under baseline conditions and after acute stress. This underscores the value of the PNS...

  6. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  7. Verbal Ability, Social Stress, and Anxiety in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Kimberly E.; Schupp, Clayton W.; Simon, David; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the physiological stress and anxiety responses in children with autism following completion of a standardized, social-evaluative stressor (Trier Social Stress Test-Child version), document the relationship between verbal ability, stress, and anxiety, and determine the association between stress and anxiety…

  8. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-03-28

    Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the effectiveness of an in-hospital screening tool. This descriptive longitudinal study of trauma patients was conducted at a Level 1 Metropolitan Trauma Centre in Australia over 14 months. Participants were interviewed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short-form version (DASS-21) during hospital admission then at 3 and 6 months after injury. Descriptive statistics were performed to evaluate participant characteristics and incidence of depression, anxiety and stress. Correlations and logistic regression were conducted to investigate the ability of the DASS-21 to predict symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress and to investigate factors associated with depression, anxiety and stress 6 months after injury. 201 participants ranging in age (18-94 years) and injury severity participated in the baseline interview and 109 completed all 3 interviews over 6 months. Over half (54%) reported above normal scores for depression, anxiety and/or stress in at least one of the 3 time points. Intensive care unit admission and high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 3 months post injury were predictors for high levels of depression, anxiety and stress at 6 months. Low scores for depression, anxiety and stress during admission were correlated with low scores for depression, anxiety and stress at 3 and 6 months. Depression, anxiety and stress in patients hospitalised following injury is common and should be anticipated in patients who have had an intensive care admission. Screening at 3

  9. Impact of prenatal stress on offspring glucocorticoid levels: A phylogenetic meta-analysis across 14 vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Wilson, Meredith A; Kim, Andrew W; Jaeggi, Adrian V

    2018-03-21

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress is commonly associated with variation in Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning in offspring. However, the strength or consistency of this response has never been empirically evaluated across vertebrate species. Here we meta-analyzed 114 results from 39 studies across 14 vertebrate species using Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-effects models. We found a positive overall effect of prenatal stress on offspring glucocorticoids (d' = 0.43) though the 95% Highest Posterior Density Interval overlapped with 0 (-0.16-0.95). Meta-regressions of potential moderators highlighted that phylogeny and life history variables predicted relatively little variation in effect size. Experimental studies (d' = 0.64) produced stronger effects than observational ones (d' = -0.01), while prenatal stress affected glucocorticoid recovery following offspring stress exposure more strongly (d' = 0.75) than baseline levels (d' = 0.48) or glucocorticoid peak response (d' = 0.36). These findings are consistent with the argument that HPA-axis sensitivity to prenatal stress is evolutionarily ancient and occurs regardless of a species' overall life history strategy. These effects may therefore be especially important for mediating intra-specific life-history variation. In addition, these findings suggest that animal models of prenatal HPA-axis programming may be appropriate for studying similar effects in humans.

  10. Alterations in glucocorticoid negative feedback following maternal Pb, prenatal stress and the combination: A potential biological unifying mechanism for their corresponding disease profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi-George, A.; Virgolini, M.B.; Weston, D.; Cory-Slechta, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Combined exposures to maternal lead (Pb) and prenatal stress (PS) can act synergistically to enhance behavioral and neurochemical toxicity in offspring. Maternal Pb itself causes permanent dysfunction of the body's major stress system, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. The current study sought to determine the potential involvement of altered negative glucocorticoid feedback as a mechanistic basis of the effects in rats of maternal Pb (0, 50 or 150 ppm in drinking water beginning 2 mo prior to breeding), prenatal stress (PS; restraint on gestational days 16-17) and combined maternal Pb + PS in 8 mo old male and female offspring. Corticosterone changes were measured over 24 h following an i.p. injection stress containing vehicle or 100 or 300 μg/kg (females) or 100 or 150 μg/kg (males) dexamethasone (DEX). Both Pb and PS prolonged the time course of corticosterone reduction following vehicle injection stress. Pb effects were non-monotonic, with a greater impact at 50 vs. 150 ppm, particularly in males, where further enhancement occurred with PS. In accord with these findings, the efficacy of DEX in suppressing corticosterone was reduced by Pb and Pb + PS in both genders, with Pb efficacy enhanced by PS in females, over the first 6 h post-administration. A marked prolongation of DEX effects was found in males. Thus, Pb, PS and Pb + PS, sometimes additively, produced hypercortisolism in both genders, followed by hypocortisolism in males, consistent with HPA axis dysfunction. These findings may provide a plausible unifying biological mechanism for the reported links between Pb exposure and stress-associated diseases and disorders mediated via the HPA axis, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, schizophrenia and depression. They also suggest broadening of Pb screening programs to pregnant women in high stress environments

  11. Prenatal nonylphenol exposure, oxidative and nitrative stress, and birth outcomes: A cohort study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei-Wei; Chen, Mei-Lien; Huang, Li-Wei; Yang, Winnie; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to nonylphenol (NP) and oxidative stress on neonatal birth outcomes from human studies are limited. A total of 146 pregnant women were studied (1) to investigate the association between prenatal NP exposure and maternal oxidative/nitrative stress biomarkers of DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-nitroguanine (8-NO 2 Gua)) and lipid peroxidation (8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-isoPF 2α ), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)) and (2) to explore the associations among oxidative stress biomarkers, NP exposure, and neonatal birth outcomes, including gestational age, birth weight, length, Ponderal index, and head and chest circumferences. NP significantly increased the 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. All infants born to mothers with urinary 8-OHdG levels above the median exhibited a significantly shorter gestational duration (B adjusted  = −4.72 days; 95% CI: −8.08 to −1.36 days). No clear association was found between NP levels and birth outcomes. Prenatal 8-OHdG levels might be a novel biomarker for monitoring fetal health related to NP exposure. - Highlights: • A cohort of pregnant women was established and followed until delivery. • NP significantly increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels. • Maternal 8-OHdG levels were associated with significantly decreased gestational duration. • No clear association was observed between NP and birth outcomes. - NP increased 8-OHdG and 8-NO 2 Gua levels; high 8-OHdG levels significantly decreased gestation length.

  12. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  13. Prenatal programing: at the intersection of maternal stress and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Christopher L; Bale, Tracy L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal insults such as maternal stress and pathogenic infections has been associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanisms by which these programing events occur likely involve complex interactions between the maternal hormonal milieu, the placenta, and the developing fetus, in addition to compounding factors such as fetal sex and gestational stage of development. Despite the diverse biological processes involved, examination of common pathways in maternal stress and immune activation offers intriguing possibilities for elucidation of mechanistic insight. Further, the endocrine and sex-specific placenta is a tissue poised to be a key mediator in fetal programing, located at the intersection of the maternal and embryonic environments. In this review, we will discuss the potential shared mechanisms of maternal stress and immune pathway activation, with a particular focus on the important contribution and role of the placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  15. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Shapiro, Carla

    2013-11-07

    Admission to a professional program marks the beginning of fulfilling a career goal. However, the rigors of professional education can be demanding. Stress, depression, and anxiety (SDA) can interfere with learning, affect academic performance, and impair clinical practice performance. Studies report a general increase in the severity of and extent of mental health problems among college/university students. The literature regarding nursing students' mental health distress identifies academic and personal sources of stress and coping efforts, with emphasis on the stress and anxiety associated with clinical practice. This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study investigated levels of SDA among nursing students in 3 years of a university-based program. The association between quality of life indicators including known stressors, such as financial concerns and balance between school and personal life, and SDA was also investigated. Through an online survey, 437 participants from one mid-western Canadian undergraduate nursing program completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and provided data on quality of life indicators and demographic information. Participants also were invited to provide narrative data about their experiences with SDA. This article will present significant findings including: levels of SDA; comparisons between our sample and a normative sample on the dimensions of SDA; and the results of multiple regression analysis identifying significant predictors of each dimension. Themes from the qualitative comments from 251 of the participants were identified and added depth and clarity to the quantitative findings. The predominant themes represented were: perceptions of clinical practice, coping, personal issues, and balancing school, work, and personal life. Implications and recommendations for curriculum design, ensuring students understand program expectations prior to admission, and enhancing accessibility to mental health/support services

  16. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nadica; Sarakinova, Olivera; Pop-Stefanova-Trposka, Maja; Zabokova-Bilbilova, Efka; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2018-04-15

    Fear of the dentist and dental treatment is a common problem. It can cause treatment difficulties for the practitioner, as well as severe consequences for the patient. As is known, the level of stress can be evaluated thought electrodermal activity, cortisol measure in saliva, or indirectly by psychometric tests. The present study examined the psychological influence of dental interventions on the child as well as coping patterns used for stress diminution. We examined two matched groups of patients: a) children with orthodontic problems (anomalies in shape, position and function of dentomaxillofacial structures) (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.02) years; and b) children with ordinary dental problems (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.4 years). As psychometric instruments, we used: 45 items Sarason's scale for anxiety, 20 items simple Stress - test adapted for children, as well as A - cope test for evaluation coping patterns. Obtained scores confirmed the presence of moderate anxiety in both groups as well as moderate stress level. For Sarason's test obtained scores for the group with dental problems are 20.63 ± 8.37 (from max 45); and for Stress test 7.63 ± 3.45 (from max 20); for the orthodontic group obtained scores are 18.66 ± 6.85 for Sarason's test, while for the Stress test were 7.76 ± 3.78. One way ANOVA confirmed a significant difference in values of obtained scores related to the age and gender. Calculated Student t - test shows non-significant differences in obtained test results for both groups of examinees. Coping mechanisms evaluated by A - cope test shows that in both groups the most important patterns used for stress relief are: developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity. This study confirmed that moderate stress level and anxiety are present in both groups of patients (orthodontic and dental). Obtained scores are depending on gender and age. As more used coping patterns in both groups are developing self

  17. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  18. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  19. Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in with Alzheimer caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vito Elisabetta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease presents a social and public health problem affecting millions of Italians. Those affected receive home care from caregivers, subjected to risk of stress. The present investigation focuses on stress, anxiety and depression in caregivers. Methods Data on 200 caregivers and their patients were collected using a specific form to assess cognitive, behavioural, functional patient (MMSE, and ADL-IAD and caregiver stress (CBI. The relationship between stress, depression and disease has been assessed by means of a linear regression, logistic analysis which reveals the relationship between anxiety, stress and depression and cognitive problems, age, the patient's income. Results The caregivers are usually female (64%, mean age of 56.1 years, daughters (70.5%, pensioners and housewives (30%, who care for the sick at home (79%. Of these, 53% had little time for themselves, 55% observed worsening of health, 56% are tired, 51% are not getting enough sleep. Overall, 55% have problems with the patient's family and/or their own family, 57% at work. Furthermore, 29% feel they are failing to cope with the situation as they wish to move away from home. The increase in the degree of anxiety and depression is directly proportional to the severity of the illness, affecting the patient (r = 0.3 stress and depression r = 0.4 related to CBI score. The memory disorders (OR = 8.4, engine problems (OR = 2.6, perception disorders (OR = 1.9 sick of the patient with Alzheimer's disease are predictive of caregiver stress, depression is associated with the presence of other disorders, mainly behavioural (OR = 5.2, low income (OR = 3.4, patients Conclusion The quality of life of caregivers is correlated with the severity of behavioural disorders and duration of the Alzheimer's disease. The severity of the disease plays an important role in reorganization of the family environment in families caring for patients not institutionalised. It is

  1. Altered functional connectivity to stressful stimuli in prenatally cocaine-exposed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Mayes, Linda C; Sinha, Rajita; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is linked to addiction and obesity vulnerability. Neural responses to stressful and appetitive cues in adolescents with PCE versus those without have been differentially linked to substance-use initiation. However, no prior studies have assessed cue-reactivity responses among PCE adolescents using a connectivity-based approach. Twenty-two PCE and 22 non-prenatally drug-exposed (NDE) age-, sex-, IQ- and BMI-matched adolescents participated in individualized guided imagery with appetitive (favorite-food), stressful and neutral-relaxing cue scripts during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjective favorite-food craving scores were collected before and after script exposure. A data-driven voxel-wise intrinsic connectivity distribution analysis was used to identify between-group differences and examine relationships with craving scores. A group-by-cue interaction effect identified a parietal lobe cluster where PCE versus NDE adolescents showed less connectivity during stressful and more connectivity during neutral-relaxing conditions. Follow-up seed-based connectivity analyses revealed that, among PCE adolescents, the parietal seed was positively connected to inferior parietal and sensory areas and negatively connected to corticolimbic during both stress and neutral-relaxing conditions. For NDE, greater parietal connectivity to parietal, cingulate and sensory areas and lesser parietal connectivity to medial prefrontal areas were found during stress compared to neutral-relaxing cueing. Craving scores inversely correlated with corticolimbic connectivity in PCE, but not NDE adolescents, during the favorite-food condition. Findings from this first data-driven intrinsic connectivity analysis of PCE influences on adolescent brain function indicate differences relating to PCE status and craving. These findings provide insight into the developmental impact of in utero drug exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal stress, fearfulness, and the epigenome: Exploratory analysis of sex differences in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Dale Ostlund

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress in utero is a risk factor for the development of problem behavior in the offspring, though precise pathways are unknown. We examined whether DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene, NR3C1, was associated with experiences of stress by an expectant mother and fearfulness in her infant. Mothers reported on prenatal stress and infant temperament when infants were 5 months old (n = 68. Buccal cells for methylation analysis were collected from each infant. Prenatal stress was not related to infant fearfulness or NR3C1 methylation in the sample as a whole. Exploratory sex-specific analysis revealed a trend-level association between prenatal stress and increased methylation of NR3C1 exon 1F for female, but not male, infants. In addition, increased methylation was significantly associated with greater fearfulness for females. Results suggest an experience-dependent pathway to fearfulness for female infants via epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Future studies should examine prenatal stress in a comprehensive fashion while considering sex differences in epigenetic processes underlying infant temperament.

  3. The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on neurotransmitters level in frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, P; Kus, K; Gołembiowska, K; Noworyta-Sokołowska, K; Woźniak, A; Zaprutko, T; Nowakowska, E

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to verify whether alterations in the level of neurotransmitters have occurred in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia), and whether aripiprazole (ARI) and olanzapine (OLA) modify this level. The effects of ARI (1.5mg/kg) and OLA (0.5mg/kg) were studied by means of microdialysis in freely moving rats (observation time 120min). The level of neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NA) and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA) was analyzed by HPLC with coulochemical detection. Obtained results indicate that after a single administration of ARI and OLA in the prenatally stressed rats the increase of DA, DOPAC, and 5-HT was observed. In turn ARI administration increase the level of HVA and 5-HIAA and also decrease the level of NA. After OLA administration the level of NA and HVA increased and no significant change in 5-HIAA was observed. Alterations observed as a result of ARI and OLA administration may be pivotal in identifying animal models of mental disorders and in the analysis of neuroleptics effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RATIO FEATURES OF STRESS TOLERANCE AND ANXIETY IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Mikheeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ratio of stress tolerance to the level of personal anxiety. It provides a definition of the term “stress tolerance”, analyzes the concept of the “disquietude” and the “anxiety”: how different authors define these phenomena, what is different and what is in common. The concepts of “personal anxiety” and “situational anxiety” are given consideration. The views of foreign and domestic authors on anxiety as a factor that contributes to stress, as well as its components are discussed. An overview of the methods of measuring stress and anxiety is provided: a stress questionnaire of S.V. Subbotin, anxiety scale of Spielberger - Hanin. The results of domestic and foreign research on the identification of correlations between the variables of stress tolerance and anxiety are analyzed. We also consider the results of our own research, conducted on a sample of 149 men and 142 women in 2015-2016 years in Moscow. The results of four subgroups of the respondents are reviewed: men with high stress tolerance, men with low stress tolerance, women with high stress tolerance, and women with low stress tolerance. In each of the subgroups the variables of reactive and personal anxiety and connections between indicators of anxiety and indicators of stress tolerance are analyzed; the conclusions about the relationship of stress and anxiety in each subgroup are drawn.

  5. Buspirone before prenatal stress protects against adverse effects of stress on emotional and inflammatory pain-related behaviors in infant rats: age and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Irina P; Mikhailenko, Viktor A; Vershinina, Elena A; Otellin, Vladimir A; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2011-10-24

    Prenatal stress strengthens tonic pain and provokes depression. The serotoninergic system is involved in these processes. We recently showed that maternal buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, protects against the adverse effects of in utero stress on depression and pain in adult rat offspring. Using a similar maternal treatment with buspirone, we focus here on the infant stage, which is important for the correction of prenatal abnormalities. Maternal buspirone before restraint stress during the last week of pregnancy decreased the time of immobility in the forced swim test in the infant offspring. Prenatal stress increased formalin-induced pain in the second part of the time-course of the response to formalin in males of middle infancy but in the first part of the response in males of late infancy. The effect was reversed by maternal buspirone. Pain dominated in males of both middle and late infancy but the time-course of formalin pain in infant females revealed a slower development of the processes. The results show that the time-course of formalin-induced pain in infant rats reacts to prenatal stress in an age-dependent and sexually dimorphic manner. Our finding of opposite influences of prenatal stress and buspirone before prenatal stress on formalin-induced pain during the interphase indicates that functional maturity of the descending serotonergic inhibitory system occurs in late infancy males (11-day-olds), and 5-HT1A receptors participate in this process. The data provide evidence that maternal treatment with buspirone prior to stress during pregnancy alleviates depression-like and tonic pain-related behaviors in the infant offspring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  7. Active coping of prenatally stressed rats in the forced swimming test: involvement of the Nurr1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Pedro; Ruiz-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Calvillo, Minerva; Rojas, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Depending on genetic predisposition, prenatal stress may result in vulnerability or resilience to develop psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Nurr1 is an immediate early gene, important in the brain for the stress response. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal stress and the decrease of hippocampal Nurr1 alter offspring behavioral responses in the forced swimming test (FST). Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to restraint stress (45 min, thrice daily) from gestation day 14. Prenatally stressed (PS) and non-prenatally stressed (NPS) male offspring were treated bilaterally with a Nurr1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN; or control) into the hippocampus at 97 d of age. After 1 h, the rats were exposed to the FST (acute stressor) to analyze their behavioral responses. Thirty minutes after the FST, we analyzed the gene expression of Nurr1, Bdnf and Nr3c1 (genes for Nurr1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), respectively) in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hypothalamus. Results showed that the decrease of hippocampal Nurr1 after the antisense ODN in adult NPS rats induces immobility (indicating depressive-like behavior). The PS adult rats, including the group with decreased hippocampal Nurr1, presented low immobility in the FST. This low immobility was concordant with maintenance of Nurr1 and Bdnf expression levels in the three analyzed brain regions; Nr3c1 gene expression was also maintained in the PFC and hypothalamus. These findings suggest that Nurr1 and associated genes could participate in the brain modifications induced by prenatal stress, allowing active coping (resilience) with acute stress in adulthood.

  8. Coping With Stress of Teacher Trainees With Different Levels of Computer Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether levels and styles of coping with the stress of teacher trainees having low and high levels of computer anxiety across a number of variables. This research was carried out with 800 teacher trainees. Data were collected using the Computer Anxiety Scale, Coping With Stress Scale, and an Information Form. The results of the study indicate that the computer anxiety levels of teacher trainees differentiate levels and styles of coping with stress. It was f...

  9. Stress and anxiety in women with gestational diabetes during dietary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Amy Leung; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Harvey, Dexter; Salamon, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    To explore the stress and anxiety experiences during dietary management in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Thirty women with GDM from the Winnipeg area participated in the mixed methods study. Each participant completed a Food Choice Map semistructured interview, a Perceived Stress Scale, a Pregnancy Anxiety Scale, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Stress and anxiety experiences were identified from interview transcripts and categorized into themes based on the constant comparative method. Questionnaire scores aided in interpreting the stress and anxiety experience in the qualitative data. Three major themes were generated from the interviews: (1) stress related to GDM diagnosis and the perception of a high risk pregnancy; (2) stress over losing control of GDM during the process of dietary management; and (3) anxiety related to the fear of maternal and infant complications. Women on insulin experienced significantly higher levels of perceived stress (P stress was more prevalent in women using insulin compared to the ones on diet treatment only (Fisher exact test, P Unhealthy diet coping strategies occurred with the stress and anxiety. Stress and anxiety were associated with different contexts in this study sample. Women who were on insulin experienced significantly higher levels of perceived stress related to dietary management. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Autogenic training for stress and anxiety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E; Kanji, N

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate all controlled trials of autogenic training (AT) as a means of reducing stress and anxiety levels in human subjects. A search for all published and unpublished controlled trials was carried out in the four major databases, specifically CISCOM, Medline, PsychLit and CINAHL. Eight such trials were located, all of which are included here. The majority of trials were methodologically flawed. A range of outcome measures were used, with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory being the most popular. Deviations from the accepted technique of AT were conspicuous and trials using the classical AT were in the minority. Seven trials reported positive effects of AT in reducing stress. One study showed no such benefit. Since one trial had used AT in combination with another technique, visual imagery, no conclusion can be drawn about the effect of AT in this case. No firm conclusions could be drawn from this systematic review. AT, properly applied, remains to be tested in controlled trials that are appropriately planned and executed.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Older Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2008-01-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.

