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Sample records for prenatal smoking predicts

  1. Prenatal smoking predicts non-response to an intervention targeting attention - deficit/hyperactivity problems in elementary schoolchildren

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    Vuijk, P.J.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking contributes to the etiology of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The present study tested an intervention targeting disruptive behavior to establish whether exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy

  2. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  3. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

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    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD.

  4. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  5. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders.

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    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Hansen, Stefan N; Schendel, Diana E; Parner, Erik T; Reichenberg, Abraham; Grice, Dorothy E

    2016-09-01

    We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence rates (IR) per 1,000 person-year for TS/CT and OCD. We then determined crude and adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs associated with prenatal maternal smoking, considering smoking as a dichotomous (yes/no) variable or a stratified variable (no smoking, light smoking, and heavy smoking [≥10 cigarettes/day]). Additional analyses examined the effect of maternal smoking on risk for TS/CT with other comorbid psychiatric conditions. In final adjusted analyses, heavy smoking was associated with a 66% increased risk for TS/CT (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.17-2.35). In addition, heavy smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and both light and heavy smoking were associated with a more than 2-fold increased risk for TS/CT with any non-ADHD psychiatric comorbidity. Our parallel analyses of pediatric-onset OCD were likely underpowered but showed similar relationships. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with increased risk for TS/CT as well as TS/CT with comorbid psychiatric conditions, even after adjustment for several important variables, including maternal psychiatric history, socioeconomic status, and partner smoking. Our findings point to a pathway linking prenatal tobacco exposure and altered brain development to TS/CT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Five year trends in maternal smoking behaviour reported at the first prenatal appointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; McKeating, A; Daly, N; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-11-01

    Maternal smoking is a key modifiable risk factor in preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth and stillbirth. This observational study examined annual trends of maternal smoking reported at the first prenatal visit in women who delivered in a large university maternity hospital for the 5 years 2011-2015. We examined clinical and sociodemographic data computerised routinely for women who presented for prenatal care at the hospital between 2011 and 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the maternal characteristics, health behaviours and psychiatric history associated with smoking behaviours. Of the 42,509 women the mean age was 31.4 ± 5.5 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 , and 39.5% were nulliparas. Overall, 52.6% reported they had never smoked, 34.9% were ex-smokers, 10.5% smoked ≤10 cigarettes per day, 1.9% smoked ≥11 cigarettes per day and 0.1% smoked e-cigarettes. Between 2011 and 2015 the prevalence of maternal cigarette smoking decreased from 14.3 to 10.9% (P Smoking during pregnancy was most strongly associated with younger age, multiparity, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, a history of psychiatric problems, alcohol intake and illicit drug usage. The number of women who reported smoking at the first prenatal visit decreased annually. Amongst women who continue to smoke during pregnancy, there is a clustering of adverse lifestyle behaviour and psychological problems that may need to be addressed if smoking cessation interventions are going to succeed in improving fetal programming.

  8. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  10. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure.

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    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-12-05

    Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.

  12. The Effect of Local Smokefree Regulations on Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Karla S; Abouk, Rahi

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.

  13. Gender-specific effects of prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke on auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Slotkin, Theodore A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2007-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to attentional function, we examined auditory and visual selective and divided attention in 181 male and female adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, symptoms of inattention, or years of parent education. A subset of 63 subjects also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an auditory and visual selective and divided attention task. Among females, exposure to tobacco smoke during prenatal or adolescent development was associated with reductions in auditory and visual attention performance accuracy that were greatest in female smokers with prenatal exposure (combined exposure). Among males, combined exposure was associated with marked deficits in auditory attention, suggesting greater vulnerability of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention to insult stemming from developmental exposure to tobacco smoke in males. Activation of brain regions that support auditory attention was greater in adolescents with prenatal or adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke relative to adolescents with neither prenatal nor adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke. These findings extend earlier preclinical work and suggest that, in humans, prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine exerts gender-specific deleterious effects on auditory and visual attention, with concomitant alterations in the efficiency of neurocircuitry supporting auditory attention.

  14. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified...... with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four...... groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds...

  16. [Predictive factors of the outcomes of prenatal hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragagnini, Paolo; Estors, Blanca; Delgado, Reyes; Rihuete, Miguel Ángel; Gracia, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    To determine prenatal and postnatal independent predictors of poor outcome, spontaneous resolution, or the need for surgery in patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. We performed a retrospective study of patients with prenatal hydronephrosis. The renal pelvis APD was measured in the third prenatal trimester ultrasound, as well as in the first and second postnatal ultrasound. Other variables were taken into account, both prenatal and postnatal. For statistical analysis we used Student t-test, chi-square test, survival analysis, logrank test, and ROC curves. We included 218 patients with 293 renal units (RU). Of these, 147/293 (50.2%) RU were operated. 76/293 (25.9%) RU had spontaneous resolution and other 76/293 (25.9%) RU had poor outcome. As risk factors for surgery we found low birth weight (OR 3.84; 95% CI 1.24-11.84), prematurity (OR 4.17; 95% CI 1.35-12.88), duplication (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.21-11.23) and the presence of nephrourological underlying pathology (OR 53.54; 95% CI 26.23-109.27). For the non-spontaneous resolution, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (RR 1.46; 95% CI 1.33-1.60) as well as the underlying nephrourological pathology and duplication. In the poor outcome, we found as risk factors the alterations of amniotic fluid volume (OR 4.54; 95% CI 1.31-15.62), the presence of nephrourological pathology (OR 4.81 95% CI 2.60-8.89) and RU that was operated (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.35-7.60). The APD of the renal pelvis in all three ultrasounds were reliable for surgery prediction (area under the curve 0.65; 0.82; 0.71) or spontaneous resolution (area under the curve 0.80; 0.91; 0.80), only the first postnatal ultrasound has predictive value in the poor outcome (area under the curve 0.73). The higher sensitivity and specificity of the APD as predictor value was on the first postnatal ultrasound, 14.60 mm for surgery; 11.35 mm for spontaneous resolution and 15.50 mm for poor outcome. The higher APD in the renal pelvis in any of the

  17. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

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    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  18. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  19. Prenatal Cigarette Smoke Exposure Causes Hyperactivity and Agressive Behavior: Role of Altered Catcholamines and BDNF

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    Yochum, Carrie; Doherty-Lyon, Shannon; Hoffman, Carol; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Zellikoff, Judith T.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with a variety of untoward effects on the offspring. However, recent epidemiological studies have brought into question whether the association between neurobehavioral deficits and maternal smoking is causal. We utilized an animal model of maternal smoking to determine the effects of prenatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure on neurobehavioral development. Pregnant mice were exposed to either filtered air or mainstream CS from gestation day (GD) 4 to parturition for 4 hr/d and 5 d/wk, with each exposure producing maternal plasma concentration of cotinine equivalent to smoking <1 pack of cigarettes per day (25 ng/ml plasma cotinine level). Pups were weaned at postnatal day (PND) 21 and behavior assessed on at 4 weeks of age and again at 4–6 months of age. Male, but not female, offspring of CS-exposed dams demonstrated a significant increase in locomotor activity during adolescence and adulthood that was ameliorated by methylphenidate treatment. Additionally, male offspring exhibited increased aggression, as evidenced by decreased latency to attack and number of attacks in a resident intruder task. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a significant decrease in striatal and cortical dopamine and serotonin and a significant reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein. Taken in concert, these data demonstrate that prenatal exposure to CS produces behavioral alterations in mice that are similar to those observed in epidemiological studies linking maternal smoking to neurodevelopmental disorders and suggest a role for monoaminergic and BDNF alterations in these effects. PMID:24486851

  20. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  1. Association of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal exposure to household smoking with dental caries in 3-year-old Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Chisato; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between smoking exposure and dental caries are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition in young Japanese children. Study subjects were 6412 children aged 3 years. Information on exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure at home was collected via parent questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with never smoking during pregnancy, maternal smoking in the first trimester of pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in children (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.80). Postnatal SHS exposure was also positively associated with dental caries, with a significant positive exposure-response relationship. Compared with children not exposed to prenatal maternal smoking or postnatal SHS at home, those exposed to both prenatal and postnatal smoking had higher odds of dental caries (adjusted odds ratio=1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.11). Our findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal SHS exposure may be associated with an increased prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...... and midgestation. We identified 139 CP cases including 121 cases of spastic CP (sCP) as confirmed by the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Self-reported vaginal...

  3. [Gastroschisis: Prenatal ultrasonography and obstetrical criteria for predicting neonatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducellier, G; Moussy, P; Sahmoune, L; Bonneau, S; Alanio, E; Bory, J-P

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of complex laparoschisis is difficult and yet it is associated with a significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to define ultrasonographic factor and obstetrical criteria to predicting adverse neonatal outcome. Retrospective cohort study over 10 years, of 35 gastroschisis cases in CHU of Reims (France). The primary outcome was the neonatal death due to gastroschisis. The sonographic markers was bowel dilatation intra- or extra-abdominale, amniotic fluid, intra-uterin growth. The obstetrical criteria was fetal vitality, fetal heart rate, type of delivery, the weight and the term of birth. There were 28 live births, 16 children with favorable outcome, 8 children with adverse perinatal outcome and 4 deaths. There were any sonographic criteria to predicting adverse neonatal outcome. Only the birth weight less than 2000g was associated with an increase gastrointestinal complications (P=0.049). The type of the delivery was not associated with an adverse prenatal outcome. The birth weight less than 2000g seems to be associate with an increase gastrointestinal complications. It is important to fight against prematurity in case of gastroschisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Mamudu, Hadii M; Alamian, Arsham; Anderson, James L; Brooks, Billy

    2014-11-01

    To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity. Longitudinal data (1991-2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0-15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses. Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03-2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity. There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  8. Influence of experiences of racial discrimination and ethnic identity on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Hanh; Subramanian, S V; Sorensen, Glorian; Tsang, Kathy; Wright, Rosalind J

    2012-04-01

    Although the prevalence of prenatal smoking among minority women exceeds the projected 2010 national objective, data on the determinants of prenatal smoking among minorities remain sparse. We examined associations between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal smoking among urban black and Hispanic women aged 18-44 years (n=677). Our main independent variable was created from the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between EOD (moderate EOD as the referent group) and smoking for the entire sample and then separately by race/ethnicity adjusted for sociodemographic variables. We also examined the role of ethnic identity (EI) as a buffer to racial discrimination (n=405). The prevalence of smoking was 18.1% versus 10% for black and Hispanic women, respectively (p=0.002). There were no significant differences in the level of EOD based on race. In multivariate regressions, compared to those reporting moderate EOD, women reporting high discrimination (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.60) had higher odds of smoking. In stratified analyses, this relationship remained significant only in black women. Results suggest that foreign-born Hispanic women with higher EI were less likely to smoke compared to their low-EI counterparts (3.5 vs 10.1%; p=0.08). These are the first data in pregnant minority women showing an association between discrimination and increased risk of smoking particularly among black women. Ethnic identity and nativity status were also associated with smoking risk. Smoking cessation programmes should consider such factors among childbearing minority women.

  9. Predictive factors for pregnancy hypertension in primiparous adolescents: analysis of prenatal care, ABPM and microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Regina Coeli Marques; Campos, Henry de Holanda; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani

    2006-10-01

    To quantify PH prevalence in primiparous adolescents; define predictive factors for the occurrence of PH and its impact on newborns. We followed 29 primiparous adolescents from the prenatal period through the 12th week of the puerperium, with a mean of sixteen years of age, served at the Outpatient Facility for Adolescents of Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand (MEAC) of Universidade Federal do Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil). The pregnant adolescents were divided into two groups, that is, those who remained normotensive (Group I) and those who developed PH (Group II). The variables investigated in the assessment of the value of predictability for the development of PH were anthropometric measures, socioeconomic aspects, smoking habit, inheritance for SAH (father/mother), prenatal tests requested in the first prenatal care visit in addition to microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the 28th week of gestation. The pregnant adolescents were followed up at delivery and late puerperium (12th week after the puerperium). The newborns to the mothers included in our study were assessed at birth according to the Apgar score and the Capurro method, for weight, height and perinatal hypoxia. The prevalence of PH was 51.7%. Inheritance for SAH presented the highest predictive value for PH with an odds ratio of 10.99. Diastolic arterial pressure equal to or above 70 mmHg at the gestational age of 35 weeks was statistically significant as a predictive value for PH. At ABPM we found a predictive value for PH: diastolic pressure load during alertness, diastolic and systolic pressure load during night sleep, pressure variability and maximum diastolic pressure during sleep. Specifically a maximum diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at ABPM during the period of night sleep (3)64 mmHg presented an odds ratio of 6 for PH with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% for the development of PH. The research for PH predictive factors in primiparous adolescents

  10. Prospective prediction of children's smoking transitions: role of parents' and older siblings' smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-01-01

    To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.

  11. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  12. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  13. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  14. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  15. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 18...

  16. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with

  17. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carme; Vall, Oriol; García-Algar, Oscar; Papaseit, Esther; Pichini, Simona; Saltó, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R

    2012-04-05

    Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS). In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA). 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL) showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL) and very high (> 100 ng/mL) prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. The results of the three study periods (1996-2008) demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards pregnant women with particular emphasis on non-native pregnant smokers due to

  18. Assessment of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke by cotinine in cord blood for the evaluation of smoking control policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Carme

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few years a decreasing trend in smoking has occurred not only in the general population but also during pregnancy. Several countries have implemented laws requiring all enclosed workplace and public places to be free of second hand smoke (SHS. In Spain, legislation to reduce SHS was implemented in 2005. The present study examines the possible effect of this legislation on prenatal SHS exposure. Methods Mothers and newborns were recruited from 3 independent studies performed in Hospital del Mar (Barcelona and approved by the local Ethics Committee: 415 participated in a study in 1996-1998, 283 in 2002-2004 and 207 in 2008. A standard questionnaire, including neonatal and sociodemographic variables,tobacco use and exposure during pregnancy, was completed at delivery for all the participants in the three study groups. Fetal exposure to tobacco was studied by measuring cotinine in cord blood by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results 32.8% of the pregnant women reported to smoke during pregnancy in 1996-1998, 25.9% in 2002-2004 and 34.1% in 2008. In the most recent group, the percentage of no prenatal SHS exposure (cord blood cotinine 0.2-1 ng/mL showed an increase compared to the previous groups while the percentages of both: low (1.1-14 ng/mL and very high (> 100 ng/mL prenatal SHS exposure showed a decrease. Discussion The results of the three study periods (1996-2008 demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of newborns free from SHS exposure and a decrease in the percentage of newborns exposed to SHS during pregnancy, especially at the very high levels of exposure. A significant maternal smoking habit was noted in this geographical area with particular emphasis on immigrant pregnant smoking women. Conclusions Our study indicates that there is a significant maternal smoking habit in this geographical area. Our recommendation is that campaigns against smoking should be directed more specifically towards

  19. Effect of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke on inhibitory control: neuroimaging results from a 25-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Baumeister, Sarah; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Hohmann, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Plichta, Michael M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    There is accumulating evidence relating maternal smoking during pregnancy to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) without elucidating specific mechanisms. Research investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of this disorder has implicated deficits during response inhibition. Attempts to uncover the effect of prenatal exposure to nicotine on inhibitory control may thus be of high clinical importance. To clarify the influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy (hereafter referred to as prenatal smoking) on the neural circuitry of response inhibition and its association with related behavioral phenotypes such as ADHD and novelty seeking in the mother's offspring. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the offspring at 25 years of age during a modified Eriksen flanker/NoGo task, and voxel-based morphometry was performed to study brain volume differences of the offspring. Prenatal smoking (1-5 cigarettes per day [14 mothers] or >5 cigarettes per day [24 mothers]) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were determined using standardized parent interviews at the offspring's age of 3 months and over a period of 13 years (from 2 to 15 years of age), respectively. Novelty seeking was assessed at 19 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for sex, parental postnatal smoking, psychosocial and obstetric adversity, maternal prenatal stress, and lifetime substance abuse. A total of 178 young adults (73 males) without current psychopathology from a community sample followed since birth (Mannheim, Germany) participated in the study. Functional magnetic resonance imaging response, morphometric data, lifetime ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking. Participants prenatally exposed to nicotine exhibited a weaker response in the anterior cingulate cortex (t168 = 4.46; peak Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] coordinates x = -2, y = 20, z = 30; familywise error [FWE]-corrected P = .003), the right inferior frontal gyrus (t168 = 3.65; peak MNI

  20. Prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations predict neurodevelopment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Head, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and cortical thickness was determined. Child cognitive functioning was evaluated using standardized measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Second Edition). Higher maternal cortisol concentrations during the third trimester were associated with greater child cortical thickness primarily in frontal regions. No significant associations were observed between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child cortical thinning. Elevated third trimester maternal cortisol additionally was associated with enhanced child cognitive performance. Findings in this normative sample of typically developing children suggest that elevated maternal cortisol during late gestation exert lasting benefits for brain development and cognitive functioning 6-9 years later. The benefits of fetal exposure to higher maternal cortisol during the third trimester for child neurodevelopment are consistent with the role cortisol plays in maturation of the human fetus. It is plausible that more extreme elevations in maternal cortisol concentrations late in gestation, as well as exposure to pharmacological levels of synthetic glucocorticoids, may have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetal brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  2. Prediction of Adequate Prenatal Care Utilization Based on the Extended Parallel Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Imani, Fatemeh; Riazi, Hedyeh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy complications are one of the major public health concerns. One of the main causes of preventable complications is the absence of or inadequate provision of prenatal care. The present study was conducted to investigate whether Extended Parallel Process Model's constructs can predict the utilization of prenatal care services. The present longitudinal prospective study was conducted on 192 pregnant women selected through the multi-stage sampling of health facilities in Qeshm, Hormozgan province, from April to June 2015. Participants were followed up from the first half of pregnancy until their childbirth to assess adequate or inadequate/non-utilization of prenatal care services. Data were collected using the structured Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. The analysis of the data was carried out in SPSS-22 using one-way ANOVA, linear regression and logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Totally, 178 pregnant women with a mean age of 25.31±5.42 completed the study. Perceived self-efficacy (OR=25.23; Pprenatal care. Husband's occupation in the labor market (OR=0.43; P=0.02), unwanted pregnancy (OR=0.352; Pcare for the minors or elderly at home (OR=0.35; P=0.045) were associated with lower odds of receiving prenatal care. The model showed that when perceived efficacy of the prenatal care services overcame the perceived threat, the likelihood of prenatal care usage will increase. This study identified some modifiable factors associated with prenatal care usage by women, providing key targets for appropriate clinical interventions.

  3. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behavior and responses to a smoking ban

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how ‘smoker’ and ‘non-smoker’ self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Design: Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Main outcome measures: Intention to quit, quit attempts and ‘rejecting...

  5. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and childhood behavioural problems: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained retrospectively at 9 years of age via parental recall and children's behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire across separate parent and teacher-report instruments. A quasi-experimental approach using propensity score matching was used to create treatment (smoking) and control (non-smoking) groups which did not differ significantly in their propensity to smoke in terms of 16 observed characteristics. After matching on the propensity score, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 3.5 % (p parent and teacher-report respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more strongly associated with externalising than internalising behavioural problems. Analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that the differential between matched treatment and control groups increased with level of maternal smoking. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, the promotion of successful cessation in pregnancy may prevent potentially adverse long-term consequences.

  6. Adult and prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke as risk indicators of fertility among 430 Danish couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    menstrual cycles or until a clinically recognized pregnancy. At enrollment and each month throughout the follow-up, both partners completed a questionnaire that asked them about their smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of caffeinated beverages. The effect of current smoking and smoking exposure...... in utero was evaluated by using a logistic regression model with pregnancy outcome of each cycle in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds ratio. After adjustment for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases in female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual...

  7. Evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis: novel criteria for predicting vesicoureteral reflux on ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nora G; Rushton, H Gil; Peters, Craig A; Groves, Danja S; Pohl, Hans G

    2014-09-01

    Radiographic evaluation for prenatal hydronephrosis often includes voiding cystourethrography to ascertain whether vesicoureteral reflux is present. We sought to determine whether use of voiding cystourethrography could be limited to those patients at greatest risk for vesicoureteral reflux. We hypothesized that vesicoureteral reflux could be predicted by findings on renal/bladder ultrasonography of hydroureter, renal dysmorphia and/or duplication. We reviewed the records of patients with prenatal hydronephrosis who underwent initial postnatal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography during a 3-year period. The presence of vesicoureteral reflux on voiding cystourethrogram was correlated to ultrasound findings, including hydronephrosis grade, presence of hydroureter, renal dysmorphia or duplication, with ultrasound considered positive for any of the latter 3 findings. Of 262 patients 47 (18%) had vesicoureteral reflux. Ultrasound was positive in 24 of 29 patients (83%) with high grade reflux and 12 of 18 (67%) with low grade reflux. If ultrasonography showed any of the 3 positive findings, the odds ratio of detecting vesicoureteral reflux was 8.07 (95% CI 3.86, 16.87). Using these criteria, among all cases of prenatal hydronephrosis 5 (2%) with high grade vesicoureteral reflux and 6 (2%) with low grade reflux would have been missed. Among the 47 cases of reflux overall 5 of 29 high grade (17%) and 6 of 18 low grade cases (33%) would have been missed. By using ultrasonography criteria of hydroureter, duplication and renal dysmorphia for patients with prenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux can be detected more specifically. Using our criteria, 165 of 262 voiding cystourethrograms (63%) could have been avoided in patients with prenatal hydronephrosis during a 3-year period. Reducing these evaluations may decrease risks regarding radiation exposure, family anxiety and health care costs. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and

  8. Fetal omphalocele ratios predict outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Freddy J; Simpson, Lynn L; Brady, Paula C; Miller, Russell S

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether ratios considering omphalocele diameter relative to fetal biometric measurements perform better than giant omphalocele designation at predicting inability to achieve neonatal primary surgical closure. Cases of fetal omphalocele that underwent evaluation between May 2003 and July 2010 were identified. Inclusion was restricted to live births with plan for postnatal repair. Omphalocele diameter upon antenatal ultrasound was compared with abdominal circumference, femur length, and head circumference, yielding the respective omphalocele (O)/abdominal circumference (AC), O/femur length (FL), and O/head circumference (HC) ratios. The absolute measurements were used to classify giant lesions. Omphalocele ratios and giant omphalocele designations were evaluated as predictors of inability to achieve primary repair. Among 25 included cases, staged or delayed closure occurred in 52%. With an optimal cutoff of 0.21 or greater, O/HC best predicted the primary outcome (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 58.3%; odds ratio, 7.7). The O/HC of 0.21 or greater outperformed giant designations. The O/HC of 0.21 or greater best predicted staged or delayed omphalocele closure. Giant omphalocele designation, regardless of definition, poorly predicted outcome. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do smoking attitudes predict behaviour? A longitudinal study on the bi-directional relations between adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J

    2008-10-01

    Prevention and intervention programmes focus frequently upon retaining or creating negative attitudes towards smoking in an effort to prevent adolescents from smoking. As the focus upon attitudes is central in these programmes it is essential to know whether smoking attitudes actually precede smoking behaviour or, conversely, are affected by it. Therefore, in the present study we examined to what extent bi-directional relations existed between smoking attitudes and behaviour. Data were used from the three annual waves of the 'Family and Health' project. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires individually at their homes. Addresses of families consisting of two parents and two adolescents were obtained from the records of 22 municipalities in the Netherlands. At baseline, 428 families participated with a response rate of 94% at the third measurement. Self-reports were used to assess adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviour. Associations between smoking attitudes and behaviour were tested using structural equation modelling. Findings revealed that smoking attitudes did not predict smoking consistently over time. However, past smoking affected subsequent attitudes moderately, suggesting that adolescents who started to smoke developed less negative attitudes towards smoking. The current findings imply that smoking behaviour predominantly shapes smoking-related attitudes, rather than vice versa. Focusing merely on smoking attitudes is probably not enough to prevent adolescents from smoking.

  10. Predicting Smoking Status Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Frank

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has been proven to negatively affect health in a multitude of ways. As of 2009, smoking has been considered the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, continuing to plague the country’s overall health. This study aims to investigate the viability and effectiveness of some machine learning algorithms for predicting the smoking status of patients based on their blood tests and vital readings results. The analysis of this study is divided into two parts: In part 1, we use One-way ANOVA analysis with SAS tool to show the statistically significant difference in blood test readings between smokers and non-smokers. The results show that the difference in INR, which measures the effectiveness of anticoagulants, was significant in favor of non-smokers which further confirms the health risks associated with smoking. In part 2, we use five machine learning algorithms: Naïve Bayes, MLP, Logistic regression classifier, J48 and Decision Table to predict the smoking status of patients. To compare the effectiveness of these algorithms we use: Precision, Recall, F-measure and Accuracy measures. The results show that the Logistic algorithm outperformed the four other algorithms with Precision, Recall, F-Measure, and Accuracy of 83%, 83.4%, 83.2%, 83.44%, respectively.

  11. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Smoking and Childhood Behavioural Problems: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study.…

  13. Associations of maternal prenatal smoking with umbilical cord blood hormones: the Project Viva cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Rokoff, Lisa B; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos S; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort. We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers. Outcomes were cord blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and C-peptide. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, parity, education, and infant sex. We conducted analyses in the full cohort and stratified by infant sex. Thirteen percent of women were early pregnancy smokers, 20% former smokers, and 68% never smokers. Infants of early pregnancy smokers had lower IGF-1 adjusted for IGFBP-3 [-5.2ng/mL (95% CI: -8.6, -1.7)], with more pronounced associations in girls [-10.7ng/mL (95% CI: -18.5, -2.9) vs. -4.0ng/mL (95% CI: -8.4, 0.4) for boys]. Early pregnancy smoking was not associated with cord blood hormones other than IGF-1. Infants of former smokers had a cord blood hormone profile similar to infants of never smokers. As compared to mothers who never smoked, early pregnancy smokers had infants with lower cord blood IGF-1 which could prime adverse metabolic outcomes. This provides further reason to support smoking cessation programs in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The fetal programming effect of prenatal smoking on Igf1r and Igf1 methylation is organ- and sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Verkaik-Schakel, Rikst Nynke; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prenatal smoke exposure (PSE) on DNA methylation has been demonstrated in blood samples from children of smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. As the identified differentially methylated genes can be associated with developmental processes, and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a critical role in prenatal tissue growth, we hypothesized that PSE induces fetal programming of Igf1r and Igf1. Using a mouse model of smoking during pregnancy, we show that PSE alters promoter methylation of Igf1r and Igf1 and deregulates their gene expression in lung and liver of fetal (E17.5) and neonatal (D3) mouse offspring. By further comparing female versus male, lung versus liver, or fetal versus neonatal time point, our results demonstrate that CpG site-specific aberrant methylation patterns sex-dependently vary per organ and time point. Moreover, PSE reduces gene expression of Igf1r and Igf1, dependent on organ, sex, and offspring's age. Our results indicate that PSE may be a source of organ-specific rather than general systemic fetal programming. This is exemplified here by gene promoter methylation and mRNA levels of Igf1r and Igf1, together with a sex- and organ-specific naturally established correlation of both parameters that is affected by prenatal smoke exposure. Moreover, the comparison of fetuses with neonates suggests a CpG site-dependent reversibility/persistence of PSE-induced differential methylation patterns.

  16. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  17. Prenatal and adult exposures to smoking are associated with adverse effects on reproductive hormones, semen quality, final height and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Trine L; Jensen, Tina K; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to tobacco smoking prenatally is a risk factor for reduced semen quality, but whether the exposure has adverse effects on reproductive hormones, pubertal development or adult BMI remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between...... these factors while controlling for the effects of current smoking in young adulthood. METHODS This cross-sectional study (1996-2006) included 3486 Danish men (median age: 19 years), participating in a semen-quality study. Data were obtained from questionnaires, physical examinations, semen analyses...... and assessments of reproductive hormones. The main outcome measures were markers of pubertal onset, BMI, reproductive hormones and semen variables. RESULTS Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with earlier onset of puberty (e.g. early pubic hair development in 25.2 versus 18.9% of unexposed subjects...

  18. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly...

  20. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  1. Prenatal Coke: What's Behind the Smoke?: Prenatal Cocaine/Alcohol Exposure and School-Age Outcomes: The SCHOO-BE Experiencea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Covington, Chandice; Templin, Tom; Ager, Joel; Martier, Sue; Compton, Scott; Sokol, Robert

    1998-06-01

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgment of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected Perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be composed

  2. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. © 2013.

  3. Implicit and explicit attitudes predict smoking cessation: moderating effects of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T

    2010-12-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloane K Tilley

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age.Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age.Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development.Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  5. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  6. Predicting the onset of smoking in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, A; Blair, V

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the high prevalence of smoking among girls and young women is of great concern. In an attempt to identify the factors which influence girls and boys respectively to attempt smoking, the study examines social background, advertising and brand awareness, knowledge, teaching and personal beliefs in conjunction as predictors of smoking. In this study which involved the administration of identical pre- and post-test questionnaires to a sample of boys and girls aged 12 and 13 years, nine variables expressed by never-smokers at pre-test stage were assessed as predictors of immediate future smoking. The two tests were administered 4 months apart to 1125 boys and 1213 girls in northern England. The nine variables included were parental smoking, best friends' smoking, perceived positive values of smoking, perceived negative values of smoking, correct health knowledge, cigarette-brand awareness, having a favourite cigarette advertisement, having a cigarette-brand sponsored sport in four top favourites on television. One group received teaching about smoking between the pre- and post-tests and this was also included as a variable. For boys, no variable investigated had any consistently statistically significant correlation with the uptake of smoking. The most important predictor of smoking for boys, having a best friend who smoked, was significant on application of the chi 2 test (P 0.037), although it was non-significant when included singly in a logistic regression model (0.094); the discrepancy was probably due to the small number of best friends known to smoke. For girls, four variables were found to be significant predictors of smoking when included singly in a logistic regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Medical and sociodemographic factors predict persistent smoking after coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.

  8. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  9. Smoking status predicts cancer patients' quality of life over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martinez

    2018-03-01

    These results extend previous findings showing that QOL improves in cancer patients who quit smoking. Specifically, patients who quit smoking experience a greater reduction in depression and pain levels at all time points, and the reduction increases over time. In the case of fatigue, the results suggest that patients experience the greatest improvement with longer (≥ 4 months abstinence.

  10. Smoking Predicts Food Insecurity Severity among Persons Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Mozeleski, Jin E; Tsoh, Janice Y; Ramirez-Forcier, Joseph; Andrews, Brett; Weiser, Sheri D; Carrico, Adam W

    2018-02-28

    Food insecurity is a key social and health issue among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Food insecurity oftentimes co-occurs with substance use, but little is known about the relationship between tobacco use and food insecurity particularly among PLHIV. In this study, we prospectively examined the association of cigarette smoking with food insecurity in a cohort of 108 individuals seeking vocational rehabilitation services. Over the 12-month study period, smokers at baseline reported consistently higher levels of food insecurity compared to non-smokers. Smoking remained an independent risk factor for greater food insecurity, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and known confounders (e.g., substance use, depression). Food insecurity is a key structural and socioeconomic barrier that may partially explain HIV-related health disparities observed among smokers. Further research is needed to characterize the bio-behavioral mechanisms linking smoking and food insecurity as well as test whether smoking cessation can reduce food insecurity in PLHIV who smoke.

  11. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  12. Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...

  13. Velamentous Cord Insertion: Significance of Prenatal Detection to Predict Perinatal Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Hasegawa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the maternal and child health statistics of Japan for 2003, perinatal deaths were most frequent in pregnant women with abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and fetal membrane. Despite advances in perinatal medicine, approximately 2% of low-risk pregnant women still require an emergency cesarean section after the onset of labor. Because it is likely that half of these cases are associated with placental and umbilical cord abnormalities, it is thought that prenatal detection of such abnormalities would reduce the number of emergency cesarean sections in low-risk women. In our previous studies, some abnormalities of the placenta and umbilical cord were associated with abnormalities of cord insertion. Furthermore, we reported that prenatal detection of velamentous cord insertion (VCI reduced the number of emergency cesarean sections in low-risk women. In this review, we describe the prenatal detection of abnormalities of umbilical cord insertion and the management of VCI based on our current clinical data.

  14. Spontaneous prematurity in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a retrospective cohort study about prenatal predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Bruna Maria Lopes; Rodrigues, Agatha S; Carvalho, Mario Henrique Burlacchini; Bittar, Roberto Eduardo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate possible predictive factors of spontaneous prematurity in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A retrospective cohort study was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of CDH; absence of fetoscopy; absence of karyotype abnormality; maximum of one major malformation associated with diaphragmatic hernia; ultrasound monitoring at the Obstetrics Clinic of Clinicas Hospital at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, from January 2001 to October 2014. The data were obtained through the electronic records and ultrasound system of our fetal medicine service. The following variables were analyzed: maternal age, primiparity, associated maternal diseases, smoking, previous spontaneous preterm birth, fetal malformation associated with hernia, polyhydramnios, fetal growth restriction, presence of intrathoracic liver, invasive procedures performed, side of hernia and observed-to- expected lung to head ratio (o/e LHR). On individual analysis, variables were assessed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test. A multiple logistic regression model was applied to select variables independently influencing the prediction of preterm delivery. A ROC curve was constructed with the significant variable, identifying the values with best sensitivity and specificity to be suggested for use in clinical practice. Eighty fetuses were evaluated, of which, 21 (26.25%) were premature. O/e LHR was the only factor associated with prematurity (p = 0.020). The ROC curve showed 93% sensitivity with 48.4% specificity for the cutoff of 40%. O/e LHR was the only predictor of prematurity in this sample.

  15. Predictive value of the transtheoretical model to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2007-02-01

    Several authors have questioned the transtheoretical model. Determining the predictive value of each cognitive-behavioural element within this model could explain the multiple successes reported in smoking cessation programmes. The purpose of this study was to predict point-prevalent smoking abstinence at 2 and 6 months, using the constructs of the transtheoretical model, when applied to a pooled sample of individuals who were hospitalized for a cardiovascular event. The study follows a predictive correlation design. Recently hospitalized patients (n=168) with cardiovascular disease were pooled from a randomized, controlled trial. Independent variables of the predictive transtheoretical model comprise stages and processes of change, pros and cons to quit smoking (decisional balance), self-efficacy, and social support. These were evaluated at baseline, 2 and 6 months. Compared to smokers, individuals who abstained from smoking at 2 and 6 months were more confident at baseline to remain non-smokers, perceived less pros and cons to continue smoking, utilized less consciousness raising and self-re-evaluation experiential processes of change, and received more positive reinforcement from their social network with regard to their smoke-free behaviour. Self-efficacy and stages of change at baseline were predictive of smoking abstinence after 6 months. Other variables found to be predictive of smoking abstinence at 6 months were an increase in self-efficacy; an increase in positive social support behaviour and a decrease of the pros within the decisional balance. The results partially support the predictive value of the transtheoretical model constructs in smoking cessation for cardiovascular disease patients.

  16. Using the Prototype/Willingness model to predict smoking behaviour among Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Dykstra, Jennifer L

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines cognitive antecedents of non-smoking among adolescents who reported smoking less than 1-2 times a week, and reported non-smoking intentions and willingness, in the framework of the Prototype/Willingness model. Two waves of data were obtained from a nation-wide sample of 760 Norwegian adolescents who responded to a school-based survey on smoking. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the predictive power of the social reaction pathway (prototype and willingness) of the P/W model, and in addition, the constructs from the Theory of Reasoned Action (subjective norm, attitude and intention). Results demonstrated the unique importance of the social reaction path when examining smoking behaviour among non-smoking adolescents. Implications of the findings and possible applications are discussed.

  17. Prenatal Maternal Reactivity to Infant Cries Predicts Postnatal Perceptions of Infant Temperament and Marriage Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined cardiac response and ratings of subjective aversiveness to recordings of unfamiliar infant cries in 60 primiparous women at 32 weeks' gestation. Mothers who prenatally rated the crying recordings as more aversive postnatally described their infants as more fussy and unpredictable. Women who showed greater cardiac acceleration to the cries…

  18. Harnessing Facebook for Smoking Reduction and Cessation Interventions: Facebook User Engagement and Social Support Predict Smoking Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse

    2017-05-23

    Social media technologies offer a novel opportunity for scalable health interventions that can facilitate user engagement and social support, which in turn may reinforce positive processes for behavior change. By using principles from health communication and social support literature, we implemented a Facebook group-based intervention that targeted smoking reduction and cessation. This study hypothesized that participants' engagement with and perceived social support from our Facebook group intervention would predict smoking reduction. We recruited 16 regular smokers who live in the United States and who were motivated in quitting smoking at screening. We promoted message exposure as well as engagement and social support systems throughout the intervention. For message exposure, we posted prevalidated, antismoking messages (such as national antismoking campaigns) on our smoking reduction and cessation Facebook group. For engagement and social support systems, we delivered a high degree of engagement and social support systems during the second and third week of the intervention and a low degree of engagement and social support systems during the first and fourth week. A total of six surveys were conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) at baseline on a weekly basis and at a 2-week follow-up. Of the total 16 participants, most were female (n=13, 81%), white (n=15, 94%), and between 25 and 50 years of age (mean 34.75, SD 8.15). There was no study attrition throughout the 6-time-point baseline, weekly, and follow-up surveys. We generated Facebook engagement and social support composite scores (mean 19.19, SD 24.35) by combining the number of likes each participant received and the number of comments or wall posts each participant posted on our smoking reduction and cessation Facebook group during the intervention period. The primary outcome was smoking reduction in the past 7 days measured at baseline and at the two-week follow-up. Compared with the baseline

  19. Harnessing Facebook for Smoking Reduction and Cessation Interventions: Facebook User Engagement and Social Support Predict Smoking Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media technologies offer a novel opportunity for scalable health interventions that can facilitate user engagement and social support, which in turn may reinforce positive processes for behavior change. Objective By using principles from health communication and social support literature, we implemented a Facebook group–based intervention that targeted smoking reduction and cessation. This study hypothesized that participants’ engagement with and perceived social support from our Facebook group intervention would predict smoking reduction. Methods We recruited 16 regular smokers who live in the United States and who were motivated in quitting smoking at screening. We promoted message exposure as well as engagement and social support systems throughout the intervention. For message exposure, we posted prevalidated, antismoking messages (such as national antismoking campaigns) on our smoking reduction and cessation Facebook group. For engagement and social support systems, we delivered a high degree of engagement and social support systems during the second and third week of the intervention and a low degree of engagement and social support systems during the first and fourth week. A total of six surveys were conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) at baseline on a weekly basis and at a 2-week follow-up. Results Of the total 16 participants, most were female (n=13, 81%), white (n=15, 94%), and between 25 and 50 years of age (mean 34.75, SD 8.15). There was no study attrition throughout the 6-time-point baseline, weekly, and follow-up surveys. We generated Facebook engagement and social support composite scores (mean 19.19, SD 24.35) by combining the number of likes each participant received and the number of comments or wall posts each participant posted on our smoking reduction and cessation Facebook group during the intervention period. The primary outcome was smoking reduction in the past 7 days measured at baseline and at the two

  20. Early Hits and Long-Term Consequences: Tracking the Lasting Impact of Prenatal Smoke Exposure on Telomere Length in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKasson, Sarah; Mabile, Emily; Dunaway, Lauren F.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association between telomere length and prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) in 104 children aged 4 to 14 years. Salivary telomere length (STL) was determined from salivary DNA using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Of the children, 18% had maternal reported PTE. Mean STL was significantly lower among children with PTE (6.4 vs 7.5, P < .05). Findings extend the literature demonstrating the negative long-term effects of PTE to include a cellular marker of aging linked to multiple negative health outcomes. PMID:23927510

  1. Predicting the life-time benefit of school-based smoking prevention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Aveyard, Paul; Barton, Pelham; Meads, Catherine A

    2010-06-01

    School-based smoking prevention programmes may delay the age of smoking initiation, but do not appear to achieve lasting reductions in smoking prevalence beyond school-leaving age. We explored whether delaying the age at which someone initiates smoking may have life-time benefits by increasing the likelihood of quitting in later life. Data from the General Household Survey of Great Britain were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between age at which someone initiates regular smoking and the probability that the person will quit smoking later in life. The effect of confounding variables (sex, ethnicity, socio-economic class, education and geographical location) was taken into account. The predicted relationship was used in a cohort model to estimate the life-time reduction in smoking prevalence and all-cause mortality of a school-based smoking prevention programme. Age of regular smoking initiation was associated strongly with the probability of quitting later in life (coefficient -0.103, P < 0.001). The strength of the association was slightly reduced but still significant when confounding variables were included (coefficient -0.075, P < 0.001). An intervention that delays smoking initiation without decreasing smoking prevalence at age 18 may reduce adult smoking prevalence by 0.13-0.32% (depending on age) and all-cause mortality by 0.09% over the life-time of the sample. School-based smoking prevention programmes have potential for a beneficial effect over the life-time of the participants even if they have no apparent effect at school-leaving age.

  2. Communalism predicts prenatal affect, stress, and physiology better than ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt

    2010-07-01

    The authors examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic status (SES). African American and European American women (N = 297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress, and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, whether the pregnancy was desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications of culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and an important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed.

  3. Routine prediction of smoke transport from fuel reduction burns in southwest Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.A.; Hess, G.D.; Draxler, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) has recently developed a mesoscale numerical weather prediction system and, in collaboration wit NOAA/ARL, implemented a sophisticated Lagrangian dispersion/transport model for long-range air pollution applications. Linking these two systems provides a method of predicting the path taken by smoke from bushfires, and was applied daily over southwestern Western Australia during the spring/summer of 1996-7. This paper very briefly describes the NWP model and the dispersion models, demonstrates their application in a case of smoke pollution over Perth in November 1995, and then discusses the utility of the experimental daily smoke trajectory forecasts

  4. [Application of Competing Risks Model in Predicting Smoking Relapse Following Ischemic Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Sha; Li, Ji-Jie; Du, Xu-Dong; Yan, Pei-Jing; Zhu, Cai-Rong

    2017-07-01

    To determine factors associated with smoking relapse in men who survived from their first stroke. Data were collected through face to face interviews with stroke patients in the hospital, and then repeated every three months via telephone over the period from 2010 to 2014. Kaplan-Meier method and competing risk model were adopted to estimate and predict smoking relapse rates. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated a higher relapse rate than the competing risk model. The four-year relapse rate was 43.1% after adjustment of competing risk. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoking outside of home and workplace (such as bars and restaurants) ( P =0.01), single ( P <0.01), and prior history of smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day ( P =0.02) were significant predictors of smoking relapse. When competing risks exist, competing risks model should be used in data analyses. Smoking interventions should give priorities to those without a spouse and those with a heavy smoking history. Smoking ban in public settings can reduce smoking relapse in stroke patients.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  6. Prenatal MRI fetal lung volumes and percent liver herniation predict pulmonary morbidity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Irving J; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Cass, Darrell L; Fallon, Sara C; Lazar, David A; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Welty, Stephen E; Ruano, Rodrigo; Belfort, Michael A; Lee, Timothy C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prenatal imaging parameters are predictive of postnatal CDH-associated pulmonary morbidity. The records of all neonates with CDH treated from 2004 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients requiring supplemental oxygen at 30 days of life (DOL) were classified as having chronic lung disease (CLD). Fetal MRI-measured observed/expected total fetal lung volume (O/E-TFLV) and percent liver herniation (%LH) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate regression were applied to assess the prognostic value of O/E-TFLV and %LH for development of CLD. Of 172 neonates with CDH, 108 had fetal MRIs, and survival was 76%. 82% (89/108) were alive at DOL 30, 46 (52%) of whom had CLD. Neonates with CLD had lower mean O/E-TFLV (30 vs.42%; p=0.001) and higher %LH (21.3±2.8 vs.7.1±1.8%; p20% (AUC=0.78; p20% were highly associated with indicators of long-term pulmonary sequelae. On multivariate analysis, %LH was the strongest predictor of CLD in patients with CDH (OR: 10.96, 95%CI: 2.5-48.9, p=0.002). Prenatal measurement of O/E-TFLV and %LH is predictive of CDH pulmonary morbidity and can aid in establishing parental expectations of postnatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural response to pictorial health warning labels can predict smoking behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Philip J; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Baer, Jessica; Thrasher, James F

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve our understanding of how pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) influence smoking behavior, we examined whether brain activity helps to explain smoking behavior above and beyond self-reported effectiveness of HWLs. We measured the neural response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala while adult smokers viewed HWLs. Two weeks later, participants' self-reported smoking behavior and biomarkers of smoking behavior were reassessed. We compared multiple models predicting change in self-reported smoking behavior (cigarettes per day [CPD]) and change in a biomarkers of smoke exposure (expired carbon monoxide [CO]). Brain activity in the vmPFC and amygdala not only predicted changes in CO, but also accounted for outcome variance above and beyond self-report data. Neural data were most useful in predicting behavioral change as quantified by the objective biomarker (CO). This pattern of activity was significantly modulated by individuals' intention to quit. The finding that both cognitive (vmPFC) and affective (amygdala) brain areas contributed to these models supports the idea that smokers respond to HWLs in a cognitive-affective manner. Based on our findings, researchers may wish to consider using neural data from both cognitive and affective networks when attempting to predict behavioral change in certain populations (e.g. cigarette smokers). © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Childhood self-regulatory skills predict adolescent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, Madeleine E; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of premature death. Better self-regulatory capacity is a key psychosocial factor that has been linked with reduced likelihood of tobacco use. Studies point to the importance of multiple forms of self-regulation, in the domains of emotion, attention, behavior, and social regulation, although no work has evaluated all of these domains in a single prospective study. Considering those four self-regulation domains separately and in combination, this study prospectively investigated whether greater self-regulation in childhood is associated with reduced likelihood of either trying cigarettes or becoming a regular smoker. Hypotheses were tested using longitudinal data from a cohort of 1709 US children participating in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics--Child Development Supplement. Self-regulation was assessed at study baseline when children ranged in age from 6 to 14 years, using parent-reported measures derived from the Behavior Problems Index and Positive Behavior Scale. Children ages 12-19 self-reported their cigarette smoking, defined in two ways: (1) trying and (2) regular use. Separate multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate odds of trying or regularly using cigarettes, taking account of various potential confounders. Over an average of five years of follow-up, 34.5% of children ever tried cigarettes and 10.6% smoked regularly. Higher behavioral self-regulation was the only domain associated with reduced odds of trying cigarettes (odds ratio (OR) = .85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = .73-.99). Effective regulation in each of the domains was associated with reduced likelihood of regular smoking, although the association with social regulation was not statistically significant (ORs range .70-.85). For each additional domain in which a child was able to regulate successfully, the odds of becoming a regular smoker dropped by 18% (95% CI = .70-.97). These findings suggest that effective childhood self

  9. Predicting Relationship of Smoking Behavior Among Male Saudi Arabian College Students Related to Their Religious Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.

  10. The eye of the begetter: predicting infant attachment disorganization from women's prenatal interpretations of infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rosemary E; Tenedios, Catherine M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Measelle, Jeffery R; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2014-01-01

    Infant-caregiver attachment disorganization has been linked to many long-term negative psychosocial outcomes. While various prevention programs appear to be effective in preventing disorganized attachment, methods currently used to identify those at risk are unfortunately either overly general or impractical. The current investigation tested whether women's prenatal biases in identifying infant expressions of emotion--tendencies previously shown to relate to some of the maternal variables associated with infant attachment, including maternal traumatization, trauma symptoms, and maternal sensitivity--could predict infant attachment classification at 18 months postpartum. Logistic regression analyses revealed that together with women's adult history of high betrayal traumatization, response concordance with a normative reference sample in labeling infant expressions as negatively valenced, and the number of infant facial expressions that participants classified as "sad" and "angry" predicted subsequent infant attachment security versus disorganization. Implications for screening and prevention are discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior.

  12. Predictive validity of the tobacco marketing receptivity index among non-smoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra; Abad-Vivero, Erika Nayeli; Mejía, Raúl; Barrientos, Inti; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F

    2018-05-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of early adolescents, we developed a marketing receptivity index (MRI) that integrates point-of-sale (PoS) marketing exposures, brand recall, and ownership of branded merchandise. The MRI had independent, positive associations with smoking susceptibility among never smokers and with current smoking behavior. The current longitudinal study assessed the MRI's predictive validity among adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes METHODS: Data come from a longitudinal, school-based survey of 33 secondary schools in Argentina. Students who had never smoked at baseline were followed up approximately 17months later (n=1700). Questions assessed: PoS marketing exposure by querying frequency of going to stores where tobacco is commonly sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages from dominant brands but with the brand name removed; and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level MRI was derived: 1.low PoS marketing exposure only; 2. high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; 3. recall of 2 or more brands; and 4. ownership of branded merchandise. Logistic regression models regressed smoking initiation by follow up survey on the MRI, each of its components, and students' willingness to try a brand, adjusting for sociodemographics, social network smoking, and sensation seeking. The MRI had an independent positive association with smoking initiation. When analyzed separately, each MRI component was associated with outcomes except branded merchandise ownership. The MRI and its components were associated with smoking initiation, except for branded merchandise ownership, which may better predict smoking progression than initiation. The MRI appears valid and useful for future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Curiosity predicts smoking experimentation independent of susceptibility in a US national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse; Hartman, Sheri J; Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa E; White, Martha M; Portnoy, David B; Choiniere, Conrad J; Vullo, Genevieve C; Pierce, John P

    2014-12-01

    To improve smoking prevention efforts, better methods for identifying at-risk youth are needed. The widely used measure of susceptibility to smoking identifies at-risk adolescents; however, it correctly identifies only about one third of future smokers. Adding curiosity about smoking to this susceptibility index may allow us to identify a greater proportion of future smokers while they are still pre-teens. We use longitudinal data from a recent national study on parenting to prevent problem behaviors. Only oldest children between 10 and 13years of age were eligible. Participants were identified by RDD survey and followed for 6years. All baseline never smokers with at least one follow-up assessment were included (n=878). The association of curiosity about smoking with future smoking behavior was assessed. Then, curiosity was added to form an enhanced susceptibility index and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated. Among committed never smokers at baseline, those who were 'definitely not curious' were less likely to progress toward smoking than both those who were 'probably not curious' (ORadj=1.89; 95% CI=1.03-3.47) or 'probably/definitely curious' (ORadj=2.88; 95% CI=1.11-7.45). Incorporating curiosity into the susceptibility index increased the proportion identified as at-risk to smoke from 25.1% to 46.9%. The sensitivity (true positives) for this enhanced susceptibility index for both experimentation and established smoking increased from 37-40% to over 50%, although the positive predictive value did not improve. The addition of curiosity significantly improves the identification and classification of which adolescents will experiment with smoking or become established smokers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  15. Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) dissemination project: a science to prenatal care practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Clark, Jeannie; Cleary, Sean; Davis, Amanda; Thorn, Stephanie; Abroms, Lorien; Wedeles, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program selected by the West Virginia-Right From The Start Project for state-wide dissemination. A process evaluation documented the fidelity of SCRIPT delivery by Designated Care Coordinators (DCC), licensed nurses and social workers who provide home-based case management to Medicaid-eligible clients in all 55 counties. We implemented a quasi-experimental, non-randomized, matched Comparison (C) Group design. The SCRIPT Experimental E Group (N = 259) were all clients in 2009-2010 that wanted to quit, provided a screening carbon monoxide (CO), and received a SCRIPT home visit. The (C) Group was derived from all clients in 2006-2007 who had the same CO assessments as E Group clients and reported receiving cessation counseling. We stratified the baseline CO of E Group clients into 10 strata, and randomly selected the same number of (C) Group clients (N = 259) from each matched strata to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCRIPT Program. There were no significant baseline differences in the E and (C) Group. A Process Evaluation documented a significant increase in the fidelity of DCC delivery of SCRIPT Program procedures: from 63 % in 2006 to 74 % in 2010. Significant increases were documented in the E Group cessation rate (+9.3 %) and significant reduction rate (+4.5 %), a ≥50 % reduction from a baseline CO. Perinatal health case management staff can deliver the SCRIPT Program, and Medicaid-supported clients can change smoking behavior, even very late in pregnancy. When multiple biases were analyzed, we concluded the SCRIPT Dissemination Project was the most plausible reason for the significant changes in behavior.

  16. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Svetlana; Hussein, Jabeen; Ariano, Robert E.; Sitar, Daniel S.; Hasan, Shabih U.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  19. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Adriaan; Lemaigre, Valentine; Salhi, Bihiyga; Van Gucht, Dinska; Tibboel, Helen; Van Bockstaele, Bram; De Houwer, Jan; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Nackaerts, Kristiaan

    2015-07-01

    It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers. Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session. EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores. These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided.

  20. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  1. Withdrawal-Related Changes in Delay Discounting Predict Short-Term Smoking Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglin, Rickie; Kable, Joseph W; Bowers, Maureen E; Ashare, Rebecca L

    2017-06-01

    Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence). During each visit, participants completed measures of time perception, decision making (ie, discount rates), craving, and withdrawal. Following the second laboratory session, subjects underwent a well-validated model of short-term abstinence (quit week) with small monetary incentives for each day of biochemically confirmed abstinence. Smokers significantly overestimated time during abstinence, compared to smoking-as-usual (p = .021), but there were no abstinence effects on discount rates (p = .6). During the quit week, subjects were abstinent for 3.5 days (SD = 2.15) and smoked a total of 12.9 cigarettes (SD = 15.8). Importantly, higher discount rates (ie, preferences for immediate rewards) during abstinence (abstinence minus smoking difference score) predicted greater number of days abstinent (p = .01) and fewer cigarettes smoked during the quit week (p = .02). Withdrawal-related change in time reproduction did not predict relapse (p = .2). These data suggest that individuals who have a greater preference for immediate rewards during abstinence (vs. smoking-as-usual) may be more successful at maintaining short-term abstinence when provided with frequent (eg, daily) versus less frequent incentive schedules (eg, 1 month). Abstinence-induced changes in decision making may be important for identifying smokers who may benefit from interventions that incentivize abstinence such as contingency management (CM). The present results

  2. Perceived social support interacts with prenatal depression to predict birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylen, Kimberly J; O'Hara, Michael W; Engeldinger, Jane

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal depression has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes including preterm labor and delivery, and low birth weight. Social support also has been linked to birth outcomes, and may buffer infants from the adverse impact of maternal depression. In this prospective study, 235 pregnant women completed questionnaires about depression and social support. Clinical interviews were administered to assess for DSM-IV axis I disorders. Following delivery, birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. Babies of depressed mothers weighed less, were born earlier and had lower Apgar scores than babies of nondepressed mothers. Depressed women had smaller social support networks and were less satisfied with support from social networks. We found no direct associations between perceived social support and birth weight. However, depressed women who rated their partners as less supportive had babies who were born earlier and had lower Apgar scores than depressed mothers with higher perceived partner support. Women's perception of partner support appears to buffer infants of depressed mothers from potential adverse outcomes. These results are notable in light of the low-risk nature of our sample and point to the need for continued depression screening in pregnant women and a broader view of risk for adverse birth outcomes. The results also suggest a possible means of intervention that may ultimately lead to reductions in adverse birth outcomes.