  12. DHA Mitigates Autistic Behaviors Accompanied by Dopaminergic Change in a Gene/Prenatal Stress Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Fumihiro; Hecht, Patrick; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Masafumi; Fritsche, Kevin; Will, Matthew; Beversdorf, David

    2018-02-10

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction, social communication, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Recent work has begun to explore gene × environmental interactions in the etiology of ASD. We previously reported that prenatal stress exposure in stress-susceptible heterozygous serotonin transporter (SERT) KO pregnant dams in a mouse model resulted in autism-like behavior in the offspring (SERT/S mice). The association between prenatal stress and ASD appears to be affected by maternal SERT genotype in clinical populations as well. Using the mouse model, we examined autistic-like behaviors in greater detail, and additionally explored whether diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may mitigate the behavioral changes. Only male SERT/S mice showed social impairment and stereotyped behavior, and DHA supplementation ameliorated some of these behaviors. We also measured monoamine levels in the SERT/S mice after three treatment paradigms: DHA-rich diet continuously from breeding (DHA diet), DHA-rich diet only after weaning (CTL/DHA diet) and control diet only (CTL diet). The dopamine (DA) content in the striatum was significantly increased in the SERT/S mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas no difference was observed with noradrenaline and serotonin content. Moreover, DA content in the striatum was significantly reduced in the SERT/S mice with the DHA-rich diet provided continuously from breeding. The results indicate that autism-associated behaviors and changes in the dopaminergic system in this setting can be mitigated with DHA supplementation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. No associations of prenatal maternal psychosocial stress with fasting glucose metabolism in offspring at 5-6 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A. E.; van Eijsden, M.; Stronks, K.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Highly prevalent maternal psychosocial complaints are accompanied by increases in glucocorticoid stress hormones, which may predispose the offspring for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease later in adulthood. The aim of the current research is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial

  14. Changes in markers of oxidative stress and membrane properties in synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfors, Sven; Hass, Ulla; Hougaard, Karin S.

    2002-01-01

    for the experiments, Synaptosomes from rats exposed prenatally to toluene exhibited an increased level of oxidative stress when incubated with toluene in vitro compared to synaptosomes from unexposed offspring. Also the cell membrane was affected, as the calcium leakage was more increased from exposed synaptosomes...

  15. Assessment of glucose homeostasis in crossbred steer progeny sired by Brahman bulls that experienced prenatal transportation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to assess glucose homeostasis of crossbred male progeny whose Brahman sires experienced prenatal transportation stress (PS) in utero. Sixteen steers (PNS group) sired by 3 PS bulls gestating dams were transported for 2 h at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 ± 5 d of gest...

  16. Adolescent stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression: Resilience explains and differentiates the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2016-10-01

    Some adolescents exhibit resilience even in the face of high levels of stress exposure. Despite this relationship, studies that investigate explanations for how resilience interacts with risk to produce particular outcomes and why this is so are lacking. The effect of resilience across the relationship between stress and symptoms of anxiety and stress and symptoms of depression was tested to provide explanations for how resilience interacts with stress and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. In a cross-sectional survey, 533 Ghanaian adolescents aged 13-17 years (M=15.25, SD=1.52), comprising 290 girls and 237 boys completed the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, Adolescent Stress Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, and Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. The results indicated that resilience partially mediated the relationship between stress, and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. Effects of stress were negatively associated with resilience, and positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. In a differential moderator effect, resilience moderated the relationship between stress and symptoms of depression but not stress and symptoms of anxiety. Although the findings in this study are novel, they do not answer questions about protective mechanisms or processes. Evidence that resilience did not have the same effect across stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression may support resilience as a dynamic process model. Access to different levels of resilience shows that enhancing resilience while minimizing stress may improve psychiatric health in adolescents' general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress as Measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42) among Secondary School Girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan S; Mostafa, Ossama A

    2009-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among secondary school girls. A cross- sectional study was carried out on secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia, using the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Of 545 female students recruited in this study, 73.4% had the symptoms of at least one of the three studied disorders; 50.1% had at least two disorders. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress was 41.5 %, 66.2% and 52.5% respectively. The majority of symptoms were mild to moderate in severity. The scores for depression, anxiety, and stress were positively and significantly correlated. No significant association was found between the girls' sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of the three studied disorders. One of the most important aspects of a primary care physician's care of females is to screen for and treat common mental disorders.

  18. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Does perfectionism in bipolar disorder pedigrees mediate associations between anxiety/stress and mood symptoms?

    OpenAIRE

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M.; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attain...

  20. Incidence of depression, anxiety and stress following traumatic injury: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Taneal A; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic injury and mental health disorders are co-associated. Early identification of depression, anxiety and stress following injury, and subsequent preventive intervention, may reduce the long-term symptoms and negative impacts associated with depression and anxiety. The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence, severity and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress in injured patients in the acute phase of care, and at six months following injury, as well as the ...

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...

  2. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  3. Relation of Organizational Structure to Job Satisfaction, Anxiety-Stress, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevich, John M.; Donnelly, James H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the relationship between organizational shape or structure (tall, medium, and flat) and job satisfaction, anxiety-stress, and performance. Indicates that salesmen in flat organizations perceive more autonomy and more satisfaction with respect to self-actualization, perceive lower amounts of anxiety-stress, and perform more efficiently.…

  4. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p vegan diet and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Mean stress scores were different in females only (F(2,476) = 3.82, p = 0.023, η(p)(2) = 0.016) and lower stress in females was related to a vegan diet and lower daily intake of sweets. A strict plant-based diet does not appear to negatively impact mood, in fact, reduction of animal food intake may have mood benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.

  6. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, panxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, pcognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  7. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well understood. Our hypothesis is that allopregnanolone, during gestation, plays a particularly vital role in mitigating effects of stress on the developing fetus and may mediate, in part, alterations apparent throughout the lifespan. Specifically, altered balance between glucocorticoids and progestogens during critical periods of development (stemming from psychological, immunological, and/or endocrinological stressors during gestation may permanently influence behavior, brain morphology, and/or neuroendocrine-sensitive processes. 5α-reduced progestogens are integral in the developmental programming of sex-typical, stress-sensitive, and/or disorder-relevant phenotypes. Prenatal stress may alter these responses and dysregulate allopregnanolone and its normative effects on stress axis function. As an example of a neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and/or neurodegenerative process, this review focuses on responsiveness to drugs of abuse, which is sensitive to prenatal stress and progestogen milieu. This review explores the notion that allopregnanolone may effect, or be influenced by, prenatal stress, with consequences for neurodevelopmental-, neuropsychiatric- and/or neurodegenerative- relevant processes, such as addiction.

  8. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  10. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  12. Does perfectionism in bipolar disorder pedigrees mediate associations between anxiety/stress and mood symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Fullerton, Janice M; Schofield, Peter R; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-10-06

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and the anxiety disorders are highly comorbid. The present study sought to examine perfectionism and goal attainment values as potential mechanisms of known associations between anxiety, stress and BD symptomatology. Measures of perfectionism and goal attainment values were administered to 269 members of BD pedigrees, alongside measures of anxiety and stress, and BD mood symptoms. Regression analyses were used to determine whether perfectionism and goal attainment values were related to depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms; planned mediation models were then used to test the potential for perfectionism to mediate associations between anxiety/stress and BD symptoms. Self-oriented perfectionism was associated with chronic depressive symptoms; socially-prescribed perfectionism was associated with chronic (hypo)manic symptoms. Self-oriented perfectionism mediated relationships between anxiety/stress and chronic depressive symptoms even after controlling for chronic hypomanic symptoms. Similarly, socially-prescribed perfectionism mediated associations between anxiety/stress and chronic hypomanic symptoms after controlling for chronic depressive symptoms. Goal attainment beliefs were not uniquely associated with chronic depressive or (hypo)manic symptoms. Cognitive styles of perfectionism may explain the co-occurrence of anxiety and stress symptoms and BD symptoms. Psychological interventions for anxiety and stress symptoms in BD might therefore address perfectionism in attempt to reduce depression and (hypo)manic symptoms in addition to appropriate pharmacotherapy.

  13. The role of neuroticism and extraversion in the stress-anxiety and stress-depression relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Sutton, Jonathan M; Griffith, James W; Rose, Raphael; Waters, Allison; Hammen, Constance

    2010-07-01

    Though there is a considerable amount of research supporting the association between stressful life events and major depression, there is a paucity of research concerning a range of other life stress constructs, non-depressive disorders, the role of stable personality traits, and gender differences. This study addresses these deficits by: (a) focusing on the association between interpersonal and non-interpersonal chronic life stress (CLS) and both depressive and anxiety disorders; (b) examining the roles of neuroticism and low extraversion in these associations; and (c) assessing gender differences. Participants were 603 adolescents from a study examining risk factors for emotional disorders. Depression and social phobia were associated with interpersonal CLS (IP-CLS), with neuroticism partially accounting for these associations. Low extraversion partially accounted for the association between social phobia and IP-CLS. Depression was also associated with non-interpersonal CLS (NI-CLS), but only in females. This study provides preliminary evidence for the importance of personality variables in explaining shared associations between stress and depression. Additionally, the stress-social phobia relationship is highlighted with no evidence supporting an association between other anxiety disorders and CLS.

  14. Anxiety, stress, depression, and patients' responses to periodontal treatment: periodontists' knowledge and professional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloostra, Paul W; Eber, Robert M; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety, stress, and depression affect the use of health care services, treatment decision-making, and responses to periodontal treatment. This study explored periodontists' confidence in detecting patient anxiety, stress, or depression, as well as their knowledge concerning the relationships between these factors and patients' pain, use of pain medication, and wound healing after periodontal treatment. In addition, this research surveyed if (and which) special accommodations were offered when treating patients with high levels of anxiety, stress, or depression. Data were collected from 171 members of the American Academy of Periodontology (response rate = 34.41%). Most respondents were male (82.2%), white (88.2%), and practiced in solo practices (60.9%). The respondents were more knowledgeable about the effects of anxiety and stress on pain, the use of pain medication, and wound healing than about the impact of depression on these outcomes. They agreed more strongly with statements that they were more confident in their ability to perceive when patients were anxious and stressed than when they were depressed. They also offered more special accommodations for patients with anxiety and stress than for patients with depression. The respondents were significantly less knowledgeable about the impact of depression on patients' responses to periodontal treatment than about the effect of anxiety and stress. Given the evidence concerning the relationships among depression, pain, pain medication use, and wound healing, it is important to educate periodontists about the role of anxiety and stress and the significance of depression on their patients' responses to periodontal therapy.

  15. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  16. Working Memory Impairments in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: The Roles of Anxiety and Stress Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ashley F.; Hobbs, Diana A.; Stephenson, David D.; Laird, Robert D.; Beaton, Elliott A.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety have a negative impact on working memory systems by competing for executive resources and attention. Broad memory deficits, anxiety, and elevated stress have been reported in individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). We investigated anxiety and physiological stress reactivity in relation to visuospatial…

  17. Mothers of IVF and spontaneously conceived twins: a comparison of prenatal maternal expectations, coping resources and maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baor, Liora; Soskolne, Varda

    2010-06-01

    This study explores the differences in prenatal maternal expectations, coping resources and maternal stress between first time mothers of IVF twins and first time mothers of spontaneously conceived twins. The role of prenatal maternal expectations in the prediction of maternal stress was examined, as well as the mediating and moderating effect of coping resources on the association between pregnancy-type group and maternal stress. Mothers of twins from various regions in Israel were included in this prospective and cross-sectional study in which 88 mothers of IVF-conceived twins and 98 mothers of spontaneously conceived twins were interviewed twice. First, at 33-36 weeks of their pregnancy they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and the maternal expectations questionnaire; then at 6 months after birth they completed a questionnaire regarding the delivery and medical condition of the infants, and their coping resources and maternal stress. Compared with mothers who conceived spontaneously, IVF mothers had more positive prenatal maternal expectations, but poorer coping resources and higher levels of maternal stress 6 months after birth. Maternal expectations had no predictive power regarding maternal stress, although the mother's coping resources were significantly related to maternal stress and mediated the association between pregnancy type and maternal stress. IVF-pregnant women bearing twins should be considered a high-risk group. Early identification of these mothers is essential for timely psychosocial interventions in order to enhance their resources and decrease maternal stress. Further longitudinal studies are required to determine causality in more ethnically-diverse mothers of twins.

  18. Fetal sex modifies effects of prenatal stress exposure and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstock, Tamar; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Glasser, Saralee; Anteby, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, poor fetal development and poor birth outcomes. Fetal sex has also been shown to affect the course of pregnancy and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fetal sex modifies the association between continuous exposure to life-threatening rocket attack alarms and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the exposed group was comprised of 1846 women exposed to rocket-attack alarms before and during pregnancy. The unexposed group, with similar sociodemographic characteristics, delivered during the same period of time at the same medical center, but resided out of rocket-attack range. Multivariable models for each gender separately, controlling for possible confounders, evaluated the risk associated with exposure for preterm births (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age and small head circumference (HC). In both univariable and multivariable analyses exposure status was a significant risk factor in female fetuses only: PTB (adj. OR = 1.43; 1.04-1.96), LBW (adj. OR = 1.41; 1.02-1.95) and HC stress.

  19. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2016-09-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intensity of anxiety is modified via complex integrative stress circuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Robertson, James M; Anderson, Raymond T; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Escalation of anxious behavior while environmentally and socially relevant contextual events amplify the intensity of emotional response produces a testable gradient of anxiety shaped by integrative circuitries. Apprehension of the Stress-Alternatives Model apparatus (SAM) oval open field (OF) is measured by the active latency to escape, and is delayed by unfamiliarity with the passageway. Familiar OF escape is the least anxious behavior along the continuum, which can be reduced by anxiolytics such as icv neuropeptide S (NPS). Social aggression increases anxiousness in the SAM, reducing the number of mice willing to escape by 50%. The apprehension accompanying escape during social aggression is diminished by anxiolytics, such as exercise and corticotropin releasing-factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonism, but exacerbated by anxiogenic treatment, like antagonism of α2-adrenoreceptors. What is more, the anxiolytic CRF1 and anxiogenic α2-adrenoreceptor antagonists also modify behavioral phenotypes, with CRF1 antagonism allowing escape by previously submissive animals, and α2-adrenoreceptor antagonism hindering escape in mice that previously engaged in it. Gene expression of NPS and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as corticosterone secretion, increased concomitantly with the escalating anxious content of the mouse-specific anxiety continuum. The general trend of CeA NPS and BDNF expression suggested that NPS production was promoted by increasing anxiousness, and that BDNF synthesis was associated with learning about ever-more anxious conditions. The intensity gradient for anxious behavior resulting from varying contextual conditions may yield an improved conceptualization of the complexity of mechanisms producing the natural continuum of human anxious conditions, and potential therapies that arise therefrom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility or resilience? Prenatal stress predisposes male rats to social subordination, but facilitates adaptation to subordinate status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; de Kloet, Annette D; Smeltzer, Michael D; Krause, Eric G; Flak, Jonathan N; Melhorn, Susan J; Foster, Michelle T; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) affect a significant proportion of the population. Although progress has been made in the development of therapeutics, a large number of individuals do not attain full remission of symptoms and adverse side effects affect treatment compliance for some. In order to develop new therapies, there is a push for new models that better reflect the multiple risk factors that likely contribute to the development of depressive illness. We hypothesized that early life stress would exacerbate the depressive-like phenotype that we have previously observed in socially subordinate (SUB) adult male rats in the visible burrow system (VBS), a semi-natural, ethologically relevant environment in which males in a colony form a dominance hierarchy. Dams were exposed to chronic variable stress (CVS) during the last week of gestation, resulting in a robust and non-habituating glucocorticoid response that did not alter maternal food intake, body weight or litter size and weight. As adults, one prenatal CVS (PCVS) and one non-stressed (NS) male were housed in the VBS with adult females. Although there were no overt differences between PCVS and NS male offspring prior to VBS housing, a greater percentage of PCVS males became SUB. However, the depressive-like phenotype of SUB males was not exacerbated in PCVS males; rather, they appeared to better cope with SUB status than NS SUB males. They had lower basal plasma corticosterone than NS SUB males at the end of VBS housing. In situ hybridization for CRH in the PVN and CeA did not reveal any prenatal treatment or status effects, while NPY expression was higher within the MeA of dominant and subordinate males exposed to the VBS in comparison with controls, but with no effect of prenatal treatment. These data suggest that prenatal chronic variable stress may confer resilience to offspring when exposed to social stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: The role of depression, anxiety and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Li, Jiaomeng; Zhang, Han; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Mei, Songli

    2018-01-01

    Alexithymia is an important predictor of mobile phone addiction. Enhancing and improving college students' mental health can reduce the rate of mobile phone addiction. However, it is not clear about the role of depression, anxiety and stress in the relationship between college students' alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. A total of 1105 college students were tested with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. An individual's level of alexithymia was significantly correlated with depression, anxiety, stress and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia had a significantly positive prediction effect on mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety, and stress on mobile phone are positive predictors. Depression, anxiety or stress had partially mediating effects between alexithymia and mobile phone addiction. Alexithymia not only directly had a positively impact on mobile phone addiction, but both also had an indirect effect on mobile phone addiction through depression, anxiety or stress. Limitations included sampling method and modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Alexithymia is an important correlate of mobile phone addiction, and depression, anxiety or stress is an important mediator in this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  5. Reliability and preliminary evidence of validity of a Farsi version of the depression anxiety stress scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Ali Asghar

    2010-08-01

    The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Farsi version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales were examined, with a sample of 306 undergraduate students (123 men, 183 women) ranging from 18 to 51 years of age (M age = 25.4, SD = 6.1). Participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. The findings confirmed the preliminary reliabilities and preliminary construct validity of the Farsi translation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales.

  6. The Association Between Muslim Religiosity and Young Adult College Students' Depression, Anxiety, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Mohammad; Ali, Akhtar; Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub

    2017-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are among major psychological disorders being predominant in present day. This study proposed to analyze the role of Muslim religiosity in male students showing these mental indications. A sample including 723 Pakistani young adults enrolled at college level was randomly chosen. Muslim Religiosity Measurement Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were utilized to gather information. Discoveries uncover an inverse relationship between conduct and affiliation with the symptoms of mental disorders, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results bolster the incorporation of religious dimensions in psychological wellness and mental well-being thought of young adults in Pakistan.

  7. Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System in Prenatally Stressed Male Rats on the Experimental Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K; Ordyan, N E

    2016-03-01

    Using the experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder (stress-restress paradigm), we studied the dynamics of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult male rats, whose mothers were daily subjected to restraint stress on days 15-19 of pregnancy. Prenatally stressed males that were subjected to combined stress and subsequent restress exhibited not only increased sensitivity of HPAS to negative feedback signals (manifested under restress conditions), but also enhanced stress system reactivity. These changes persisted to the 30th day after restress. Under basal conditions, the number of cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of these animals expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin was shown to decrease progressively on days 1-30. By contrast, combined stress and restress in control animals were followed by an increase in the count of CRH-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus and number of vasopressin-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular part of the nucleus (to the 10th day after restress). Our results indicate a peculiar level of functional activity of HPAS in prenatally stressed males in the stress-restress paradigm: decreased activity under basal conditions and enhanced reactivity during stress.