  3. Intolerance for withdrawal discomfort and motivation predict voucher-based smoking treatment outcomes for smokers with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Kahler, Christopher W; Martin, Rosemarie A; Colby, Suzanne M; Sirota, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    Identifying predictors of abstinence with voucher-based treatment is important for improving its efficacy. Smokers with substance use disorders have very low smoking cessation rates so identifying predictors of smoking treatment response is particularly important for these difficult-to-treat smokers. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort (IDQ-S), motivation to quit smoking, nicotine dependence severity (FTND), and cigarettes per day were examined as predictors of smoking abstinence during and after voucher-based smoking treatment with motivational counseling. We also investigated the relationship between IDQ-S and motivation to quit smoking. Smokers in residential substance treatment (n=184) were provided 14days of vouchers for complete smoking abstinence (CV) after a 5-day smoking reduction lead-in period or vouchers not contingent on abstinence. Carbon monoxide readings indicated about 25% of days abstinent during the 14days of vouchers for abstinence in the CV group; only 3-4% of all participants were abstinent at follow-ups. The IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance scale and FTND each significantly predicted fewer abstinent days during voucher treatment; FTND was nonsignificant when controlling for variance shared with withdrawal intolerance. The one significant predictor of 1-month abstinence was pretreatment motivation to quit smoking, becoming marginal (pmotivation to quit smoking. Implications for voucher-based treatment include the importance of focusing on reducing these expectancies of anticipated smoking withdrawal discomfort, increasing tolerance for abstinence discomfort, and increasing motivation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Gender, Ethnicity, and Their Intersectionality in the Prediction of Smoking Outcome Expectancies in Regular Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Bello, Mariel S; Andrabi, Nafeesa; Pang, Raina D; Hendricks, Peter S; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The current study utilized the intersectionality framework to explore whether smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., cognitions about the anticipated effects of smoking) were predicted by gender and ethnicity, and the gender-by-ethnicity interaction. In a cross-sectional design, daily smokers from the general community (32.2% women; non-Hispanic African American [n = 175], non-Hispanic White [n = 109], or Hispanic [n = 26]) completed self-report measures on smoking expectancies and other co-factors. Results showed that women reported greater negative reinforcement (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced negative affect reduction) and weight control (i.e., anticipated smoking-induced appetite/weight suppression) expectancies than men. Hispanic (vs. African American or White) smokers endorsed greater negative reinforcement expectancies. A gender-by-ethnicity interaction was found for weight control expectancies, such that White women reported greater weight control expectancies than White men, but no gender differences among African American and Hispanic smokers were found. These findings suggest that gender, ethnicity, and their intersectionality should be considered in research on cognitive mechanisms that may contribute to tobacco-related health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Do smoking attitudes predict behaviour? A longitudinal study on the bi-directional relations between adolescents' smoking attitudes and behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Prevention and intervention programmes focus frequently upon retaining or creating negative attitudes towards smoking in an effort to prevent adolescents from smoking. As the focus upon attitudes is central in these programmes it is essential to know whether smoking attitudes actually precede

  6. Prediction of inspired oxygen fraction for targeted arterial oxygen tension following open heart surgery in non-smoking and smoking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Khalil, Pierre; Zeineldine, Salah; Chatburn, Robert; Ayyoub, Chakib; Elkhatib, Farouk; Bou-Akl, Imad; El-Khatib, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    Simple and accurate expressions describing the P a O 2 -F i O 2 relationship in mechanically ventilated patients are lacking. The current study aims to validate a novel mathematical expression for accurate prediction of the fraction of inspired oxygen that will result in a targeted arterial oxygen tension in non-smoking and smoking patients receiving mechanical ventilation following open heart surgeries. One hundred P a O 2 -F i O 2 data pairs were obtained from 25 non-smoking patients mechanically ventilated following open heart surgeries. One data pair was collected at each of F i O 2 of 40, 60, 80, and 100% while maintaining same mechanical ventilation support settings. Similarly, another 100 hundred P a O 2 -F i O 2 data pairs were obtained from 25 smoking patients mechanically ventilated following open heart surgeries. The utility of the new mathematical expression in accurately describing the P a O 2 -F i O 2 relationship in these patients was assessed by the regression and Bland-Altman analyses. Significant correlations were seen between the true and estimated F i O 2 values in non-smoking (r 2  = 0.9424; p < 0.05) and smoking (r 2  = 0.9466; p < 0.05) patients. Tight biases between the true and estimated F i O 2 values for non-smoking (3.1%) and smoking (4.1%) patients were observed. Also, significant correlations were seen between the true and estimated P a O 2 /F i O 2 ratios in non-smoking (r 2  = 0.9530; p < 0.05) and smoking (r 2  = 0.9675; p < 0.05) patients. Tight biases between the true and estimated P a O 2 /F i O 2 ratios for non-smoking (-18 mmHg) and smoking (-16 mmHg) patients were also observed. The new mathematical expression for the description of the P a O 2 -F i O 2 relationship is valid and accurate in non-smoking and smoking patients who are receiving mechanical ventilation for post cardiac surgery.

  7. Prenatal attitudes and parity predict selection into a U.S. child health program: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Anderson, Sarah

    2013-10-01

    Public policies are a determinant of child health disparities; sound evaluation of these programs is essential for good governance. It is impossible in most countries to randomize assignment into child health programs that directly offer benefits. In the absence of this, researchers face the threat of selection bias-the idea that there are innate, immeasurable differences between those who take-up treatment and those who don't. In the field of Program Evaluation we are most concerned with the differences between the eligible people who take-up a program and the eligible people who choose not to enroll. Using a case study of a large U.S. nutrition program, this report illustrates how the perceived benefits of participation may affect the decision to take-up a program. In turn, this highlights sources of potential selection bias. Using data from a longitudinal study of mothers and infants conducted between May and December of 2005, I show that attitudes and beliefs prenatally toward breastfeeding determine enrollment in a U.S nutrition program that offers free Infant Formula. I also find that the significance of the selection bias differs by parity. Analysis reveals that maternal attitudinal responses are more highly predictive of future behavior, compared to standard demographic variables. In sum, this paper makes a case for rigorously understanding the factors that determine take-up of a program and how those factors can modify the results of a program evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extrahepatic biliary atresia with choledochal cyst: Prenatal MRI predicted and post natally confirmed: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Nori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA is an uncommon cause of neonatal jaundice. Antenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI diagnosis of EHBA has not been published to the best of our knowledge till date. EHBA with cystic component is likely to be mistaken for choledochal cyst. A case that was antenatally predicted and postnatally confirmed by surgery and histopathology is being reported. All imaging signs are analyzed herewith. Imaging helps in the prediction of EHBA and also helps in early postnatal surgical referral which in turn improves the results of Kasai′s portoenterostomy.

  9. Re-conceptualising prenatal life stressors in predicting post-partum depression: cumulative-, specific-, and domain-specific approaches to calculating risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Tronick, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal life stress predicts post-partum depression (PPD); however, studies generally examine individual stressors (a specific approach) or the summation of such exposure (a cumulative approach) and their associations with PPD. Such approaches may oversimplify prenatal life stress as a risk factor for PPD. We evaluated approaches in assessing prenatal life stress as a predictor of PPD diagnosis, including a domain-specific approach that captures cumulative life stress while accounting for stress across different life stress domains: financial, relational, and physical health. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based survey, was used to analyse the association of prenatal life stressors with PPD diagnoses among 3566 New York City post-partum women. Specific stressors were not associated with PPD diagnosis after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Exposure to a greater number of stressors was associated with PPD diagnosis, even after adjusting for both sociodemographic variables and specific stressors [odds ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5, 6.7]. Individuals reporting a moderate-to-high number of financial problems along with a moderate-to-high number of physical problems were at greater odds of PPD (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2, 15.3); those with a moderate-to-high number of problems in all three domains were at over fivefold increased odds of PPD (OR = 5.5, CI = 1.1, 28.5). In assessing prenatal stress, clinicians should consider the extent to which stressors occur across different life domains; this association appears stronger with PPD diagnosis than simple assessments of individual stressors, which typically overestimate risk or cumulative exposures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  11. Self-perceived ability to cope with stress without smoking predicts successful smoking cessation 12 months later in a quitline setting: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nohlert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Telephone-based smoking cessation services ('quitlines' are both effective and cost-effective. Knowledge of modifiable baseline factors in real-life settings with heterogeneous participants is essential for the development and improvement of treatment protocols to assist in telephone-based smoking cessation. The aim was to assess self-efficacy as a predictor for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up at the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ. Methods The data were collected from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of proactive and reactive service at the SNTQ. Included were 612 clients calling the SNTQ between February 2009 and September 2010. Outcome measures were self-reported point prevalence and 6-month continuous abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Plausible predictors of smoking cessation were assessed at the first call and in a baseline questionnaire. Self-efficacy was measured by three questions: (1 the likelihood of being smoking free in 1 year; (2 the ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking; and (3 the likelihood of using medication against craving if necessary. The associations between predictors and outcome were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Results Of the three self-efficacy predictors for abstinence at month 12, only the perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking remained significant in the adjusted analyses (odds ratio, OR, 1.1 for point prevalence and 1.2 for 6-month continuous abstinence. The overall strongest predictor in the adjusted analyses was smoking status in the week before baseline (OR 2.7 for point prevalence and 3.1 for 6-month continuous abstinence. Conclusions The perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking at baseline predicted the subjects' abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. An assessment of/adjustment for stress and depressive mood may be appropriate in future smoking cessation

  12. The independent role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to active and passive smoking on the development of early wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardavas, C. I.; Hohmann, C; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases childhood asthma risk, but health effects in children of nonsmoking mothers passively exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy are unclear. We examined the association of maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and wheeze in children aged ≤2 years. I...

  13. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F J; Donny, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p reward. These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

  15. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  17. Predicting the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and its age of onset through modelling genetic risk variants with smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Scott

    Full Text Available The improved characterisation of risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA suggests they could be combined to identify individuals at increased disease risks in whom preventive strategies may be evaluated. We aimed to develop an RA prediction model capable of generating clinically relevant predictive data and to determine if it better predicted younger onset RA (YORA. Our novel modelling approach combined odds ratios for 15 four-digit/10 two-digit HLA-DRB1 alleles, 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and ever-smoking status in males to determine risk using computer simulation and confidence interval based risk categorisation. Only males were evaluated in our models incorporating smoking as ever-smoking is a significant risk factor for RA in men but not women. We developed multiple models to evaluate each risk factor's impact on prediction. Each model's ability to discriminate anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA-positive RA from controls was evaluated in two cohorts: Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC: 1,516 cases; 1,647 controls; UK RA Genetics Group Consortium (UKRAGG: 2,623 cases; 1,500 controls. HLA and smoking provided strongest prediction with good discrimination evidenced by an HLA-smoking model area under the curve (AUC value of 0.813 in both WTCCC and UKRAGG. SNPs provided minimal prediction (AUC 0.660 WTCCC/0.617 UKRAGG. Whilst high individual risks were identified, with some cases having estimated lifetime risks of 86%, only a minority overall had substantially increased odds for RA. High risks from the HLA model were associated with YORA (P<0.0001; ever-smoking associated with older onset disease. This latter finding suggests smoking's impact on RA risk manifests later in life. Our modelling demonstrates that combining risk factors provides clinically informative RA prediction; additionally HLA and smoking status can be used to predict the risk of younger and older onset RA, respectively.

  18. Working Memory Deficits Predict Short-term Smoking Resumption Following Brief Abstinence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Jepson, Christopher; Loughead, James; Perkins, Kenneth; Strasser, Andrew A.; Siegel, Steven; Frey, Joseph; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-01-01

    As many as one-half of smokers relapse in the first week following a quit attempt, and subjective reports of cognitive deficits in early abstinence are associated with increased relapse risk. This study examined whether objective cognitive performance after three days of abstinence predicts smoking resumption in a 7-day simulated quit attempt. Sixty-seven treatment-seeking smokers received either varenicline or placebo (randomized double-blind) for 21 days. Following medication run-up (days 1-10), there was a 3-day mandatory (biochemically confirmed) abstinence period (days 11-13) during which working memory (Letter-N-Back Task) and sustained attention (Continuous Performance Task) were assessed (day 13). Participants were then exposed to a scheduled smoking lapse and instructed to try to remain abstinent for the next 7 days (days 15-21). Poorer cognitive performance (slower correct reaction time on Letter-N-Back task) during abstinence predicted more rapid smoking resumption among those receiving placebo (p=.038) but not among those receiving varenicline. These data lend further support for the growing recognition that cognitive deficits involving working memory are a core symptom of nicotine withdrawal and a potential target for the development of pharmacological and behavioral treatments. PMID:19733449

  19. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke, drink, or take drugs, and whether you exercise regularly. Ask about your stress level. Perform prenatal blood tests to do the ... increased risk of health problems during pregnancy? Will stress during pregnancy affect my ... minerals linked to problem with ovulation Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance ...

  20. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the ‘Smoking Risk Assessment Target’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. Design, setting and participants A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18–45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ2 tests (‘to be cool’, alcohol and cannabis). Results Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Conclusions Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers

  2. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  3. Smoke signals: The decline of brand identity predicts reduced smoking behaviour following the introduction of plain packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tests a social identity based mechanism for the effectiveness of plain tobacco packaging legislation, introduced in Australia in December 2012, to reduce cigarette smoking. 178 Australian smokers rated their sense of identification with fellow smokers of their brand, positive brand stereotypes, quitting behaviours and intentions, and smoking intensity, both before and seven months after the policy change. Mediation analyses showed that smokers, especially those who initially identified strongly with their brand, experienced a significant decrease in their brand identity following the introduction of plain packaging and this was associated with lower smoking behaviours and increased intentions to quit. The findings provide the first quantitative evidence that brand identities may help maintain smoking behaviour, and suggest the role of social-psychological processes in the effectiveness of public health policy.

  4. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  5. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  6. Prenatal exposure to testosterone (2D:4D) and social hierarchy together predict voice behavior in bankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijleveld, Erik; Baalbergen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Prohibitive voice behaviors are employees' expressions of concern about practices, incidents, or behaviors that may potentially harm the organization. In this study, we examined a potential biological correlate of prohibitive voice: prenatal exposure to testosterone. In a sample of bankers, we used 2D:4D (i.e., the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger) as a marker for prenatal exposure to testosterone (lower 2D:4D suggests higher prenatal exposure to testosterone). We used a self-report scale to measure prohibitive voice. For low-ranked employees, lower 2D:4D was related to using less voice. No such relation was found for high-ranked employees. Conclusions should be drawn with caution, because the findings only applied to voice regarding the organization as a whole (and not to voice regarding the own team), and because of methodological limitations. However, the findings are consistent with the ideas that (a) people low in 2D:4D tend to strive to attain and maintain social status and that (b) remaining silent about perceived problems in the organization is-at least for low-ranked employees-a means to achieve this goal.

  7. Comparison of Efficacy and Threat Perception Processes in Predicting Smoking among University Students Based on Extended Parallel Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashirian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The survey of smoking as the most toxic, common and cheapest ad-diction, and its psychological and demographic variables especially among the youth who are efficient and constructive individuals of the society is of great importance. This study was performed to compare efficacy and threat perception in predicting cigarette smoking among university students based on Expended Parallel Process Model (EPPM. Material & Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out on 700 college stu-dents of Hamadan recruited with a stratified sampling method. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographic characteristics, smoking status and EPPM Data analysis was done with the SPSS software (version 16, using t-test, one way ANOVA, Pierson correlation and logistic regression methods. Results: The average scores of threat and efficacy perception were 39.7 and 38.6, respectively. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among participants was 27.1 percent. Also, there were significant differences between the average score of efficacy perception and age, gender, his-tory of drug abuse and dwelling of students (P<0.05. Efficacy and threat perception both predicted student cigarette smoking. Conclusions: Cognitive mediating process of threat perception was a more powerful predictor of cigarette smoking as an unsafe behavior. Therefore, increasing self efficacy and response efficacy of university students aimed at facilitating the acceptance of safe behavior could be note-worthy as a principle in education. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:58-65

  8. Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Littlewood, Rae A; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Goodreau, Natalie; Hutchison, Kent E

    2018-01-01

    Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo. Group independent components analysis was utilized to isolate the DMN, and temporal sorting was used to calculate the difference between the DMN blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during smoke cues and that during food cues for each individual. Food cues were associated with greater deactivation compared with smoke cues in the DMN. In correcting for baseline smoking and other clinical variables, which have been shown to be related to treatment outcome in previous work, a less positive Smoke - Food difference score predicted greater smoking at 6 and 12 weeks when both treatment groups were combined (P = 0.005, β = -0.766). An exploratory analysis of executive control and salience networks demonstrated that a more positive Smoke - Food difference score for executive control network predicted a more robust response to varenicline relative to placebo. These findings provide further support to theories that brain reactivity to palatable cues, and in particular in DMN, may have a direct clinical relevance in NUD. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Smoking History Predicts Sensitivity to PARP Inhibitor Veliparib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Martin; Blais, Normand; Juhasz, Erzsebet; Gorbunova, Vera; Jones, C Michael; Urban, Laszlo; Orlov, Sergey; Barlesi, Fabrice; Kio, Ebenezer; Keilholz, Ulrich; Qin, Qin; Qian, Jiang; Nickner, Caroline; Dziubinski, Juliann; Xiong, Hao; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Dunbar, Martin; Ansell, Peter; He, Lei; McKee, Mark; Giranda, Vincent; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco-related NSCLC is associated with reduced survival and greater genomic instability. Veliparib, a potent poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, augments platinum-induced DNA damage. A phase 2 trial of untreated advanced NSCLC showed a trend for improved outcomes (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.54-1.18, p = 0.27 for overall survival and HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.45-1.15, p = 0.17 for progression-free survival) when veliparib was added to carboplatin/paclitaxel. Here we report an exploratory analysis by smoking history. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive carboplatin/paclitaxel with veliparib, 120 mg (n = 105), or placebo (n = 53). Patients were stratified by histologic subtype and smoking history (recent smokers [n = 95], former smokers [n = 42], and never-smokers [n = 21]). Plasma cotinine level was measured as a chemical index of smoking. Mutation status was assessed by whole exome sequencing (n = 38). Smoking history, histologic subtype, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, sex, and geographic region predicted veliparib benefit in univariate analyses. In multivariate analysis, history of recent smoking was most predictive for veliparib benefit. Recent smokers treated with veliparib derived significantly greater progression-free survival and overall survival benefits (HR = 0.38 [p Smoking history predicted for efficacy with a veliparib-chemotherapy combination; toxicity was acceptable regardless of smoking history. A prespecified analysis of recent smokers is planned for ongoing phase 3 studies of veliparib in NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  11. Ependymal alterations in sudden intrauterine unexplained death and sudden infant death syndrome: possible primary consequence of prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matturri Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ependyma, the lining providing a protective barrier and filtration system separating brain parenchyma from cerebrospinal fluid, is still inadequately understood in humans. In this study we aimed to define, by morphological and immunohistochemical methods, the sequence of developmental steps of the human ependyma in the brainstem (ventricular ependyma and thoracic spinal cord (central canal ependyma of a large sample of fetal and infant death victims, aged from 17 gestational weeks to 8 postnatal months. Additionally, we investigated a possible link between alterations of this structure, sudden unexplained fetal and infant death and maternal smoking. Results Our results demonstrate that in early fetal life the human ependyma shows a pseudostratified cytoarchitecture including many tanycytes and ciliated cells together with numerous apoptotic and reactive astrocytes in the subependymal layer. The ependyma is fully differentiated, with a monolayer of uniform cells, after 32 to 34 gestational weeks. We observed a wide spectrum of ependymal pathological changes in sudden death victims, such as desquamation, clusters of ependymal cells in the subventricular zone, radial glial cells, and the unusual presence of neurons within and over the ependymal lining. These alterations were significantly related to maternal smoking in pregnancy. Conclusions We conclude that in smoking mothers, nicotine and its derivatives easily reach the cerebrospinal fluid in the fetus, immediately causing ependymal damage. Consequently, we suggest that the ependyma should be examined in-depth first in victims of sudden fetal or infant death with mothers who smoke.

  12. Work and Non-Work Physical Activity Predict Real-Time Smoking Level and Urges in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald; Marquez, David X

    2015-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) and smoking are inversely related. However, evidence suggests that some types of PA, namely work-related PA, may show an opposite effect. Despite growing knowledge, there remains a paucity of studies examining the context of these behaviors in naturalistic settings or in young adults, a high-risk group for escalation. Participants were 188 young adults (mean age = 21.32; 53.2% female; 91% current smokers) who participated in an electronic diary week to assess daily smoking and urges and a PA recall to examine daily PA. PA was coded into non-work-related and work-related activity to examine differential effects. We considered both participants' weekly average PA and their daily deviations from their average. Mixed-effects regression models revealed that higher weekly average non-work PA was associated with lower smoking level and urges. Daily deviations in non-work PA did not predict urges; however, increased daily non-work PA relative to participants' weekly average was associated with lower smoking for females but higher levels for males. Regarding work PA, only higher weekly average work PA was associated with higher smoking level for both genders; work PA did not predict urges. Results extend previous literature by documenting differential associations between non-work and work PA and young adult smoking and suggest that young adults engaged in work PA should be considered a high-risk group for escalation. Findings provide theoretical and clinical implications for the use of PA in intervention and highlight the necessity of considering PA as a multidimensional construct when examining its links to health behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Positive predictive value and completeness of prenatally assigned International Classification of Disease-10 kidney anomaly diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maria Rasmussen,1 Morten Smærup Olsen,2 Lone Sunde,1,3 Lars Pedersen,2 Olav Bjørn Petersen4 1Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, 3Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark Objective: Restricting studies of severe congenital malformations to live-born children may introduce substantial bias. In this study, we estimated the attendance to the second-trimester fetal malformation screening program. We also estimated the positive predictive value (PPV of prenatally assigned International Classification of Disease-10 diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR and the completeness of case registration. We used kidney anomalies as an example. Methods: We identified the proportion of all Danish live-born children from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012, who were scanned during the second trimester using the DNPR and the Civil Registration System. Details of all fetuses with specific kidney anomaly diagnoses according to the DNPR were retrieved. The PPV was estimated using the nationwide Astraia database of pregnancy medical charts or traditional medical charts, as gold standard. The completeness was assessed using the total number of cases estimated by the capture–recapture method. Results: Of 372,263 live born infants, 97.3% were scanned during the second trimester. We identified 172 fetuses in the DNPR. Of these, 149 had kidney anomalies according to Astraia or medical chart review, corresponding to a PPV of 87% (95% CI: 81%–91%. The estimated completeness was 43% (95% CI: 38%–49% for the DNPR and 75% (95% CI: 70%–79% for Astraia. Conclusion: Almost all live-born children were scanned during the second trimester in Denmark. However, low completeness may hamper the use of the DNPR for studies of prenatally detected

  14. Prenatal anxiety effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2017-11-01

    This review is based on literature on prenatal anxiety effects that was found on Pubmed and PsycINFO for the years 2010-2016. Prenatal anxiety is thought to have distinct features, although it has been measured both by specific prenatal anxiety symptoms as well as by standardized anxiety scales. Its prevalence has ranged from 21 to 25% and it has been predicted by a number of pregnancy - related variables such as unintended pregnancy, demographic variables such as low acculturation and income and psychosocial factors including pessimism and partner tension. Prenatal anxiety effects on pregnancy include increased cortisol levels, pro-inflammatory cytokines, obstetric problems and cesarean section. Effects on the neonate include lower gestational age, prematurity, less insulin-like growth factor in cord blood, less exclusive breast-feeding and less self-regulation during the heelstick procedure. Prenatal anxiety effects continue into infancy and childhood both on physiological development and emotional/mental development. Among the physiological effects are lower vagal activity across the first two years, and lower immunity, more illnesses and reduced gray matter in childhood. Prenatal anxiety effects on emotional/mental development include greater negative emotionality and in infants, lower mental development scores and internalizing problems. Anxiety disorders occur during childhood and elevated cortisol and internalizing behaviors occur during adolescence. Interventions for prenatal anxiety are virtually nonexistent, although stroking (massaging) the infant has moderated the pregnancy - specific anxiety effects on internalizing behaviors in the offspring. The limitations of this literature include the homogeneity of samples, the frequent use of anxiety measures that are not specific to pregnancy, and the reliance on self-report. Nonetheless, the literature highlights the negative, long-term effects of prenatal anxiety and the need for screening and early

  15. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  16. The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: Factor structure and predictive validity among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Vidrine, Damon J; Costello, Tracy J; Mazas, Carlos; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mejia, Luz Maria; Wetter, David W

    2009-11-01

    Much of the existing research on smoking outcome expectancies has been guided by the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ ). Although the original version of the SCQ has been modified over time for use in different populations, none of the existing versions have been evaluated for use among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States. The present study evaluated the factor structure and predictive validity of the 3 previously validated versions of the SCQ--the original, the SCQ-Adult, and the SCQ-Spanish, which was developed with Spanish-speaking smokers in Spain--among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in Texas. The SCQ-Spanish represented the least complex solution. Each of the SCQ-Spanish scales had good internal consistency, and the predictive validity of the SCQ-Spanish was partially supported. Nearly all the SCQ-Spanish scales predicted withdrawal severity even after controlling for demographics and dependence. Boredom Reduction predicted smoking relapse across the 5- and 12-week follow-up assessments in a multivariate model that also controlled for demographics and dependence. Our results support use of the SCQ-Spanish with Spanish-speaking Latino smokers in the United States.

  17. Automated system for smoke dispersion prediction due to wild fires in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, A.; Stuefer, M.; Higbie, L.; Newby, G.

    2007-12-01

    Community climate models have enabled development of specific environmental forecast systems. The University of Alaska (UAF) smoke group was created to adapt a smoke forecast system to the Alaska region. The US Forest Service (USFS) Missoula Fire Science Lab had developed a smoke forecast system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model including chemistry (WRF/Chem). Following the successful experience of USFS, which runs their model operationally for the contiguous U.S., we develop a similar system for Alaska in collaboration with scientists from the USFS Missoula Fire Science Lab. Wildfires are a significant source of air pollution in Alaska because the climate and vegetation favor annual summer fires that burn huge areas. Extreme cases occurred in 2004, when an area larger than Maryland (more than 25000~km2) burned. Small smoke particles with a diameter less than 10~μm can penetrate deep into lungs causing health problems. Smoke also creates a severe restriction to air transport and has tremendous economical effect. The smoke dispersion and forecast system for Alaska was developed at the Geophysical Institute (GI) and the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC), both at University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). They will help the public and plan activities a few days in advance to avoid dangerous smoke exposure. The availability of modern high performance supercomputers at ARSC allows us to create and run high-resolution, WRF-based smoke dispersion forecast for the entire State of Alaska. The core of the system is a Python program that manages the independent pieces. Our adapted Alaska system performs the following steps \\begin{itemize} Calculate the medium-resolution weather forecast using WRF/Met. Adapt the near real-time satellite-derived wildfire location and extent data that are received via direct broadcast from UAF's "Geographic Information Network of Alaska" (GINA) Calculate fuel moisture using WRF forecasts and National Fire Danger

  18. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  19. Factors across the life course predict women's change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and in midlife: results from the National Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Ploubidis, George B; Goodman, Alissa; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-12-01

    Tobacco smoking before, during and after pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with poor health outcomes for mothers and their children. We investigate predictors across the life course for change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and whether this change predicts smoking status in midlife. Data were from the National Child Development Study (1958 British birth cohort). We included female cohort members who reported a first pregnancy up to age 33 years. Among 1468 women who smoked before pregnancy, we examined predictors reported in childhood (age 11 years), adolescence (age 16 years) and early adulthood (age 23 years) of change in smoking behaviour from 12 months before to during pregnancy using log-binomial regression. The association between change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and smoking status in midlife (age 55 years) was examined while adjusting for predictors across the life course. Among prepregnancy smokers (39%), 26% reduced and 35% quit smoking during pregnancy. Parental smoking and lower social class during childhood, and early adulthood lower social class, depression, early smoking initiation, high smoking intensity, living with a smoker, no pregnancy planning and early motherhood were associated with lower probability of smoking reduction or cessation in pregnancy. Compared with women who smoked before and during pregnancy, women who reduced or quit were two times more likely to be non-smoker at age 55 years (95% CI 1.76 to 2.20). Findings from this population-based birth cohort study lend support for smoking cessation strategies that target those at risk at various stages across the life course. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  1. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  2. Investigation of aggravating psychosocial factors on health and predictability of smoking and alcohol use in post adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrosyni Barmpagianni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  3. Childhood conscientiousness predicts the social gradient of smoking in adulthood: a life course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Bartley, Mel

    2015-04-01

    The social gradient in smoking is well known, with higher rates among those in less advantaged socioeconomic position. Some recent research has reported that personality characteristics partly explain this gradient. However, the majority of existing work is limited by cross-sectional designs unsuitable to determine whether differences in conscientiousness are a predictor or a product of social inequalities. Adopting a life course perspective, we investigated in the current paper the influence of conscientiousness in early and mid-life on the social gradient in smoking and the role of potential confounding factors in a large longitudinal cohort study. Using data from the 1958 National Child Development Study, we examined the extent to which two measures of conscientiousness, one assessed with a personality questionnaire at age 50 and one derived from three related items at 16 years in childhood, explained the social gradient of smoking at age 50 by comparing nested logistic regression models that included social class at birth, cognitive ability, attention and conduct problems at age 7, and educational qualification. Childhood conscientiousness was a significant predictor of smoking at 50 years (OR=0.86, CI (95%) 0.84 to 0.88), explaining 5.0% of the social gradient independent of all other variables. Childhood conscientiousness was a stronger predictor than adult conscientiousness, statistically accounting for the observed direct association of adult conscientiousness with smoking. Conscientiousness may be a predictor rather than a product of social differences in smoking. Inclusion of personality measures and adoption of a life course perspective add significantly to our understanding of health inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Prediction of the effect of indoor smoking on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhm, Radoslav; Holý, Karol; Sedlák, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to hyperproduction of mucus, which acts as a radioprotective layer for the target cells. On the other hand, long-term smoking affects adversely the lungs function, damages the lung tissue and frequently leads to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: This serious disease results in the accumulation of radon progeny in the lung tissue and hence, in an increased radiation dose to the target cells. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of such changes on the bronchial dose and radon risk for current population. (orig.)