  8. Medical Students’ Experience of and Reaction to Stress: The Role of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students’ academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants’ gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical. Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students’ experiences of and reactions to stressors. Methods. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. Results. The results showed that 44% (n=158 of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n=125 were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students’ experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Conclusion. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  9. Medical students' experience of and reaction to stress: the role of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  10. [Stress related correlates of anxiety and depression in girls with chronic headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bung, Simone; Saile, Helmut; Laessle, Reinhold

    2018-01-01

    Chronic headache in adolescents is frequent and often associated with anxiety and depression. The present study investigated, whether psychological and physical stress symptoms have an infl uence on the occurrence of anxiety and depression and what is the role of stress coping. The sample consisted of 77 15 years old girls with chronic headache and 72 girls, who served as controls. Stress symptoms and stress coping were measured with the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen für Kinder und Jugendliche (Coping with Stress Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents), depression was assessed by the Depression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between stress factors and anxiety resp. depression. Physical stress symptoms were related to anxiety, but not to depression. Coping strategies of the depressed as well as the anxious children were characterized by stress reinforcing behaviors. The results point to focusing on physical symptoms in the anxious headache patients and to avoidance coping in the depressed children.

  11. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  12. Role of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  13. Role of depression, anxiety and stress in patients with oral lichen planus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Kalkur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus and group 2 (Control. DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders.

  14. Testing Specificity: Associations of Stress and Coping with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...

  15. Study Of The Effect Of Stress Management Skills On Anxiety Status Among Teachers In Meybod District High Schools On 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Servat

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: regarding the high level of anxiety among teachers and necessity of doing interventional program, planned stress management educations are successful in reducing anxiety. That programs which are presented to persons step by step, provide a cognition of the environment and it's stressful factors to individuals and finally reduces the stress and then the anxiety level. Determining the efficacy of the programs on personality anxiety requires studies with longer follow up.

  16. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  17. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); A.C. Huizink (Anja)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFor prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14

  18. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction for Academic Evaluation Anxiety: A Naturalistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…

  19. Posttraumatic stress and social anxiety: the interaction of traumatic events and interpersonal fears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collimore, K.C.; Carleton, R.N.; Hofmann, S.G.; Asmundson, G.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are frequently camorbid among veteran and community samples. Several studies have demonstrated significant camorbidity between trauma, PTSD, and social anxiety (SA), and a growing number of studies have explored the nature of

  20. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N = 152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and…

  1. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  2. Prospective community study of family stress and anxiety in (pre)adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, F.V.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    For prevention of anxiety in children and adolescents, it is important to know whether family stress is a predictor of anxiety. We studied this in 1,875 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) who were followed up for 2 years, from age 10-12 to 12-14 years.

  3. Stress, Depression, and Anxiety among Transitioning College Students: The Family as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Kasky-Hernández, Lynda M.; Ambrose, Pamm; French, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Stress associated with the college transition can bring about depression and anxiety symptoms, but family relationships can reduce the impact of stress. We hypothesized that secure attachment to parents, comfort with talking about stressors, and family support would reduce the strength of the relationships between transition-related stress and…

  4. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  5. Depression, anxiety and stress as negative predictors of life satisfaction in university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.R.; Saba, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of depression, anxiety and stress in prediction of life satisfaction in male and female university students. Methodology: The study involved 200 students, 100 males and 100 females selected by using purposive sampling technique from different universities of Islamabad. Age range of participants was 19-30 years (mean 21.79+-2.970). Depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21 and Life Satisfaction scale were administered. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 19. Results: The result of present study indicated that depression anxiety and stress significantly predict life satisfaction among male and female university students. Conclusion: University students who are facing depression, anxiety and stress are more vulnerable to low levels of life satisfaction. (author)

  6. Does prenatal maternal stress impair cognitive development and alter temperament characteristics in toddlers with healthy birth outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peng; Sun, Meng-Sha; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yu-Jiang; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Tao, Rui-Xue; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioural development of children with healthy birth outcomes whose mothers were exposed to prenatal stress but did not experience pregnancy complications. In this prospective study, self-reported data, including the Prenatal Life Events Checklist about stressful life events (SLEs) during different stages of pregnancy, were collected at 32 to 34 weeks' gestation. Thirty-eight healthy females (mean age 27 y 8 mo, SD 2 y 4 mo) who were exposed to severe SLEs in the first trimester were defined as the exposed infant group, and 114 matched comparison participants were defined as the unexposed infant group (1:3). Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Toddler Temperament Scale were used to evaluate the cognitive development and temperament characteristics of the infants with healthy birth outcomes when they were 16 to 18 months old. A randomized block multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the mental development index scores of the infants of mothers with prenatal exposure to SLEs in the first trimester averaged seven points (95% confidence interval 3.23-10.73 points) lower than those of the unexposed infants. Moreover, the infants in the exposed group achieved higher scores for regularity (adjusted mean [SD] 2.77 [0.65] vs. 2.52 [0.78], F(5,146) =5.27, p=0.023) and for persistence and attention span (adjusted mean 3.61 [0.72] vs. 3.35 [0.52], F(5,146) =5.51, p=0.020). This study provides evidence that lower cognitive ability and less optimal worse behavioural response in infants might independently result from prenatal maternal stress. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Stress and Anxiety Management in Nursing Students: Biofeedback and Mindfulness Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Park, Janet F; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat

    2015-09-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of two brief intervention programs-biofeedback and mindfulness meditation-on levels of state anxiety and perceived stress in second-year Thai nursing students as they began clinical training. Eighty-nine participants from a public nursing college in Thailand were randomly assigned to one of three groups: biofeedback group, mindfulness meditation group, or a control group. All participants were given pre- and postintervention surveys, which included demographic information; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State Anxiety Scale); and the Perceived Stress Scale. Findings indicated that biofeedback significantly reduced anxiety and maintained stress levels in nursing students. Mindfulness meditation similarly decreased anxiety levels, while also significantly lowering stress levels. The biofeedback group exhibited significant reduction in anxiety levels among the three groups at postintervention. Despite stressors and demands nursing students experience as they begin clinical practice, study findings support the use of biofeedback and mindfulness meditation interventions to assist nursing students in managing stress and anxiety. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Hedonic sensitivity to natural rewards is affected by prenatal stress in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Mairesse, Jérôme; Lionetto, Luana; Simmaco, Maurizio; Deruyter, Lucie; Allorge, Delphine; Moles, Anna; Pittaluga, Anna; Maccari, Stefania; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Van Camp, Gilles; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2016-11-01

    Palatable food is a strong activator of the reward circuitry and may cause addictive behavior leading to eating disorders. How early life events and sex interact in shaping hedonic sensitivity to palatable food is largely unknown. We used prenatally restraint stressed (PRS) rats, which show abnormalities in the reward system and anxious/depressive-like behavior. Some of the hallmarks of PRS rats are known to be sex-dependent. We report that PRS enhanced and reduced milk chocolate-induced conditioned place preference in males and females, respectively. Male PRS rats also show increases in plasma dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels and dopamine (DA) levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and reductions in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In male rats, systemic treatment with the DHT-lowering drug finasteride reduced both milk chocolate preference and NAc DA levels. Female PRS rats showed lower plasma estradiol (E 2 ) levels and lower DA levels in the NAc, and 5-HT levels in the NAc and PFC. E 2 supplementation reversed the reduction in milk chocolate preference and PFC 5-HT levels. In the hypothalamus, PRS increased ERα and ERβ estrogen receptor and CARTP (cocaine-and-amphetamine receptor transcript peptide) mRNA levels in males, and 5-HT 2 C receptor mRNA levels in females. Changes were corrected by treatments with finasteride and E 2 , respectively. These new findings show that early life stress has a profound impact on hedonic sensitivity to high-palatable food via long-lasting changes in gonadal hormones. This paves the way to the development of hormonal strategies aimed at correcting abnormalities in the response to natural rewards. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Effectiveness of mobile technologies delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions for stress and anxiety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo Gee, Brendan; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Gulliver, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies may be suitable for delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMI) to treat anxiety in real-time. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of EMI for treating anxiety conditions. Four databases and the reference lists of previous studies were searched. A total of 1949 abstracts were double screened for inclusion. Sufficient studies were available to undertake a quantitative meta-analysis on EMIs on generalized anxiety symptoms. The 15 randomized trials and randomized controlled trials examined anxiety (n = 7), stress (n = 3), anxiety and stress (n = 2), panic disorder (n = 2), and social phobia (n = 1). Eight EMIs comprised self-monitoring integrated with therapy modules, seven comprised multimedia content, and three comprised self-monitoring only. The quality of studies presented high risk of biases. Meta-analysis (n = 7) demonstrated that EMIs reduced generalized anxiety compared to control and/or comparison groups (Effect Size (ES) = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.12-0.53). Most EMIs targeting stress were reported effective relative to control as were the two EMIs targeting panic disorders. The EMI targeting social phobia was not effective. EMIs have potential in treating both anxiety and stress. However, few high-quality trials have been conducted for specific anxiety disorders. Further trials are needed to assess the value of EMI technologies for anxiety in enhancing existing treatments. This study found a small significant effect of EMI studies on reducing generalized anxiety. Studies on stress demonstrated EMI was effective compared to control, with the small number of studies on panic and social phobia demonstrating mixed results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

    OpenAIRE

    Apóstolo,João Luís Alves; Mendes,Aida Cruz; Azeredo,Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    Objective: to adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. Method: After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. Results: The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional state...

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress among female patients of infertility; A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Infertility, in many ways, is a very distressing condition that can have its impact on social and marital life of a couple. Depression, anxiety and stress associated with infertility may affect treatment and outcomes for such couples. The purpose of this study was to find out prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among females suffering from infertility. Methods: One hundred females suffering from infertility as study subjects and 100 females accompanying them as controls w...

  12. Anxiety, stress and depression in family caregivers of the mentally ill

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Cabral; João Duarte; Manuela Ferreira; Carlos dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. Objectives: To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relat...

  13. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in People With and Without Plantar Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotchett, Matthew; Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B

    2016-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are prevalent in patients with musculoskeletal pain, but the impact of these emotional states has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depression, anxiety, and stress with plantar heel pain. Forty-five participants with plantar heel pain were matched by sex and age (±2 years) to 45 participants without plantar heel pain. Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (short version) in participants with and without plantar heel pain. Logistic regression was conducted to determine if levels of depression, anxiety, or stress were associated with having plantar heel pain. Univariate analysis indicated that participants with plantar heel pain had greater levels of depression (mean difference = 4.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 6.5), anxiety (mean difference = 2.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), and stress (mean difference = 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.8). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and education, for every 1 unit increase in depression, anxiety, or stress (in the DASS subscales), the odds ratios for having plantar heel pain were increased by 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), respectively. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were independently associated with plantar heel pain. Larger prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the temporal association between these emotional states and plantar heel pain. Level III, cross sectional, observational. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Research Paper: Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Ajilchi

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  15. What Kind of Stress Is Associated with Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Employees?

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young-Chul; Lee, Daeun; Seol, Jinmi; Lim, Se-Won

    2017-01-01

    Various types of stress affect mental health in the form of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation. Recently, the increasing suicide rate in the working-age population has become a major mental health concern in Korea. Thus, we investigated what kind of stress influence depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in Korean employees. The study participants were 189,965 employees who attended health screenings and responded to the Center for Epidemiologic Study-Depression Scal...

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-an...

  17. A longitudinal examination of stress generation in depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G; Griffith, James W; Sutton, Jonathan M; Epstein, Alyssa; Hammen, Constance

    2012-02-01

    The current study compared two competing theories of the stress generation model of depression (stress causation vs. stress continuation) using interview-based measures of episodic life stress, as well as interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress. We also expanded on past research by examining anxiety disorders as well as depressive disorders. In addition, we examined the role of neuroticism and extraversion in these relationships. Participants were 627 adolescents enrolled in a two-site, longitudinal study of risk factors for depressive and anxiety disorders. Baseline and follow-up assessments were approximately one year apart. Results supported the stress causation theory for episodic stress generation for anxiety disorders, with neuroticism partially accounting for this relationship. The stress causation theory was also supported for depression, but only for more moderate to severe stressors; neuroticism partially accounted for this relationship as well. Finally, we found evidence for interpersonal and noninterpersonal chronic life stress continuation in both depressive and anxiety disorders. The present findings have implications regarding the specificity of the stress generation model to depressive disorders, as well as variables involved in the stress generation process. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The Association Between Prenatal Stress and Externalizing Symptoms in Childhood: Evidence From the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Nathalie; Kingsbury, Mila; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Colman, Ian

    2018-01-15

    It has been suggested that prenatal maternal stress may increase the risk of childhood externalizing disorders, yet no large cohort study has investigated this association across a large range of acute stressors. Our objective was to estimate the association between prenatal stressful events and risk of offspring conduct disorder and hyperactivity. We used data from 10,184 mother-offspring pairs from the United Kingdom-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers self-reported 42 prenatal stressful life events at 18 weeks' gestation. Symptoms of conduct disorder and hyperactivity in their offspring were measured at 6, 9, 11, 13, and 16 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The primary outcome was membership in high-symptom trajectories of 1) conduct disorder and 2) hyperactivity throughout childhood, identified using latent class growth modeling. Multinomial logistic regression models estimated the association between prenatal stress and both conduct disorder and hyperactivity, after adjusting for sex, parental education, low birth weight, preterm birth, parental social class, maternal smoking and drinking, maternal mental health, offspring stressful life events, and offspring depressive and anxious symptoms. Those exposed to the highest quartile of prenatal stress were more likely to belong to the high symptom trajectory for hyperactivity (B = 0.46, p < .05) and conduct disorder (B = 0.88, p < .01), respectively. Prenatal stress further demonstrated a positive, dose-response relationship with symptoms of externalizing disorders at independent time points. The findings suggest that prenatal stressful events may be an independent risk factor for offspring externalizing symptoms, regardless of maternal mental health and offspring internalizing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severity of anxiety- but not depression- is associated with oxidative stress in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Lisa R; Hough, Christina M; Reus, Victor I; Jain, Felipe A; Epel, Elissa S; James, S Jill; Morford, Alexandra E; Mellon, Synthia H; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Lindqvist, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in both depression and anxiety, but it is currently unclear whether this relates to syndromal diagnoses or trans-diagnostic dimensional symptoms. We examined the relationship between oxidative stress and severity of depression and anxiety symptoms in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Plasma oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH), were assessed in 69 physically healthy, medication-free MDD subjects. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A) and Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) Rating Scales. Total HAM-A and HAM-D scores, along with "core" anxiety and depression subscales, and individual HAM-D items "psychic anxiety" and "depressed mood," were related to oxidative stress markers. Analyses controlled for age, sex, BMI, and smoking. Total HAM-A ratings were positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.26, p=.042) and GSSG (β=.25, p=.049), but not GSH (β=.05, p=.711). Core anxiety severity was positively associated with F2-isoprostanes (β=.34, p=.012) and GSSG, although this did not reach significance (β=.24, p=.074). None of the biological markers were significantly associated with total HAM-D or core depression ratings (all p>.13). Subjects scoring high on "psychic anxiety" had elevated F2-isoprostanes (p=.030) and GSSG (p=.020). This was not seen with "depressed mood" scores (all p>.12). We assessed peripheral oxidative markers, but their relationship to the brain is unclear. Oxidative stress is more closely related to anxiety than depression symptoms in MDD. This highlights the importance of relating oxidative stress to specific symptoms and could provide new insights into the biological correlates of affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of video information on anxiety, stress and depression of patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamshidi, N.; Abbaszadeh, A.; Kalyani, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety and stress are common in patients undergoing invasive procedures. Coronary angiography is a definitive diagnostic evaluation for coronary artery disease and valvular disease. It is necessary to give information to the patients in order to minimize levels of anxiety and stress to this invasive procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of patients education by video on levels of anxiety, stress and depression of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methodology: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 128 patients were randomly assigned to either control or experimental group. Control group received verbal routine education by nurses and experimental group received an informative video about coronary angiography procedure as well as pre and post angiography interventions. Using Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) levels of these variables were measured before and after education. Results: Seventy eight (60.9%) males and fifty (39.1%) females participated in the study. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Anxiety, stress and depression levels of experimental group after video information (P = .000). There was a statistically significant correlation between sex with anxiety (P = .000) and stress (P = .04). Conclusions: The use of patients education by informative video is a useful method for decreasing psychological parameters of patients undergoing coronary angiography procedure. Results of the study confirm the usefulness of video information prior to an Invasive angiography procedure. (author)

  1. Stress, Anxiety and Depression Levels Among Elderly Referrals to Tehran Elderly Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghafari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stress and anxiety have well–known effects in the pathogenesis of many physical and mental disorders. Aging adults are vulnerable to the effects of a negative stressor factors so, this study aims to investigate the level of stress anxiety and depression among the elderly referred to elderly clubs of Tehran in 2009. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 104 aging adults, selected from elderly clubs of Tehran on 2009. Depression, Anxiety and Stress questionnaires (DASS-21, were filled out for this group. Finally obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS15 using T- test and One Way ANOVA at the significant level P≤0.05. Results: Of the total subjects under study 24% were male, and 76% female, with a mean age of 63.37±4.32 and 65.08±4.82 years respectively. The proportion of women with high anxiety score was higher than men. There were also higher anxiety levels in illness people (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study on depression, anxiety and stress as an indicator of lifestyle reveals high stress levels in the elderly population, which warrants appropriate planning and community-based interventions, to improve lifestyle and reduce stress level in aging adults.

  2. Stress of home life and gender role socializations, family cohesion, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-04-05

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and Anxiety among North Korean Refugees: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin Eric; Chekaluk, Eugene; Bennett, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is common among North Korean refugees who have fled their country for economic, financial and humanitarian reasons. Co-morbid depression and anxiety are also common among North Korean refugees, due to the difficulties they have faced within their country and during their escape journey. Depression and anxiety complicate treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, and lead to poorer outcomes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a meta-analysis of studies investigating post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety among North Korean refugees. Selected articles were published in English, and included measures of post-traumatic stress, and/or depression and anxiety. 10 studies were included in the depression meta-analysis, and 6 in the anxiety meta-analysis. A random-effects model revealed strong, significant associations between post-traumatic stress and depression, r=0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.72), pstress, depression and anxiety were higher among adults and those with more than five years outside of North Korea. Depression appears to be an important treatment focus for North Korean refugees with post-traumatic stress.

  4. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  5. Sexual Self-concept and Its Relationship to Depression, Stress and Anxiety in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Women in menopause have the more mood swings than before menopause. At the same time seem to sexual self-concept and sexual aspects of self-knowledge has a great impact on their mental health. This study aimed to investigate the sexual self-concept and its relationship to depression, stress and anxiety in postmenopausal women's. In this descriptive correlation research, 300 of postmenopausal women referred to healthcare and medical treatment centers in Abadeh city were selected by convenience sampling method. The information in this study was collected by using questionnaires of multidimensional sexual self-concept and depression anxiety stress scale 21 (DASS-21). For data analysis, SPSS/17 software was used. The results showed the mean score positive sexual self-concept was 41.03 ± 8.66 and the average score of negative sexual self in women's was 110.32 ± 43.05. As well as scores of depression, stress, and anxiety, 35.67%, 32.33% and 37.67% respectively were in severe level. Positive and negative sexual self-concept scores with scores of stress, anxiety, and depression, of post-menopausal women in the confidence of 0.01, is significantly correlated ( P stress, anxiety, and depression in severe level and also a significant correlation between increased stress, anxiety and depression with negative and weak self-concept of women's, it is necessary to devote more careful attention to mental health issues of women's and have appropriate interventions.

  6. Differential relationship of recent self-reported stress and acute anxiety with divided attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrac, D C; Bedwell, J S; Renk, K; Orem, D M; Sims, V

    2009-07-01

    There have been relatively few studies on the relationship between recent perceived environmental stress and cognitive performance, and the existing studies do not control for state anxiety during the cognitive testing. The current study addressed this need by examining recent self-reported environmental stress and divided attention performance, while controlling for state anxiety. Fifty-four university undergraduates who self-reported a wide range of perceived recent stress (10-item perceived stress scale) completed both single and dual (simultaneous auditory and visual stimuli) continuous performance tests. Partial correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the auditory omission errors from the dual condition, after controlling for state anxiety and auditory omission errors from the single condition (r = 0.41). This suggests that increased environmental stress relates to decreased divided attention performance in auditory vigilance. In contrast, an increase in state anxiety (controlling for perceived stress) was related to a decrease in auditory omission errors from the dual condition (r = - 0.37), which suggests that state anxiety may improve divided attention performance. Results suggest that further examination of the neurobiological consequences of environmental stress on divided attention and other executive functioning tasks is needed.

  7. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  8. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kianpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001 and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001 were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth.