  5. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  6. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the susceptibility construct for predicting tobacco cigarette, e-cigarette, cigarillo or little cigar, cigar, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use one and two years after baseline measurement were calculated. At baseline, 29.4% of the sample was susceptible to future tobacco product or e-cigarette use. The sensitivity of the construct ranged from 43.2% (smokeless tobacco) to 59.5% (tobacco cigarettes), the specificity ranged from 70.9% (smokeless tobacco) to 75.9% (tobacco cigarettes), and the positive predictive value ranged from 2.6% (smokeless tobacco) to 32.2% (tobacco cigarettes). Similar values were calculated for each measure of the susceptibility construct. A significant number of youth that did not currently use tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline reported using tobacco products and e-cigarettes over a two-year follow-up period. The predictive validity of the susceptibility construct was high and the construct can be used to predict other tobacco product and e-cigarette use among youth. This study presents the predictive validity of the susceptibility construct for the use of tobacco cigarettes among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. It also presents a novel use of the susceptibility construct for

  7. Prenatal prediction of postnatal large-for-date neonates using a simplified method at MR imaging: comparison with conventional 2D ultrasound estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Caroline; Cannie, Mieke M; De Angelis, Ricardo; Camus, Margaux; Klass, Magdalena; Fellas, Stéphanie; Cecotti, Vera; Dütemeyer, Vivien; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the performance of a simple method of estimating fetal weight (EFW) using MR imaging as compared with 2D US in the prediction of large-for-date neonates. Written informed consent was obtained for this EC-approved study. Between March 2011 and May 2016, 2 groups of women with singleton pregnancies were evaluated: women that underwent US-EFW and MR-EFW within 48 h before delivery and those undergoing these evaluations between 35 + 0 weeks and 37 + 6 weeks of gestation. US-EFW was based on Hadlock et al. and MR-EFW on the formula described by Backer et al. Planimetric measurement of the fetal body volume (FBV) needed for MR-EFW was performed using a semi-automated method and the time required for measurement was noted. Our outcome measure was performance in prediction of large-for-date neonates by MR imaging versus US-EFW using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. 270 women were included in the first part of the study with 48 newborns (17.8%) of birthweight ≥90 th centile and 30 (11.1%) ≥95 th centile. Eighty-three women were included in the second part with 9 newborns (10.8%) of birthweight ≥95 th centile. The median time needed for FBV planimetric measurements in all 353 fetuses was 3.5 (range; 1.5-5.5) min. The area under the ROC curve for prediction of postnatal large-for-date neonates by prenatal MR imaging performed within 48 h before delivery was significantly better than by US (difference between the AUROC = 0.085, P < 0.001; standard error = 0.020 for birthweight ≥90 th centile and 0.036, P = 0.01; standard error = 0.014 for birthweight ≥95 th centile). Similarly, MR-EFW was better than US-EFW, with both performed remote from delivery, in predicting birthweight ≥ 95 th centile (difference between the AUROC = 0.077, P = 0.045; standard error = 0.039). MR planimetry using our purpose-designed semi-automated method is not time-consuming. MR-EFW performed immediately prior to

  8. Positive predictive value estimates for cell-free noninvasive prenatal screening from data of a large referral genetic diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Andrea K; Cheung, Sau Wai; Smith, Janice L; Bi, Weimin; Ward, Patricia A; Peacock, Sandra; Braxton, Alicia; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B; Breman, Amy M

    2017-12-01

    Since its debut in 2011, cell-free fetal DNA screening has undergone rapid expansion with respect to both utilization and coverage. However, conclusive data regarding the clinical validity and utility of this screening tool, both for the originally included common autosomal and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies as well as the more recently added chromosomal microdeletion syndromes, have lagged behind. Thus, there is a continued need to educate clinicians and patients about the current benefits and limitations of this screening tool to inform pre- and posttest counseling, pre/perinatal decision making, and medical risk assessment/management. The objective of this study was to determine the positive predictive value and false-positive rates for different chromosomal abnormalities identified by cell-free fetal DNA screening using a large data set of diagnostic testing results on invasive samples submitted to the laboratory for confirmatory studies. We tested 712 patient samples sent to our laboratory to confirm a cell-free fetal DNA screening result, indicating high risk for a chromosome abnormality. We compiled data from all cases in which the indication for confirmatory testing was a positive cell-free fetal DNA screen, including the common trisomies, sex chromosomal aneuploidies, microdeletion syndromes, and other large genome-wide copy number abnormalities. Testing modalities included fluorescence in situ hybridization, G-banded karyotype, and/or chromosomal microarray analysis performed on chorionic villus samples, amniotic fluid, or postnatally obtained blood samples. Positive predictive values and false-positive rates were calculated from tabulated data. The positive predictive values for trisomy 13, 18, and 21 were consistent with previous reports at 45%, 76%, and 84%, respectively. For the microdeletion syndrome regions, positive predictive values ranged from 0% for detection of Cri-du-Chat syndrome and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome to 14% for 1p36 deletion

  9. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Acute post cessation smoking. A strong predictive factor for metabolic syndrome among adult Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlDaghri, Nasser M.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the influence of tobacco exposure in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the adult Saudi population. Six hundred and sixty-four adults (305 males and 359 females) aged 25-70 years were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, between June 2006 and May 2007. We classified the participants into non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers (defined as complete cessation for 1-2 years). All subjects were screened for the presence of MS using the modified American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Metabolic syndrome was highest among ex-smokers regardless of definition used. Relative risk for ex-smokers (95% CI: 2.23, 1.06-4.73) was more than twice in harboring MS as compared to non-smokers (95% CI: 2.78, 1.57-4.92) (p=0.009). Acute post-cessation smoking is a strong predictor for MS among male and female Arabs. Smoking cessation programs should include a disciplined lifestyle and dietary intervention to counteract the MS-augmenting side-effect of smoking cessation. (author)

  11. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  12. Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence E Forrester

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition in childhood manifests as oedematous (kwashiorkor, marasmic kwashiorkor and non-oedematous (marasmus syndromes with very different prognoses. Kwashiorkor differs from marasmus in the patterns of protein, amino acid and lipid metabolism when patients are acutely ill as well as after rehabilitation to ideal weight for height. Metabolic patterns among marasmic patients define them as metabolically thrifty, while kwashiorkor patients function as metabolically profligate. Such differences might underlie syndromic presentation and prognosis. However, no fundamental explanation exists for these differences in metabolism, nor clinical pictures, given similar exposures to undernutrition. We hypothesized that different developmental trajectories underlie these clinical-metabolic phenotypes: if so this would be strong evidence in support of predictive adaptation model of developmental plasticity.We reviewed the records of all children admitted with severe acute malnutrition to the Tropical Metabolism Research Unit Ward of the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica during 1962-1992. We used Wellcome criteria to establish the diagnoses of kwashiorkor (n = 391, marasmus (n = 383, and marasmic-kwashiorkor (n = 375. We recorded participants' birth weights, as determined from maternal recall at the time of admission. Those who developed kwashiorkor had 333 g (95% confidence interval 217 to 449, p<0.001 higher mean birthweight than those who developed marasmus.These data are consistent with a model suggesting that plastic mechanisms operative in utero induce potential marasmics to develop with a metabolic physiology more able to adapt to postnatal undernutrition than those of higher birthweight. Given the different mortality risks of these different syndromes, this observation is supportive of the predictive adaptive response hypothesis and is the first empirical demonstration of the advantageous effects of such a

  13. Sociodemographic characteristics and diabetes predict invalid self-reported non-smoking in a population-based study of U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Brent J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all studies reporting smoking status collect self-reported data. The objective of this study was to assess sociodemographic characteristics and selected, common smoking-related diseases as predictors of invalid reporting of non-smoking. Valid self-reported smoking may be related to the degree to which smoking is a behavior that is not tolerated by the smoker's social group. Methods True smoking was defined as having serum cotinine of 15+ng/ml. 1483 "true" smokers 45+ years of age with self-reported smoking and serum cotinine data from the Mobile Examination Center were identified in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Invalid non-smoking was defined as "true" smokers self-reporting non-smoking. To assess predictors of invalid self-reported non-smoking, odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for age, race/ethnicity-gender categories, education, income, diabetes, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Multiple logistic regression modeling took into account the complex survey design and sample weights. Results Among smokers with diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 15%, ranging from 0% for Mexican-American (MA males to 22%–25% for Non-Hispanic White (NHW males and Non-Hispanic Black (NHB females. Among smokers without diabetes, invalid non-smoking status was 5%, ranging from 3% for MA females to 10% for NHB females. After simultaneously taking into account diabetes, education, race/ethnicity and gender, smokers with diabetes (ORAdj = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.35–7.34, who did not graduate from high school (ORAdj = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.30–3.22 and who were NHB females (ORAdj = 5.12; 95% CI: 1.41–18.58 were more likely to self-report as non-smokers than smokers without diabetes, who were high school graduates, and MA females, respectively. Having a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension did not predict invalid reporting of non-smoking. Conclusion Validity of self

  14. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  15. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kamin, Hayley S.; Hughes, David A.; Rodney, Nicole C.; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which…

  16. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  17. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    López, Jaime Octavio; Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  18. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Preconception Care and Prenatal Care What is preconception care? Preconception care is the ... improve the health of your child. What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care a woman ...

  19. Group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Carter, Ebony B

    2017-06-01

    Patients participating in group prenatal care gather together with women of similar gestational ages and 2 providers who cofacilitate an educational session after a brief medical assessment. The model was first described in the 1990s by a midwife for low-risk patients and is now practiced by midwives and physicians for both low-risk patients and some high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes. The majority of literature on group prenatal care uses CenteringPregnancy, the most popular model. The first randomized controlled trial of CenteringPregnancy showed that it reduced the risk of preterm birth in low-risk women. However, recent meta-analyses have shown similar rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit admission between women participating in group prenatal care and individual prenatal care. There may be subgroups, such as African Americans, who benefit from this type of prenatal care with significantly lower rates of preterm birth. Group prenatal care seems to result in increased patient satisfaction and knowledge and use of postpartum family planning as well as improved weight gain parameters. The literature is inconclusive regarding breast-feeding, stress, depression, and positive health behaviors, although it is theorized that group prenatal care positively affects these outcomes. It is unclear whether group prenatal care results in cost savings, although it may in large-volume practices if each group consists of approximately 8-10 women. Group prenatal care requires a significant paradigm shift. It can be difficult to implement and sustain. More randomized trials are needed to ascertain the true benefits of the model, best practices for implementation, and subgroups who may benefit most from this innovative way to provide prenatal care. In short, group prenatal care is an innovative and promising model with comparable pregnancy outcomes to individual prenatal care in the general population and improved outcomes in some

  20. Predictive role of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in ovine burn and smoke inhalation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Whorton, Elbert B; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Hamahata, Atsumori; Jonkam, Collette; Esechie, Aimalohi; von Borzyskowski, Sanna; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation injury frequently occurs in burn patients and contributes to the morbidity and mortality of these injuries. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin has been proposed as an indicator of the severity of inhalation injury; however, the interrelation between arterial carboxyhemoglobin and histological alterations has not yet been investigated. Chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to a third degree burn of 40% of the total body surface area and inhalation of 48 breaths of cotton smoke. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured immediately after injury and correlated to clinical parameters of pulmonary function as well as histopathology scores from lung tissue harvested 24 hours after the injury. The injury was associated with a significant decline in pulmonary oxygenation and increases in pulmonary shunting, lung lymph flow, wet/dry weight ratio, congestion score, edema score, inflammation score, and airway obstruction scores. Carboxyhemoglobin was negatively correlated to pulmonary oxygenation and positively correlated to pulmonary shunting, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. No significant correlations could be detected between carboxyhemoglobin and histopathology scores and airway obstruction scores. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin in sheep with combined burn and inhalation injury are correlated with the degree of pulmonary failure and edema formation, but not with certain histological alterations including airway obstruction scores.

  1. Prenatal Nitrate Exposure and Childhood Asthma. Influence of Maternal Prenatal Stress and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Di, Qian; Rosa, Maria José; Lee, Alison; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Impact of ambient pollution upon children's asthma may differ by sex, and exposure dose and timing. Psychosocial stress can also modify pollutant effects. These associations have not been examined for in utero ambient nitrate exposure. We implemented Bayesian-distributed lag interaction models to identify sensitive prenatal windows for the influence of nitrate (NO 3 - ) on child asthma, accounting for effect modification by sex and stress. Analyses included 752 mother-child dyads. Daily ambient NO 3 - exposure during pregnancy was derived using a hybrid chemical transport (Geos-Chem)/land-use regression model and natural log transformed. Prenatal maternal stress was indexed by a negative life events score (high [>2] vs. low [≤2]). The outcome was clinician-diagnosed asthma by age 6 years. Most mothers were Hispanic (54%) or black (29%), had a high school education or less (66%), never smoked (80%), and reported low prenatal stress (58%); 15% of children developed asthma. BDILMs adjusted for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy obesity, atopy, and smoking status identified two sensitive windows (7-19 and 33-40 wk gestation), during which increased NO 3 - was associated with greater odds of asthma, specifically among boys born to mothers reporting high prenatal stress. Cumulative effects of NO 3 - across pregnancy were also significant in this subgroup (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-5.39; per interquartile range increase in ln NO 3 - ). Prenatal NO 3 - exposure during distinct sensitive windows was associated with incident asthma in boys concurrently exposed to high prenatal stress.

  2. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruyt, A.; Lemaigre, V.; Salhi, B.; van Gucht, D.; Tibboel, H.; van Bockstaele, B.; de Houwer, J.; van Meerbeeck, J.; Nackaerts, K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. Objectives: The main objective of

  3. Does fetal smoke exposure affect childhood bone mass? The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: We assessed the intrauterine influence of maternal smoking on childhood bone mass by comparing parental prenatal and postnatal smoking habits. We observed higher bone mass in children exposed to maternal smoking, explained by higher body weight. Maternal smoking or related

  4. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  5. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  6. Predictors of Timely Prenatal Care Initiation and Adequate Utilization in a Sample of Late Adolescent Texas Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar; Kehoe, Priscilla; Heilemann, MarySue V

    2018-03-01

    Little is known of late adolescent Texas Latinas' prenatal care perceptions or how these perceptions predict timely prenatal care initiation or adequate utilization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to describe and compare these perceptions between participants with timely versus late prenatal care initiation and adequate, intermediate, and inadequate prenatal care utilization; and to determine predictors of timely prenatal care initiation and adequate utilization. Fifty-four postpartum Latinas were recruited through social media. Eligibility criteria were 18 to 21 years old, Texas-born, primiparous, uncomplicated pregnancy/delivery, and English literate. Prenatal care perceptions were measured with the Revised Better Babies Survey and Access Barriers to Care Index. Participants had favorable views of prenatal care benefits; however, not living with the baby's father predicted inadequate prenatal care, Wald χ 2 (1) = 4.93, p = .026. Perceived benefits of timely and adequate prenatal care predicted timely prenatal care initiation, χ 2 (1) = 7.47, p = .006. Self-reported depression during pregnancy predicted timely entry into prenatal care, χ 2 (1) = 4.73, p = .03. Participants' positive prenatal care perceptions did not predict adequate prenatal care utilization, indicating that barriers serve as powerful obstacles in late adolescent Texas Latinas.

  7. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Åsa; Hohmann, Cynthia; Orsini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure.......Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure....

  8. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  9. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Participants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting

  10. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  11. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides, and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesize that prenatal exposure to nicotine, a major component of tobacco that transverses the placenta, is largely responsible for the development of asthma in children born of mothers who smoke...

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine and Childhood Asthma: Role of Nicotine Acetylcholine Receptors, Neuropeptides and Fibronectin Expression in Lung

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease characterized by airway dysfunction. Of the many factors implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, a strong association exists between prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS...

  14. Fetal and neo-natal maxillary ontogeny in extant humans and the utility of prenatal maxillary morphology in predicting ancestral affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The midface of extant H. sapiens is known to undergo shape changes through fetal and neo-natal ontogeny; however, little work has been done to quantify these shape changes. Further, while midfacial traits which vary in frequency between populations of extant humans are presumed to develop prenatally, patterns of population-specific variation maxillary shape across ontogeny are not well documented. Only one study of fetal ontogeny which included specific discussion of the midface has taken a 3D geometric morphometric approach, and that study was limited to one population (Japanese). The present research project seeks to augment our understanding of fetal maxillary growth patterns, most especially in terms of intraspecific variation. Materials and Methods Three-dimensional coordinate landmark data were collected on the right maxillae of 102 fetal and neo-natal individuals from three groups (Euro-American, African-American, “Mixed Ancestry”). Results Shape changes were seen mainly in the lateral wall of the piriform aperture, the anterior nasal spine, and the subnasal alveolar region. The greatest difference across age groups (2nd Trimester, 3rd Trimester, Neonates) was between the second and third trimester. Euro-Americans and African-Americans clustered by population and differences in midfacial morphology related to ancestry could be discerned as early as the second trimester (p=0.002), indicating that population variation in maxillary morphology appears very early in ontogeny. Discussion The midface is a critical region of the skull for assessing ancestry and these results indicate that maxillary morphology may be useful for estimating ancestry for prenatal individuals as young as the second trimester. PMID:27412693

  15. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Lung Injury Following Smoke Inhalation: Predictive Value of Sputum Biomarkers and Time Course of Lung Inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Jefferey L

    2007-01-01

    ...: Bronchial secretions from 200-250 intubated patients with smoke inhalation injury will be evaluated for initial and longitudinal changes concentrations of substance P, TNF- , IL-1, IL-8, and IL-10...

  17. The role of fear and disgust in predicting the effectiveness of television advertisements that graphically depict the health harms of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Harpa Lind; Holm, Jeffrey E; Poltavski, Dmitri; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy

    2014-12-11

    Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective. Our laboratory study included 144 women and men aged 18 to 33; 84% were current nonsmokers. All participants viewed 6 antismoking television advertisements that depicted the health harms of smoking; they rated their responses of fear and disgust and the effectiveness of the advertisements. We used multilevel modeling to test the effects of the following in predicting effectiveness: fear, disgust, the fear-disgust interaction, the advertisement, and the participant's sex and smoking status. Follow-up analyses examined differences in ratings of fear, disgust, and effectiveness. Advertisement, fear, disgust, and the fear-disgust interaction were each significant predictors of effectiveness. Smoking status and sex were not significant predictors. The 3 advertisements that elicited the highest ratings of fear and disgust were rated the most effective. Our findings support the hypothesis that antismoking advertisements of health harms that elicit the greatest responses of fear or disgust are the most effective. When advertisements elicit high ratings of both fear and disgust, advertisements with graphic imagery are effective, whereas advertisements without graphic imagery are not.

  18. Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles© 2008 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara N D; Sandhu, Paramjit K; Honein, Margaret A; Green, Katie K; Berkowitz, Judy M; Pace, Jill; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2015-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is causally associated with many adverse health outcomes. Quitting smoking, even late in pregnancy, improves some outcomes. Among adults in general and reproductive-aged women, we sought to understand knowledge and attitudes towards prenatal smoking and its effects on pregnancy outcomes. Using data from the 2008 HealthStyles© survey, we assessed knowledge and attitudes about prenatal smoking and smoking cessation. We classified respondents as having high knowledge if they gave ≥ 5 correct responses to six knowledge questions regarding the health effects of prenatal smoking. We calculated frequencies of correct responses to assess knowledge about prenatal smoking and estimated relative risk to examine knowledge by demographic and lifestyle factors. Only 15 % of all respondents and 23 % of reproductive-aged women had high knowledge of the adverse effects of prenatal smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth and low birth weight were most often recognized as adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Nearly 70 % of reproductive-aged women smokers reported they would quit smoking if they became pregnant without any specific reasons from their doctor. Few respondents recognized the benefits of quitting smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy. Our results suggest that many women lack knowledge regarding the increased risks for adverse outcomes associated with prenatal smoking. Healthcare providers should follow the recommendations provided by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which include educating women about the health risks of prenatal smoking and the benefits of quitting. Healthcare providers should emphasize quitting smoking even after the first trimester of pregnancy.

  19. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... too. By Mayo Clinic Staff The goal of prenatal care is to ensure that you and your baby ...

  20. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's position. By Mayo Clinic Staff Prenatal care is an important part of a healthy pregnancy, ...

  1. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  2. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  3. Perceived difficulty quitting predicts enrollment in a smoking-cessation program for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sonia A; Scheumann, Angela L; Fowler, Karen E; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Terrell, Jeffrey E

    2010-05-01

    To determine the predictors of participation in a smoking-cessation program among patients with head and neck cancer. This cross-sectional study is a substudy of a larger, randomized trial of patients with head and neck cancer that determined the predictors of smokers' participation in a cessation intervention. Otolaryngology clinics at three Veterans Affairs medical centers (Ann Arbor, MI, Gainesville, FL, and Dallas, TX), and the University of Michigan Hospital in Ann Arbor. 286 patients who had smoked within six months of the screening survey were eligible for a smoking-cessation intervention. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the independent predictors of smokers' participation in an intervention study. Perceived difficulty quitting (as a construct of self-efficacy), health behaviors (i.e., smoking and problem drinking), clinical characteristics (i.e., depression and cancer site and stage), and demographic variables. Forty-eight percent of those eligible participated. High perceived difficulty quitting was the only statistically significant predictor of participation, whereas problem drinking, lower depressive symptoms, and laryngeal cancer site approached significance. Special outreach may be needed to reach patients with head and neck cancer who are overly confident in quitting, problem drinkers, and patients with laryngeal cancer. Oncology nurses are in an opportune position to assess patients' perceived difficulty quitting smoking and motivate them to enroll in cessation programs, ultimately improving quality of life, reducing risk of recurrence, and increasing survival for this population.

  4. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  6. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans. Pt. 3.. Personal characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents) and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. T. 3. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren (Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern) und geographische Unterschiede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Kinderheilkunde

    2001-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of personal characteristics, like gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents, and geographic origin, on the neonatal pollution with these harmful substances. Methods: Cord blood samples were taken from 200 full-term, healthy neonates born in Fulda or Duesseldorf, respectively, in 1998. The samples were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored at-20 C up to analysis, which was performed in 1999. The parents must have lived life-long in each town and should never accidentally or at their working places have been exposed to high concentrations of PCBs or HCB. Six PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) and HCB were analysed with capillary gas-chromatography with electron capture detection. Results: We could demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between the prenatal uptake of PCBs and HCB and the gestational age of the newborns as well as the maternal age in the study group of 199 newborns (one child was excluded because of unusually high PCB values). Thereby, neonates born in the 42. week had 3.5-fold higher PCB values than children born in the 38. week, and newborns of a 50-year-old mother showed up to 500% higher values than children of a 20-year-old woman (p < 0.0001). A correlation with birth weight was not found. Furthermore, newborns of active smoking women exhibited significantly higher PCB and HCB values than children of passive smoking or non-smoking mothers. Prenatal uptake of PCBs was not different with regard to the geographic origin of the newborns, i.e. Fulda or Duesseldorf, whereas newborns from Duesseldorf showed about 62% higher HCB concentrations. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss personenbezogener Charakteristika, wie des Gestationsalters, des Geburtsgewichts, des muetterlichen Alters und des Tabakkonsums der Eltern, sowie geographischer Unterschiede auf die neonatale Schadstoffbelastung zu

  7. Effectiveness of a Pregnancy Smoking Intervention: The Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…

  8. Predicted and observed growth of Listeria monocytogenes in seafood challenge tests and in naturally contaminated cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Jørgensen, Lasse Vigel

    1998-01-01

    with various types of seafoods. Storage trials clearly showed the growth of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon to be markedly slower than growth in inoculated challenge tests. Consequently, all four models substantially overestimated growth in the naturally contaminated products...

  9. Modelling and predicting the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, B.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate and model the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage micro-organisms in cold-smoked salmon.Methods and Results: Growth kinetics of L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Photobacterium phosphoreum were determined...

  10. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal

  11. Ethnicity, education attainment, media exposure, and prenatal care in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Korinek, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Prenatal care coverage in Vietnam has been improving, but ethnic minority women still lag behind in receiving adequate level and type of care. This paper examines ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization by comparing two groups of ethnic minority and majority women. We examine the roots of ethnic disparity in prenatal care utilization, focusing on how education and media exposure change health behaviours and lessen disparities. We rely on the 2002 Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey to draw our sample, predictors and the three dimensions of prenatal care, including timing of onset, frequency of visits, and type of provider. Results from multinomial-, and binary-logistic regression provide evidence that ethnic minority women are less likely to obtain frequent prenatal care and seek care from professional providers than their majority counterparts. However, we find that ethnic minority women are more likely to obtain early care compared to ethnic majority women. Results for predicted probabilities suggest that education and media exposure positively influenced prenatal care behaviours with higher level of education and media exposure associating with accelerated probability of meeting prenatal care requirements. Our results imply the needs for expansion of media access and schools as well as positive health messages being broadcasted in culturally competent ways.

  12. Combined heavy smoking and drinking predicts overall but not disease-free survival after curative resection of locoregional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun P

    2016-07-01

    neither-users (95% CI =1.020–1.901, P=0.037.Conclusion: We identified that combined heavy smoking and drinking might predict poor prognosis in ESCC patients. Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, smoking, drinking, survival, prognosis

  13. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1937360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; George, Julie; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Denaxas, Spiros; West, Robert; Smeeth, Liam; Timmis, Adam; Hemingway, Harry

    2015-02-01

    It is not known how smoking affects the initial presentation of a wide range of chronic and acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), nor the extent to which associations are heterogeneous. We estimated the lifetime cumulative incidence of 12 CVD presentations, and examined associations with smoking and smoking cessation. Cohort study of 1.93 million people aged ≥30years, with no history of CVD, in 1997-2010. Individuals were drawn from linked electronic health records in England, covering primary care, hospitalizations, myocardial infarction (MI) registry and cause-specific mortality (the CALIBER programme). During 11.6 million person-years of follow-up, 114859 people had an initial non-fatal or fatal CVD presentation. By age 90 years, current vs never smokers' lifetime risks varied from 0.4% vs 0.2% for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), to 8.9% vs 2.6% for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Current smoking showed no association with cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death [hazard ratio (HR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.19).The strength of association differed markedly according to disease type: stable angina (HR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15),transient ischaemic attack (HR=1.41, 95% CI 1.28-1.55), unstable angina (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.38-1.72), intracerebral haemorrhage (HR=1.61, 95% CI 1.37-1.89), heart failure (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.47-1.79), ischaemic stroke (HR=1.90, 95% CI 1.72-2.10), MI (HR=2.32, 95% CI 2.20-2.45), SAH (HR= 2.70, 95% CI 2.27-3.21), PAD (HR=5.16, 95% CI 4.80-5.54) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (HR=5.18, 95% CI 4.61-5.82). Population-attributable fractions were lower for women than men for unheralded coronary death, ischaemic stroke, PAD and AAA. Ten years after quitting smoking, the risks of PAD, AAA (in men) and unheralded coronary death remained increased (HR=1.36, 1.47 and 2.74, respectively). The heterogeneous associations of smoking with different CVD presentations suggests different underlying mechanisms and have important

  14. Will personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors? A prospective cohort study of children and adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Hsi-Ping; Wu, Wen-Chi; Luh, Dih-Ling; Yen, Lee-Lan; Hurng, Baai-Shyun; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2016-12-01

    This study examined how personal values predict the development of smoking and drinking behaviors in adolescence. The longitudinal data of 1545 adolescents over a 6-year period were analyzed. The results showed that adolescents who valued health and academics had similarly lower odds of reporting cigarette and alcohol use and those who valued friends had significantly higher odds. While the odds increased over time, the trend on alcohol use lessened for adolescents who valued academics, while the trend accelerated for those who valued friends. The finding suggests the important role that personal values play in adolescent risk behavioral development.