  9. What Kind of Stress Is Associated with Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Chul; Lee, Daeun; Seol, Jinmi; Lim, Se Won

    2017-05-01

    Various types of stress affect mental health in the form of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidal ideation. Recently, the increasing suicide rate in the working-age population has become a major mental health concern in Korea. Thus, we investigated what kind of stress influence depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in Korean employees. The study participants were 189,965 employees who attended health screenings and responded to the Center for Epidemiologic Study-Depression Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and a questionnaire on the major causes of stress and suicidal ideation. We investigated the major causes of stress by gender and age categories and used binary logistic regression to determine the impact of the causes of stress on depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation. Of several stress causes, work-related stress was the most prevalent, regardless of age category and gender, followed by interpersonal relationships. However, interpersonal relationships and financial problems were the predominant causes of stress related to depression or suicidal ideation. This research suggests that despite the fact that work is the most common cause of stress for Korean employees, stress related to life problems other than work has a greater influence on the mental health of Korean employees. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Suitability of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Lawrence, Blake J; Corti, Emily J; Booth, Leon; Gasson, N; Thomas, Meghan G; Loftus, A M; Bucks, Romola S

    2016-05-27

    The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale -21 (DASS-21) is a frequently used measure of emotional disturbance symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the factor structure of the DASS-21 in PD has yet to be explored. To assess whether the scale is measuring these symptoms in PD in the same way as the general population. The present study fit a series of established DASS-21 factor structures with both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) using data from 251 participants with PD. The 3-factor ESEM provided the best fit. The depression and stress scales fit well, however, few items on the anxiety subscale loaded clearly, with several items significantly loading onto the depression or stress factors. Whilst the depression and stress subscales appear suitable in PD, poor loadings and internal consistency indicate the anxiety subscale may not accurately assess anxiety symptomology in PD. This may be due to the scale's reliance on physiological symptoms as indicators of anxiety, when many of these are present in PD. Thus, the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 may not be a suitable measure of anxiety in PD.

  11. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Andrew G; Mah, Richard; Keddie, Danae; Noble, Ronan M N; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Lemieux, Hélène; Bourque, Stephane L

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal iron deficiency alters fetal developmental trajectories, which results in persistent changes in organ function. Here, we studied the effects of prenatal iron deficiency on fetal kidney and liver mitochondrial function. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed partially or fully iron-restricted diets to induce a state of moderate or severe iron deficiency alongside iron-replete control rats. We assessed mitochondrial function via high-resolution respirometry and reactive oxygen species generation via fluorescence microscopy on gestational d 21. Hemoglobin levels were reduced in dams in the moderate (-31%) and severe groups (-54%) compared with controls, which was accompanied by 55% reductions in fetal hemoglobin levels in both moderate and severe groups versus controls. Male iron-deficient kidneys exhibited globally reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, as well as increased cytosolic superoxide and decreased NO. Female iron-deficient kidneys exhibited complex II down-regulation and increased mitochondrial oxidative stress. Male iron-deficient livers exhibited reduced complex IV respiration and increased cytosolic superoxide, whereas female liver tissues exhibited no alteration in oxidant levels or mitochondrial function. These findings indicate that prenatal iron deficiency causes changes in mitochondrial content and function as well as oxidant status in a sex- and organ-dependent manner, which may be an important mechanism that underlies the programming of cardiovascular disease.-Woodman, A. G., Mah, R., Keddie, D., Noble, R. M. N., Panahi, S., Gragasin, F. S., Lemieux, H., Bourque, S. L. Prenatal iron deficiency causes sex-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in fetal rat kidneys and liver.

  13. Sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal predictors of postpartum stress, anxiety and depression in new mothers.

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    Clout, Danielle; Brown, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate relationships between sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal variables and postpartum depression, anxiety and stress levels in new mothers. One-hundred-thirty-nine women completed the baseline questionnaire and 105 completed the follow-up questionnaire at 4-6 months postpartum. Sociodemographic and pregnancy factors were assessed at baseline, birth and postnatal factors were assessed at time 2, and depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at both time points. Caesarean delivery was associated with high postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Child sleep problems was related to depression, child health problems were related to anxiety, more SLE related to high stress, and maternal sleep problems were related to PPD. However, the results became non-significant after controlling for antenatal distress levels. Finally, women who underwent caesarean delivery had higher antenatal stress, anxiety, and depression levels, relative to women who did not undergo the procedure. Psychological stress and distress tended to persist in the women from the third-trimester of pregnancy to 4-6 months postpartum. It tended to occur in the context of caesarean delivery, maternal sleep problems, child's health and sleep problems, and stressful life-events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptation to Portuguese of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apóstolo, João Luís Alves; Mendes, Aida Cruz; Azeredo, Zaida Aguiar

    2006-01-01

    To adapt to Portuguese, of Portugal, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales, a 21-item short scale (DASS 21), designed to measure depression, anxiety and stress. After translation and back-translation with the help of experts, the DASS 21 was administered to patients in external psychiatry consults (N=101), and its internal consistency, construct validity and concurrent validity were measured. The DASS 21 properties certify its quality to measure emotional states. The instrument reveals good internal consistency. Factorial analysis shows that the two-factor structure is more adequate. The first factor groups most of the items that theoretically assess anxiety and stress, and the second groups most of the items that assess depression, explaining, on the whole, 58.54% of total variance. The strong positive correlation between the DASS 21 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) confirms the hypothesis regarding the criterion validity, however, revealing fragilities as to the divergence between theoretically different constructs.

  15. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  16. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  17. The effects of prenatal sound stress on the spatial learning and memory of rat's male offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Numerous evidences indicate that various environmental stresses during pregnancy affect physiological behavior of the offspring. This experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of noise stress during prenatal period of rats on spatial learning and memory and plasma corticostrone level in postnatal life."n"nMethods: Three groups of pregnant rats were given daily noise stress with durations of two and/ or four hours in last week of pregnancy period. The fourth group was left unstressed. The male offspring from the unstressed and different stressed groups were assigned as controls and stressed groups. The animals were introduced to a spatial task in Morris water maze 4 trials/day for five consecutive days. The probe test was performed on the 5th day of the experiment. The delay in findings and the distance passed to locate the target platform were assessed as the spatial learning. "n"nResults: Our results showed that prenatal exposure to noise stress for two and/ or four hours a day, leads to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the postnatal animals. The plasma level of corticostrone in the two stressed groups of rats markedly matched with their behavioral function. Prenatal exposure to 1- hour noise stress revealed no effects on the offsprings' behavior and plasma corticostrone level."n"nConclusion: Based on our study results, it seems that applied range of stress which is executed through the noise stress could increase the plasma corticostrone level and

  18. Anxiety symptoms and occupational stress among young Korean female manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Ho; Ho Chae, Chang; Ouk Kim, Young; Seok Son, Jun; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Woo Kim, Chan; Ouk Park, Hyoung; Ho Lee, Jun; Saeng Jung, Young

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders has been increasing in South Korea, with recent studies reporting anxiety disorders as the most common mental disorder among all South Korean females. Anxiety disorders, which are independent risk factors of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, are significantly correlated with productivity loss, high medical costs, impaired work performance, and frequent worker absence, and thus are potentially serious problems affecting the health of South Korean female workers. In previous studies, anxiety disorders were shown to have a significant correlation with occupational stress. This study seeks to examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms as well as the relationship between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms among South Korean female manufacturing workers. A structured self-reported questionnaire was administered to 1,141 female workers at an electrical appliance manufacturing plant. The questionnaire collected data on general characteristics, health behaviors, sleep quality, job characteristics (shift work, shift work schedule, and job tenure), occupational stress, and anxiety symptoms. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, occupational stress with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF), and anxiety symptoms with the Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory. A chi square test was conducted to determine the distribution differences in anxiety symptoms based on general characteristics, health behaviors, job characteristics, and sleep quality. A linear-by-linear association test was used to determine the distribution differences between anxietysymptoms and the levels of occupational stress. Last, logistic regression analysis was used in order to determine the association between occupational stress and anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 15.2 %. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis that adjusted for sleep quality and general characteristics

  19. Cumulative effect of multiple trauma on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sharain; Mkabile, Siyabulela G; Fincham, Dylan S; Ahmed, Rashid; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature has indicated that exposure to multiple traumatic events in adults is associated with high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Against the backdrop of stressful life events and childhood abuse and neglect, we investigated the cumulative effect of multiple trauma exposure on PTSD, anxiety, and depression in an adolescent sample. One thousand one hundred forty 10th-grade learners from 9 Cape Town (South Africa) schools completed questionnaires on stressful life experiences; trauma exposure; and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Our population of interest for this study was adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years who had been exposed to serious, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, qualifying traumatic events. The final sample size was thus 922. Rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and anxiety were high. Controlling for sex, stressful life experiences in the past year, and childhood adversity, we found an effect of cumulative trauma exposure effect on PTSD and depression, with an increase in the number of traumas linearly associated with an increase in symptoms of PTSD (F((4,912)) = 7.60, P cumulative effect on anxiety. Our findings indicate that adolescents exposed to multiple traumas are more likely to experience more severe symptoms of PTSD and depression than those who experience a single event, with this effect independent of childhood adversity and everyday stressful life experiences. Exposure to multiple trauma, however, does not seem to be associated with more severe anxiety symptoms.

  20. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback training on stress and anxiety: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessl, V C; Curtiss, J E; Hofmann, S G

    2017-11-01

    Some evidence suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback might be an effective way to treat anxiety and stress symptoms. To examine the effect of HRV biofeedback on symptoms of anxiety and stress, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies extracted from PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. The search identified 24 studies totaling 484 participants who received HRV biofeedback training for stress and anxiety. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis. The pre-post within-group effect size (Hedges' g) was 0.81. The between-groups analysis comparing biofeedback to a control condition yielded Hedges' g = 0.83. Moderator analyses revealed that treatment efficacy was not moderated by study year, risk of study bias, percentage of females, number of sessions, or presence of an anxiety disorder. HRV biofeedback training is associated with a large reduction in self-reported stress and anxiety. Although more well-controlled studies are needed, this intervention offers a promising approach for treating stress and anxiety with wearable devices.

  2. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  3. Diagnostic overlap of depressive, anxiety, stress and somatoform disorders in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Kazaz, Mohammed; Ftouni, Darine; Al-Harthy, Munjid; Dafeeah, Elnour E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of somatization, anxiety, depression and stress in a primary care population, explore their association to psychosocial stressors and determine the diagnostic overlap of these four mental disorders. This is a prospective cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 2,150 patients was approached, of whom 1,762 patients agreed to participate and responded to the questionnaire (81.9%). Anxiety was assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Depression was assessed with the depression module Patients Health Questionnaire-8. Somatization was measured with the somatic symptom module PHQ-15. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) instrument was used to identify the stress cases. Of the study sample, 23.8% of the total cases were identified as probable cases. The prevalence of somatization, depression, anxiety and stress was 11.7%, 11.3%, 8.3% and 18.6%, respectively. The specific gender prevalence of these four psychological disorders was very similar in men and women: depression (11.3% versus 11.3%), anxiety (7.7% versus 8.9%), somatization (12.5% versus 10.7%) and stress disorders (19.3% versus 17.8%). A significant difference was observed in nationality and marital status for depression and anxiety (P depression (13.3%), anxiety (9.5%), somatization (12.8%) and stress (20.4%). Unable to control worries (69.2%) was the worst symptom for anxiety disorders, while the majority of the depressed patients wanted to hurt themselves (71.9%). Stomach pain (46.1%) was the most common symptom in somatic patients. Most of the patients experiencing stress could not cope with their daily duties (65.9%). There was a high comorbidity rate of depression, anxiety, somatization and stress observed in the studied population (9.3%). The prevalence of somatization and depression was similar, but the prevalence of stress was higher in inpatient patients. Somatization, depression, anxiety and stress disorders co

  4. Prazosin Prevents Increased Anxiety Behavior That Occurs in Response to Stress During Alcohol Deprivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2017-01-01

    Stress-induced anxiety is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS)-active α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, would block the stress-induced increase in anxiety that occurs during alcohol deprivations. Selectively bred male alcohol-preferring (P) rats were given three cycles of 5 days of ad libitum voluntary alcohol drinking interrupted by 2 days of alcohol deprivation, with or without 1 h of restraint stress 4 h after the start of each of the first two alcohol deprivation cycles. Prazosin (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle was administered before each restraint stress. Anxiety-like behavior during alcohol deprivation following the third 5-day cycle of alcohol drinking (7 days after the most recent restraint stress ± prazosin treatment) was measured by performance in an elevated plus-maze and in social approach/avoidance testing. Rats that received constant alcohol access, or alcohol access and deprivations without stress or prazosin treatments in the first two alcohol deprivations did not exhibit augmented anxiety-like behavior during the third deprivation. In contrast, rats that had been stressed during the first two alcohol deprivations exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior (compared with control rats) in both anxiety tests during the third deprivation. Prazosin given before stresses in the first two cycles of alcohol withdrawal prevented increased anxiety-like behavior during the third alcohol deprivation. Prazosin treatment before stresses experienced during alcohol deprivations may prevent the increased anxiety during subsequent deprivation/abstinence that is a risk factor for relapse to alcohol drinking. Administration of prazosin before stresses during repetitive alcohol deprivations in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats prevents increased anxiety during a subsequent deprivation without further prazosin treatment. Prazosin treatment during repeated

  5. Acute Physiologic Stress and Subsequent Anxiety Among Family Members of ICU Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Wilson, Emily L; Butler, Jorie; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Orme, James; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L

    2018-02-01

    The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center. Family members of ICU patients. Participants provided five salivary cortisol samples over 24 hours at the time of the patient ICU admission. The primary measure of cortisol was the area under the curve from ground; the secondary measure was the cortisol awakening response. Outcomes were obtained during a 3-month follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety. Secondary outcomes included depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Among 100 participants, 92 completed follow-up. Twenty-nine participants (32%) reported symptoms of anxiety at 3 months, 15 participants (16%) reported depression symptoms, and 14 participants (15%) reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. In our primary analysis, cortisol level as measured by area under the curve from ground was not significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 0.94; p = 0.70). In our secondary analysis, however, cortisol awakening response was significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; p = 0.02). Roughly one third of family members experience anxiety after an ICU admission for their loved one, and many family members also experience depression and posttraumatic stress. Cortisol awakening response is associated with anxiety in family members of ICU patients 3 months following the ICU admission. Physiologic measurements of stress among ICU family members may help identify individuals at particular risk of adverse psychologic outcomes.

  6. Nonclinical Depression and Anxiety as Predictor of Academic Stress in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To measure the role of anxiety and non-clinical depression as predictors of academic stress. In this study, supplementary objective had been gauging the prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students of first year and final year, sought from six major medical colleges of Punjab. Almost all health professionals, no matter to which part of the world they belong to, face anxiety, depression and stress due to the nature of services they have to extend in medical profession such as time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Quantitative research designed was employed; and cross sectional research design was used to lay out the research. The data was collected from first year and final year medical students. The duration of data collection was from Sep, 2014 to Sep, 2015. In Faculty of Medicine of five leading medical colleges, with total number of 650 students, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was found to be 83.9% and 67.9%, from first year to fourth year respectively, based on the cut-off points of both questionnaires. There was significant association among anxiety, depression and academic stress as computed through Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The regression analyses revealed that depression was significant predictor of academic stress but this was not the same for anxiety. Females were more anxiety and depression prone and reported greater academic stress than males. The study revealed significant distress among medical students, in terms of both anxiety and depression. It was inferred that the depression acts as pertinent predictor of academic stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prevalence of symptoms was higher among females. The findings carry significant implications for highlighting the addressing the need for psychological wellbeing of medical students in order to establish conducive environment of learning for medical professionals.

  7. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  9. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Lise A; McDonald, Sheila W; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Weller, Carol A; Tough, Suzanne C

    2012-12-15

    Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319) completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34-36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale, screening and treatment in the prenatal period could have far-reaching effects on postpartum mental health thus benefiting new mothers and their

  10. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malta Lise A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that exposure to interpersonal violence is associated with poorer mental health outcomes. Understanding the impact of interpersonal violence on mental health in the early postpartum period has important implications for parenting, child development, and delivery of health services. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of interpersonal violence on depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale in the early postpartum. Methods Women participating in a community-based prospective cohort study (n = 1319 completed questionnaires prior to 25 weeks gestation, between 34–36 weeks gestation, and at 4 months postpartum. Women were asked about current and past abuse at the late pregnancy data collection time point. Postpartum depression, anxiety, stress, and parenting morale were assessed at 4 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Index, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Parenting Morale Index, respectively. The relationship between interpersonal violence and postpartum psychosocial health status was examined using Chi-square analysis (p  Results Approximately 30% of women reported one or more experience of interpersonal violence. Sixteen percent of women reported exposure to child maltreatment, 12% reported intimate partner violence, and 12% reported other abuse. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that a history of child maltreatment had an independent effect on depression in the postpartum, while both child maltreatment and intimate partner violence were associated with low parenting morale. Interpersonal violence did not have an independent effect on anxiety or stress in the postpartum. Conclusion The most robust relationships were seen for the influence of child maltreatment on postpartum depression and low parenting morale. By identifying women at risk for depression and low parenting morale

  11. Management of Stress and Anxiety Among PhD Students During Thesis Writing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Yousefi, Alireza; Yamani, Nikoo

    2016-01-01

    Today, postgraduate students experience a variety of stresses and anxiety in different situations of academic cycle. Stress and anxiety have been defined as a syndrome shown by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal goal achievement. This article addresses the causes and different strategies of coping with this phenomena by PhD students at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted by a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Through purposive sampling, 16 postgraduate medical sciences PhD students were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and field observations. Six hundred fifty-four initial codes were summarized and classified into 4 main categories and 11 subcategories on the thematic coding stage dependent on conceptual similarities and differences. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes including "thesis as a major source of stress," "supervisor relationship," "socioeconomic problem," and "coping with stress and anxiety." It was concluded that PhD students experience stress and anxiety from a variety of sources and apply different methods of coping in effective and ineffective ways. Purposeful supervision and guidance can reduce the cause of stress and anxiety; in addition, coping strategy must be in a thoughtful approach, as recommended in this study.

  12. Stress, Anxiety, and Social Emotional Learning in Education: Perceptions of Undergraduate, Pre Service, and Practicing Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Lynne W.

    2017-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are pervasive in education and society. Schools are initiating policy and programs aimed at addressing resiliency and wellbeing of students; yet, research and practice are lagging. This phenomenological study sought to explore social emotional teaching and learning with a specific focus on the potential impact on stress and…

  13. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  14. The effects of stress, anxiety, and outdoor temperature on the frequency and severity of Raynaud's attacks: the Raynaud's Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Middaugh, S J; Haythornthwaite, J A; Bielory, L

    2001-04-01

    It was expected that stress and anxiety would be related to Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) attack characteristics when mild outdoor temperatures produced partial or no digital vasoconstriction. Hypotheses were that in warmer temperature categories, compared to those below 40 degrees F, higher stress or anxiety would be associated with more frequent, severe, and painful attacks. The Raynaud's Treatment Study recruited 313 participants with primary RP. Outcomes were attack rate, severity, and pain. Predictors were average daily outdoor temperature, stress, anxiety, age, gender, and a stress-by-temperature or an anxiety-by-temperature interaction. Outcomes were tested separately in multiple linear regression models. Stress and anxiety were tested in separate models. Stress was not a significant predictor of RP attack characteristics. Higher anxiety was related to more frequent attacks above 60 degrees F. It was also related to greater attack severity at all temperatures, and to greater pain above 60 degrees F and between 40 degrees and 49.9 degrees F.

  15. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  16. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  17. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Anxiety, stress and depression in family caregivers of the mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lídia; Duarte, João; Ferreira, Manuela; dos Santos, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relationship between social support and caregiver overload with caregiver anxiety, depression and stress. Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study with 104 caregivers, mostly female (62.5%), aged between 22 and 77 years with a mean age of 52.03 years. The following were used as instruments: the Family Apgar Scale; the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS); the Caregiver Overload Scale (ESC); the Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scales (EADS-21). We found that females have higher rates (Panxiety, depression and stress; participants with less education have more anxiety than those with higher and secondary education (P=.001); caregivers living in rural areas have higher levels of depression (P=.044) and stress (P=.041); those who perceive belonging to families with marked dysfunctions have higher levels of depression (P=.0.001) and stress (P=.000); the higher the overload, the higher the levels of anxiety (P=.002), depression and stress (P=.000). I tis necessary to develop strategies for local and community intervention to promote mental health and prevent mental illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  20. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic r...