  15. Fatores preditivos de hipertensão gestacional em adolescentes primíparas: análise do pré-natal, da MAPA e da microalbuminúria Predictive factors for pregnancy hypertension in primiparous adolescents: analysis of prenatal care, ABPM and microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Marques de Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    sensibilidade de 80% e especificidade de 60% para o desenvolvimento de HG. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa de fatores de preditividade de HG em adolescentes primíparas se demonstrou de fácil aplicabilidade e útil para estratificar gestantes de alto risco no desenvolvimento de HG.OBJECTIVE: To quantify PH prevalence in primiparous adolescents; define predictive factors for the occurrence of PH and its impact on newborns. METHODS: We followed 29 primiparous adolescents from the prenatal period through the 12th week of the puerperium, with a mean of sixteen years of age, served at the Outpatient Facility for Adolescents of Maternidade Escola Assis Chateaubriand (MEAC of Universidade Federal do Ceará (Fortaleza, Brazil. The pregnant adolescents were divided into two groups, that is, those who remained normotensive (Group I and those who developed PH (Group II. The variables investigated in the assessment of the value of predictability for the development of PH were anthropometric measures, socioeconomic aspects, smoking habit, inheritance for SAH (father/mother, prenatal tests requested in the first prenatal care visit in addition to microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in the 28th week of gestation. The pregnant adolescents were followed up at delivery and late puerperium (12th week after the puerperium. The newborns to the mothers included in our study were assessed at birth according to the Apgar score and the Capurro method, for weight, height and perinatal hypoxia. RESULTS: The prevalence of PH was 51.7%. Inheritance for SAH presented the highest predictive value for PH with an odds ratio of 10.99. Diastolic arterial pressure equal to or above 70 mmHg at the gestational age of 35 weeks was statistically significant as a predictive value for PH. At ABPM we found a predictive value for PH: diastolic pressure load during alertness, diastolic and systolic pressure load during night sleep, pressure variability and maximum diastolic pressure during sleep

  16. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  18. The Prenatal Care at School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Carol H.; Nasso, Jacqueline T.; Swider, Susan; Ellison, Brenda R.; Griswold, Daniel L.; Brooks, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    School absenteeism and poor compliance with prenatal appointments are concerns for pregnant teens. The Prenatal Care at School (PAS) program is a new model of prenatal care involving local health care providers and school personnel to reduce the need for students to leave school for prenatal care. The program combines prenatal care and education…

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  1. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  2. Exposure to parental smoking and child growth and development: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungmi; Decker, Adriana; Kramer, Michael S

    2013-07-10

    Studies on adverse childhood health and development outcomes associated with parental smoking have shown inconsistent results. Using a cohort of Belarusian children, we examined differences in cognition, behaviors, growth, adiposity, and blood pressure at 6.5 years according to prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking. Using cluster-adjusted multivariable regression, effects of exposure to prenatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose mothers smoked during and after pregnancy with those whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only; effects of postnatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose fathers smoked with those whose fathers did not smoke among children of non-smoking mothers after adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic and family characteristics. After adjusting for confounders, children exposed vs unexposed to prenatal maternal smoking had no differences in mean IQ, teacher-rated behavioral problems, adiposity, or blood pressure. Children exposed to maternal postnatal smoking had slightly increased behavioral problems [0.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.2 for total difficulties], higher body mass index [0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.3], greater total skinfold thickness [0.4, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], and higher odds of overweight or obesity [1.4, 95% CI; 1.1, 1.7]. Similar magnitudes of association were observed with postnatal paternal smoking. No adverse cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes were associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking. Observed associations with postnatal smoking of both parents may reflect residual confounding by genetic and family environmental factors.

  3. Measuring Burden of Unhealthy Behaviours Using a Multivariable Predictive Approach: Life Expectancy Lost in Canada Attributable to Smoking, Alcohol, Physical Inactivity, and Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Douglas G; Perez, Richard; Sanmartin, Claudia; Taljaard, Monica; Hennessy, Deirdre; Wilson, Kumanan; Tanuseputro, Peter; Manson, Heather; Bennett, Carol; Tuna, Meltem; Fisher, Stacey; Rosella, Laura C

    2016-08-01

    Behaviours such as smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, and unhealthy alcohol consumption are leading risk factors for death. We assessed the Canadian burden attributable to these behaviours by developing, validating, and applying a multivariable predictive model for risk of all-cause death. A predictive algorithm for 5 y risk of death-the Mortality Population Risk Tool (MPoRT)-was developed and validated using the 2001 to 2008 Canadian Community Health Surveys. There were approximately 1 million person-years of follow-up and 9,900 deaths in the development and validation datasets. After validation, MPoRT was used to predict future mortality and estimate the burden of smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, and poor diet in the presence of sociodemographic and other risk factors using the 2010 national survey (approximately 90,000 respondents). Canadian period life tables were generated using predicted risk of death from MPoRT. The burden of behavioural risk factors attributable to life expectancy was estimated using hazard ratios from the MPoRT risk model. The MPoRT 5 y mortality risk algorithms were discriminating (C-statistic: males 0.874 [95% CI: 0.867-0.881]; females 0.875 [0.868-0.882]) and well calibrated in all 58 predefined subgroups. Discrimination was maintained or improved in the validation cohorts. For the 2010 Canadian population, unhealthy behaviour attributable life expectancy lost was 6.0 years for both men and women (for men 95% CI: 5.8 to 6.3 for women 5.8 to 6.2). The Canadian life expectancy associated with health behaviour recommendations was 17.9 years (95% CI: 17.7 to 18.1) greater for people with the most favourable risk profile compared to those with the least favourable risk profile (88.2 years versus 70.3 years). Smoking, by itself, was associated with 32% to 39% of the difference in life expectancy across social groups (by education achieved or neighbourhood deprivation). Multivariable predictive algorithms such as MPoRT can be used

  4. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  5. Maternal Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Offspring Externalizing Behavioral Problems: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Beaver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A body of empirical research has revealed that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is related to a host of negative outcomes, including reduced cognitive abilities, later-life health problems, and childhood behavioral problems. While these findings are often interpreted as evidence of the causal role that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke has on human phenotypes, emerging evidence has suggested that the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and behavioral phenotypes may be spurious. The current analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B revealed that the association between prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke and externalizing behavioral problems was fully accounted for by confounding factors. The implications that these findings have for policy and research are discussed.

  6. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genes Underlying Positive Influence Of Prenatal Environmental Enrichment And ... Prenatal environmental enrichment (EE) has been proven to positively affect but ... Conclusion: The negative-positive prenatal effect could contribute to altered ...

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and infantile neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Eun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Chang, Namsoo; Roh, Young-Man; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Yeni; Oh, Se-young; Kim, Young Ju; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2011-05-01

    During prenatal development, the nervous system may be more susceptible to environmental toxicants, such as secondhand smoke. The authors assessed the effects of prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure on the neurodevelopment of 6-month infants. The subjects were 414 mother and infant pairs with no medical problems, taken from the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health study. Prenatal and postnatal exposures to secondhand smoke were determined using maternal self-reports. Examiners, unaware of exposure history, assessed the infants at 6 months of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Bayley scores were compared for secondhand smoke exposed and unexposed groups after adjusting for potential confounders. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the risk of developmental delay posed by SHS exposure. The multivariate model included residential area, maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education, income, infant sex, parity, birth weight, and type of feeding. After adjusting for covariates, secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy was found to be related to a decrease in mental developmental index score, but not to a decrease in psychomotor developmental index score. In addition, secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy was found to increase the risk of developmental delay (mental developmental index score ≤85) at 6 months. This study suggests that the infants of non-smoking women exposed to secondhand smoke are at risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  10. Characteristics and outcome and the omphalocele circumference/abdominal circumference ratio in prenatally diagnosed fetal omphalocele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinrouweler, C. E.; Kuijper, C. F.; van Zalen-Sprock, M. M.; Mathijssen, I. B.; Bilardo, C. M.; Pajkrt, E.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of fetuses with prenatally diagnosed omphalocele and to investigate the predictive value of the omphalocele circumference/abdominal circumference (OC/AC) ratio - a measure for the relative size of the omphalocele. This study includes all fetuses prenatally diagnosed with

  11. Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Linnet, Karen Markussen; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2008-01-01

    -pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms. RESULTS: Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where...... smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few 'normal' smokers. We compared...

  12. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  13. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  14. Predicting Attrition, Performance, Reenlistment, and Hospitalizations from the Smoking History of Women Prior to Entering the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conway, Terry L

    2006-01-01

    This study of women sailors examined whether tobacco use prior to entering the Navy predicted subsequent career outcomes related to length of service, early attrition, misconduct, and hospitalizations...

  15. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will discuss the importance of proper nutrition and prenatal vitamins. Your first prenatal visit is a good time to discuss exercise, sex during pregnancy and other lifestyle issues. You might also discuss your work environment and the use of medications during pregnancy. If ...

  16. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially

  17. Predicting postnatal renal function of prenatally detected posterior urethral valves using fetal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Alice; Panait, Nicoleta; Panuel, Michel; Alessandrini, Pierre; D'Ercole, Claude; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Merrot, Thierry

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fetal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) determination to predict postnatal renal function (nadir creatinine at 1 year and eGFR) of men with posterior urethral valves (PUV). Between 2003 and 2014, 11 MRI were performed on fetuses (between 28 and 32 weeks) in whom second trimester sonography suggested severe bilateral urinary tract anomalies, suspected of PUV. The ADC of the 11 fetuses ranged from 1.3 to 2.86 mm 2  s -1 (median = 1.79 mm 2  s -1 , normal range for fetal kidney: 1.1-1.8). Two pregnancies with ADC > 2.6 mm 2  s -1 were interrupted; the autopsy confirmed PUV and Potter syndrome. For the remaining nine babies, the follow-up was 5.4 years (0.8-10). Four children with abnormal ADC (1.8-2.3) had chronic kidney disease. The remaining five cases with normal nadir creatinine and eGFR had normal ADC. One case with unilateral elevated ADC had a poor ipsilateral renal function on dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Here, it seems that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with ADC determination could be useful in accurately evaluating fetal kidneys in PUV and predicting renal function. It may be an additional, non-invasive method when biologic and sonographic findings are inconclusive, especially in the case of oligohydramnios. Further studies are needed to confirm our data. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To establish a means for prenatal prediction of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) through survival motor neuron (SMN) gene deletion analysis and genetic counseling in families with a child affected with SMA. Methods Genetic analysis for prenatal prediction of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease was performed in a at risk Chinese family by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in SMN gene exons 7 and 8.Results The pregnancy was positive for the homozygous deletion of the SMN gene, thus the fetus was diagnosed as being affected and the pregnancy was terminated.Conclusion This approach is fast and reliable for DNA-based prenatal diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffmann disease.

  19. Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andra M; Mioduszewski, Ola; Hatchard, Taylor; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fall, Carley; Fried, Peter A

    Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure into adolescence. Investigating if these findings continue into young adulthood and exploring the neural basis of these effects was the purpose of this research. Thirty one young adults (ages 18-22years) from the longitudinal Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four tasks; 1) Visuospatial 2-Back, 2) Go/NoGo, 3) Letter 2-Back and 4) Counting Stroop task. Sixteen participants were prenatally exposed to marijuana while 15 had no prenatal marijuana exposure. Task performance was similar for both groups but blood flow was significantly different between the groups. This paper presents the results for all 4 tasks, highlighting the consistently increased left posterior brain activity in the prenatally exposed group compared with the control group. These alterations in neurophysiological functioning of young adults prenatally exposed to marijuana emphasizes the importance of education for women in child bearing years, as well as for policy makers and physicians interested in the welfare of both the pregnant women and their offspring's future success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  1. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  2. Moral maturity and delinquency after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Amy M; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2005-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with cognitive, behavioral and social deficits, including delinquency. Although delinquent populations and those with intellectual and behavioral deficits exhibit impaired moral judgment and reasoning, this area remains unexplored in alcohol-exposed individuals. Moral maturity and delinquency were evaluated in 27 participants with prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC group) and 29 nonexposed controls (CON group) matched on age (range: 10-18), gender, handedness, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Moral maturity was evaluated using the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form, and delinquency was evaluated with the Conduct Disorder (CD) Questionnaire. Additional measures included social desirability and inhibition. The ALC group performed at a lower level of moral maturity than the CON group. Whereas Verbal IQ primarily predicted this difference, a deficit on the moral value judgment having to do with relationships with others was specific to prenatal alcohol exposure. Furthermore, delinquency was higher in the ALC group, and specific sociomoral values were predictive of delinquent behavior. Finally, half of the children and adolescents with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but without fetal alcohol syndrome had probable CD. The results of this study indicate that interventions aimed at reducing delinquency in those with prenatal alcohol exposure are necessary, and targeting moral judgment for this purpose may be beneficial.

  3. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Birth Weight: A Genetically-Informed Approach Comparing Multiple Raters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Smith, Taylor F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the fetus. There is considerable debate about the best method of assessing SDP, including birth/medical records, timeline follow-back approaches, multiple reporters, and biological verification (e.g., cotinine). This is particularly salient for genetically-informed approaches where it is not always possible or practical to do a prospective study starting during the prenatal period when concurrent biological specimen samples can be collected with ease. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we: (1) compare rates of agreement across different types of report—maternal report of SDP, paternal report of maternal SDP, and SDP contained on birth records from the Department of Vital Statistics; (2) examine whether SDP is predictive of birth weight outcomes using our best SDP report as identified via step (1); and (3) use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for genetic and familial influences that siblings share in order to assess the effects of SDP on birth weight. Results show high agreement between reporters and support the utility of retrospective report of SDP. Further, we replicate a causal association between SDP and birth weight, wherein SDP results in reduced birth weight even when accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors via a sibling comparison approach. PMID:26494459

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  5. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  7. Assessing the effectiveness of antismoking television advertisements: do audience ratings of perceived effectiveness predict changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Emily; Durkin, Sarah J; Wakefield, Melanie A; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2014-09-01

    Decisions about which antismoking advertisements should be aired are often guided by audience ratings of perceived effectiveness (PE). Given that the usefulness of PE measures depends on their ability to predict the likelihood that a message will have a positive impact on outcomes such as behaviour change, in the current study we used pre-exposure, postexposure and follow-up measures to test the association between PE and subsequent changes in quitting intentions and smoking behaviours. Daily smokers (N=231; 18 years and older) completed baseline measures of quitting intentions before watching an antismoking advertisement. Immediately following exposure, intentions were measured again and PE was measured using six items that factored into two scales: ad-directed PE (ADPE) and personalised PE (PPE). A follow-up telephone survey conducted within 3 weeks of exposure measured behaviour change (reduced cigarette consumption or quit attempts). From pre-exposure to postexposure, 18% of smokers showed a positive change in their intentions. Controlling for baseline intentions, PPE independently predicted intention change (OR=2.57, p=0.004). At follow-up, 26% of smokers reported that they had changed their behaviour. PPE scores also predicted the likelihood of behaviour change (OR=1.93, p=0.009). Audience ratings of PPE, but not ADPE, were found to predict subsequent intention and behaviour change. These findings increase confidence in the use of PE measures to pretest and evaluate antismoking television advertisements, particularly when these measures tap the extent to which a smoker has been personally affected by the message. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Evaluation of an ARPS-based canopy flow modeling system for use in future operational smoke prediction efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. T. Kiefer; S. Zhong; W. E. Heilman; J. J. Charney; X. Bian

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to develop a canopy flow modeling system based on the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model are discussed. The standard version of ARPS is modified to account for the effect of drag forces on mean and turbulent flow through a vegetation canopy, via production and sink terms in the momentum and subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equations....

  9. Early prenatal syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Rathod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis in pregnancy still remains a challenge despite the availability of adequate diagnostic tests for serological screening and penicillin therapy. We report a case of 2 month old female infant who presented with runny nose, papulosquamous lesions over both palms and soles and perianal erosions since 1 month after birth. Cutaneous examination revealed moist eroded areas in the perianal region and fine scaly lesions over palms and soles. Radiograph of both upper limbs and limbs revealed early periosteal changes in lower end of humerus and lower end of tibia. Diagnosis of early pre-natal syphilis was confirmed by Child′s Serum Rapid Plasma Reagin Antibody test [S.RPR] being positive with 1:64 dilution while that of mother was 1:8.

  10. Non‐invasive prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non‐invasive prenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities using circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma: Current applications, limitations and ... fetal DNAtesting is a matter of concern, because of the low positive predictive value for these changes, and the associated significant cumulative false-positive rate.

  11. Prenatal and adult androgen activities in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, B; Mühle, C; Braun, B; Weinland, C; Bouna-Pyrrou, P; Behrens, J; Kubis, S; Mikolaiczik, K; Muschler, M-R; Saigali, S; Sibach, M; Tanovska, P; Huber, S E; Hoppe, U; Eichler, A; Heinrich, H; Moll, G H; Engel, A; Goecke, T W; Beckmann, M W; Fasching, P A; Müller, C P; Kornhuber, J

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol dependence is more prevalent in men than in women. The evidence for how prenatal and adult androgens influence alcohol dependence is limited. We investigated the effects of prenatal and adult androgen activity on alcohol dependence. Moreover, we studied how the behaviours of pregnant women affect their children's prenatal androgen load. We quantified prenatal androgen markers (e.g., second-to-fourth finger length ratio [2D : 4D]) and blood androgens in 200 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients and 240 controls (2013-2015, including a 12-month follow-up). We also surveyed 134 women during pregnancy (2005-2007) and measured the 2D : 4D of their children (2013-2016). The prenatal androgen loads were higher in the male alcohol-dependent patients compared to the controls (lower 2D : 4D, P = 0.004) and correlated positively with the patients' liver transaminase activities (P alcohol withdrawal severity (P = 0.019). Higher prenatal androgen loads and increasing androgen levels during withdrawal predicted earlier and more frequent 12-month hospital readmission in alcohol-dependent patients (P alcohol (P = 0.010) and tobacco consumption (P = 0.017), and lifetime stressors (P = 0.019) of women during pregnancy related positively to their children's prenatal androgen loads (lower 2D : 4D). Androgen activities in alcohol-dependent patients and behaviours of pregnant women represent novel preventive and therapeutic targets of alcohol dependence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  13. Predictors of smoking lapse in a human laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Moallem, Nathasha R; Guzman, Iris; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-07-01

    During a smoking quit attempt, a single smoking lapse is highly predictive of future relapse. While several risk factors for a smoking lapse have been identified during clinical trials, a laboratory model of lapse was until recently unavailable and, therefore, it is unclear whether these characteristics also convey risk for lapse in a laboratory environment. The primary study goal was to examine whether real-world risk factors of lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking lapse. After overnight abstinence, 77 smokers completed the McKee smoking lapse task, in which they were presented with the choice of smoking or delaying in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Primary outcome measures were the latency to initiate smoking behavior and the number of cigarettes smoked during the lapse. Several baseline measures of smoking behavior, mood, and individual traits were examined as predictive factors. Craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal, withdrawal severity, and tension level were negatively predictive of latency to smoke. In contrast, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, withdrawal severity, level of nicotine dependence, craving for the positive effects of smoking, and craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal were positively predictive of number of cigarettes smoked. The results suggest that real-world risk factors for smoking lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of lapse. Future studies using the McKee lapse task should account for between subject differences in the unique factors that independently predict each outcome measure.

  14. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  15. Life course exposure to smoke and early menopause and menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hebatullah; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-10-01

    Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis, and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at the menopausal transition. Using data from two US birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal exposure, childhood exposure to parental smoking, and adult smoke exposure) and menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 to 49 years at follow-up. We used logistic regression analysis (adjusting for age at follow-up) to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and the menopausal transition. The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders among (i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke on adult follow-up (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.8-9.4) and (ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.9-9.0). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing earlier natural menopause (adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3) compared with women without smoke exposure in either period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 y) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging.

  16. The role of social networks and media receptivity in predicting age of smoking initiation: a proportional hazards model of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, J B; Chen, X

    1999-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent smoking demonstrates the need to identify factors associated with early smoking initiation. Previous studies have shown that smoking by social network members and receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing are associated with smoking among adolescents. It is not clear, however, whether these variables also are associated with the age of smoking initiation. Using data from 10,030 California adolescents, this study identified significant correlates of age of smoking initiation using bivariate methods and a multivariate proportional hazards model. Age of smoking initiation was earlier among those adolescents whose friends, siblings, or parents were smokers, and among those adolescents who had a favorite tobacco advertisement, had received tobacco promotional items, or would be willing to use tobacco promotional items. Results suggest that the smoking behavior of social network members and pro-tobacco media influences are important determinants of age of smoking initiation. Because early smoking initiation is associated with higher levels of addiction in adulthood, tobacco control programs should attempt to counter these influences.

  17. Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cubo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods: This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors.Results: Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics;. After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p = 0.007, and cesarean section (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p = 0.01.Discussion: This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

  18. Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. This was a nested case-control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using 'Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision' criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-7.60, p = 0.007), and cesarean section (OR = 5.78, 95% CI 1.60-20.91, p = 0.01). This nested case-control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

  19. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health in children: a review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Berger Håkonsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal cigarette smoking may affect the intrauterine hormonal environment during pregnancy and this early fetal exposure may have detrimental effects on the future trajectory of reproductive health. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological literature on the association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and several aspects of reproductive health. The literature points towards an increased risk of the urogenital malformation cryptorchidism, but a potential protective effect on the risk of hypospadias in sons following prenatal cigarette smoking exposure. Studies on sexual maturation find a tendency towards accelerated pubertal development in exposed boys and girls. In adult life, prenatally exposed men have impaired semen quality compared with unexposed individuals, but an influence on fecundability, that is, the biological ability to reproduce, is less evident. We found no evidence to support an association between prenatal cigarette smoking exposure and testicular cancer. Among adult daughters, research is sparse and inconsistent, but exposure to cigarette smoking in utero may decrease fecundability. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking may cause some long-term adverse effects on the reproductive health.

  20. The Effects of Prenatal Care Utilization on Maternal Health and Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji

    2017-08-01

    While many economic studies have explored the role of prenatal care in infant health production, the literature is sporadic on the effects of prenatal care on the mother. This research contributes to this understudied but important area using a unique large dataset of sibling newborns delivered by 0.17 million mothers. We apply within-mother estimators to find robust evidence that poor prenatal care utilization due to late onset of care, low frequency of care visits, or combinations of the two significantly increases the risks of maternal insufficient gestational weight gain, prenatal smoking, premature rupture of membranes, precipitous labor, no breastfeeding, postnatal underweight, and postpartum smoking. The magnitude of the estimates relative to the respective sample means of the outcome variables ranges from 3% to 33%. The results highlight the importance of receiving timely and sufficient prenatal care in improving maternal health and health behaviors during pregnancy as well as after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Intergenerational Relationships Between the Smoking Patterns of a Population-Representative Sample of US Mothers and the Smoking Trajectories of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeremy N. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed intergenerational transmission of smoking in mother-child dyads. Methods. We identified classes of youth smoking trajectories using mixture latent trajectory analyses with data from the Children and Young Adults of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 6349). We regressed class membership on prenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal smoking, including social and behavioral variables, to control for selection. Results. Youth smoking trajectories entailed early-onset persistent smoking, early-onset experimental discontinued smoking, late-onset persistent smoking, and nonsmoking. The likelihood of early onset versus late onset and early onset versus nonsmoking were significantly higher among youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus either postnatally alone or unexposed. Controlling for selection, the increased likelihood of early onset versus nonsmoking remained significant for each exposure group versus unexposed, as did early onset versus late onset and late onset versus nonsmoking for youths exposed prenatally and postnatally versus unexposed. Experimental smoking was notable among youths whose mothers smoked but quit before the child's birth. Conclusions. Both physiological and social role-modeling mechanisms of intergenerational transmission are evident. Prioritization of tobacco control for pregnant women, mothers, and youths remains a critical, interrelated objective. PMID:21852646

  2. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted beha...

  3. [Does public health insurance improve health care? The case of prenatal care for adolescents in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Avendaño, Biani; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Serván-Mori, Edson

    2016-01-01

    To test the association between public health insurance and adequate prenatal care among female adolescents in Mexico. Cross-sectional study, using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2000, 2006, and 2012.We included 3 978 (N=4 522 296) adolescent (12-19) women who reported a live birth.We used logistic regression models to test the association of insurance and adequate (timeliness, frequency and content) prenatal care. The multivariable predicted probability of timely and frequent prenatal care improved over time, from 0.60 (IC95%:0.56;0.64) in 2000 to 0.71 (IC95%:0.66;0.76) in 2012. In 2012, the probability of adequate prenatal care was 0.54 (IC95%:0.49;0.58); women with Social Security had higher probability than women with Seguro Popular and without health insurance. Having Social Security is associated with receipt of adequate prenatal care among adolescents in Mexico.

  4. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  5. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  6. Is the growth of the fetus of a non-smoking mother influenced by the smoking of either grandmother while pregnant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Miller

    Full Text Available There are animal data that indicate that prenatal environmental exposures have sex-specific effects on subsequent generations. In humans, an increase in birthweight has been reported if the maternal grandmother had smoked in the pregnancy giving rise to the mother. Here we assess whether prenatal exposure of either parent to cigarette smoke has a sex-specific effect on the grandchild's birth measurements.Information from 12707 maternal and 9677 paternal grandmothers of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC concerned whether they had smoked while expecting the study parent. Study children were weighed and measured at birth. Analyses to test effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking used multiple regression allowing for several potential confounders; analyses were restricted to births to non-smoking study mothers.After adjustment, the average birthweight, birth length and bmi measurements of the grandsons (but not granddaughters were greater if the maternal grandmother smoked prenatally: birthweight  = +61 [95% CI +30, +92] g; birth length  = +0.19 [95% CI +0.02, +0.35] cm; BMI  = +1.6 [95% CI +0.6, +2.6] g/m(2. Similar effects were seen in births to primiparae and multiparae. Additional allowance for maternal birthweight resulted in an average increase in boys to +100 g [95% CI +61, +140] g. There were no fetal growth differences if the paternal grandmother had smoked prenatally.The evidence from this study suggests that when the mother does not smoke in pregnancy the maternal grandmother's smoking habit in pregnancy has a positive association with her grandson's fetal growth.

  7. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  9. Comprehensive smoke-free policies: a tool for improving preconception health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Liu, Sherry T; Conrey, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Lower income women are at higher risk for preconception and prenatal smoking, are less likely to spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, and have higher prenatal relapse rates than women in higher income groups. Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in public places are intended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke; additionally, since these policies promote a smoke-free norm, there have been associations between smoke-free policies and reduced smoking prevalence. Given the public health burden of smoking, particularly among women who become pregnant, our objective was to assess the impact of smoke-free policies on the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women. We estimated the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women in Ohio between 2002 and 2009 using data from repeated cross-sectional samples of women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). A logistic spline regression was applied fitting a knot at the point of enforcement of the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act to evaluate whether this policy was associated with changes in the odds of smoking. After adjusting for individual- and environmental-level factors, the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in the odds of preconception smoking in WIC participants. Comprehensive smoke-free policies prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces may also be associated with reductions in smoking among low-income women. This type of policy or environmental change strategy may promote a tobacco-free norm and improve preconception health among a population at risk for smoking.

  10. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal care in your second trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000557.htm Prenatal care in your second trimester To use the sharing ... Gregory KD, Ramos DE, Jauniaux ERM. Preconception and prenatal care. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ...

  12. Prenatal care in your third trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000558.htm Prenatal care in your third trimester To use the sharing ... Gregory KD, Ramos DE, Jauniaux ERM. Preconception and prenatal care. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ...

  13. Prenatal exposure to anticonvulsants and psychosexual development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Mellenbergh, G. J.; vd Poll, N.; Koppe, J. G.; Boer, K.

    1999-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that prenatal exposure to the anticonvulsant drugs phenobarbital and phenytoin alters steroid hormone levels which consequently leads to disturbed sexual differentiation. In this study, possible sequelae of prenatal exposure to these anticonvulsants on gender development in

  14. Prenatal Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Start Here Prenatal Tests (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Prenatal Tests (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Also in Spanish ...