  1. Project ice storm : effects of prenatal stress on children's physical, cognitive and behavioral development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaPlante, D.P.; King, S.; Brunet, A. [Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The ice storm in the winter of 1998 left three million people in Quebec without power for as long as 40 days. This study recruited 224 women who were pregnant during the storm or who became pregnant within 3 months after the storm. The study examined the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in an effort to fill gaps in literature regarding prenatal stress and increased risks and to assist in the development of preventive interventions for pregnant women who have experienced stress or trauma. Natural disaster studies provide good opportunities to study the effects of PNMS, as effects are random across large numbers of women and can be assessed independently of the pregnant women's own personality traits. The study examined whether there was an effect of the timing and severity of the ice storm on perinatal outcomes and later health; intellectual and linguistic functioning at two and a half and five years of age; behavioural and attention problems at four and five and a half years of age and physical features. The study concluded that pregnant women are a risk group and need proper interventions as children experienced delays or deficiencies in several key developmental areas. tabs., figs.

  2. Prenatal stress exposure, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation, and child autistic traits: The moderating role of OXTR rs53576 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-03-01

    Findings of studies investigating OXTR SNP rs53576 (G-A) variation in social behavior have been inconsistent, possibly because DNA methylation after stress exposure was eliminated from consideration. Our goal was to examine OXTR rs53576 allele-specific sensitivity for neonatal OXTR DNA methylation in relation to (1) a prenatal maternal stress composite, and (2) child autistic traits. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 years were collected in a total of 743 children participating in the Generation R Study. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was uniquely associated with child autistic traits but was unrelated to OXTR methylation across both OXTR rs53576 G-allele homozygous children and A-allele carriers. For child autistic traits in general and social communication problems in particular, we observed a significant OXTR rs53576 genotype by OXTR methylation interaction in the absence of main effects, suggesting that opposing effects cancelled each other out. Indeed, OXTR methylation levels were positively associated with social problems for OXTR rs53576 G-allele homozygous children but not for A-allele carriers. These results highlight the importance of incorporating epi-allelic information and support the role of OXTR methylation in child autistic traits. Autism Res 2017, 10: 430-438. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Taurine promotes cognitive function in prenatally stressed juvenile rats via activating the Akt-CREB-PGC1α pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ning; Sun, Qinru; Su, Qian; Dang, Shaokang; Chen, Guomin

    2016-12-01

    Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) level,mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), ATP and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were detected. The activity of the Akt-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) pathway in the hippocampus was measured. The results showed that high dosage of taurine administration in the early postnatal period attenuated impairment of spatial learning and memory induced by PS. Meanwhile, taurine administration diminished the increase in mitochondrial ROS, and recovered the reduction of MMP, ATP level and the activities of CcO, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase induced by PS in the hippocampus. In addition, taurine administration recovered PS-suppressed SOD2 expression level. Taurine administration blocked PS-induced decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase in the ratio of cleaved caspase-3/full-length caspase-3. Notably, taurine inhibited PS-decreased phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt) and phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), which consequently enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of PGC1α. Taken together, these results suggest that high dosage of taurine administration during the early postnatal period can significantly improve the cognitive function in prenatally stressed juvenile rats via activating the Akt-CREB-PGC1α pathway. Therefore

  4. Taurine promotes cognitive function in prenatally stressed juvenile rats via activating the Akt-CREB-PGC1α pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS. Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS level,mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ATP and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO activity and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were detected. The activity of the Akt-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α pathway in the hippocampus was measured. The results showed that high dosage of taurine administration in the early postnatal period attenuated impairment of spatial learning and memory induced by PS. Meanwhile, taurine administration diminished the increase in mitochondrial ROS, and recovered the reduction of MMP, ATP level and the activities of CcO, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 and catalase induced by PS in the hippocampus. In addition, taurine administration recovered PS-suppressed SOD2 expression level. Taurine administration blocked PS-induced decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and increase in the ratio of cleaved caspase-3/full-length caspase-3. Notably, taurine inhibited PS-decreased phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt and phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB, which consequently enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of PGC1α. Taken together, these results suggest that high dosage of taurine administration during the early postnatal period can significantly improve the cognitive function in prenatally stressed juvenile rats via activating the Akt-CREB-PGC1

  5. Life stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women after cancer: The mediating effect of stress appraisal and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Porter-Steele, Janine; Ng, Shu-Kay; Turner, Jane; McGuire, Amanda; McDonald, Nicole; Balaam, Sarah; Yates, Patsy; McCarthy, Alexandra; Anderson, Debra

    2018-04-06

    This paper examines the direct and intermediary relationships between life stress, stress appraisal, and resilience, and increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in Australian women after cancer treatment. Data examined from 278 women aged 18 years and older previously treated for breast, gynaecological, or blood cancer, participating in the Australian Women's Wellness after Cancer Program. Serial mediation models interrogated the effect of stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences-Modified) mediated by appraisal and coping (Perceived Stress Scale and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), on symptoms of anxiety and depression (Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Over one-quarter (30.2%) of participants reported 1 or more stressful life events, other than their cancer, in the previous 6 months. Results indicate that perceived stress fully mediated the relationships between life stress, anxiety (indirect effect = 0.09, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.18, Percent mediation = 0.51), and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.11, Bias-corrected bootstrap 95% CI 0.02-0.23, Percent mediation = 0.71) and accounted for more than half of the relationship between predictor and outcome. Findings indicate that stress appraisal mediated the relationship between past life stressors and anxiety and depressive symptoms. This analysis also highlights the need to consider wellness within a broader care context to identify potentially vulnerable patients to possibly avert future health concerns. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The relationship between adolescents' academic stress, impulsivity, anxiety, and skin picking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sun Kyung; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2017-08-01

    Skin picking behavior involves an individual picking or biting their skin repeatedly. Although this behavior commonly occurs at a young age, little research has addressed its harmful effects among the Korean population. Therefore, we examined the characteristics of South Korean adolescents who reported skin picking behavior. South Korean students aged 12-16 years participated (N=410, females=52.2%). They completed questionnaires that addressed skin picking behavior, academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. The survey was conducted in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from February-March 2016. Among participants, 66.8% reported that they had picked their skin and 15.4% did so currently. Skin picking was positively correlated with academic stress, impulsivity, and anxiety. Students who picked their skin more often displayed more anxiety, academic stress, and impulsivity. Future studies should address skin picking adolescents' characteristics, especially regarding anxiety and academic stress. Educational programs should be implemented to help adolescents decrease their anxiety and academic stress and prevent the worsening of skin picking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency of depression, anxiety and stress among the undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Annosha; Ali, Syed Shazad; Khan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DAS) among the undergraduate physiotherapy students. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in various Physiotherapy Institutes in Sindh, Pakistan among undergraduate physiotherapy students. The total duration of this study was 4 months from September, 2016 to January, 2017. Data was collected from 267 students with no physical and mental illness; more than half were female students 75.3%. They were selected through Non probability purposive sampling technique. A self-administered standardized DASS (depression, anxiety and stress scale) was used to collect data and result was analyzed using its severity rating index. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics including the frequency of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic characteristic of the participant was collected. The mean age of students was 19.3371±1.18839 years. The Frequency of depression, anxiety and stress found among undergraduates Physiotherapy students was 48.0%, 68.54% and 53.2%, respectively. It was observed that the frequency of depression, anxiety and stress among physiotherapy undergraduates students were high. It suggests the urgent need of carrying out evidence based Psychological health promotion for undergraduate Physiotherapy students to control this growing problem.

  8. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  10. Relationship of severity of depression, anxiety and stress with severity of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alok, R; Das, S K; Agarwal, G G; Salwahan, L; Srivastava, R

    2011-01-01

    Negative affects like depression, anxiety and stress are frequently observed in patients with fibromyalgia (FMS). Understanding the association between FMS and negative affects is likely to help in deciding the choice of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the severity of FMS with the severity of depression, anxiety and stress. Sixty patients with fibromyalgia and 60 healthy controls were included in the study. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised (FIQR), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS21) were administered to both the groups. The mean age of study population was 40.4±9.9 and 36±8.7 for FMS and control groups respectively. Most of the patients were females (93.3%). In subjects without FMS, depression was seen in 5% and was significantly associated with all three components of FIQR (pdepression, anxiety and stress were found significantly associated with the severity of all three components of FIQR, namely pain, function and symptoms (pdepression, anxiety and stress and in FMS magnitude of negative affects is significantly correlated with FIQR. However, depression alone in absence of FMS can also give rise to all three components of FIQR.

  11. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  12. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  13. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-09-07

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders.

  14. Relationship between Maternal General and Specific-Pregnancy Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms and Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanjanzadeh, Parvin; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh

    2017-04-01

    Despite scientific advances in the field of physical problems during pregnancy, the effect of mental problems on the health of pregnant women is still an important issue that needs further research. To determine the association of symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy and there effect on the pregnancy outcome. This was a descriptive correlational study. The population included 200 pregnant women of the urban and rural health centers affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences. There were 100 each in second and third trimester. Convenience multi stage cluster sampling was performed. Data collection was received through the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) questionnaires. The correlation results showed a significant difference between variables of depression, stress, and anxiety with birth weight, birth height and head circumference and infants' APGAR score (prelationships on prediction of infant weight (B=-0.324), anxiety on prediction of infant height (B=-0.197), stress on prediction of head circumference (B=-0.350) and depression on prediction of APGAR score (B=-0.323) are effective (pdepression, anxiety and stress in pregnancy, and scheduling to avoid adverse consequences of the pregnancy outcome.

  15. Correlation of occupational stress with depression, anxiety, and sleep in Korean dentists: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung-Won; Choi, Won-Seok; Jee, Hee-Jung; Yuh, Chi-Sung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Kim, Leen; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Cho, Chul-Hyun

    2017-12-12

    This study aimed to investigate the degree of occupational stress and the clinical mental state of dentists. In addition, we investigated the correlation of occupational stress with depression, anxiety, and sleep among dentists in Korea. A cross-sectional survey on 231 dentists was conducted using the Doctor Job Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Correlation of occupational stress with mental health was investigated by adjusted multiple regression analysis. The scores of CES-D, STAI, and PSQI revealed a significant correlation with the Doctor Job Stress Scale (t = 3.93, P stress management focusing on interpersonal relationship with patients and responsibility as an expert rather than the intensity of work should be considered.

  16. Comparing Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Takotsubo Stress Cardiomyopathy to Those With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Anne C H; Wong, Stephanie; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Shafaee, Navid; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether anxiety or depression is associated with takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSCM). A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 73 TSCM cases and 111 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) controls matched for age, sex, and cardiac catheterization date. The study was conducted between May 1, 2009, and February 28, 2010. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was completed by all participants after hospital discharge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess psychological distress with measurement of anxiety and depression scores. The presence of a stressful emotional or physical trigger before the TSCM presentation was determined. Univariate testing was performed to quantify the associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM trigger status. Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the independent associations between anxiety and depression and TSCM status after controlling for relevant covariates. The mean anxiety score was 6.7 ± 4.7 for TSCM cases versus 5.4 ± 3.4 for ACS controls (P = .06). The mean depression score was 4.3 ± 3.7 for TSCM cases versus 4.0 ± 3.1 for controls (P = .61). Anxiety was particularly associated with TSCM status with an emotional trigger (P = .05). After multivariable adjustment, anxiety (OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P = .03) was associated with TSCM status but depression was not (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.05; P = .29). In comparison with a control group with ACS, patients who presented with TSCM have higher levels of anxiety but not depression.

  17. Interpersonal Stress Regulation and the Development of Anxiety Disorders: An Attachment-Based Developmental Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Tobias; Guiney, Jo; Fonagy, Peter; Mayes, Linda C.; Luyten, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the etiology and maintenance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework. The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety, and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social–cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualized as the key organizer of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and epigenetic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial etiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterized by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety. The cumulative allostatic load and subsequent “wear and tear” effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments are outlined. PMID

  18. Interpersonal stress regulation and the development of anxiety disorders: an attachment-based developmental framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNolte

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders represent a common but often debilitating form of psychopathology in both children and adults. While there is a growing understanding of the aetiology and maintainance of these disorders across various research domains, only recently have integrative accounts been proposed. While classical attachment history has been a traditional core construct in psychological models of anxiety, contemporary attachment theory has the potential to integrate neurobiological and behavioral findings within a multidisciplinary developmental framework.The current paper proposes a modern attachment theory-based developmental model grounded in relevant literature from multiple disciplines including social neuroscience, genetics, neuroendocrinology, and the study of family factors involved in the development of anxiety disorders. Recent accounts of stress regulation have highlighted the interplay between stress, anxiety and activation of the attachment system. This interplay directly affects the development of social cognitive and mentalizing capacities that are acquired in the interpersonal context of early attachment relationships. Early attachment experiences are conceptualised as the key organiser of a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and epigentic contributions to the development of anxiety disorders – a multifactorial aetiology resulting from dysfunctional co-regulation of fear and stress states. These risk-conferring processes are characterised by hyperactivation strategies in the face of anxiety.In the model, the cumulative allostatic load and subsequent wear and tear effects associated with hyperactivation strategies converge on the neural pathways of anxiety and stress. Attachment experiences further influence the development of anxiety as potential moderators of risk factors, differentially impacting on genetic vulnerability and relevant neurobiological pathways. Implications for further research and potential treatments

  19. Personality traits predict job stress, depression and anxiety among junior physicians.

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    Gramstad, Thomas Olsen; Gjestad, Rolf; Haver, Brit

    2013-11-09

    High levels of stress and deteriorating mental health among medical students are commonly reported. In Bergen, Norway, we explored the impact of personality traits measured early in their curriculum on stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as junior physicians following graduation. Medical students (n = 201) from two classes participated in a study on personality traits and mental health early in the curriculum. A questionnaire measuring personality traits (Basic Character Inventory (BCI)) was used during their third undergraduate year. BCI assesses four personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness and reality weakness. Questionnaires measuring mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Symptom Checklist 25 (SCL-25)), and stress (Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS)) were used during their third and sixth undergraduate year. During postgraduate internship, Cooper's Job Stress Questionnaire (CJSQ) was used to measure perceived job stress, while mental health and stress reactions were reassessed using HADS and SCL-25. Extroversion had the highest mean value (5.11) among the total group of participants, while reality weakness had the lowest (1.51). Neuroticism and reality weakness were related to high levels of perceived job stress (neuroticism r = .19, reality weakness r = .17) as well as higher levels of anxiety symptoms (neuroticism r = .23, reality weakness r = .33) and symptoms of depression (neuroticism r = .21, reality weakness r = .36) during internship. Neuroticism indirectly predicted stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. These relations were mediated by perceived job stress, while reality weakness predicted these mental health measures directly. Extroversion, on the other hand, protected against symptoms of depression (r = -.20). Furthermore, females reported higher levels of job stress than males (difference = 7.52). Certain personality traits measured early in

  20. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms in Menopausal Arab Women: Shedding More Light on a Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, A; Saleh, N M; Bakir, A; Bhugra, D

    2016-01-01

    The association between depression, anxiety, and stress among Arab menopause and postmenopausal women have been explored in detailed. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress in menopausal and postmenopausal women and shedding more light on a complex relationship. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the primary health care centers in Qatar. A representative sample of 1468 women aged 45-65 years were approached during July 2012 and May 2014 and 1101 women agreed to participate (75.0%) and responded to the study. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical and other parameters were used. Univariate, multivariate, and matrix correlation analysis were performed for statistical analysis. A total of 1101 women agreed to participate after informed consent was obtained. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 49.55 (3.12), the mean and SD of postmenopausal age was 58.08 (3.26) ( P stress among menopause and postmenopause. The multivariate regression analyses revealed that age in years, diastolic BP, consanguinity, regular exercise were a predictor for depression. Meanwhile, diastolic BP, occupation, and physical activity considered the main risk factors for anxiety. Furthermore, age in years, occupation, and sheesha smoking habits were considered as the main risk factors associated with stress. A large number of factors were associated with experiencing menopausal and psycho-social problems and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women. Depression, anxiety, and stress should be considered as important risk factors for osteoporosis.

  1. Factor structure and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in Swedish translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, S; Wallin, E; Maathz, P

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a widely used measurement for psychological symptoms and distress. Some previous studies have shown that the DASS-21 can accurately measure symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, while other studies have indicated that the DASS-21 mainly measures overall distress. The factor structure of the DASS-21 is important and debated since if affects interpretations of findings. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: In this study, the DASS-21 was translated into Swedish and evaluated in three diverse samples. The DASS-21 subscales of Depression and Anxiety correlated significantly with corresponding criteria instruments. The DASS-21 Stress subscale showed more diverse associations with psychological distress. The analyses supported a bifactor model of the DASS-21 with three specific factors of depression, anxiety and stress as well as a general distress factor. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The results show that the DASS-21 may be used to measure unique symptoms of depression, anxiety and, with some caveat, stress as well as overall psychological distress. This study confirms that the DASS-21 is theoretically sound instrument that is feasible for both research and clinical practice. The DASS-21 can be an accessible tool for screening and evaluation in first-line mental health services. Introduction There is a constant need for theoretically sound and valid self-report instruments for measuring psychological distress. Previous studies have shown that the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is theoretically sound, but there have been some inconsistent results regarding its factor structure. Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the factor structure and convergent validity of the DASS-21. Methods A total of 624 participants recruited from student, primary care and psychotherapy populations. The factor structure of the DASS

  2. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  3. The association of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress with vascular function in the child at age 10-11 years: findings from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aimée E; Dawe, Karen; Deanfield, John; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether (1) maternal psychosocial stress (depression/anxiety) during pregnancy is associated with offspring vascular function and (2) whether any association differs depending on the gestational timing of exposure to stress. We also investigated whether any association is likely to be due to intrauterine mechanisms by (3) comparing with the association of paternal stress with offspring vascular function and (4) examining whether any prenatal association is explained by maternal postnatal stress. Associations were examined in a UK birth cohort, with offspring outcomes (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, SBP and DBP, endothelial function assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD); arterial stiffness assessed by carotid to radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery distensibility (DC), and brachial artery diameter (BD) assessed at age 10-11 years (n = 4,318). Maternal depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 months postnatally. Paternal symptoms were assessed at week 19. With the exception of DBP and BD, there were no associations of maternal depressive symptoms with any of the vascular outcomes. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were associated with lower offspring DBP and wider BD, though the latter attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors. Paternal symptoms were not associated with offspring outcomes. Maternal postnatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower offspring SBP. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal stress during pregnancy adversely affects offspring vascular function at age 10-12 years via intrauterine mechanisms. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic Role of Spiritual Intelligence Components in Pregnant Women’s Depression, Anxiety, and Stress

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    Batul Khodakarami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Physiological changes and psychological adaptations during pregnancy period expose pregnant mothers to increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Presently, spiritual intelligence is addressed as one of the most influential issues in mental and emotional health of individuals. This study was conducted aimed at examination of the relationship between spiritual intelligence, on the one hand, and depression, anxiety, and stress, on the other, among pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive-correlative study was performed on 182 pregnant women using Stratified Random Sampling method. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and King Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory were used to evaluate and compare research’s variables. SPSS, version 16, and descriptive-analytical statistical methods were employed to analyze data. Results: Results indicated that there was a negative, significant relationship between all scales of spiritual intelligence components and subscales of depression and stress during pregnancy period (P<0.05. There was a negative, significant relationship between critical existential thinking and personal meaning production, on the one hand, and stress, on the other, in pregnancy period (P<0.05. Multiple regressions analysis indicated that predictor variables explain criterion variables in a significant way. Conclusion: Pregnant women with higher degrees of spiritual intelligence tend to have lower degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress during their pregnancy period.

  6. Relationship between depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and urinary hydroxyproline and proline concentrations in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keou Won; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shift-work and DAS. depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. The mean value of Hyp and Pro concentration in all subjects was 194.1 ± 113.4 μmol/g and 568.2 ± 310.7 μmol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p others, p < 0.05). In the stepwise multiple linear regressions, urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations were influenced by stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.

  7. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  8. Anxiety, affect, self-esteem, and stress: mediation and moderation effects on depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    Full Text Available Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression.Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113 completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses.The results indicated that (i anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression.The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators.