  15. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  16. From never to daily smoking in 30 months: the predictive value of tobacco and non-tobacco advertising exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the specificity of the association between tobacco advertising and youth smoking initiation. Design Longitudinal survey with a 30 month interval. Setting 21 public schools in three German states. Participants A total of 1320 sixth-to-eighth grade students who were never-smokers at baseline (age range at baseline, 10–15 years; mean, 12.3 years). Exposures Exposure to tobacco and non-tobacco advertisements was measured at baseline with images of six tobacco and eight non-tobacco advertisements; students indicated the number of times they had seen each ad and the sum score over all advertisements was used to represent inter-individual differences in the amount of advertising exposure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Established smoking, defined as smoked >100 cigarettes during the observational period, and daily smoking at follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were any smoking and smoking in the last 30 days. Results During the observation period, 5% of the never-smokers at baseline smoked more than 100 cigarettes and 4.4% were classified as daily smokers. After controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, school performance, television screen time, personality characteristics and smoking status of peers and parents, each additional 10 tobacco advertising contacts increased the adjusted relative risk for established smoking by 38% (95% CI 16% to 63%; padvertising contact. Conclusions The study confirms a content-specific association between tobacco advertising and smoking behaviour and underlines that tobacco advertising exposure is not simply a marker for adolescents who are generally more receptive or attentive towards marketing. PMID:23794549

  17. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  18. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparities in Maternal Child and Health Outcomes Attributable to Prenatal Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Mary Katherine; Levy, David T

    2016-03-01

    Previous estimates of smoking-attributable adverse outcomes, such as preterm births (PTBs), low birth weight (LBW) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDs) generally do not address disparities by maternal age, racial/ethnic group or socioeconomic status (SES). This study develops estimates of smoking-attributable PTB, LBW and SIDS for the US by age, SES and racial/ethnic groupings. Data on the number of births and the prevalence of PTB, LBW and SIDS were used to develop the number of outcomes by age, race/ethnicity, and SES. The prevalence of prenatal smoking by age, race/ethnic and education and the relative risk of outcomes for smokers were used to calculate smoking-attributable fractions of outcomes. Prenatal smoking among ages 15-24 is above 12 %, with 20-24 year olds representing at least 35 % of PTB, LBW SIDS cases. Women with a high school education or less represented more than 50 % of PTB and LBW births, and 44 % of SIDS cases. While non-Hispanic Whites had the majority of smoking-attributable outcomes, non-Hispanic Blacks represented a disproportionately high percentage of PTBs (18 %), LBW births (22 %), and SIDS cases (13 %). Reducing prenatal smoking has the potential to reduce adverse birth outcomes and costs with long-term implications, especially among the young, non-Hispanic Blacks and those of lower SES. Stricter tobacco control policies, especially higher cigarette taxes, higher minimum purchase ages for tobacco and improved cessation interventions can help reduce disparities and the cost to insurers, especially public costs through Medicaid.

  20. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  2. Prenatal Care: New Hampshire Residents - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mires, Maynard H.; Sirc, Charles E.

    Data from 1976 New Hampshire birth certificates were used to examine the correlations between the degree (month of pregnancy that prenatal care began) and intensity (number of prenatal visits) of prenatal care and low infant birth weight, illegitimacy, maternal age, maternal education, and complications of pregnancy. The rate of low birth weight…

  3. Congenital lung malformations: correlation between prenatal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Congenital lung malformations are a common finding during prenatal ultrasonography (US). Investigations were completed by means of prenatal MRI and postnatal computed tomographic (CT) scan. The purpose of this study was to compare these prenatal findings with postnatal findings and pathological findings after ...

  4. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  5. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  6. Maternal factors influencing late entry into prenatal care: a stratified analysis by race or ethnicity and insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rebecca J; Altman, Molly R; Oltman, Scott P; Ryckman, Kelli K; Chambers, Christina D; Rand, Larry; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2018-04-09

    Examine factors influencing late (> sixth month of gestation) entry into prenatal care by race/ethnicity and insurance payer. The study population was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007-2012 in the birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes linked birth certificate and mother and infant hospital discharge records. The sample was restricted to infants delivered between 20 and 44 weeks gestation. Logistic regression was used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for factors influencing late entry into prenatal care. Maternal age, education, smoking, drug or alcohol abuse/dependence, mental illness, participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program and rural residence were evaluated for women entering prenatal care > sixth month of gestation compared with women entering prenatal care entry for each race or ethnicity and insurance payer. The sample included 2 963 888 women. The percent of women with late entry into prenatal care was consistently higher among women with public versus private insurance. Less than 1% of white non-Hispanic and Asian women with private insurance entered prenatal care late versus more than 4% of white non-Hispanic and black women with public insurance. After stratifying by race or ethnicity and insurance status, women less than 18 years of age were more likely to enter prenatal care late, with young Asian women with private insurance at the highest risk (15.6%; adjusted RR 7.4, 95% CI 5.3-10.5). Among all women with private insurance, > 12-year education or age > 34 years at term reduced the likelihood of late prenatal care entry (adjusted RRs 0.5-0.7). Drugs and alcohol abuse/dependence and residing in a rural county were associated with increased risk of late prenatal care across all subgroups (adjusted RRs 1.3-3.8). Participation in the Women, Infants and Children's program was associated with decreased

  7. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  8. A comparison of health behaviors of women in centering pregnancy and traditional prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Kaylynn; Waite, Phillip J; Gast, Julie

    2010-03-01

    Researchers sought to determine the difference in health behaviors between women who receive prenatal care via the Centering Pregnancy approach and those involved in traditional prenatal care. Using a cross-sectional design, adult pregnant women (n = 125) were surveyed from at least 28 weeks gestation to delivery. The sample was comprised of primarily white low income women. Using multiple linear regression it was determined that women in Centering Pregnancy had significantly lower index health behavior scores compared with the traditional care group showing that those in Centering Pregnancy reported engaging in fewer health promoting behaviors. Furthermore, no differences were observed for smoking or weight gain behaviors between groups. Additionally, those in Centering Pregnancy reported a lower perceived value of prenatal care. The results of this study suggest that Centering Pregnancy is not adequately aiding its patients in adopting healthy behaviors during pregnancy.

  9. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted behavioural intention at baseline, which significantly predicted behavioural intention at follow-up, which in turn predicted smoking behaviour at follow-up. The effect of self-efficacy on behavioural intention at follow-up was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and the effect of self-efficacy on smoking behaviour was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, we found support for one part of the PMT, namely for the predictive validity of the coping appraisal construct self-efficacy in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intention and smoking behaviour. These results fail to support the appropriateness of the PMT's construct threat appraisal in longitudinally predicting adolescents' smoking as well as the applicability of communicating fear and negative information as preventive interventions for this target group.

  10. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential control of central cardiorespiratory interactions by hypercapnia and the effect of prenatal nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng-Gui; Griffioen, Kathleen J S; Wang, Xin; Dergacheva, Olga; Kamendi, Harriet; Gorini, Christopher; Bouairi, Euguenia; Mendelowitz, David

    2006-01-04

    Hypercapnia evokes a strong cardiorespiratory response including gasping and a pronounced bradycardia; however, the mechanism responsible for these survival responses initiated in the brainstem is unknown. To examine the effects of hypercapnia on the central cardiorespiratory network, we used an in vitro medullary slice that allows simultaneous examination of rhythmic respiratory-related activity and inhibitory synaptic neurotransmission to cardioinhibitory vagal neurons (CVNs). Hypercapnia differentially modulated inhibitory neurotransmission to CVNs; whereas hypercapnia selectively depressed spontaneous glycinergic IPSCs in CVNs without altering respiratory-related increases in glycinergic neurotransmission, it decreased both spontaneous and inspiratory-associated GABAergic IPSCs. Because maternal smoking is the highest risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and prenatal nicotine exposure is proposed to be the link between maternal smoking and SIDS, we examined the cardiorespiratory responses to hypercapnia in animals exposed to nicotine in the prenatal and perinatal period. In animals exposed to prenatal nicotine, hypercapnia evoked an exaggerated depression of GABAergic IPSCs in CVNs with no significant change in glycinergic neurotransmission. Hypercapnia altered inhibitory neurotransmission to CVNs at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites. Although the results obtained in this study in vitro cannot be extrapolated with certainty to in vivo responses, the results of this study provide a likely neurochemical mechanism for hypercapnia-evoked bradycardia and the dysregulation of this response with exposure to prenatal nicotine, creating a higher risk for SIDS.

  12. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  14. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou França Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. Methods In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. Results We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Conclusion Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence are associated with tobacco use. University-based prevention campaigns

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  16. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  17. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  18. [Prenatal management of isolated IUGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senat, M-V; Tsatsaris, V

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of different antenatal tools for the monitoring of fetuses with isolated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). To define the prenatal management of IUGR and indications for delivery before and after 32 weeks of gestation. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane databases were searched using the keywords "IUGR", "fetal growth restriction", "cardiotocography", "amniotic fluid", "ultrasound assessment", "biophysical profile", "Doppler ultrasonography", "randomized trial", "meta-analysis". These terms were also combined together. Fetal monitoring of isolated IUGR should be based on the combined use of fetal heart rate (FHR) and ultrasound Doppler. The use of computerized FHR, with short-term variability (STV) measurement allows longitudinal monitoring and provides objective values upon which to decide very premature delivery (LE3). The use of umbilical Doppler is associated with a decrease in perinatal morbidity, especially in IUGR (LE1). It should be the first-line mean for the monitoring of SGA and IUGR fetuses (LE1). The additional use of cerebral Doppler is associated with a better predictive value for a poor perinatal outcome than the umbilical Doppler alone (LE3). Therefore, cerebral Doppler should be used in fetuses with IUGR, whether the umbilical Doppler is normal or not. As morbidity and mortality is increased in IUGR with pathological ductus venosus, the use of this Doppler should be considered in the monitoring of IUGR at before 32 weeks (professional consensus). Routine hospitalization is not mandatory for the monitoring of fetuses with IUGR/SGA. However, tertiary referral is advisable in cases of severe IUGR at between 26 to 32 weeks (professional consensus). The decision for delivery cannot be standardized and should be based on the combined analysis of gestational age, fetal heart rate analysis and Doppler study (professional consensus). Monitoring of fetuses with IUGR and decision for delivery should be based on the combined

  19. Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B; Whyatt, Robin

    2011-08-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age. In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches. On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.

  20. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, T.; Guerra, B.; Spezzacatena, P.; Varani, S.; Gabrielli, L.; Pradelli, P.; Rumpianesi, F.; Banzi, C.; Bovicelli, L.; Landini, M. P.

    1998-01-01

    We report here the results of a study on the prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The study was carried out by both PCR and virus isolation from amniotic fluid (AF) for 82 pregnant women at risk of transmitting CMV for the detection of (i) seroconversion to CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) positivity during the first trimester of pregnancy, (ii) symptomatic CMV infection in the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy or intrauterine growth retardation detected by ultrasound or abnormal ultrasonographic findings suggestive of fetal infections, and (iii) seropositivity for CMV-specific IgM. For 50 women, fetal blood (FB) was also obtained and tests for antigenemia and PCR were performed. The results indicate that AF is better than FB for the prenatal diagnosis of CMV infection. PCR with AF has a sensitivity (SNS) of 100%, a specificity (SPE) of 83.3%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 40%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%; rapid virus isolation with the same material has an SNS of 50%, an SPE of 100%, a PPV of 100%, and an NPV of 94.7%. Fewer than 10% of the women positive for IgM by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) had a congenitally infected fetus or newborn infant. When EIA IgM positivity was confirmed by Western blotting (WB) and the WB profile was considered, the percent transmission detected among women with an “at-risk” profile was higher than that observed among IgM-positive women and was the same as that among women who seroconverted during the first trimester of pregnancy (transmission rates of 29 and 25%, respectively). PMID:9817869

  2. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  3. Prenatal fine particulate exposure and early childhood asthma: Effect of maternal stress and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Leon Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Mathilda Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Bose, Sonali; Rosa, Maria José; Kloog, Itai; Wilson, Ander; Schwartz, Joel; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2018-05-01

    The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex, and exposure dose and timing. We prospectively examined associations between coexposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM 2.5 ) and maternal stress and childhood asthma (n = 736). Daily PM 2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved prediction model. Prenatal maternal negative life events (NLEs) were dichotomized around the median (high: NLE ≥ 3; low: NLE stress and child sex. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models identified a critical window of exposure (19-23 weeks' gestation, cumulative odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; per interquartile range [1.7 μg/m 3 ] increase in prenatal PM 2.5 level) during which children concomitantly exposed to prenatal PM 2.5 and maternal stress had increased risk of asthma. No significant association was seen in children born to women reporting low prenatal stress. When examining modifying effects of prenatal stress and fetal sex, we found that boys born to mothers with higher prenatal stress were most vulnerable (19-21 weeks' gestation; cumulative odds ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; per interquartile range increase in PM 2.5 ). Prenatal PM 2.5 exposure during sensitive windows is associated with increased risk of child asthma, especially in boys concurrently exposed to elevated maternal stress. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  5. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  6. Use of threshold-specific energy model for the prediction of effects of smoking and radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Smoking causes 80-90 % of cases of lung cancer. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of lung cancer by the so-called threshold-specific energy model. This model allows to analyse the biological effects of radon daughter products on the lung tissue, and is based on the assumption that the biological effect (i.e. cell inactivation) will manifest itself after the threshold-specific energy z0 deposited in the sensitive volume of the cell is exceeded. Cigarette smoking causes, among others, an increase in the synthesis of the surviving protein that protects cells from apoptosis and thereby reduces their radiosensitivity. Based on these facts, an attempt was made to estimate the shape of the curves describing the increase in the oncological effect of radiation as a function of daily cigarette consumption. (authors)

  7. Prenatal diagnosis--principles of diagnostic procedures and genetic counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Slezak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of inherited malformations as well as genetic disorders in newborns account for around 3-5%. These frequency is much higher in early stages of pregnancy, because serious malformations and genetic disorders usually lead to spontaneous abortion. Prenatal diagnosis allowed identification of malformations and/or some genetic syndromes in fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy. Thereafter, taking into account the severity of the disorders the decision should be taken in regard of subsequent course of the pregnancy taking into account a possibilities of treatment, parent's acceptation of a handicapped child but also, in some cases the possibility of termination of the pregnancy. In prenatal testing, both screening and diagnostic procedures are included. Screening procedures such as first and second trimester biochemical and/or ultrasound screening, first trimester combined ultrasound/biochemical screening and integrated screening should be widely offered to pregnant women. However, interpretation of screening results requires awareness of both sensitivity and predictive value of these procedures. In prenatal diagnosis ultrasound/MRI searching as well as genetic procedures are offered to pregnant women. A variety of approaches for genetic prenatal analyses are now available, including preimplantation diagnosis, chorion villi sampling, amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling as well as promising experimental procedures (e.g. fetal cell and DNA isolation from maternal blood. An incredible progress in genetic methods opened new possibilities for valuable genetic diagnosis. Although karyotyping is widely accepted as golden standard, the discussion is ongoing throughout Europe concerning shifting to new genetic techniques which allow obtaining rapid results in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy (e.g. RAPID-FISH, MLPA, quantitative PCR.

  8. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özyüncü

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias are a group of diseases with a wide spectrum related to bone and cartilage. Some forms are lethal whereas some forms have milder clinical progression. Prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias may be possible especially when there is an index case in the family. Ultrasonography plays the central role in prenatal diagnosis and most common sonographic features are angulation of long bones, bending of femur or bowing signin the long bones. We present a case whose follow up for fetal short extremities ended with termination of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis is hard and depend especially on the fetal x-ray. Final diagnosis was lethal type osteogenesis imperfecta.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  11. Radioimmunoassays in prenatal genetic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavy, J.; Janouskova, M.; Fingerova, H.; Krikal, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Prenatal medicine strives to reveal hereditary disorders and congenital malformations before delivery. The application of RIA significantly widened the spectrum of available diagnostic possibilities. We first focused our attention on determining alpha-1-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid and the serum. We used the results of 33 examinations of the amniotic fluid and 100 samples of the blood serum to compile a graph of physiological values during pregnancy. The graph is used in assessing clinical samples in suspect congenital disorders of neural tube closure and other malformations. In the last two years we have tested testosterone determination in the amniotic fluid to ascertain prenatally the fetal sex in early pregnancy. The results were satisfactory and agreed in 70.6%. (author)

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of boomerang dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Marja W; Den Hollander, Nicolette S; De Krijger, Ronald R; Bonifé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Nikkels, Peter G; Willems, Patrick J

    2003-10-01

    Boomerang dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type 1 and Piepkorn dysplasia are bone dysplasias with an overlapping clinical spectrum characterized by deficient formation and ossification of specific elements of the skeleton. Typical symptoms include micromelia with diminished ossification, and a characteristic bowed and boomerang-like aspect of the long tubular bones. We report here a new case of boomerang dysplasia, which was detected prenatally in the 16th week of gestation by ultrasound. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C.; Horcher, Ernst; Schöpf, Veronika; Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  14. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans; Barth, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of horseshoe lung and esophageal atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Shlomit; Ringertz, Hans [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Barth, Richard A. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Stanford, CA (United States); Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2006-09-15

    We present a case of horseshoe lung (HL) and esophageal atresia suspected prenatally on US imaging and confirmed with fetal MRI. Prenatal diagnosis of HL and esophageal atresia allowed for prenatal counseling and informed parental decisions. (orig.)

  17. Prenatal and Postnatal Management of Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin K.; Palmer, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of pregnant women in the U.S. undergo prenatal ultrasonography and approximately 0.5% of these examinations will detect fetal malformations. Up to one-half of these abnormalities include the genitourinary system and the most common urological finding is hydronephrosis. Some conditions associated with prenatal hydronephrosis portend a poor prognosis, while others can follow a fairly benign course. This review focuses on the definition and prenatal assessment of hydronephrosis, fetal intervention, and postnatal management. PMID:19618087

  18. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Romero, Luskenia del; Blanco Figueredo, Nadia; Rodriguez Dominguez, Zulay

    2014-01-01

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

  19. [Recent advances in prenatal diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaire, O; Holzgreve, W; Miny, P; Hösli, I; Hahn, S; Tercanli, S

    2006-11-01

    During the last years, technical improvements have increased the possibilities in prenatal ultrasound. During the eighties and nineties, fetal malformations were increasingly detected and specified. Since a few years, the measurement of the fetal nuchal translucency between 11 and 14 weeks of gestation has been implemented to calculate the individual risk, in combination with most recent biochemical markers. Today, the sonographic measurement of the nuchal translucency is regarded as a valuable screening tool for chromosomal anomalies in prenatal medicine. Beside standardized examinations, a profound information and counseling of the pregnant women should be emphasized. With the improvement of the specific maternal risk calculation, using the sonographic measurement of the nuchal translucency, the biochemical markers and the maternal age, unnecessary invasive examinations may be prevented and their overall number can significantly be reduced. The same trend is seen in the whole field of prenatal medicine, illustrated by the detection of the fetal rhesus D status from the maternal blood and the use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of fetal anemia.

  20. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Khattab, Ahmed; New, Maria I

    2016-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a monogenic disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. To prevent genital ambiguity, in girls, prenatal dexamethasone treatment is administered early in the first trimester. Prenatal genetic diagnosis of CAH and fetal sex determination identify affected female fetuses at risk for genital virilization. Advancements in prenatal diagnosis are owing to improved understanding of the genetic basis of CAH and improved technology. Cloning of the CYP21A2 gene ushered in molecular genetic analysis as the current standard of care. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis allows for targeted treatment and avoids unnecessary treatment of males and unaffected females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  3. Problem in twin pregnancy: Findings of prenatal sonography and autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hak Jong; Chun, Yi Kyeong; Kim, Yee Jeong; Hong, Sung Ran

    2001-01-01

    Multifetal gestations are high risk pregnancies with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal gestations are subject to unique complications including conjoined twins, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), acardiac twins, twin embization of co-twin demise and heterotopic pregnancies. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of types and complications of multifetal gestations is important for antenatal care and prediction of fetal outcome. This study was performed to present the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and pathologic findings of the unique complications of twin pregnancy. Acardia is a lethal anomaly occurring in 1% of monozygotic twin. The acardiac twin has a parasitic existence and depends on the donor (pump) twin for its blood supply via placental anastomoses and retrograde perfusion of umbilical cord. This twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a most extreme manifestation on the TTTS. Doppler verification reversed flow in umbilical cord of the acardiac twin confirms the diagnosis.

  4. Sex differences in prenatal epigenetic programming of stress pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Tracy L

    2011-07-01

    Maternal stress experience is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Recent studies have examined mechanisms by which changes in the maternal milieu may be transmitted to the developing embryo and potentially translated into programming of the epigenome. Animal models of prenatal stress have identified important sex- and temporal-specific effects on offspring stress responsivity. As dysregulation of stress pathways is a common feature in most neuropsychiatric diseases, molecular and epigenetic analyses at the maternal-embryo interface, especially in the placenta, may provide unique insight into identifying much-needed predictive biomarkers. In addition, as most neurodevelopmental disorders present with a sex bias, examination of sex differences in the inheritance of phenotypic outcomes may pinpoint gene targets and specific windows of vulnerability in neurodevelopment, which have been disrupted. This review discusses the association and possible contributing mechanisms of prenatal stress in programming offspring stress pathway dysregulation and the importance of sex.

  5. Parental Smoking and Adolescent Smoking Stages: The Role of Parents' Current and Former Smoking, and Family Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Bricker, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of parents’ current and former smoking in predicting adolescent smoking acquisition stages. Participants were 7,426 students from 33 schools in the Netherlands. Participants’ survey data were gathered at baseline and at two-year follow-up. Logistic regression models

  6. Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 2: Cell-free DNA prenatal screening should be used to identify all chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Lyn S; Hudgins, Louanne; Norton, Mary E

    2018-02-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from maternal serum has been clinically available since 2011. This technology has revolutionized our ability to screen for the common aneuploidies trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. More recently, clinical laboratories have offered screening for other chromosome abnormalities including sex chromosome abnormalities and copy number variants (CNV) without little published data on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. In this debate, the pros and cons of performing prenatal screening via cfDNA for all chromosome abnormalities is discussed. At the time of the debate in 2017, the general consensus was that the literature does not yet support using this technology to screen for all chromosome abnormalities and that education is key for both providers and the patients so that the decision-making process is as informed as possible. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Factors influencing prospective mother with prenatal qualified doctor care among the reproductive women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Humayun; Nasrin, Tasmina

    2018-12-01

    Maternal and child mortality are the key indicators of health and development of the country. Maternal and child health are interconnected to prenatal care. Consulting a doctor at the prenatal stage will not only ensure mother's and her unborn babies' safety, but also has a great influence to reduce the maternal and infant mortality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the status of prenatal care provided by the qualified doctor among pregnant mothers in Bangladesh. Data and required information of 8793 reproductive women were collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. Logistic regression model has been used to identify the most significant determinants of the prenatal doctor visits. In this research, it is found that prenatal cares by a qualified doctor during pregnancy depend on several social and demographic characteristics of a woman. It is observed that women staying both urban and rural areas have similar behaviour of caring regarding their pregnancy related complications. Beside this Respondent's age, education, her husband's education and the number of ever born children have significant contribution on prenatal doctor visit. On the other hand, division, religion, husband's desire for children has no effect on it. Overall the model is able to predict 71.65% women into their appropriate group based on these factors.

  8. Prenatal molecular diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in a large cohort of Israeli families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmann, Ada; Bejarano-Achache, Idit; Eli, Dalia; Maftsir, Genia; Mizrahi-Meissonnier, Liliana; Blumenfeld, Anat

    2009-10-01

    To present our accumulated data on prenatal molecular diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in a large cohort of Israeli albino families. Albinism consists of variable phenotypes, but only families with predicted severely handicapped albino offspring, who declared their wish to terminate a pregnancy of such a fetus, are eligible for prenatal testing. Prenatal testing is not offered otherwise. Following detailed genetic investigation and counseling, molecular prenatal testing was performed using the combination of mutation screening, direct sequencing, and haplotype analysis. A total of 55 prenatal tests were performed in 37 families; in 26 families the propositus was the child, and in 11, a parent or a close relative. In 32 families tyrosinase (TYR) mutations were diagnosed. In 5 families a P gene mutation was detected. Twelve albino fetuses were diagnosed. Following further genetic counseling, all couples elected to terminate the pregnancy. Three additional pregnancies were terminated for other reasons. Families with increased risk for an albino child with severe visual handicap, seek premarital and prenatal genetic counseling and testing, for the prevention of affected offspring. Our combined methods of molecular genetic testing enable a nationwide approach for prevention of albinism. The same paradigm can be applied to other populations affected with albinism.

  9. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Stemmler, M.; Bühler, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494)

  10. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process

  11. Brain magnetic resonance imaging of infants exposed prenatally to buprenorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahila, H.; Kivitie-Kallio, S.; Halmesmaki, E.; Valanne, L.; Autti, T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dept. of Pediatrics, and Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. Material and Methods: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug abusers. Four mothers were hepatitis C positive, and all were HIV negative. All mothers smoked tobacco and used benzodiazepines. All pregnancies were full term, and no perinatal asphyxia occurred. All but one neonate had abstinence syndrome and needed morphine replacement therapy. Results: Neither structural abnormalities nor abnormalities in signal intensity were recorded. Conclusion: Buprenorphine replacement therapy does not seem to cause any major structural abnormalities of the brain, and it may prevent known hypoxic-ischemic brain changes resulting from uncontrolled drug abuse. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess possible abnormalities in the brain maturation process.

  12. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Prematurity and Recurrent Wheezing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Kumar, Rajesh; Arguelles, Lester M; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Apollon, Stephanie; Bonzagni, Anthony; Ortiz, Kathryn; Pearson, Colleen; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Prenatal maternal smoking and prematurity independently affect wheezing and asthma in childhood. Objective We sought to evaluate the interactive effects of maternal smoking and prematurity upon the development of early childhood wheezing. Methods We evaluated 1448 children with smoke exposure data from a prospective urban birth cohort in Boston. Maternal antenatal and postnatal exposure was determined from standardized questionnaires. Gestational age was assessed by the first day of the last menstrual period and early prenatal ultrasound (pretermprematurity and maternal antenatal smoking on recurrent wheeze, controlling for relevant covariates. Results In the cohort, 90 (6%) children had recurrent wheezing, 147 (10%) were exposed to in utero maternal smoke and 419 (29%) were premature. Prematurity (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.1) was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, but in utero maternal smoking was not (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.4). Jointly, maternal smoke exposure and prematurity caused an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). There was an interaction between prematurity and maternal smoking upon episodes of wheezing (p=0.049). Conclusions We demonstrated an interaction between maternal smoking during pregnancy and prematurity on childhood wheezing in this urban, multiethnic birth cohort. PMID:22290763

  13. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  14. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis Of Tay-Sachs Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özyüncü

    2010-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Tay-Sachs disease can be diagnosed prenatally by measuring hexosaminidase enzyme activity in fetal tissue samples with an acceptable complication rate. Prenatal diagnosis should be offered to families who have affected siblings with Tay-Sachs disease.

  16. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  17. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  18. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  20. Prenatal radiation doses from radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.M.; Di Trano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical administration with diagnostic or therapeutic purpose during pregnancy implies a prenatal radiation dose. The dose assessment and the evaluation of the radiological risks become relevant due to the great radiosensitivity of the fetal tissues in development. This paper is a revision of the available data for estimating fetal doses in the cases of the more frequently used radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine, taking into account recent investigation in placental crossover. The more frequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were analyzed according to the radiation doses implied. (author) [es

  1. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  2. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  3. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  4. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  5. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; van Rooij, Daan; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that

  6. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, D. van der; Hartman, C.A.; Rooij, D. van; Franke, B.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Faraone, S.V; Buitelaar, J.K.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that

  7. Effects of dopaminergic genes, prenatal adversities, and their interaction on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and neural correlates of response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; van Rooij, Daan; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often accompanied by impaired response inhibition; both have been associated with aberrant dopamine signalling. Given that prenatal exposure to alcohol or smoking is known to affect dopamine-rich brain regions, we hypothesized that

  8. Bartter syndrome prenatal diagnosis based on amniotic fluid biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Arnaud; Dreux, Sophie; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Oury, Jean-François; Benachi, Alexandra; Deschênes, Georges; Muller, Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Bartter syndrome is an autosomic recessive disease characterized by severe polyuria and sodium renal loss. The responsible genes encode proteins involved in electrolyte tubular reabsorption. Prenatal manifestations, mainly recurrent polyhydramnios because of fetal polyuria, lead to premature delivery. After birth, polyuria leads to life-threatening dehydration. Prenatal genetic diagnosis needs an index case. The aim of this study was to analyze amniotic fluid biochemistry for the prediction of Bartter syndrome. We retrospectively studied 16 amniotic fluids of Bartter syndrome-affected fetuses diagnosed after birth, only six of them being genetically proven. We assayed total proteins, alpha-fetoprotein, and electrolytes and defined a Bartter index corresponding to the multiplication of total protein and of alpha-fetoprotein. Results were compared with two control groups matched for gestational age-non-Bartter polyhydramnios (n = 30) and nonpolyhydramnios (n = 60). In Bartter syndrome, we observed significant differences (p Bartter index (0.16, 0.82, and 1.0, respectively). No statistical difference was observed for electrolytes. In conclusion, Bartter syndrome can be prenatally suspected on amniotic fluid biochemistry (sensitivity 93% and specificity 100%), allowing appropriate management before and after birth.

  9. The Effect of Prenatal and Childhood Development on Hearing, Vision and Cognition in Adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Dawes

    Full Text Available It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight (an index of prenatal development and adult height (an index of early childhood development. Subsets (N = 37,505 to 433,390 of the UK Biobank resource were analysed according to visual and hearing acuity, reaction time and fluid IQ. Sensory and cognitive performance was reassessed after ~4 years (N = 2,438 to 17,659. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function (partial correlations; pr 0.05 to 0.12, p < 0.001. Within the normal range of birth weight (10th to 90th percentile, there was a positive association between birth weight and sensory and cognitive function (pr 0.06 to 0.14, p < 0.001. Neither adult height nor birth weight was associated with change in sensory or cognitive function. These results suggest that adverse prenatal and childhood experiences are a risk for poorer sensory and cognitive function and earlier development of sensory and cognitive impairment in adulthood. This finding could have significant implications for preventing sensory and cognitive impairment in older age.

  10. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  11. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  12. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  13. Opportunities and challenges in prenatal diagnosis : towards personalized fetal genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the efficacy and utilization of prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis in the Netherlands and the increasing options for prenatal genetic diagnosis in general. In chapter 1 background information on prenatal screening and diagnosis in pregnancies conceived through

  14. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, A.; Hohmann, C.; Pershagen, G.; Eller, E.; Kjaer, H.F.; Gehring, U.; Granell, R.; Henderson, J.; Lau, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Sunyer, J.; Tischer, C.; Torrent, M.; Wahn, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Wickman, M.; Keil, T.; Bergström, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of

  15. Maternal Smoking Among Women With and Without Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Bernson, Dana; Copeland, Glenn; Boulet, Sheree L.; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J.; England, Lucinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate smoking prevalence during the year before pregnancy and during pregnancy and adverse outcomes among women who delivered infants with and without assisted reproductive technology (ART) using linked birth certificates (BC) and National ART Surveillance System (NASS) data. Methods Data were analyzed for 384,390 women and 392,248 infants born in Massachusetts and Michigan during 2008–2009. Maternal smoking prevalence was estimated using smoking indicated from BC by ART status. For ART users, to evaluate underreporting, prepregnancy smoking was estimated from BC, NASS, or both sources. Effect of prenatal smoking on preterm and mean birthweight (term only) for singleton infants were examined by ART status. Results Maternal smoking prevalence estimates were significantly lower for ART users than nonusers (pre-pregnancy = 3.2% vs. 16.7%; prenatal = 1.0% vs. 11.1%, p smoking information from BC and NASS, prepregnancy smoking prevalence estimates for ART users could be as high as 4.4% to 6.1%. Adverse effects of smoking on infant outcomes in ART pregnancies were consistent with the effects seen in non-ART pregnancies, specifically decline in infant birthweight and increase in preterm delivery, although association between smoking and preterm was not significant. Conclusion A low, but substantial proportion of ART users smoked before and during pregnancy. As ART users are highly motivated to get pregnant, it should be clearly communicated that smoking can decrease fertility and adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Continued efforts are needed to encourage smoking cessation and maintain tobacco abstinence among all women of reproductive age. PMID:27243366

  16. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated. In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen. Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  17. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Axelsson

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64% in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  18. Effects of perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes on childrens' views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ilknur; Bektas, Murat; Selekoğlu, Yasemin; Kudubes, Aslı Akdeniz; Altan, Sema Sal; Ayar, Dijle

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of determining how students' perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes affect childrens' views of smoking. The sample of this descriptive-cross sectional study comprised 574 subjects between the ages of 11-15. The data were collected using the Children's Cardiovascular Health Promotion Attitude Scale and the Children's Decisional Balance Measure for Assessing and Predicting Smoking Status. Correlation and logistic regression were used for analysis. It was determined that a statistically significant relationship exists between the attitudes of children towards smoking and their ideas about the relationship of smoking with cancer, which is negative and low (r=-0.223). There was also a statistically significant relationship between their attitudes towards cardiovascular health and their attitudes towards smoking, again at a low level (r=0.257). It was determined that children with ideas about smoking and cancer were 9.4 times less likely to have positive/negative attitudes towards smoking, while positive attitudes towards cardiovascular health made negative attitudes towards smoking 3.9 times less likely. It was determined that the attitudes of students towards cardiovascular health and their perceptions of smoking and cancer reduced the positive perceptions towards smoking.

  19. Smoking-specific compensatory health beliefs and the readiness to stop smoking in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Theda; Scholz, Urte; Keller, Roger; Knäuper, Bärbel; Hornung, Rainer

    2011-09-01

    Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs) are defined as beliefs that negative consequences of unhealthy behaviours can be compensated for by engaging in other health behaviours. CHBs have not yet been investigated in detail regarding smoking. Smoking might cause cognitive dissonance in smokers, if they are aware that smoking is unhealthy and simultaneously hold the general goal of staying healthy. Hence, CHBs are proposed as one strategy for smokers to resolve such cognitive dissonance. The aim of the present study was to develop a scale to measure smoking-specific CHBs among adolescents and to test whether CHBs are related to a lower readiness to stop smoking. For the main analyses, cross-sectional data were used. In order to investigate the retest-reliability follow-up data, 4 months later were included in the analysis. A newly developed scale for smoking-specific CHBs in adolescents was tested for its validity and reliability as well as its predictive value for the readiness to stop smoking in a sample of 244 smokers (15-21 years) drawn from different schools. Multilevel modelling was applied. Evidence was found for the reliability and validity of the smoking-specific CHB scale. Smoking-specific CHBs were significantly negatively related to an individual's readiness to stop smoking, even after controlling for other predictors such as self-efficacy or conscientiousness. CHBs may provide one possible explanation for why adolescents fail to stop smoking. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  1. FORECASTING OF SURVIVAL OF CHILDREN WITH THE PRENATALLY DIAGNOSED PATHOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Валериевна Дубовая

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective methods for the analysis and prognosis of the survival of newborns with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system are the urgent task of modern medicine. Objective – a neural network model for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was developed. Materials and methods. To create the artificial neural networks, the method of constructing multifactor mathematical prediction models in the software package Statistica 6.0 was used. The significance level of the factors influencing the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system was determined using Wald statistics. When checking statistical hypotheses, the critical level of significance was assumed to be 0,05. Results. A neural network model for the determination of the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, which has a high prognostic ability of 0,88, sensitivity of the model was 77,6 %, specificity 86,4 %. The value of prognostic survival probability is in the range from 0 to 100 %. With an indicator value of more than 80 %, the probability of survival of a child with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system is estimated as high, ranging from 20 % to 80 % – as an average and less than 20 % – as low. Conclusion. In the algorithm for predicting the survival of children with prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system it is necessary to include a combination with other pathology of cardiovascular system, with other organs and systems, with chromosomal abnormalities, with microdeletion and monogenic syndromes.

  2. First year growth in relation to prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors - a Dutch prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, M.; de Boer, M.R.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; van de Bor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the first year of life may already be predictive of obesity later in childhood. The objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and child growth during the first year. Dichloro-diphenyldichloroethylene (DDE),

  3. Examining Delivery Method and Infant Feeding Intentions between Women in Traditional and Non-Traditional Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risisky, Deb; Chan, Ronna L; Zigmont, Victoria A; Asghar, Syed Masood; DeGennaro, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study is to evaluate delivery method and breastfeeding initiation in women enrolled in group prenatal care (CenteringPregnancy) and in traditional prenatal care. Methods Data were obtained from medical records of a hospital-based midwifery practice in south central Connecticut that offered both types of prenatal care programs. Medical information from 307 women enrolled in this practice was included in the analysis. Out of the 307, 80 were enrolled in group prenatal care. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and previous and current obstetrical information from medical records formed the basis of comparison. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results Women in Centering had fewer planned cesarean sections (1.3 vs. 12.8%) and had a higher breastfeeding initiation (88.7 vs. 80.0%). However, Centering women were found to have a higher portion of unplanned cesarean sections (27.5 vs. 11.0%). Both the unadjusted and the adjusted odds ratios of having a cesarean planned delivery were lower in the group care. Women in Centering had 2.44 (95% CI 1.05, 5.66) times the odds of breastfeeding initiation compared to the odds for women in traditional prenatal care after adjusting for maternal age, smoking status, gestation and race. Discussion CenteringPregnancy can have positive impact for the woman and baby. This program implementation saw lower rates of elective cesarean sections and increased breastfeeding compared to women in traditional care.

  4. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  5. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  6. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  7. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Stefan F.; Brugger, Peter C.; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L.; Graham, John M.; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Results: Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Conclusions: Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs.

  8. Prenatal stress, prematurity and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the U.S. and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced “premature asthma”. Prenatal stress may not only cause abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring Th2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: IL-6, which has been associated with premature labor, can promote Th2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing “premature asthma”. If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common co-morbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (e.g. from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health. PMID:26676148

  9. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  10. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and smoking behavioural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel V; Heron, Jon; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2018-06-01

    n-3 Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), are essential components of neuronal membranes and mediate a range of complex bioactive properties including gene expression, myelination, cell-signalling and dopaminergic function. Deficits in n-3 HUFA have been linked to increased risks for addictive disorders, thus we posited that lower fish consumption would be associated with greater risks for perinatal smoking among 9640 mothers enroled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used univariable and multivariable regression models to examine relationships between self-reported prenatal dietary intakes of n-3 HUFA-rich foods (fish and shellfish) and maternal smoking; outcomes included cessation and the number of cigarettes smoked per d. Both before and during pregnancy, there was consistent evidence (Psmoking associations; relative to mothers reporting no fish consumption, those who reported some fish consumption (smoking (adjusted P values smoking diminished, from a high of 31·6% (pre-pregnancy) to a low of 18·7% (second trimester), the magnitude of fish intake-smoking associations remained stable following adjustment for confounders. These observations suggest that greater fish or n-3 HUFA consumption should be evaluated as an intervention to reduce or prevent smoking in randomised clinical trials.

  11. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  12. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  13. Eugenesia y diagnóstico prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    González Salvat, Rosa María; González Labrador, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal ...

  14. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  15. prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of discordant occipital encephalocele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    PRENATAL ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF DISCORDANT OCCIPITAL. ENCEPHALOCELE IN MULTIPLE PREGNANCY - A CASE REPORT. *O.U Ogbeide (MBBS, FMCR), *EJ IKUBOR (MBBS). *Department of Radiology University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr Ogbeide Osesogie ...

  16. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  17. Presenting the Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; Trier, Christopher Høier; Brennan, Jessica

    to the child´s attachment system. The Prenatal Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (PCEQ) (Brennan, George, & Solomon, 2013) is the first questionnaire that directly assesses prenatal caregiving representation. This poster presentation brings together different researchers who use the instrument in ongoing...... longitudinal research projects. The poster includes a description of the development of the PCEQ questionnaire, the theoretical background, as well as preliminary data on future mothers and fathers from the WARM study....

  18. Can economics be applied to prenatal screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Phin

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a review of the economics of prenatal screening as seen from a medical point of view. The difficulties and controversies over the economic analysis are examined with specific reference to screening for Down syndrome. The aims and principles of prenatal screening are set out and discussed before reviewing the attempts that have been made to assess the costs and benefits of screening for Down syndrome. The major problem identified is the measurement and valuation of benefits. This...

  19. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  20. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; Mendez, Michelle A; Richardson, David B; Daniels, Julie L; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S; Herring, Amy H

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: -5.99, -0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child's sex. Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4-9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM, Wolff MS, Herring AH. 2016. Prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat

  1. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  2. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mi Jin

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 ± 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  3. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy in Chinese by genetic analysis of fetal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ting; DING Xin-sheng; LI Wen-lei; YAO Juan; DENG Xiao-xuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.The survival motor neuron gene is SMA-determining gene deleted in approximately 95% of SMA patients.This study was undertaken to predict prenatal SMA efficiently and rapidly in families with previously affected child.Methods Prenatal diagnosis was made in 8 fetuses with a family history of SMA.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used for the detection of the survival motor neuron gene.Results The survival motor neuron gene was not found in 6 fetuses, ruling out the diagnosis of SMA.Two fetuses were detected positive and the pregnancies were terminated.Conclusion Our method is effective and convenient in prenatal diagnosis of SMA.

  5. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  6. Maternal smoking: determinants and associated morbidity in two areas in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Rana; Chaaya, Monique

    2008-05-01

    This study assessed the factors related to smoking during pregnancy in two areas in Lebanon, and the association of smoking to selected maternal and newborn health related factors. This was a secondary analysis of data on 538 women who delivered in nine hospitals in two areas in Lebanon. Women were interviewed about their smoking practices, and on demographic and psychosocial variables. 396 women were followed up and re-interviewed about their smoking status, and the mother's and baby's health after delivery. Smoking during pregnancy included both cigarettes and narghile smoking. About 25.7% of women were smoking some kind of tobacco during pregnancy. Older women, Muslim women, women with poor education, those who had financial difficulty, nervousness, lower support, and delay in seeking prenatal care were more likely to smoke during pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have a low birth weight baby and to stop breastfeeding. It is important to address smoking among women in general, and not only during pregnancy. We discuss the role of public and private sectors in smoking cessation and interventions.

  7. Effects of Group Prenatal Care on Food Insecurity during Late Pregnancy and Early Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Frongillo, Edward A; Picklesimer, Amy H; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    This study compared the effects of group to individual prenatal care in late pregnancy and early postpartum on (1) women's food security and (2) psychosocial outcomes among food-insecure women. We recruited 248 racially diverse, low-income, pregnant women receiving CenteringPregnancy™ group prenatal care (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124) to complete surveys in early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and early postpartum, with 84 % completing three surveys. Twenty-six percent of group and 31 % of individual care participants reported food insecurity in early pregnancy (p = 0.493). In multiple logistic regression models, women choosing group versus individual care were more likely to report food security in late pregnancy (0.85 vs. 0.66 average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p care average predicted probability, p = 0.052) in intention-to-treat models. Group participants were more likely to change perceptions on affording healthy foods and stretching food resources. Group compared to individual care participants with early pregnancy food insecurity demonstrated higher maternal-infant attachment scale scores (89.8 vs. 86.2 points for individual care, p = 0.032). Group prenatal care provides health education and the opportunity for women to share experiences and knowledge, which may improve food security through increasing confidence and skills in managing household food resources. Health sector interventions can complement food assistance programs in addressing food insecurity during pregnancy.

  8. AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation marks smoking behaviour, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Timpson, Nicholas; Relton, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    was associated with former and current smoking status, high daily and cumulative smoking, short time since smoking cessation (all p values 7×10-31), and the smoking-related CHRN3A genotype (-0.48% per T-allele, p=0.002). The multifactorially adjusted HRs for the lowest versus highest methylation quintiles were...... in the lowest and highest methylation quintiles were 3.7% and 0.0% (p=2×10-7), whereas predicted PLCOM2012 6-year risks were similar (4.3% and 4.4%, p=0.77). CONCLUSION: AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation, a marker of smoking behaviour, provides potentially clinical relevant predictions of future smoking-related...... morbidity and mortality. METHODS: From the Copenhagen City Heart Study representing the Danish general population, we studied 9234 individuals. Using bisulphite treated leucocyte DNA, AHRR (cg05575921) methylation was measured. Rs1051730 (CHRN3A) genotype was used to evaluate smoking heaviness. Participants...

  9. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  10. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...... rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p

  11. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... of the acoustic startle response. Further, a single aversive life event showed capable of changing the reactivity of prenatally stressed offspring, whereas offspring of dams going through a less stressful gestation was largely unaffected by this event. This suggests that circumstances dating back to the very...

  12. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  13. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

    2006-01-01

    Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks.

  14. Prenatal risk factors for Tourette Syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ting-Kuang; Hu, Jing; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2014-01-30

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) appears to be an inherited disorder, although genetic abnormalities have been identified in less than 1% of patients, and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. Many studies have investigated environmental factors that might contribute to the onset and severity of tics and associated comorbidities such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and qualitative analysis were performed to provide a broad view of the association between pre- and perinatal factors and TS. The Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched using terms specific to Tourette's syndrome and keywords such as "pregnancy", "prenatal", "perinatal", "birth" and "neonatal". Studies were limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French through October 2012. 22 studies were included. Studies were of limited methodological quality, with most samples derived from specialty clinics, and most exposures ascertained retrospectively. The majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of comorbidity. Many factors were reported to be significantly associated with the onset of TS, the presence of comorbidity and symptom severity, but the most consistently reported factors were maternal smoking and low birth weight. There are few studies evaluating the relationship between pre and perinatal events and TS, and existing studies have major limitations, including the use of clinic rather than epidemiologically derived samples, retrospective data collection on pre and perinatal events and multiple hypothesis testing without appropriate statistical correction. The mechanism by which prenatal and perinatal adversities could lead to TS onset or symptom severity is unknown, but may be related to changes in the dopaminergic system as a result of early

  15. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  16. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  17. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The prenatal roots of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  19. Biological effects of prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    1997-01-01

    After large releases of radionuclides, exposure of the embryo or fetus can take place by external irradiation or uptake of radionuclies. The embryo and fetus are radiosensitive throughout prenatal development. The quality and extent of radiation effects depend on the development stage. During the preimplantation period (one to 10 days postconception, p.c.) a radiation exposure of at least 0.2 Gy can cause the death of the embryo. Malformations are only observed in rare cases when genetic predisposition exist. Macroscopic, anatomical malformations are induced only after irradiation during the major organogenesis (two to eight weeks p.c.). A radiation dose of about 0.2 Gy is a doubling dose for the malformation risks as extrapolated from experiments with rodents. The human embryo may be more radioresistant. During early fetogenesis (8-15 weeks p.c.) a high radiosensitivity exists for the developmental of the brain. Radiation doses of 1.0 Gy cause severe mental retardation in about 40% of the exposed fetuses. It must be taken into account that a radiation exposure during the fetal period can also induce cancer. It is generally assumed that the risk exists at about the same level as for children. (Author)

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Quaak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs. Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5. The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure

  1. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  2. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  4. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  5. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  6. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  7. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  8. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  9. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  10. Medicaid reimbursement, prenatal care and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonchak, Lyudmyla

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of state-level Medicaid reimbursement rates for obstetric care on prenatal care utilization across demographic groups. It also uses these rates as an instrumental variable to assess the importance of prenatal care on birth weight. The analysis is conducted using a unique dataset of Medicaid reimbursement rates and 2001-2010 Vital Statistics Natality data. Conditional on county fixed effects, the study finds a modest, but statistically significant positive relationship between Medicaid reimbursement rates and the number of prenatal visits obtained by pregnant women. Additionally, higher rates are associated with an increase in the probability of obtaining adequate care, as well as a reduction in the incidence of going without any prenatal care. However, the effect of an additional prenatal visit on birth weight is virtually zero for black disadvantaged mothers, while an additional visit yields a substantial increase in birth weight of over 20 g for white disadvantaged mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The puzzling association between smoking and hypertension during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Klebanoff, M A; Levine, R J; Puri, M; Moyer, P

    1999-12-01

    The object of this study was to examine the association between maternal smoking and hypertension during pregnancy. We used data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort study that collected detailed information on blood pressure, proteinuria, smoking, and placental morphologic and histologic characteristics. A total of 9651 healthy primigravid women without chronic hypertension who had been enrolled in the study at the first or second trimester (average 18 weeks' gestation) and had had >/=3 prenatal visits were included. Gestational hypertension was defined as diastolic blood pressure >/=90 mm Hg on 2 occasions from 24 weeks' gestation to 2 weeks post partum. Preeclampsia was defined as gestational hypertension plus >/=2 urine samples containing >/=1+ protein according to dipstick measurement during the same gestational period. After we controlled for prepregnancy body mass, age, socioeconomic status, and race, both past smoking and smoking during pregnancy were associated in a dose-response pattern with reduced risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. For women who smoked >/=10 cigarettes/d the relative risks with respect to women who had never smoked were 0.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.9) for gestational hypertension and 0.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.7) for preeclampsia. This protective effect was observed both for mild and severe gestational hypertension and for preeclampsia. The more and the longer a woman had smoked previously, the lower was her risk of development of hypertension during pregnancy. This association could not be explained by confounding factors, by changes in placental morphologic or histopathologic characteristics, by maternal net weight gain, or by elevated liver enzyme bioactivity. Smoking is associated with a reduced risk of hypertension during pregnancy. The protective effect appears to continue even after cessation of smoking. Further basic research on this issue is warranted.

  12. The association between social stressors and home smoking rules among women with infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Gurley-Calvez, Tami; Orth, Teresa A; Okah, Felix A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the role of social stressors on home-smoking rules (HSRs) among women with infants in the United States, with attention on the moderating role of smoking status and depression. We analyzed data for 118 062 women with recent births in the United States who participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (2004-2010), which is a population-based surveillance data set. We fit multinomial logistic models to predict the odds of partial or no HSRs by a cumulative index of prenatal social stressors. Compared with those with no stressors, mothers with high levels of social stressors had 2.5 times higher odds of partial or no HSRs. Smokers in the 1-2, 3-5, and ≥ 6 stressor categories were 9.0%, 9.6%, and 10.8% more likely to have partial or no HSRs, respectively. Under the highest levels of stress (≥ 6), nonsmokers were almost as likely as smokers to have partial or no HSRs. In addition, the effects of stress on HSRs were more pronounced for nonsmoker, nondepressed mothers. Increases in social stressors represented an important risk factor for partial or no HSRs and might have potential negative implications for infants.

  13. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, C.; Larsen, H.; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...... does not seem to have long-term harmful effects during childhood, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the child. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...

  14. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Higgins, Rosemary

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population.

  15. Interactions between ethanol and cigarette smoke in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Nikolov, Manasi; La Maestra, S.; Micale, Rosanna T.; Steele, Vernon E.; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cigarette smoke and ethanol are known to synergize in the upper aerodigestive tract. • Their interactions in the lower respiratory tract have poorly been explored. • Prenatal and postnatal treatments of mice with ethanol caused pulmonary alterations. • However, ethanol attenuated smoke-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in lung. • The interaction between smoke and alcohol depends on life stage and target tissue. - Abstract: Both ethanol and cigarette smoke are classified as human carcinogens. They can synergize, especially in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract that are targeted by both agents. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ethanol and smoke in the respiratory tract, either following transplacental exposure and/or postnatal exposure. We designed two consecutive studies in mouse models by exposing Swiss H mice to oral ethanol and/or inhaled mainstream cigarette smoke for up to 4 months, at various prenatal and postnatal life stages. Clastogenic effects and histopathological alterations were evaluated after 4 and 8 months, respectively. Ethanol was per se devoid of clastogenic effects in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. However, especially in mice exposed both transplacentally throughout pregnancy and in the postnatal life, ethanol administration was associated not only with liver damage but also with pro-angiogenetic effects in the lung by stimulating the proliferation of blood vessels. In addition, these mice developed pulmonary emphysema, alveolar epithelial hyperplasias, microadenomas, and benign tumors. On the other hand, ethanol interfered in the lung carcinogenesis process resulting from the concomitant exposure of mice to smoke. In fact, ethanol significantly attenuated some smoke-related preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the respiratory tract, such as alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, microadenomas, and even malignant tumors. In addition, ethanol

  16. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  17. The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired. Conclusion: Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. Keywords: Accuracy, gender determination, prenatal gender, prenatal sex, sex ...

  18. Empowering Women's Prenatal Communication: Does Literacy Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roter, Debra L; Erby, Lori H; Rimal, Rajiv N; Smith, Katherine C; Larson, Susan; Bennett, Ian M; Cole, Katie Washington; Guan, Yue; Molloy, Matthew; Bienstock, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an interactive computer program developed to empower prenatal communication among women with restricted literacy skills. A total of 83 women seeing 17 clinicians were randomized to a computer-based communication activation intervention (Healthy Babies Healthy Moms [HBHM]) or prenatal education (Baby Basics [BB]) prior to their prenatal visit. Visit communication was coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, and postvisit satisfaction was reported. Participants were on average 24 years of age and 25 weeks pregnant; 80% were African American. Two thirds scored ≤8th grade on a literacy screener. Women with literacy deficits were more verbally active, disclosed more medical and psychosocial/lifestyle information, and were rated as more dominant by coders in the HBHM group relative to their counterparts in the BB group (all ps literacy in the HBHM relative to the BB group (p literacy deficits. Satisfaction, however, tended to be lower for these women.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeng Cho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia (CPEH is a rare condition. CPEH can cause important clinical problems such as gastric volvulus, hematemesis, vomiting, failure to thrive, and respiratory distress, it requires early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In this paper, we describe a case of CPEH that was suspected in a prenatal ultrasound. Postnatal upper gastrointestinal contrast series confirmed a CPEH with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. An emergency operation was performed. The stomach was reduced, the hiatal defect was repaired by crural approximation, and a Nissen fundoplication was done. The prenatal diagnosis of CPEH is unusual, but prenatal detection is important because it allows planned neonatal surgery before the onset of complications and reduces long-term morbidity. Keywords: Congenital paraesophageal hiatal hernia, Antenatal diagnosis, Gastric volvulus

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  1. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  2. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  3. Prenatal intestinal volvulus: look for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouikh, Taieb; Mottet, Nicolas; Cabrol, Christelle; Chaussy, Yann

    2016-12-21

    Intestinal volvulus is a life-threatening emergency requiring prompt surgical management. Prenatal intestinal volvulus is rare, and most are secondary to intestinal atresia, mesenteric defect or without any underlying cause. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is known to cause digestive tract disorders. After birth, 10-15% of newborns with CF may develop intestinal obstruction within a few days of birth because of meconial ileus. 1 This obstruction is a result of dehydrated thickened meconium obstructing the intestinal lumen. We report two cases of fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of segmental volvulus in whom CF was diagnosed. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  5. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  6. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  7. Social Support and Social Conflict as Predictors of Prenatal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westdahl, Claire; Milan, Stephanie; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S.; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate how social support and social conflict relate to prenatal depressive symptoms and to generate a brief clinical tool to identify women at increased psychosocial risk. METHODS This is a prospective study following 1,047 pregnant women receiving care at two university-affiliated clinics from early pregnancy through 1 year postpartum. Structured interviews were conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. Hierarchical and logistic regressions were used to examine potential direct and interactive effects of social support and conflict on prenatal depressive symptoms measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. RESULTS Thirty-three percent of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms predicted from sociodemographic factors, social support, and social conflict. Social support and conflict had independent effects on depressive symptoms although social conflict was a stronger predictor. There was a “dose–response,” with each increase in interpersonal risk factor resulting in consequent risk for probable depression based on symptom reports (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Scale greater than or equal to 16). A composite of one social support and three conflict items were identified to be used by clinicians to identify interpersonal risk factors for depression in pregnancy. Seventy-six percent of women with a composite score of three or more high-risk responses reported depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Increased assessment of social support and social conflict by clinicians during pregnancy can identify women who could benefit from group or individual interventions to enhance supportive and reduce negative social interactions. PMID:17601908

  8. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V.; Kleinveld, Johanna H.; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R. M.; Holtkamp, Kim C. A.; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L.; Lachmeijer, Augusta M. A.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The

  9. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  10. The impact of active and passive peer influence on young adult smoking: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-03-01

    Peers influence adolescent and young adult smoking, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand whether the current assumption of peer pressure is valid, or whether an alternative explanation as imitation is more appropriate. We examined whether passive (imitation) and/or active (pressure) peer influence affects young adult smoking. An experiment was conducted among 68 daily-smoking students aged 16-24. The actual study aim was masked. Participants had to do a 30-min music task with a confederate. The experiment consisted of a 2 (smoking condition: confederate smokes or not) by 2 (pressure condition: confederate offers the participant a cigarette or not) factorial design, resulting in four conditions: (1) no smoking and no pressure (N=15); (2) smoking but no pressure (N=16); (3) pressure but no smoking (N=20); and (4) smoking and pressure (N=17). The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during this music assignment. Peer smoking significantly predicted the total number of cigarettes smoked by young adults while peer pressure did not. The interaction effect of peer pressure and peer smoking was not significant. Peer pressure did not have a significant additional contribution, over and above smoking of the peer. Passive (imitation) peer influence affected young adult smoking rather than active (pressure) peer influence. Thus, smoking cessation efforts should aim at preventing interaction with smoking peers and raising awareness about its impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal influences on size, velocity and tempo of infant growth: findings from three contemporary cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Pizzi

    Full Text Available Studying prenatal influences of early life growth is relevant to life-course epidemiology as some of its features have been linked to the onset of later diseases.We studied the association between prenatal maternal characteristics (height, age, parity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, smoking, gestational diabetes and hypertension and offspring weight trajectories in infancy using SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR models, which parameterize growth in terms of three biologically interpretable parameters: size, velocity and tempo. We used data from three contemporary cohorts based in Portugal (GXXI, n=738, Italy (NINFEA, n=2,925, and Chile (GOCS, n=959.Estimates were generally consistent across the cohorts for maternal height, age, parity and pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity. Some exposures only affected one growth parameter (e.g. maternal height (per cm: 0.4% increase in size (95% confidence interval (CI:0.3; 0.5, others were either found to affect size and velocity (e.g. pre-pregnancy underweight vs normal weight: smaller size (-4.9%, 95% CI:-6.5; -3.3, greater velocity (5.9%, 95% CI:1.9;10.0, or to additionally influence tempo (e.g. pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity vs normal weight: increased size (7.9%, 95% CI:4.9;10.8, delayed tempo (0.26 months, 95% CI:0.11;0.41, decreased velocity (-4.9%, 95% CI: -10.8;0.9.By disentangling the growth parameters of size, velocity and tempo, we found that prenatal maternal characteristics, especially maternal smoking, pre-pregnancy overweight and underweight, parity and gestational hypertension, are associated with different aspects of infant weight growth. These results may offer insights into the mechanisms governing infant growth.