  9. Anxiety, Affect, Self-Esteem, and Stress: Mediation and Moderation Effects on Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nima, Ali Al; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mediation analysis investigates whether a variable (i.e., mediator) changes in regard to an independent variable, in turn, affecting a dependent variable. Moderation analysis, on the other hand, investigates whether the statistical interaction between independent variables predict a dependent variable. Although this difference between these two types of analysis is explicit in current literature, there is still confusion with regard to the mediating and moderating effects of different variables on depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the mediating and moderating effects of anxiety, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on depression. Methods Two hundred and two university students (males  = 93, females  = 113) completed questionnaires assessing anxiety, stress, self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and depression. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted using techniques based on standard multiple regression and hierarchical regression analyses. Main Findings The results indicated that (i) anxiety partially mediated the effects of both stress and self-esteem upon depression, (ii) that stress partially mediated the effects of anxiety and positive affect upon depression, (iii) that stress completely mediated the effects of self-esteem on depression, and (iv) that there was a significant interaction between stress and negative affect, and between positive affect and negative affect upon depression. Conclusion The study highlights different research questions that can be investigated depending on whether researchers decide to use the same variables as mediators and/or moderators. PMID:24039896

  10. Sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress: Focus on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2018-01-01

    Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects. We summarize and evaluate here the available data regarding sex differences in the neuro-immune consequences of stress, and some of the physiological factors contributing to these differences. Furthermore, we discuss the extent to which sex differences in stress-related neuroinflammation can account for the overall female bias in stress-linked psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The currently available evidence from rodent studies does not unequivocally support the peripheral inflammatory changes seen in women following stress. Replication of many recent findings in stress-related neuroinflammation in female subjects is necessary in order to build a framework in which we can assess the extent to which sex differences in stress-related inflammation contribute to the overall female bias in stress-related affective disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsoom, Bibi; Afsar, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students' mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students. This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons. All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2-3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination), and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination). Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP), housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained. A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre-and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively) which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively) to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores. The students had high "baseline" traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. Students suggested that study burden and a busy schedule were the major reasons for their high DASS-21 scores.

  12. Depression anxiety stress and substance use in medical students in a 5year curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina van Zyl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes.Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined.Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression.Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.

  13. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students in a 5-year curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Maria van Zyl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes. Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression. Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.

  14. Maternal prenatal stress and child atopic dermatitis up to age 2 years: The Ulm SPATZ health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, Stefanie; Weiss, Johannes M; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2017-03-01

    Evidence linking maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy to subsequent child atopic dermatitis (AD) is growing, but the definition of AD is diverse and results are inconsistent. We aimed to analyze the relationship between stress and AD using alternative measurements of stress and AD. In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, chronic stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized self-reported questionnaires in 934 mothers of singletons following delivery in Ulm, Germany, from 04/2012-05/2013. Maternal hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs, n = 626) at childbirth and the cumulative incidences of parent-reported child AD symptoms, parent-, and pediatrician-reported AD diagnoses were assessed until age 2 years (n = 787). Overall, 205 dermatologic examinations were performed in 167 children showing AD symptoms. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR, aRR) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Maternal stress and anxiety were associated with child AD symptoms by trend (RR and aRR: 1.5 (1.0,2.3) for the highest vs. the lowest quarter of chronic stress; aRR: 1.4 (1.0,2.0) for possible anxiety symptoms vs. no symptoms). No relationship was found between stress or related constructs and AD diagnoses nor could we show consistent associations between maternal HCC and child AD. However, a higher RR of child AD was evident in families not yet affected by AD in siblings given maternal depressive symptoms, examined in the crude model. Stress measurements or related constructs are linked to AD symptoms, but association with AD diagnoses is limited. The reason for this divergence still needs further research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Effect of Yoga on Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Turkish Adults: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrtash, Shabnam; Koçak, Settar; Hürmeriç Altunsöz, Irmak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it is investigated the psychological effects of yoga on adult’s mood such as stress, anxiety and depression. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) with 42 items (Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) was used for collecting data in two times: Pre-test and Post-test. This scale administered in 95 subjects in Middle East Technical University in Ankara/Turkey.  For data analysis, SPSS version 21 and a paired sample T-test were used. The results indicated that there was a significant ...

  16. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Rahardjo; Juneman Juneman; Yeni Setiani

    2013-01-01

    Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of...

  17. Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Holsen, Laura; Huang, Grace; Hammond, Bradley D; James-Todd, Tamarra; Cherkerzian, Sara; Hale, Taben M; Handa, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Furthermore, these effects have lifelong consequences for shared sex-dependent risk of MDD and obesity/MetS. Thus, we propose that there are shared biologic substrates at the anatomical, molecular, and/or genetic levels that produce the comorbid risk for MDD-MetS through sex-dependent fetal origins.

  18. Vulnerability to stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gois Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vulnerability to stress has been associated to distress, emotional distress symptoms and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients as well. Furthermore some conflicting results were noticed. We aimed to evaluate the effect over metabolic control in what concerns vulnerability to stress beyond depressive and anxiety symptoms. Findings This cross-sectional study assessed 273 T2DM patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS and the 23 Questions to assess Vulnerability to Stress (23QVS, along with demographic and clinical diabetes-related variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of poor glycemic control. The results showed an association of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.030 with increased risk of poor glycemic control. Anxiety symptoms and vulnerability to stress on their own were not predictive of metabolic control, respectively (odds ratio = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.84-1.00, P = 0.187 and odds ratio = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.95-1.01, P = 0.282. Conclusions Our data suggested that vulnerability to stress was not predictive of poor glycemic control in T2DM, but depressive symptoms were.

  19. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  20. Why is everyone so anxious?: an exploration of stress and anxiety in genetic counseling graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Chelsy; Macfarlane, Ian M; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Leroy, Bonnie S

    2011-06-01

    Stress is an inevitable part of daily life. Studies of graduate student stress exist, but none include genetic counseling students. The present mixed-methods study investigated 225 genetic counseling students' stress and anxiety levels using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al. 1983), frequency and intensity of stressors associated with their graduate experience, positive and challenging aspects of their experience, and their stress management advice for prospective students. Principal axis factor analysis yielded five conceptual factors underlying the stressors: Professional Uncertainty, Personal Life Events, Interpersonal Demands, Academic Demands, and Isolating Circumstances. Exploratory model fitting using regression yielded four significant predictors accounting for 19% of the variance in state anxiety: (1) trait anxiety, (2) the Interpersonal Demands factor, (3) the Isolating Circumstances factor, and (4) the interaction between the Professional Uncertainty factor and advanced student status. Content analysis of open-ended responses identified several themes. For instance, most students enjoyed what they were learning, interactions with colleagues, and affirmation of their career choice, while certain academic and professional challenges were particularly stressful (e.g., workload, time constraints, clinical rotations). Additional findings, program implications, and research recommendations are provided.

  1. Stress, anxiety, depression, and epilepsy: investigating the relationship between psychological factors and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Ajay; Kerr, Michael; Harold, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between psychological factors (anxiety, stress, and depression) and seizures. In this longitudinal cohort study, data on anxiety, depression, perceived stress, and seizure recency (time since last seizure) and frequency were collected at two time points using standard validated questionnaire measures. Empirically based models with psychological factors explaining change in (1) seizure recency and (2) seizure frequency scores across time were specified. We then tested how these psychological factors acted together in predicting seizure recency and frequency. Our data were used to test whether these models were valid for the study population. Latent variable structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. Four hundred thirty-three of the 558 individuals who initially consented to participate provided two waves of data for this analysis. Stress (beta=0.25, Panxiety (beta=0.30, Pdepression (beta=0.30, Pdepression that mediated the relationship of both anxiety and stress with modeled change in seizure recency (beta=0.19, PDepression mediates the relationship between stress and anxiety and change in seizure recency and seizure frequency. These findings highlight the importance of depression management in addition to seizure management in the assessment and treatment of epilepsy in an adult population.

  2. Study of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among the Medical Students in two Medical Colleges of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, pdepression 29.9%, anxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.

  3. [Depression, anxiety and stress scales: DASS--A screening procedure not only for pain patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilges, P; Essau, C

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of mental distress is a central aspect in pain research and treatment. Particularly for depression the comorbidity with pain poses methodological and conceptual challenges. This study examined the psychometric properties of the short version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS), used in both pain research and treatment and constructed to overcome the particular problems by omitting somatic items and concentrating on the psychological core aspects of depression, anxiety and stress. The psychometric properties of the DASS-21 were compared between patients with pain and various people without any pain problems (N = 950). The DASS has three subscales, depression, anxiety and stress, each with seven items. The construct validity of the DASS was examined using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) for anxiety and depression and the general depression scale (Allgemeine Depressionsskala, ADS) for depression. The sensitivity and specificity for depression were determined against a structured interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and compared with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CESD) and HADS in pain patients. Cronbach's alpha of the DASS for the depression subscale was at least 0.91, while the anxiety and stress subscales had Cronbach alphas of 0.78-0.82 and 0.81-0.89, respectively. Although the depression subscale has only 7 items, it is just as reliable as the ADS with 21 items. It also has a better sensitivity and specificity than the HADS in identifying clinical patients with depression. The DASS is a reliable questionnaire, free to use and brief to administer; therefore, it is an alternative to the previously used instruments for the screening of depression. Furthermore, the subscale stress measures irritability and tension, which are important aspects of pain experience but underused in assessment procedures for the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of patients

  4. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  5. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for the management of anxiety, posttraumatic stress and obsessive-compulsive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and related disorders are among the most common mental disorders, with lifetime prevalence reportedly as high as 31%. Unfortunately, anxiety disorders are under-diagnosed and under-treated. Methods These guidelines were developed by Canadian experts in anxiety and related disorders through a consensus process. Data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment (psychological and pharmacological) were obtained through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and manual searches (1980–2012). Treatment strategies were rated on strength of evidence, and a clinical recommendation for each intervention was made, based on global impression of efficacy, effectiveness, and side effects, using a modified version of the periodic health examination guidelines. Results These guidelines are presented in 10 sections, including an introduction, principles of diagnosis and management, six sections (Sections 3 through 8) on the specific anxiety-related disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and two additional sections on special populations (children/adolescents, pregnant/lactating women, and the elderly) and clinical issues in patients with comorbid conditions. Conclusions Anxiety and related disorders are very common in clinical practice, and frequently comorbid with other psychiatric and medical conditions. Optimal management requires a good understanding of the efficacy and side effect profiles of pharmacological and psychological treatments. PMID:25081580

  6. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety...

  7. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  8. Social Self-Efficacy and Its Relationship with Both Depression and Anxiety, Stress among a Sample of Jadara University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    rababah, Mahdi mohamme saied

    2016-01-01

    Counsellors need to be able to understand students' social self-efficacy, in order to provide them appropriate counselling services. This study investigated social gender self-efficacy differences, and depression, anxiety and stress, and examined the relationship of social self-efficacy to depression, anxiety and stress among a sample of 573…

  9. Modulation of Inhibitory Processing by Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Anxiety in a Subclinical Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Morgane; Chanquoy, Lucile; Garcia, René

    2016-12-01

    In adults, pathologies of anxiety such as posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) involve deficits in information processing that may reflect hypervigilance and deficient inhibitory control, specifically for negative information. However, little is known about inhibitory processing in children, particularly regarding the inhibition of emotional information. This study investigated whether children with PTSS or anxiety show impairments in executive control in an inhibition task. A total of 45 children (M age = 9.2 year, SD = 0.7, range: 8-11) completed an inhibition task involving emotional-happy, angry, and fearful-and neutral stimuli and clinical scales for PTSS and anxiety. The results indicated that the percentage of correct answers was modulated by PTSS status, particularly in the happiness task. PTSS and anxiety altered the inhibition of fearful information in children. These data suggest different types of inhibitory deficits depending on clinical symptoms, and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Using Prenatal Advocates to Implement a Psychosocial Education Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder during Pregnancy: Feasibility, Care Engagement, and Predelivery Behavioral Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole C; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Weinreb, Linda; Moffitt, Jennifer Jo Averill

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) engage in more high-risk behavior and use less prenatal care. Although treating depression in pregnancy is becoming widespread, options for addressing PTSD are few. This study was designed to test the feasibility of implementing a manualized psychosocial PTSD intervention, Seeking Safety, delivered by prenatal advocates. All women entering prenatal care at two federally qualified health centers were screened for current symptoms of PTSD. One site was selected randomly to have prenatal care advocates deliver eight Seeking Safety topics for women that indicated clinical or subclinical PTSD symptoms. Baseline and pre-delivery interviews were conducted, which collected background characteristics and assessed PTSD severity and coping skills. Medical records were collected to document care visits. Documentation of participation rates, fidelity to the treatment, and qualitative feedback from advocates and participants was collected. More than one-half (57.3%) of the intervention women received all Seeking Safety sessions and fidelity ratings of the session showed acceptable quality. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, intervention women participated in significantly more prenatal care visits (M = 11.7 versus 8.9; p accounting for baseline differences, intervention women also reduced negative coping skills but not PTSD symptoms. Using prenatal care advocates to deliver Seeking Safety sessions to women screening positive for PTSD symptoms at entry to prenatal care is a promising intervention that seems to increase prenatal care participation and may reduce negative coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Schene, Aart H.; Phillips, David I.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men

  12. Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Interactions between Fear, Stress, and Gonadal Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  13. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adults in India: a dimensional and categorical diagnoses-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Saddichha; Khess, Christoday R J

    2010-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among adolescents and young adults around the world is currently estimated to range from 5% to 70%, with an Indian study reporting no depression among college going adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence of current depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms on a Dimensional and Categorical basis among young adults in Ranchi city of India. A stratified sample of 500 students was selected to be representative of the city's college going population (n = 50,000) of which 405 were taken up for final analysis. Data were obtained using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale to assess symptoms on dimensional basis and using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to diagnose on categorical basis. Mean age of students was 19.3 years with an average education of 14.7 years. Ranging from mild to extremely severe, depressive symptoms were present in 18.5% of the population, anxiety in 24.4%, and stress in 20%. Clinical depression was present in 12.1% and generalized anxiety disorder in 19.0%. Comorbid anxiety and depression was high, with about 87% of those having depression also suffering from anxiety disorder. Detecting depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms in the college population is a critical preventive strategy, which can help in preventing disruption to the learning process. Health policies must integrate young adults' depression, stress, and anxiety as a disorder of public health significance.

  14. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  15. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  16. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  17. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Locus of control fails to mediate between stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with a developmental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-11-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder, children with Down's syndrome and children with no disorder (N = 619) and the mediational role of locus of control was examined. Anxiety and depression were higher in parents of children with a disorder, and highest in parents of children with autism. Locus of control was more external in parents of children with autism. Locus of control failed to mediate the relationship between stress and both anxiety and depression in parents of children with a disorder. This suggests that help for parents of a child with a disorder may be effective if focused on the sources of stress rather than perceived control over events.

  19. Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammen, Rachelle L; Cohen, Joyce K; Meeker, Tracy L; Crane, Maria M; Amara, Rama R; Hicks, Sakeenah L; Meyer, Jerrold S; Ethun, Kelly F

    2018-05-15

    Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams. Whether this higher incidence of infantile tetanus is due to a higher incidence of trauma among subordinate animals or is a stress-induced impairment of maternal antibody protection is unknown. Studies in other NHP species suggest that chronic exposure to social stressors interferes with the receptor-mediated transplacental transfer of IgG. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic stress associated with social subordination impairs prenatal transfer of antitetanus immunity in breeding female rhesus macaques. Subjects included 26 high- and 26 low-ranking adult female rhesus macaques that were nearly 5 or 10 y after their initial immunization and their nonimmunized infants. We hypothesized that infants born to subordinate dams that were nearly 10 y after immunization would have the lowest infant-to-dam antibody ratios and thus would be at greatest risk for infection. Results revealed no significant intergroup differences in infant antitetanus IgG levels. However, infant-to-dam IgG ratios against tetanus were significantly lower among subordinate animals compared with dominant macaques, after accounting for the number of years since the dam's initial vaccination. In addition, higher maternal hair cortisol levels predicted lower infant-to-dam tetanus toxoid IgG ratios. Together, these findings suggest that chronic social stress in female rhesus macaques may hamper the prenatal transfer of

  20. Anxiety and perceived psychological stress play an important role in the immune response after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason P; Walsh, Neil P; Diment, Philip C; Roberts, Ross

    2018-01-01

    There are common pathways by which psychological stress and exercise stress alter immunity. However, it remains unknown whether psychological stress plays a role in the in vivo immune response to exercise. We examined the relationship between anxiety and perceived psychological stress reported before exercise and in vivo immunity after exercise using skin sensitisation with Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP). In a randomised design, sixty four, thoroughly familiarised, males completed widely used psychological instruments to assess state-anxiety and perceived psychological stress before exercise, and ran either 30 minutes at 60% (30MI) or 80% (30HI) V . O2peak, 120 minutes at 60% (120MI) V . O2peak or rested (CON) before DPCP sensitisation. Cutaneous recall to DPCP was measured as the dermal thickening response to a low-dose series DPCP challenge 4-weeks after sensitisation. After accounting for exercise (R2 = 0.20; P stress (ΔR2 = 0.13; P stress on in vivo immunity after exercise. Moreover, correlations were of comparable strength for the relationship between physiological stress (heart rate training impulse) and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = -0.37; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.62; P = 0.01), and state-anxiety and the summed dermal response to DPCP (r = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.63; P stress levels before exercise play animportant role in determining the strength of the in vivo immune response after exercise. These findings indicate a similar strength relationship for the level of state-anxiety prior to exercise and the level of physiological stress during exercise with the in vivo immune response after exercise. Future research is required to investigate exercise-immune responses in athletes, military personnel and others in physically demanding occupations experiencing higher levels of psychological stress than those reported in this study e.g. related to important competition, military operations and major life events. Nevertheless, the present findings support the

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  2. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  3. The effect of yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Shohani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent decades, several medical and scientific studies on yoga proved it to be very useful in the treatment of some diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of yoga on stress, anxiety, and depression in women living in Ilam, Iran. Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study with pre-post test. To collect data, the questionnaire of DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used. For eligible samples, hatha yoga exercises and training sessions were held for 4 weeks (3 time/weeks; 60-70 min each by a specialist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: 52 women with a mean age of 33.5 ± 6.5 were included for analysis. Depression, anxiety, and stress decreased significantly in women after 12 sessions of regular hatha yoga practice (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Yoga has an effective role in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, it can be used as complementary medicine.

  4. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  5. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley G; Craigie, Mark; Hemsworth, David; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Aoun, Samar; Francis, Karen; Drury, Vicki

    2014-05-01

    To explore compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction with the potential contributing factors of anxiety, depression and stress. To date, no studies have connected the quality of work-life with other contributing and co-existing factors such as depression, anxiety and stress. A self-report exploratory cross sectional survey of 132 nurses working in a tertiary hospital. The reflective assessment risk profile model provides an excellent framework for examining the relationships between the professional quality of work factors and contributing factors within the established risk profiles. The results show a definite pattern of risk progression for the six factors examined for each risk profile. Additionally, burnout and secondary traumatic stress were significantly related to higher anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety levels were correlated with nurses who were younger, worked full-time and without a postgraduate qualification. Twenty percent had elevated levels of compassion fatigue: 7.6% having a very distressed profile. At-risk nurses' stress and depression scores were significantly higher than nurses with higher compassion satisfaction scores. The employed nurse workforce would benefit from a psychosocial capacity building intervention that reduces a nurse's risk profile, thus enhancing retention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Factors Predicting Stress, Anxiety and Depression in the Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…

  7. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Adjustments among Malaysian Gifted Learners: Implication towards School Counseling Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…

  8. Interhemispheric Interaction and ADHD, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in Non-clinical Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh; Borger, Norbert; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that ADHD, depression, anxiety and stress are related to impaired interhemispheric communication and anomalies in the right hemisphere functioning. The current study aimed to investigate whether interhemispheric interaction (IHI) is related to ADHD and mood disorders in a

  9. Using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21 with U.S. Adolescents: An Alternate Models Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie A.; Dowdy, Erin; Furlong, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the…

  10. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  11. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  12. The Perfect Storm: Stress, Anxiety, and Burnout in the Secondary School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates teacher stress, anxiety, and burnout through my experience teaching music in a suburban Toronto secondary school between 2002 and 2008. Primary data sources include a rich collection of journal entries I have written over a six-year period, which were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Hence, this study is principally…

  13. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  14. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  15. Relations of low frustration tolerance beliefs with stress, depression, and anxiety in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J; Hanks, Michele M

    2007-02-01

    Young adolescents (N=144; 66 boys, 78 girls), ages 12 to 14 years (M=12.2, SD=.8), who reported lower scores on the Low Frustration Tolerance Beliefs Instrument had higher scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Profile of Mood States Subscales of Depression and Anxiety.

  16. A Methyl-Balanced Diet Prevents CRF-Induced Prenatal Stress-Triggered Predisposition to Binge Eating-like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Mariana; Jakovcevski, Mira; Polacheck, Tamar; Lebow, Maya; Drori, Yonat; Engel, Mareen; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Chen, Alon

    2017-06-06

    Binge eating (BE) is a common aberrant form of eating behavior, characterized by overconsumption of food in a brief period of time. Recurrent episodes of BE constitute the BE disorder, which mostly affects females and is associated with early-life adversities. Here, we show that corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-induced prenatal stress (PNS) in late gestation predisposes female offspring to BE-like behavior that coincides with hypomethylation of hypothalamic miR-1a and downstream dysregulation of the melanocortin system through Pax7/Pax3. Moreover, exposing the offspring to a methyl-balanced diet during adolescence prevents the dysregulation and predisposition from being triggered. We demonstrate that gestational programming, per se, will not lead to BE-like behavior, but pre-existing alterations due to prenatal programming are revealed only when challenged during adolescence. We provide experimental evidence for long-term epigenetic abnormalities stemming from PNS in predisposing female offspring to BE disorder as well as a potential non-invasive prevention strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kamin, Hayley S.; Hughes, David A.; Rodney, Nicole C.; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which…

  20. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  1. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulsoom B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bibi Kulsoom,1 Nasir Ali Afsar2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons.Methods: All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2–3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination, and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination. Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP, housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained.Results: A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre- and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores.Conclusion: The students had high “baseline” traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex

  2. Anxiety and stress in the postpartum: is there more to postnatal distress than depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renée L; Pallant, Julie F; Negri, Lisa M

    2006-03-24

    Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years). Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. The EPDS identified 80 women (25%) as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9), of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19%) were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10%) showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13%) had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed-only counterparts. The prevalence of anxiety and stress in

  3. Anxiety and stress in the postpartum: Is there more to postnatal distress than depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallant Julie F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal depression has received considerable research and clinical attention, however anxiety and stress in the postpartum has been relatively ignored. Along with the widespread use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, depression has become the marker for postnatal maladjustment. Symptoms of anxiety tend to be subsumed within diagnoses of depression, which can result in anxiety being minimized or overlooked in the absence of depression. Some researchers have identified the need to distinguish between postnatal depression and anxiety, and to discern cases where depression and anxiety co-exist. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of postnatal distress using the EPDS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Method As part of a larger cross-sectional study, the EPDS and DASS-21 were administered to a convenience sample of 325 primiparous mothers, who ranged in age from 18 to 44 years (M = 32 years. Recruited through mother's groups and health centres in Melbourne Australia, inclusion was limited to mothers whose babies were aged between 6 weeks and 6 months. Analyses included comparisons between the classifications of women according to the EPDS and the DASS-21, and an exploration of the extent to which the EPDS identified anxious-depressed women. Results The EPDS identified 80 women (25% as possibly depressed (using a cut-off of over 9, of which the DASS-21 corroborated 58%. In the total sample, 61 women (19% were classified by the DASS-21 to be depressed. Using broader criteria for distress, it was revealed by the DASS-21 that a further 33 women (10% showed symptoms of anxiety and stress without depression. A total of 41 women (13% had symptoms of anxiety either in isolation or in combination with depression. The DASS-21 identified 7% of the sample as being both anxious and depressed. This at-risk sub-group had higher mean EPDS and DASS-depression scores than their depressed

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  5. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...

  6. [Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Among Dental Students: Prevalence and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta Vergara, Katherine; Cárdenas, Shyrley Díaz; Martínez, Farith González

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress and socio-demographic, academic and social factors among dental students. A cross-sectional study was carried out on dental students from a university in Cartagena, selected by simple random sampling. Students answered a self-report anonymous questionnaire of 20 questions that included demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS scale 21), family function (APGAR family) and other factors associated with the academic, economic and social context. Data were analyzed computing odds ratios by binomial logistic regression. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress were 37.4%, 56.6% and 45.4%, respectively. Factors associated with depressive symptoms were lack of support from friends (OR=6.2; 95%CI, 2.6-14.5), family dysfunction (OR=3.6; 95%CI, 1.9-6.6) and economic hardship (OR=2.2; 95%CI, 1.2-3.9). The anxiety symptoms were associated with family dysfunction (OR=3.1; 95%CI, 1.8-5.3) and lack of support from friends (OR=2.1; 95%CI, 1.1-5.8). Also for symptoms of stress factors family dysfunction (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.1), income (OR=2.4; 95%CI, 1.2-4.9) and time to rest (OR=2.3; 95%CI, 1.4-4.0). Dental students report a high prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. Associated factors are economic resources, family function, lack of time for rest, and social support. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadieh BANIASADI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39% were male. Twelve cases (10% had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71% cases had depression, 97 (79% patients stress, 94 (76% patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62% cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35, anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022, and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77 were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. CONCLUSION Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  8. Investigating the effect of collaborative care on depression, anxiety, and stress of patients after coronary angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Rezapour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease and its associated treatment interventions such as angioplasty can lead to emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, and stress, in patients and might have adverse effects on the recovery process. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of collaborative care model on depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty, who were referred to intensive care unit and surgical ward of one of the hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, in 2015. Samples were selected through randomized convenience sampling and were divided into intervention and control group (n=25 for each group. Collaborative care model, consisting of four stages of motivation, preparation, engagement, and evaluation, was implemented for the intervention group through five 45-60 minute sessions and a three-month telephone follow-up. Data was collected using depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-42 before and one month after the intervention from both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as independent and paired t-tests in SPSS, version 18. Results: In this study, mean score of depression was significantly decreased in the intervention group after the implementation of collaborative model (from 31.6±3.7 to 6.3±5.03 (P<0.001, and mean anxiety and stress scores were reduced from 32.6±3.04 and 32.2±3.3 to 6.2±4.1 and 8.5±4.8, respectively (P<0.001. In this regard, a significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Implementation of collaborative care could be associated with lower depression, anxiety, and stress in patients after coronary angioplasty. Therefore, its application is recommended as an effective method for such patients.

  9. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, And Life Satisfaction Of Medical, Engineering, And Social Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.

  10. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Mohebbi, Elham; Hayatbakhsh Abbasi, Mahdy; Oghabian, Zohreh

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale) questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39%) were male. Twelve cases (10%) had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71%) cases had depression, 97 (79%) patients stress, 94 (76%) patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62%) cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35), anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022), and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77) were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  11. Prenatal Stress and the Cortisol Awakening Response in African-American and Caucasian Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

  12. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Stress and Anxiety in Medical Residents on the Emergency Department Duty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. González-Cabrera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this longitudinal study were to compare salivary cortisol release patterns in medical residents and their self-perceived anxiety levels between a regular working day and a day when on call in the emergency department (ED-duty day and to determine any differences in cortisol release pattern as a function of years of residency or sex. The study included 35 residents (physicians-in-training of the Granada University Hospital, Granada, Spain. Acute stress was measured on a regular working day and an ED-duty day, evaluating anxiety-state with the Spanish version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological stress assessment was based on salivary cortisol levels. Cortisol release concentrations were higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day, with a significantly increased area under the curve (AUC (p < 0.006. This difference slightly attenuated with longer residency experience. No gender difference in anxiety levels was observed (p < 0.001. According to these findings, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and anxiety levels of medical residents are higher on an ED-duty day than on a regular working day.

  14. Correlation of sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtović, Sasa; Gregurek, Rudolf; Kalenić, Barbara; Brajković, Lovorka; Bras, Marijana; Loncar, Mladen; Germain, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between global sleep quality and its specific components and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom severity questionnaire. We also researched whether sleep quality and sleep disturbances differed among groups of PTSD based on symptom severity categories. This study was conducted on the sample of 120 Croatian war veterans with PTSD. The following self-report instruments were used: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD, the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD, the Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. There were statistically significant differences between the three PTSD severity groups on general nervousness (PSQI-A variable), where patients with extremely severe PTSD have more symptoms of general nervousness than groups with severe or moderate PTSD. Differences were found between PTSD severity groups in episodes of terror and acting-out dreams, where patients with extremely severe PTSD have more symptoms of episodes of terror and acting-out dreams than groups with severe or moderate PTSD. Sleep quality was significantly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression, indicating that with decrease of anxiety and depression, sleep quality improves. Sleep latency was positively correlated with both state and trait anxiety. There wasn't any significant correlation between sleep latency and depression. Study suggests that sleep disturbances are equally severe across groups of veterans based on PTSD severity and that the severity of sleep disturbances is significantly related to severity of anxiety and depression symptoms.

  15. Disruption of Fetal Hormonal Programming (Prenatal Stress) Implicates Shared Risk for Sex Differences in Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, JM; Handa, RJ; Tobet, SA

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the fourth leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and women have a two times greater risk than men. Thus understanding the pathophysiology has widespread implications for attenuation and prevention of disease burden. We suggest that sex-dependent MDD-CVD comorbidity may result from alterations in fetal programming consequent to the prenatal maternal environments that produce excess glucocorticoids, which then drive sex-dependent developmental alterations of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis circuitry impacting mood, stress regulation, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and the vasculature in adulthood. Evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that disruptions of pathways associated with gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neuronal and vascular development and growth factors have critical roles in key developmental periods and adult responses to injury in heart and brain. Understanding the potential fetal origins of these sex differences will contribute to development of novel sex-dependent therapeutics. PMID:24355523

  16. Stress and skin disease quality of life: the moderating role of anxiety sensitivity social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L J; Witcraft, S M; McCowan, N K; Brodell, R T

    2018-04-01

    Stress is an important factor in the onset, exacerbation and reoccurrence of many skin diseases. Little is known about psychological risk factors that affect the association between stress and dermatological conditions. One relevant factor that may modulate this link is anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns - the propensity to respond fearfully to anxiety-related sensations (e.g. sweating, flushing) owing to perceived social consequences (e.g. rejection or humiliation). To gain insight into psychological factors affecting skin disease, we examined the moderating role of AS social concerns in the relationship between stress and skin disease quality of life (QoL). Participants [n = 237 (161 female), mean ± SD age 34·18 ± 9·57 years] with active skin disease symptoms were recruited online and completed questionnaires assessing stress, AS social concerns, skin disease QoL and global skin disease symptom severity. AS social concerns moderated the association between stress and skin-related emotional and social functioning in adults with skin disease. Stress was a significant predictor of the impairment associated with skin disease. Stress was linked to skin disease-related emotional and functional impairment associated with skin disease among individuals with high AS social concerns. These results highlight the potential for AS reduction interventions to break the vicious cycle of stress and skin disease symptoms and to improve psychosocial well-being in dermatology patients. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. The impact of stress systems and lifestyle on dyslipidemia and obesity in anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reedt Dortland, Arianne K B; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Giltay, Erik J; Licht, Carmilla M M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Veen, Tineke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2013-02-01

    Dyslipidemia and obesity have been observed in persons with severe anxiety or depression, and in tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) users. This likely contributes to the higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in anxiety and depressive disorders. We aimed to elucidate whether biological stress systems or lifestyle factors underlie these associations. If so, they may be useful targets for CVD prevention and intervention. Within 2850 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) participants, we evaluated the explaining impact of biological stress systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic nervous system [ANS] and inflammation) and lifestyle factors (i.e., tobacco and alcohol use, and physical activity) on adverse associations of anxiety and depression severity and TCA use with high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index and waist circumference. Through linear regression analyses, percentual change (%Δ) in β was determined and considered significant when %Δ>10. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein had the most consistent impact (explaining 14-53% of the associations of anxiety and depression severity and TCA use with lipid and obesity levels), followed by tobacco use (explaining 34-43% of the associations with lipids). The ANS mediated all associations with TCA use (explaining 32-61%). The HPA axis measures did not explain any of the associations. Increased dyslipidemia and (abdominal) obesity risk in patients with more severe anxiety disorders and depression may be partly explained by chronic low-grade inflammation and smoking. TCAs may increase metabolic risk through enhanced sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic ANS activity. That the HPA axis had no impact in our sample may reflect the possibility that the HPA axis only plays a role in acute stress situations rather than under basal conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between resilience to stress, depression, anxiety, and diabetes control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Hrachovinová, T.; Fejfarová, V.; Csémy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, - (2002), s. 19 ISSN 0012-186X. [Diabetologia. 01.09.2002-05.09.2002, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : stress-buffering personality factors * diabetes Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  19. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  1. Depression and anxiety predict sex-specific cortisol responses to interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sally I; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Balaban, Susan; Bent, Eileen

    2016-07-01

    Clinical theories posit interpersonal stress as an important factor in the emergence and exacerbation of depression and anxiety, while neuroendocrine research confirms the association of these syndromes with dysregulation in a major stress response system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the proposal that depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses are associated with problematic HPA responses to close relationship stress has not been directly tested. We examined 196 heterosexual dating couples' depression and anxiety symptoms and diagnoses, assessed with questionnaires and diagnostic interviews, in relation to cortisol responses to discussion of an unresolved relationship conflict. Participants provided seven salivary samples in anticipation of and directly following the discussion, and throughout an hour-long recovery period, which were assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models of the HPA response predicted by symptoms or diagnoses showed that women's depressive symptoms predicted attenuated cortisol levels, with a flatter response curve. In contrast, men's depression symptoms and women's anxiety symptoms and diagnoses predicted higher cortisol levels. These findings highlight the importance of examining sex differences in responses to interpersonal stressors for understanding HPA dysregulation in internalizing psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing maternal anxiety and stress in pregnancy: what is the best approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontein-Kuipers, Yvonne

    2015-04-01

    To briefly review results of the latest research on approaching antenatal maternal anxiety and stress as distinct constructs within a broad spectrum of maternal antenatal distress and the preventive strategic role of the maternal healthcare practitioner. Maternal antenatal anxiety and stress are predominant contributors to short and long-term ill health and reduction of these psychological constructs is evident. Anxiety and stress belong to a broad spectrum of different psychological constructs. Various psychometric instruments are available to measure different individual constructs of antenatal maternal emotional health. Using multiple measures within antenatal care would imply a one-dimensional approach of individual constructs, resulting in inadequate management of care and inefficient use of knowledge and skills of maternity healthcare practitioners. A case-finding approach with slight emphasis on antenatal anxiety with subsequent selection of at-risk women and women suffering from maternal distress are shown to be effective preventive strategies and are consistent with the update of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline 'Antenatal and postnatal mental health'. Educational aspects of this approach are related to screening and assessment. A shift in perception and attitude towards a broad theoretical and practical approach of antenatal maternal mental health and well-being is required. Case finding with subsequent selective and indicated preventive strategies during pregnancy would conform to this approach and are evidence based.

  3. Relationship of perceived stress with depression: complete mediation by perceived control and anxiety in Iran and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Krauss, Stephen W; Watson, P J; Lebreton, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to clarify the importance and cross-cultural relevance of associations between generalized perceived stress and depression. Also tested was the hypothesis that perceived stress would correlate more strongly with anxiety than with depression, whereas control would be more predictive of depression than of anxiety. Relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived control were examined in samples of Iranian (n = 191) and American (n = 197) undergraduates. Correlations among these variables were generally similar across the two societies. Perceived stress did predict anxiety better than depression, but perceptions of control predicted depression significantly better than anxiety only in the United States. Best fitting structural equation models revealed that anxiety and perceived control completely accounted for the linkage between perceived stress and depression in both societies. An equally acceptable and more parsimonious model described perceived stress as a consequence rather than as an antecedent of anxiety and perceived control. Structural equation models were essentially identical across the two cultures except that internal control displayed a significant negative relationship with anxiety only in Iran. This result seemed to disconfirm any possible suggestion that a supposedly individualistic process like internal control could have no noteworthy role within a presumably more collectivistic Muslim society like Iran. Overall, these data documented the importance of anxiety and perceived control in explaining the perceived stress-depression relationship cross-culturally and therefore questioned the usefulness of perceived stress in predicting depression. Whether this understanding of the stress-depression relationship deserves general acceptance will require additional studies that measure the frequency of stressful life events and that utilize a longitudinal design.

  4. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, STRESS, AND THEIR ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG CORPS MEMBERS SERVING IN KEBBI STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balami, Ahmed D

    2015-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress, are not only health problems by themselves, but also associated with other negative health consequences. The national youth service is usually characterized by a number of new challenges and experiences which may require life style adjustments by the corps member. However, no previous study on psychological factors has been conducted among corps members. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and, stress and their associated factors among corps members serving in Kebbi state. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 corps members from four local government areas of the state. Selection of the local government areas and the individual participants was by simple random sampling. Data was collected from May to June 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis used chi-square test to identify the relationship between categorical variables and multivariate logistic regression to identify the independent factors for depression, anxiety and stress each. The response rate was 97%. Most of the respondents were males (63.6%), single (85.5%), and above 20 years of age (71.6%). The overall prevalences of depression, anxiety and stress among the respondents were 36.4%, 54.5% and 18.2% respectively. The independent factors for depression were; being from the North central (OR = 5.99; 95% CI: 2.194-16.354) or South-south; and the perception of earning enough income (OR = 2.987; 95% CI: 1.062-8.400). For anxiety, male gender (OR = 0.411; 95% CI: 0.169-0.999); and being from the North central were significant risk factors (OR = 3.731; 95% CI: 1.450-9.599). Being above 26 years of age was an independent risk factor for stress (OR = 0.083; 95% CI: 0.018-0.381). Also, those who had ever schooled outside their towns of residence were less likely to be stressed compared to those who had never (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.110-0.855). All other factors did not show any significant association with any of

  5. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142. Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]; after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2; and at the end of the six-month study period (E3. Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status, as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.

  6. Adaptation and validation of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS) to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, Rose Claudia Batistelli; Tucci, Adriana Marcassa

    2014-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been associated with a range of symptoms that often overlap. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) is a single instrument to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. This study aimed to adapt and validate the DASS-21 for use in the Brazilian Portuguese language. The DASS-21 has been adapted following the translation-back translation methodology from English to Portuguese. 242 subjects completed the following assessments: the DASS-21, the Beck Depression Index (BDI), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms of Lipp (ISSL). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) result was .949, indicating that the adequacy of the model was high. Cronbach's alpha was .92 for the depression, .90 for the stress, and .86 for the anxiety, indicating a good internal consistency for each subscale. The correlations between DASS scale and BDI scale, BAI scale and ISSL inventory were strong. The factorial analysis and distribution of factors among the subscales indicated that the structure of three distinct factors is adequate. Older subjects over 65 years of age were not largely represented in this sample. A study specific to this elderly population should be conducted. Another limitation of the study was education level. The impact of low education in its applicability should be considered. The findings support the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the DASS-21 and add to the evidence of the DASS-21 quality and ability to assess emotional states separately, eliminating the use of different instruments to assess these states. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The influence of stress, depression, and anxiety on PSA screening rates in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Phil; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-12-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer is controversial, with concerning rates of both overscreening and underscreening. The reasons for the observed rates of screening are unknown, and few studies have examined the relationship of psychological health to PSA screening rates. Understanding this relationship can help guide interventions to improve informed decision-making for screening. A nationally representative sample of men 57-85 years old without prostate cancer (N = 1169) from the National Social life, Health and Aging Project was analyzed. The independent relationship of validated psychological health scales measuring stress, anxiety, and depression to PSA testing rates was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses. PSA screening rates were significantly lower for men with higher perceived stress [odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, P = 0.006], but not for higher depressive symptoms (OR = 0.89, P = 0.22) when accounting for stress. Anxiety influences PSA screening through an interaction with number of doctor visits (P = 0.02). Among the men who visited the doctor once those with higher anxiety were less likely to be screened (OR = 0.65, P = 0.04). Conversely, those who visited the doctor 10+ times with higher anxiety were more likely to be screened (OR = 1.71, P = 0.04). Perceived stress significantly lowers PSA screening likelihood, and it seems to partly mediate the negative relationship of depression with screening likelihood. Anxiety affects PSA screening rates differently for men with different numbers of doctor visits. Interventions to influence PSA screening rates should recognize the role of the patients' psychological state to improve their likelihood of making informed decisions and improve screening appropriateness.