  12. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  13. Early prenatal vitamin D concentrations and social-emotional development in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Devika; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Benjamin-Neelon, Sara E; Hoyo, Cathrine; Murphy, Susan; Daniels, Julie L

    2017-12-04

    Many pregnant women in the United States have suboptimal vitamin D, but the impact on infant development is unclear. Moreover, no pregnancy-specific vitamin D recommendations have been widely accepted. Given the ubiquitous expression of vitamin D receptors in the brain, we investigated the association between early prenatal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and children's social and emotional development in the Newborn Epigenetic Study, a prospective study of pregnancies from 2009 to 2011 in Durham, North Carolina. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations in first or second trimester plasma samples and categorized 25(OH)D concentrations into quartiles. Covariates were derived from maternal questionnaires. Mothers completed the Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Development Assessment when children were 12-24 months of age. We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations between 25(OH)D and specific behavior scores, adjusted for season of blood draw, maternal age, education, parity, smoking, marital status, prepregnancy BMI, and infant gender. We investigated effect-measure modification by race/ethnicity. Of the 218 mother-infant pairs with complete data, Black mothers had much lower 25(OH)D concentrations as compared to White and Hispanic mothers. After adjustment, lower prenatal 25(OH)D was associated with slightly higher (less favorable) Internalizing scores among White children, but lower (more favorable) Internalizing scores among Black and Hispanic children. Lower prenatal 25(OH)D also appears to be associated with higher (less favorable) dysregulation scores, though only among White and Hispanic children. Though imprecise, preliminary results warrant further investigation regarding a role for prenatal vitamin D on children's early social and emotional development.

  14. Prenatal vitamin C and E supplementation in smokers is associated with reduced placental abruption and preterm birth: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, A; Gandley, R E; Clifton, R G; Leveno, K J; Myatt, L; Wapner, R J; Thorp, J M; Mercer, B M; Peaceman, A M; Samuels, P; Sciscione, A; Harper, M; Saade, G; Sorokin, Y

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with increases in preterm birth, placental abruption and low birthweight. We evaluated the relationship between prenatal vitamin C and E (C/E) supplementation and perinatal outcomes by maternal self-reported smoking status focusing on outcomes known to be impacted by maternal smoking. A secondary analysis of a multi-centre trial of vitamin C/E supplementation starting at 9-16 weeks in low-risk nulliparous women with singleton gestations. We examined the effect of vitamin C/E by smoking status at randomisation using the Breslow-Day test for interaction. The trial's primary outcomes were PE and a composite outcome of pregnancy-associated hypertension (PAH) with serious adverse outcomes. Perinatal outcomes included preterm birth and abruption. There were no differences in baseline characteristics within subgroups (smokers versus nonsmokers) by vitamin supplementation status. The effect of prenatal vitamin C/E on the risk of PE (P = 0.66) or PAH composite outcome (P = 0.86) did not differ by smoking status. Vitamin C/E was protective for placental abruption in smokers (relative risk [RR] 0.09; 95% CI 0.00-0.87], but not in nonsmokers (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.52-1.62) (P = 0.01), and for preterm birth in smokers (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.58-0.99) but not in nonsmokers (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.90-1.17) (P = 0.046). In this cohort of women, smoking was not associated with a reduction in PE or the composite outcome of PAH. Vitamin C/E supplementation appears to be associated with a reduction in placental abruption and preterm birth among smokers. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  16. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-10-01

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  17. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  18. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Joanne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004 conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review

  19. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier

  20. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  1. Effect of brain prenatal irradiations (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovskij, K.N.; Loganovskaya, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Tendency of intellectual deficiency and emotion disturbance among children which were irradiated in womb was found. Study of the risk of endogenic psychic disorder development and, first of all, schizophrenia in pre-natally irradiated children, as a result of Chernobyl catastrophe, is of special interest. 256 refs., 1 tab

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  3. Ultrasound demonstration of prenatal renal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.; Jequier, S.

    1989-01-01

    This case report illustrates the sonographic appearance of such calcifications which to our knowledge have not been described. We observed abnormalities on a prenatal ultrasound at 37 weeks of gestation and calcifications within the kidney on ultrasound during the neonatal period in an infant of a mother with Class B diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  4. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from...

  5. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poses no physical risks for you or your baby. While prenatal cell-free DNA screening might cause anxiety, it might help you avoid the need for more invasive tests, treatment or monitoring during your pregnancy. Keep in mind, however, that ...

  6. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Young, Elizabeth; Bowns, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders is coming to fruition in its clinical utility. The presence of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma has been recognized for many years, and a number of applications have developed from this. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for single gene disorders has lagged behind due to complexities of technology development, lack of investment and the need for validation samples for rare disorders. Publications are emerging demonstrating a variety of technical approaches and feasibility of clinical application. Techniques for analysis of cell-free DNA including digital PCR, next-generation sequencing and relative haplotype dosage have been used most often for assay development. Analysis of circulating fetal cells in the maternal blood is still being investigated as a viable alternative and more recently transcervical trophoblast cells. Studies exploring ethical and social issues are generally positive but raise concerns around the routinization of prenatal testing. Further work is necessary to make testing available to all patients with a pregnancy at risk of a single gene disorder, and it remains to be seen if the development of more powerful technologies such as isolation and analysis of single cells will shift the emphasis of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. As testing becomes possible for a wider range of conditions, more ethical questions will become relevant.

  7. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood

  8. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  9. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study among Argentinian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Morello, Paola; Braun, Sandra; Hardin, James W.; Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. Study design School-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry =12.5y), 1,700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco, and then asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for the following transitions: non-susceptible to susceptible never smoker, never smoker to ever smoker, and never smoker to current smoking (last 30 days). Results At follow-up, 34.4% of non-susceptible never smokers became susceptible, 24.1% reported having tried smoking, and 9.6% were current smokers. Most exposure to movie smoking was from US-produced films (average 60.3 minutes compared with only 3.4 minutes from Argentine films). Higher exposure to smoking in movies was significantly associated with increased odds of becoming susceptible (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.30–2.41), of trying smoking (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.54, 1.14–2.08), and marginally associated with current smoking (AOR1st vs 3rd tertile = 1.54, 0.99–2.40). Exposure to smoking in US- or Argentine-produced films had similar associations. Conclusion In Argentina, exposure to smoking in the movies predicted future smoking transitions among early adolescents, with most exposure coming from viewing US movies. PMID:28029343

  10. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation: A Longitudinal Study among Argentinian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Morello, Paola; Braun, Sandra; Hardin, James W; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. A school-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina was performed. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry = 12.5 years), 1700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 highest-grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco and then by asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles. Logistic regression models estimated aOR for the following transitions: nonsusceptible to susceptible never smoker, never smoker to ever smoker, and never smoker to current smoking (last 30 days). At follow-up, 34.4% of nonsusceptible never smokers became susceptible, 24.1% reported having tried smoking, and 9.4% were current smokers. Most exposure to movie smoking was from US-produced films (average 60.3 minutes compared with only 3.4 minutes from Argentine films). Greater exposure to smoking in movies was significantly associated with increased odds of becoming susceptible (aOR first vs third tertile  1.77, 95% CI 1.30-2.41), of trying smoking (aOR first vs third tertile  1.54, 1.14-2.08), and marginally associated with current smoking (AOR first vs third tertile  1.54, 0.99-2.40). Exposure to smoking in US- or Argentine-produced films had similar associations. In Argentina, exposure to smoking in the movies predicted future smoking transitions among early adolescents, with most exposure coming from viewing US movies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual selective attention is impaired in children prenatally exposed to opioid agonist medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, Carolien; Melinder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether prenatal exposure to opioid agonist medication is associated with visual selective attention and general attention problems in early childhood. Twenty-two children (mean age = 52.17 months, SD = 1.81) prenatally exposed to methadone, 9 children (mean age = 52.41 months, SD = 1.42) prenatally exposed to buprenorphine and 25 nonexposed comparison children (mean age = 51.44 months, SD = 1.31) were tested. Visual selective attention was measured with a Tobii 1750 Eye Tracker using a spatial negative priming paradigm. Attention problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist. The comparison group demonstrated a larger spatial negative priming effect (mean = 23.50, SD = 45.50) than the exposed group [mean = -6.84, SD = 86.39, F(1,50) = 5.91, p = 0.019, η(2) = 0.11]. No difference in reported attention problems was found [F(1,51) = 1.63, p = 0.21, η(2) = 0.03]. Neonatal abstinence syndrome and prenatal exposure to marijuana were found to predict slower saccade latencies in the exposed group (b = 54.55, SE = 23.56, p = 0.03 and b = 88.86, SE = 32.07, p = 0.01, respectively). Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  13. Using an adoption design to separate genetic, prenatal, and temperament influences on toddler executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; DeGarmo, David S; Bridgett, David J; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Harold, Gordon T; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2013-06-01

    Poor executive functioning has been implicated in children's concurrent and future behavioral difficulties, making work aimed at understanding processes related to the development of early executive function (EF) critical for models of developmental psychopathology. Deficits in EF have been associated with adverse prenatal experiences, genetic influences, and temperament characteristics. However, our ability to disentangle the predictive and independent effects of these influences has been limited by a dearth of genetically informed research designs that also consider prenatal influences. The present study examined EF and language development in a sample of 361 toddlers who were adopted at birth and reared in nonrelative adoptive families. Predictors included genetic influences (as inherited from birth mothers), prenatal risk, and growth in child negative emotionality. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of prenatal risk on toddler effortful attention at age 27 months became nonsignificant once genetic influences were considered in the model. In addition, genetic influences had unique effects on toddler effortful attention. Latent growth modeling indicated that increases in toddler negative emotionality from 9 to 27 months were associated with poorer delay of gratification and poorer language development. Similar results were obtained in models incorporating birth father data. Mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of EF deficits are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  15. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  16. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  17. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  18. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo; Lee, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  19. Transcriptomic epidemiology of smoking: the effect of smoking on gene expression in lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasy Laura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation offers insights into system-wide pathological processes induced in response to cigarette smoke exposure by determining its influences at the gene expression level. Methods We obtained genome-wide quantitative transcriptional profiles from 1,240 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study, including 297 current smokers. Using lymphocyte samples, we identified 20,413 transcripts with significantly detectable expression levels, including both known and predicted genes. Correlation between smoking and gene expression levels was determined using a regression model that allows for residual genetic effects. Results With a conservative false-discovery rate of 5% we identified 323 unique genes (342 transcripts whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior. These genes showed significant over-representation within a range of functional categories that correspond well with known smoking-related pathologies, including immune response, cell death, cancer, natural killer cell signaling and xenobiotic metabolism. Conclusions Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking. This is the largest in vivo transcriptomic epidemiological study of smoking to date and reveals the significant and comprehensive influence of cigarette smoke, as an environmental variable, on the expression of genes. The central importance of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the relationships between gene expression and smoking in this exceptionally large cross-sectional data set.

  20. Validity and reliability testing of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M A; Campbell, R A; Christian, M

    1994-04-01

    Two studies of low-income pregnant women (N = 179) were done to examine the validity and reliability of the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP). The PPP, a composite of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Support Behaviors Inventory, and a newly developed measure of stress, is a brief, comprehensive clinical assessment of psychosocial risk during pregnancy. Construct validity of the stress scale was supported by theoretically predicted negative correlations with self-esteem, partner support, and support from others (N = 91). Convergent validity of the stress scale was demonstrated by a correlation of .71 with the Difficult Life Circumstances Scale. Adequate levels of internal consistency were found. Interrelationships between the four subscales were consistent with the underlying conceptualization, and there was beginning evidence of the factorial independence of the subscales.

  1. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  2. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  3. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine associations between...... with reduced lung function (FEV1 %predicted valuediseases may have...

  4. Modelling smoke transport from wildland fires: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; Gary L. Achtemeier; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Yongqiang Liu; Tara M. ( Strand

    2012-01-01

    Among the key issues in smoke management is predicting the magnitude and location of smoke effects. These vary in severity from hazardous (acute health conditions and drastic visibility impairment to transportation) to nuisance (regional haze), and occur across a range of scales (local to continental). Over the years a variety of tools have been developed to aid in...

  5. Application of Simple CFD Models in Smoke Ventilation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; la Cour-Harbo, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines the possibilities of using simple CFD models in practical smoke ventilation design. The aim is to assess if it is possible with a reasonable accuracy to predict the behaviour of smoke transport in case of a fire. A CFD code mainly applicable for “ordinary” ventilation design...

  6. The Association Between Prenatal Stress and Externalizing Symptoms in Childhood: Evidence From the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Nathalie; Kingsbury, Mila; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Colman, Ian

    2018-01-15

    It has been suggested that prenatal maternal stress may increase the risk of childhood externalizing disorders, yet no large cohort study has investigated this association across a large range of acute stressors. Our objective was to estimate the association between prenatal stressful events and risk of offspring conduct disorder and hyperactivity. We used data from 10,184 mother-offspring pairs from the United Kingdom-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers self-reported 42 prenatal stressful life events at 18 weeks' gestation. Symptoms of conduct disorder and hyperactivity in their offspring were measured at 6, 9, 11, 13, and 16 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The primary outcome was membership in high-symptom trajectories of 1) conduct disorder and 2) hyperactivity throughout childhood, identified using latent class growth modeling. Multinomial logistic regression models estimated the association between prenatal stress and both conduct disorder and hyperactivity, after adjusting for sex, parental education, low birth weight, preterm birth, parental social class, maternal smoking and drinking, maternal mental health, offspring stressful life events, and offspring depressive and anxious symptoms. Those exposed to the highest quartile of prenatal stress were more likely to belong to the high symptom trajectory for hyperactivity (B = 0.46, p < .05) and conduct disorder (B = 0.88, p < .01), respectively. Prenatal stress further demonstrated a positive, dose-response relationship with symptoms of externalizing disorders at independent time points. The findings suggest that prenatal stressful events may be an independent risk factor for offspring externalizing symptoms, regardless of maternal mental health and offspring internalizing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D

    2011-04-01

    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  9. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  10. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  11. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira SE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandra E Vieira Pediatrics Department, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children’s progress during the first years of life. Keywords: air pollutants, pregnancy, birth weight, lung disease, tobacco, fetal development

  12. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  13. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass......The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested...

  14. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA......AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...

  15. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  16. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an online Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires, which lists resources and tools that provide information on health impacts from smoke exposure, current fire conditions and forecasts and strategies to reduce exposure to smoke.

  19. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  20. Effect of prenatal mindfulness training on depressive symptom severity through 18-months postpartum: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Roubinov, Danielle; Bush, Nicole R; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Vieten, Cassandra; Laraia, Barbara; Adler, Nancy E; Epel, Elissa

    2018-02-28

    We examined whether prenatal mindfulness training was associated with lower depressive symptoms through 18-months postpartum compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A controlled, quasi-experimental trial compared prenatal mindfulness training (MMT) to TAU. We collected depressive symptom data at post-intervention, 6-, and 18-months postpartum. Latent profile analysis identified depressive symptom profiles, and multinomial logistic regression examined whether treatment condition predicted profile. Three depressive symptom severity profiles emerged: none/minimal, mild, and moderate. Adjusting for relevant covariates, MMT participants were less likely than TAU participants to be in the moderate profile than the none/minimal profile (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03-0.54, p = .005). Prenatal mindfulness training may have benefits for depressive symptoms during the transition to parenthood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Impact of prenatal stress on offspring glucocorticoid levels: A phylogenetic meta-analysis across 14 vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Wilson, Meredith A; Kim, Andrew W; Jaeggi, Adrian V

    2018-03-21

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress is commonly associated with variation in Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning in offspring. However, the strength or consistency of this response has never been empirically evaluated across vertebrate species. Here we meta-analyzed 114 results from 39 studies across 14 vertebrate species using Bayesian phylogenetic mixed-effects models. We found a positive overall effect of prenatal stress on offspring glucocorticoids (d' = 0.43) though the 95% Highest Posterior Density Interval overlapped with 0 (-0.16-0.95). Meta-regressions of potential moderators highlighted that phylogeny and life history variables predicted relatively little variation in effect size. Experimental studies (d' = 0.64) produced stronger effects than observational ones (d' = -0.01), while prenatal stress affected glucocorticoid recovery following offspring stress exposure more strongly (d' = 0.75) than baseline levels (d' = 0.48) or glucocorticoid peak response (d' = 0.36). These findings are consistent with the argument that HPA-axis sensitivity to prenatal stress is evolutionarily ancient and occurs regardless of a species' overall life history strategy. These effects may therefore be especially important for mediating intra-specific life-history variation. In addition, these findings suggest that animal models of prenatal HPA-axis programming may be appropriate for studying similar effects in humans.

  2. Novel Mutation in the TSC2 Gene Associated with Prenatally Diagnosed Cardiac Rhabdomyomas and Cerebral Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rhabdomyomas are prenatal echocardiographic markers for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. TSC is caused by mutations in the genes TSC1 and TSC2. We report a 28-year-old, gravida 5, para 2, woman with an uncomplicated pregnancy until prenatal ultrasound at 34 weeks' gestation revealed fetal cardiac tumors. Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at 36 weeks' gestation showed cardiac rhab-domyomas and small subependymal tubers. At 39 weeks' gestation, a 2262 g female infant was delivered uneventfully. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed cardiac rhabdomyomas and MRI verified small cerebral subependymal tubers. Mutational analysis of TSC1 and TSC2 genes using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing of the genes was performed and revealed that the parents had wildtype DNA, while the proband was heterozygous for a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.4830 G > A, in exon 36 of the TSC2 gene, resulting in a change of codon 1610 TGG (tryptophan to TGA (stop codon. The mutation predicted a W1610X premature termination of the tuberin protein. These findings support an association between a TSC2 de novo nonsense mutation and prenatally detected cardiac rhabdomyomas and cerebral tuberous sclerosis. Familial molecular analysis of TSC1 and TSC2 in cases with prenatally diagnosed cardiac rhabdomyomas and cerebral tuberous sclerosis lesions is helpful in prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  3. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  5. The Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale: factorial structure, validity and reliability in pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Katrien Sophie; Tency, Inge; Boudrez, Hedwig; Temmerman, Marleen; Maes, Lea; Clays, Els

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy can cause several maternal and neonatal health risks, yet a considerable number of pregnant women continue to smoke. The objectives of this study were to test the factorial structure, validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) in a sample of smoking pregnant women and to understand reasons for continued smoking during pregnancy. A longitudinal design was performed. Data of 97 pregnant smokers were collected during prenatal consultation. Structural equation modelling was performed to assess the construct validity of the MRSS: an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis.Test-retest reliability (addiction, pleasure, habit and social function. Results for internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good to acceptable. There were significant associations of nicotine dependence with tension reduction and addiction and of daily consumption with addiction and habit. Validity and reliability of the MRSS were shown in a sample of pregnant smokers. Tension reduction was the most important reason for continued smoking, followed by pleasure and addiction. Although the score for nicotine dependence was low, addiction was an important reason for continued smoking during pregnancy; therefore, nicotine replacement therapy could be considered. Half of the respondents experienced depressive symptoms. Hence, it is important to identify those women who need more specialized care, which can include not only smoking cessation counselling but also treatment for depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Physical abuse, smoking, and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships, and effects on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K

    1996-05-01

    To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.

  7. Cigarette Taxes, Smoking-and Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Niles, David P

    2017-08-01

    This research provides the first in-depth analysis of the effect that increased cigarette taxes have on exercise behavior. Smoking may diminish the ability to exercise; individuals may also use exercise to compensate for the harmful health effects of smoking or to avoid gaining weight if they cut back. Our conceptual model highlights these and several other avenues for effect and reveals that the predicted effect of cigarette costs on exercise behavior is theoretically ambiguous. To investigate the relationship empirically, 1994-2012 data from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system are combined with state level cigarette tax rates and other state level variables. Several measures of both smoking and exercise behavior are created and estimated in reduced form models. Our results suggest that both smoking and exercise are reduced by cigarette taxes. However, the effects on exercise may be more complicated as we find that certain groups, such as young adults or those who have recently quit smoking, are affected differently. Our analyses also show that the responsiveness of both smoking and exercise behavior to cigarette costs is much smaller in the 2000s, an era of high-tax increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a levels predict the development of major abnormal Q/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundstrom Johan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17, high lipoprotein (a levels, high body mass index (BMI and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI compared to clinically recognized MI.

  9. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = smoke with greater probability than the text condition. The interaction between stimulus modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  10. Personal values, advertising, and smoking motivation in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the role that personal values plays in motivating Taiwanese adolescents to smoke. In a nationwide survey of high school students, smokers attached greater importance to hedonic gratification values and less importance to idealism values than did nonsmokers. Hedonic gratification values were associated with favorable attitudes toward smoking, while idealism values were associated with unfavorable attitudes toward smoking. Attitudes toward smoking predicted adolescent smoking behavior. Evidence suggested that advertising plays an important role in motivating adolescents with hedonic gratification values to smoke. First, in the survey, hedonic gratification values were associated with paying attention to and expressing favorable attitudes toward cigarette advertising. Second, a content analysis of cigarette ads in magazines found hedonic gratification values to be the most commonly portrayed values, occurring in 62.7% of ads.

  11. Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefan, Janet M; Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    We sought to determine whether adolescents whose favorite movie stars smoke on-screen are at increased risk of tobacco use. During interviews, adolescent never smokers taking part in the California Tobacco Survey nominated their favorite stars. We reviewed popular films released during 1994 through 1996 to determine whether stars smoked on-screen in at least 2 films. One third of never smokers nominated a star who smoked on-screen, which independently predicted later smoking risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.82). The effect was strong among girls (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.73). Among boys, there was no independent effect after control for receptivity to tobacco industry promotions. Public health efforts to reduce adolescent smoking must confront smoking in films as a tobacco marketing strategy.

  12. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  13. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the workplace, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In the United States, the source of most secondhand smoke is from cigarettes, followed by pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products ( 4 ). The amount of smoke created by a tobacco product depends on the amount ...

  14. Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  15. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  16. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  17. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  18. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  19. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Wanapirak, Chanane; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Chanprapaph, Pharuhas

    2002-02-01

    A healthy 27-year-old pregnant woman underwent sonographic examination because her uterine size was large for 20 weeks' menstrual age. Sonograms showed short fetal limbs with hitchhiker thumbs and toes, thoracic scoliosis, clubbed feet, and polyhydramnios. The ossification of all bony structures appeared normal, and there was no evidence of fractures. On the basis of these sonographic findings, we diagnosed skeletal dysplasia and short-limbed dwarfism, most likely diastrophic dwarfism. We counseled the parents, and the pregnancy was continued. At 37 weeks menstrual age, the patient vaginally delivered a male infant that weighed 2,560 g. The infant survived with respiratory support during his first few days of life. Postnatal physical and radiologic examinations confirmed the prenatal diagnosis of diastrophic dwarfism. Sonography is the modality of choice for prenatal detection of diastrophic dwarfism. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Access Barriers to Prenatal Care in Emerging Adult Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar

    2016-03-01

    Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care. © 2016. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking, Discount Rates, and Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersterer, Josef; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Individual time preference determines schooling enrolment. Moreover, smoking behavior in early ages has been shown to be highly related to time preference rates. Insofar as discount rates are uncorrelated to ability, predicting school enrolment by discount rates can get rid of the ability bias in an earnings regression. Accordingly, we use smoking…

  2. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts to estimate the leukemogenic potency of benzene. Using multiple-decrement life tables, we calculated lifetime risks of total leukemia and AML deaths for never, light, and heavy smokers. We repeated these calculations, removing the effect of benzene in cigarettes based on the estimated potencies. From these life tables we determined smoking-attributable risks and benzene-attributable risks. The ratio of the latter to the former constitutes the proportion of smoking-induced cases attributable to benzene. Based on linear potency models, the benzene in cigarette smoke contributed from 8 to 48% of smoking-induced total leukemia deaths [95% upper confidence limit (UCL), 20-66%], and from 12 to 58% of smoking-induced AML deaths (95% UCL, 19-121%). The inclusion of a quadratic term yielded results that were comparable; however, potency models with only quadratic terms resulted in much lower attributable fractions--all models substantially overestimate low-dose risk, linear extrapolations from empirical data over a dose range of 10- to 100-fold resulted in plausible predictions.

  3. Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

  4. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    as well.The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Improving knowledge scores and reducing decisional conflict can be obtained by group counselling...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  5. Prenatal investments, breastfeeding, and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Kolka, Shawna

    2014-10-01

    Mothers have many opportunities to invest in their own or their child's health and well-being during pregnancy and immediately after birth. These investments include seeking prenatal care, taking prenatal vitamins, and breastfeeding. In this paper, we investigate a potential determinant of mothers' investments that has been largely overlooked by previous research-birth order. Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) Child and Young Adult Survey, which provides detailed information on pre- and post-natal behaviors of women from the NLSY79. These women were between the ages of 14 and 22 in 1979, and form a nationally representative sample of youth in the United States. Our sample includes births to these women between 1973 and 2010 (10,328 births to 3755 mothers). We use fixed effects regression models to estimate within-mother differences in pre- and post-natal behaviors across births. We find that mothers are 6.6 percent less likely to take prenatal vitamins in a fourth or higher-order birth than in a first and are 10.6 percent less likely to receive early prenatal care. Remarkably, mothers are 15.4 percent less likely to breastfeed a second-born child than a first, and are 20.9 percent less likely to breastfeed a fourth or higher-order child. These results are not explained by changing attitudes toward investments over time. These findings suggest that providers may want to increase efforts to encourage these behaviors at women with higher parity. The results also identify a potential mechanism for the emergence of differences in health and other outcomes across birth orders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  7. The Cost of Smoking in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling; Stark, Brad

    2016-05-01

    The economic impact of smoking, including healthcare costs and the value of lost productivity due to illness and mortality, was estimated for California for 2009. Smoking-attributable healthcare costs were estimated using a series of econometric models that estimate expenditures for hospital care, ambulatory care, prescriptions, home health care, and nursing home care. Lost productivity due to illness was estimated using an econometric model predicting how smoking status affects the number of days lost from work or other activities. The value of lives lost from premature mortality due to smoking was estimated using an epidemiological approach. Almost 4 million Californians still smoke, including 146 000 adolescents. The cost of smoking in 2009 totaled $18.1 billion, including $9.8 billion in healthcare costs, $1.4 billion in lost productivity from illness, and $6.8 billion in lost productivity from premature mortality. This amounts to $487 per California resident and $4603 per smoker. Costs were greater for men than for women. Hospital costs comprised 44% of healthcare costs. Despite extensive efforts at tobacco control in California, healthcare and lost productivity costs attributable to smoking remain high. Compared to costs for 1999, the total cost was 15% greater in 2009. However, after adjusting for inflation, real costs have fallen by 13% over the past decade, indicating that efforts have been successful in reducing the economic burden of smoking in the state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Body Mass Index at 3 Years of Age: Cascading Effects of Prenatal