  8. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  9. Poverty and involuntary engagement stress responses: examining the link to anxiety and aggression within low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian C; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2009-05-01

    Families living with the burdens of poverty-related stress are at risk for developing a range of psychopathology. The present study examines the year-long prospective relationships among poverty-related stress, involuntary engagement stress response (IESR) levels, and anxiety symptoms and aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 individual family members) living at or below 150% of the US federal poverty line. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) moderator model analyses provided strong evidence that IESR levels moderated the influence of poverty-related stress on anxiety symptoms and provided mixed evidence for the same interaction effect on aggression. Higher IESR levels, a proxy for physiological stress reactivity, worsened the impact of stress on symptoms. Understanding how poverty-related stress and involuntary stress responses affect psychological functioning has implications for efforts to prevent or reduce psychopathology, particularly anxiety, among individuals and families living in poverty.

  10. Early life disease programming during the preconception and prenatal period: making the link between stressful life events and type-1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period. METHODS: We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2004, and their next of kin. Altogether, 39,857 children were exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life. The main outcome of interest was hospitalization for type-1 diabetes (ICD 8: 249; ICD 10: E10. RESULTS: We found the strongest association for type-1 diabetes among children exposed to traumatic father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22-3.38; the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61-5.26. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes.

  11. Psychological assessment of ICU survivors: a comparison between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantarat, K T; Williamson, R C N; Brett, S J

    2007-03-01

    Recovery from a critical illness can be delayed by persistent anxiety and depression. To identify such patients, a new self-report questionnaire (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale, DASS) was used alongside an established instrument (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, HADS) in those who had spent a minimum of 3 days (median 9 days) in a general intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients were studied 3 months later, and 45 survivors were reviewed at 9 months. High Cronbach alpha values (0.92-0.95) for each subscale of DASS confirmed its internal consistency, and likewise for HADS (0.82-0.86). HADS and DASS correlated strongly at each time point both for anxiety (r = 0.88) and depression (r = 0.93), with few discrepant values on a Bland and Altman plot. DASS performs as consistently as HADS in screening for anxiety and depression, and its psychometric properties support its use in an intensive care setting.

  12. Post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety in patients with injury-related chronic pain: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Åhman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Åhman, Britt-Marie StålnackeDepartment of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, SwedenAim: To investigate, in patients with injury-related chronic pain, pain intensity, levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depressions.Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 17–62 years, admitted for assessment to the Pain Rehabilitation Clinic at the Umeå University Hospital, Umeå Sweden, for chronic pain caused by an injury, answered a set of questionnaires to assess post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale [IES], pain intensity (VAS, depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HAD].Results: Moderate to severe post-traumatic stress was reported by 48.1% of the patients. Possible–probable anxiety on the HAD was scored by 44.5% and possible–probable depression by 45.2%. Pain intensity (VAS was significantly correlated to post-traumatic stress (r = 0.183, p = 0.022, the HAD-scores anxiety (r = 0.186, p = 0.0021, and depression (r = 0.252, p = 0.002. No statistically significant differences were found between genders for post-traumatic stress, pain intensity, anxiety, or depression. Participants with moderate to severe stress reaction reported statistically significant higher anxiety scores on the HAD (p = 0.030 in comparison with patients with mild stress.Conclusion: The findings of relationships between pain intensity, post-traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety may have implications for clinicians and underline the importance of considering all these factors when managing patients with injury-related chronic pain.Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, chronic pain

  13. Personality traits as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years

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    Vujičić Milena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to examine the predictive power of personality traits, as defined by the Big five model of personality in expressing depression, anxiety, and stress with secondary school students of final years. The research was conducted on a sample of 977 secondary school students in the third and fourth grade from ten secondary schools in Niš. The gender structure of the sample was as follows: 397 boys and 607 girls. The following instruments were used in the research: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995, Big Five Inventory - BFI (John, Donahue and Kentle, 1991. The results showed that the regression model constructed by personal traits (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience explain 26% of the criterion variable of Anxiety. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β=.34, p<0.01 . Other personal traits that contribute to the prediction of this variable at a statistically significant level are Extraversion (β =-.17, p<0.01, Agreeableness (β =-.14, p<0.01 and Conscientiousness (β =-.17, p<0.01. The same model explains 37% of the criterion variable Stress. The largest individual contribution to Stress prediction is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.57, p<0.01. The same model explains 27% of the criterion variable Anxiety as well. The largest individual contribution to the prediction of this variable is achieved by the personal trait Neuroticism (β =.45, p<0.01, whereas a statistically significant correlation between personal traits Agreeableness (β =-.06, p<0.05 and Conscientious (β =-.12, p<0.01 exists. Results show that the difference between boys and girls in expressing Anxiety (t=-2.96, p<0.01 and Stress (t=-5.01, p<0.01 exists. These emotional states are more expressive with girls. However, there are no differences in expressing Depression

  14. Depression, anxiety, stress and hyperemesis gravidarum: temporal and case controlled correlates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the temporal and case-controlled correlations of anxiety, depression and stress with hyperemesis gravidarum. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of women with hyperemesis gravidarum using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 to evaluate psychological distress at hospitalization and in the third trimester of pregnancy (from 28 weeks gestation. Third pregnancy trimester controls were recruited from routine antenatal clinic attendees who were matched to gestational age at the second DASS-21 assessment in the HG cohort. RESULTS: The prevalences of nausea and vomiting, depression, anxiety and stress caseness in newly hospitalised hyperemesis gravidarum women were 100% and 100%, 19%, 69% and 21% which by the third trimester had fallen to 15.7% and 9.9%, 4%, 19% and 3% and in third trimester controls were 15.9% and 14.2%, 14%, 61% and 20% respectively. Within the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort, nausea, vomiting depression, anxiety and stress reduced significantly by an absolute 84.3% (95% CI 76.2%-89.8%, 90.1% (82.8%-94.2%, 14.9% (7.2%-23.0%, 49.6% (38.6%-58.7% and 18.2% (10.4%-26.4% respectively between hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum and at the third trimester. In the third trimester, when comparing the hyperemesis gravidarum cohort to controls, the risk of nausea or vomiting was similar but depression, anxiety and stress were significantly lower: adjusted odds ratio AOR 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.5, 0.11 (0.05-0.23 and 0.08 (0.02-0.33 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed a reassuring pattern of a strong rebound from depression, anxiety and stress in women with hyperemesis gravidarum such that by the third pregnancy trimester the level of psychological distress was even lower than in controls. This observation imply that much of the psychological distress in acute hyperemesis gravidarum is self-limiting and probably in the causal pathway of hyperemesis gravidarum. Care in women with

  15. A literature review of the application of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist to community nursing cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui; Annells, Merilyn

    2009-04-01

    To explore through literature review the appropriateness of three common tools for use by community nurses to screen war veteran and war widow(er) clients for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. War veterans and, to a lesser extent, war widow(er)s, are prone to mental health challenges, especially depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Community nurses do not accurately identify such people with depression and related disorders although they are well positioned to do so. The use of valid and reliable self-report tools is one method of improving nurses' identification of people with actual or potential mental health difficulties for referral to a general practitioner or mental health practitioner for diagnostic assessment and treatment. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist are frequently recommended for mental health screening but the appropriateness of using the tools for screening war veteran and war widow(er) community nursing clients who are often aged and have functional impairment, is unknown. Systematic review. Current literature informs that the Geriatric Depression Scale accurately predicts a diagnosis of depression in community nursing cohorts. The three Depression Anxiety Stress Scales subscales of depression, anxiety and stress are valid; however, no studies were identified that compared the performance of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in predicting diagnoses of depression or anxiety. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist predicts post-traumatic stress disorder in community cohorts although no studies meeting the selection criteria included male participants. This review provides recommendations for the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist based on examination of the published evidence for the application of these screening tools in samples

  16. Parenting stress and child physical health among a low-income sample: The moderating role of child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori

    2015-11-01

    This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Peripheral and central effects of repeated social defeat stress: monocyte trafficking, microglial activation, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, B F; Jarrett, B L; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-03-19

    The development and exacerbation of depression and anxiety are associated with exposure to repeated psychosocial stress. Stress is known to affect the bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems leading to elevated levels of stress mediators including glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines and increased trafficking of proinflammatory immune cells. Animal models, like the repeated social defeat (RSD) paradigm, were developed to explore this connection between stress and affective disorders. RSD induces activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, increases bone marrow production and egress of primed, GC-insensitive monocytes, and stimulates the trafficking of these cells to tissues including the spleen, lung, and brain. Recently, the observation that these monocytes have the ability to traffic to the brain perivascular spaces and parenchyma have provided mechanisms by which these peripheral cells may contribute to the prolonged anxiety-like behavior associated with RSD. The data that have been amassed from the RSD paradigm and others recapitulate many of the behavioral and immunological phenotypes associated with human anxiety disorders and may serve to elucidate potential avenues of treatment for these disorders. Here, we will discuss novel and key data that will present an overview of the neuroendocrine, immunological and behavioral responses to social stressors. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parent distress in childhood cancer: a comparative evaluation of posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Annika Lindahl; Boman, Krister K

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to assess symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress (PTS; cognitive intrusions, avoidance, arousal) related to the child's illness, and generic distress (anxiety, depression) in parents of childhood cancer patients. Outcomes were compared to normative and relevant reference data, and analysed for their dependence on time passed since diagnosis. Swedish parents (266 mothers, 208 fathers) were recruited at two centres. Data from a clinical sample of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and parents of healthy children were used for comparison. The Impact of Events Scale (IES-R) was used for assessing PTS symptoms, and self-report scales for anxiety and depression. Elevated stress and generic distress varied as a function of time from diagnosis. Up to 12% of parents for whom >5 years had passed since diagnosis still reported equally, or more intrusive thoughts, avoidance and arousal when contrasted to patients suffering from PTSD. Parents of recently diagnosed children had more cancer-related intrusive thoughts than those of long-term survivors. Heightened anxiety and depression was most prominent in mothers and fathers up to 2.5 years after diagnosis. In conclusion, severe generic distress characterises the first years after diagnosis, and initially common PTS symptoms are found in a considerable portion of parents years after diagnosis. Clinically, attention should be paid to continuous parent support needs. Individual variation vis-à-vis distress vulnerability should be acknowledged, and presupposed gender differences avoided. When treatment situation asks the most of parents' collaboration, many are under pressure of severe stress.

  19. Microglial Over-Activation by Social Defeat Stress Contributes to Anxiety- and Depressive-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirson J. Stein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyper activation of the neuroimmune system is strongly related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Psychosocial stress has been postulated to play an important role in triggering anxiety and major depression. In preclinical models, there is mounting evidence that social defeat stress activates microglial cells in the central nervous system. This type of stress could be one of the major factors in the development of these psychopathologies. Here, we reviewed the most recent literature on social defeat and the associated immunological reactions. We focused our attention on microglial cells and kept the effect of social defeat over microglia separate from the effect of this stressor on other immune cells and the influence of peripheral immune components in priming central immune reactions. Furthermore, we considered how social defeat stress affects microglial cells and the consequent development of anxiety- and depressive-like states in preclinical studies. We highlighted evidence for the negative impact of the over-activation of the neuroimmune system, especially by the overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytotoxins. Overproduction of these molecules may cause cellular damage and loss or decreased function of neuronal activity by excessively pruning synaptic connections that ultimately contribute to the development of anxiety- and depressive-like states.

  20. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  2. The roles of social support in helping chinese women with antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms cope with perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2014-10-01

    A community-based sample of 755 pregnant Chinese women were recruited to test the direct and moderating effects of social support in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms. The Social Support Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used. Social support was found to have direct effects and moderating effects on the women's perceived stress on antenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in multiple linear regression models. This knowledge of the separate effects of social support on behavioral health is important to psychiatric nurse in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relation of depression, anxiety and stress with personal characteristics of nurses in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Khodadadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current industrialized world and ever advancing technology has changed human life by a significant increase in the level of stress and anxiety. Nurses are among those professionals who experience an overwhelming level of stress, anxiety and depression due to work overload and subsequent burnout. The nature of nursing profession for a vulnerable human character increases the possibility of emotional setbacks. Hence, this study was designed to explore and identify the prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the Iranian nurses and investigate how these variables relate to personal characteristics and influence the quality of patient care. Using a correlational descriptive design and random cluster method, 242 nurses who worked at different hospital wards in Tabriz, Iran were assessed for anxiety, stress and depression, while their personal characteristics were identified. Data were collected by using a standard questionnaire for stress, anxiety and depression (DASS-21 and later analyzed by SPSS (ver.17.Results showed that Iranian nurses suffered from a moderate level of anxiety, stress and depression and gender influenced these variable rates (p<0.05. Hospital ward type had a relation with stress level (p<0.05, being interested in nursing had an inverse relation to anxiety, stress and depression (p<0.05, while the education level positively related to depression rate among nurses (p<0.05. Type of work at different shifts influenced stress (p<0.05 and marital status reduced depression among nurses (p<0.05. Prevalence of stress and anxiety among the Iranian nurses were at a significant level with susceptibility to experience psychological disorders and provide lower quality of patient care. Findings of this study can alarm the Iranian authorities in healthcare systems to adopt a new policy and improve the current state of health for nurses and patients.

  4. Evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis is the biggest stress for the child and his family. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children can cause stress, which often has a negative effect on the health of parents. Psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, denial and loss of confidence in parents observed that because of the fear of recurrence and future of children. This study aimed to determine the level of stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia who were in the maintenance phase of treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 48 parents have referred to the clinic of Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad City, Iran, whom selected using easy sampling method. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for data collection. Another questionnaire containing demographic information such as age, sex, income, educational level and duration of illness was filled under supervision of the psychologist and pediatric physician. Data with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results: The results showed that in this study, 37% had abnormal stress levels (33% and 2% of mild stress, moderate stress and severe stress 2% and 79% had abnormal anxiety level (mild 19%, moderate 31% and severe 29% and 67% had abnormal depression level (mild 33%, moderate depression 33% tests, respectively. In our study, there was no relationship between age, sex and duration of illness with these variables. Conclusion: According to this study, in addition to the classic treatment of patients, parent’s mental performance should be paid attention.

  5. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shi, Hai-Song; Geng, Fu-Lei; Zou, Lai-Quan; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Yi; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-05-01

    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Study 1 administered the DASS-21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach's alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test-retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS-21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS-21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The effects of anxiety and depression on stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits: Resilience and coping as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Liu, Botao; Liu, Yunbo; Li, Min; Chen, Long; Xie, Junrun; Li, Jing; Li, Jiawen

    2016-09-01

    Stress-related growth can occur after various traumas or stressful events. In order to investigate how anxiety and depression relate to stress-related growth, this study was conducted with 443 Chinese army recruits who had just finished a 3-month recruit training program. Path analyses revealed that resilience and positive/negative coping partially mediated the effect of anxiety on perceived stress-related growth, while negative coping fully mediated the relationship between depression and perceived stress-related growth. Moreover, positive coping partially carried the influence of resilience on perceived stress-related growth. Anxiety and depression may be potential targets for intervention to enhance the development of stress-related growth among Chinese army recruits. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  9. Mother-Infant Emotion Regulation at Three Months: The Role of Maternal Anxiety, Depression and Parenting Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Ferro, Valentino; Gallucci, Marcello; Parodi, Cinzia; Astengo, Marina

    While the association between anxiety and postpartum depression is well known, few studies have investigated the relationship between these two states and parenting stress. Furthermore, a number of studies have found that postpartum depression affects mother-infant emotion regulation, but there has been only one study on anxiety and emotion regulation and no studies at all on parenting stress and emotion regulation. Therefore, the primary aim of our study is to identify, in a community sample of 71 mothers, the relationship between maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. The second aim is to examine the relationship between anxiety, postpartum depression, and parenting stress and mother-infant emotion regulation assessed at 3 months. Mother-infant interaction was coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver and Engagement Phases (ICEP) using a microanalytic approach. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) were administered to the mothers to assess depression, anxiety, and parenting stress, respectively. Analysis revealed correlations between anxiety and depression, showing that parenting stress is associated with both states. In a laboratory observation, depression was correlated with both negative maternal states and negative dyadic matches as well as infant positive/mother negative mismatches; anxiety was correlated with both negative maternal states and infant negative states as well as mismatches involving one of the partners having a negative state. Multiple regression analysis showed that anxiety is a greater predictor than depression of less adequate styles of mother-infant emotion regulation. Parenting stress was not shown to predict such regulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Developmental Exposure to Mild Variable Stress: Adult Offspring Performance in Trace Fear Conditioning after Prenatal and Postnatal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    In utero exposure to mild variable stress has been reported to influence learning and memory formation in offspring. Our research aims to examine whether nonchemical environmental stressors will exacerbate effects to chemical exposure. This study utilized a varying stress parad...

  11. Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandary, Satheesh; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Madhu, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nardostachys jatamansi (family Valerianaceae), an indigenous medicinal plant induces in organism a state of resistance against stress. It helps to promote physical and mental health augment resistance of the body against disease and has shown potent antioxidant activity. To study the anxiolytic and protective effect of 100 mg of ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi was studied on the mice exposed to 6 Gy Electron beam radiation (EBR). The animals were treated with 100 mg of Nardostachys jatamansi extract (NJE) for 15 days before radiation exposure. The anxiety status of animals observed once for every 3 days during experiment period. The level of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) was estimated 15 days after irradiation. The irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation in anxiety, lipid peroxidation and reduction in GSH. Treatment of mice with NJE before irradiation caused a significant depletion in anxiety, lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in GSH. Our results indicate that the protective activity of NJE on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress may be due to free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  12. The role of health promotion behavior in controlling anxiety and stress in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Samiei Siboni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important, worldwide chronic diseases. In most cases the real cause of hypertension is not clear but recent studies have shown that unhealthy lifestyle may lead to stress, anxiety and hypertension.    METHODS: The study design of this article was written based on reviewing published articles in scientific database including ISI web of knowledge, Medline, pub med, Elsevier. The articles about healthy lifestyle, stress and anxiety in patients with hypertension was reviewed.    RESULTS: Hypertension was the major risk factor for developing cardiovascular and renal disease. In most cases the real cause of hypertension was not clear but recent studies have shown that unhealthy lifestyle may lead to stress, anxiety and hypertension. Lifestyle factors were critical determinants of blood pressure levels operating against a background of genetic susceptibility. An improving healthy lifestyle behavior was important in improving health and was a multidimensional pattern. Not all strategies would be effective for every individual, but to some extent all patients being treated for hypertension should incorporate elements of therapeutic lifestyle changes into their treatment regimen. Healthcare providers play an important role in teaching individuals with hypertension on health promotion program and healthy lifestyles. Not only healthcare providers, advice that controlling hypertension is integral, but also patients should follow that advice. Special attention must be paid to intervention programs aimed at modifying lifestyle and providing education on stress management techniques. Non pharmacologic interventions include methods to modify lifestyle and reduce or coping with stress and anxiety such as: stress management intervention (SMI, dietary sodium reduction, weight reduction, supplement regimens utilizing calcium, magnesium, fish oil, and potassium.    CONCLUSION: Several studies in the context of

  13. Bupleurum falcatum prevents depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Yun, Hye-Yeon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated restraint stress in rodents produces increases in depression and anxietylike behaviors and alters the expression of corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. The current study focused on the impact of Bupleurum falcatum (BF) extract administration on repeated restraint stress-induced behavioral responses using the forced swimming test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Immunohistochemical examinations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rat brain were also conducted. Male rats received daily doses of 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (i.p.) BF extract for 15 days, 30 min prior to restraint stress (4 h/day). Hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activation in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed base on serum corticosterone levels and CRF expression in the hypothalamus. Animals that were pre-treated with BF extract displayed significantly reduced immobility in the FST and increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test in comparison with controls. BF also blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus of treated rats that experienced restraint stress. Together, these results demonstrate that BF extract administration prior to restraint stress significantly reduces depression and anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through central adrenergic mechanisms, and they suggest a role for BF extract in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

  14. Comparison of Reliability and Validity of the Breast Cancer depression anxiety stress scales (DASS- 21) with the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bener A; Alsulaiman R; Doodson LG; El Ayoubi HR

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has been conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HADS] and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among the Arab Breast Cancer population. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and validity of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21), the Beck Depression Inventory-(BDI-II) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Breast Cancer women ...

  15. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded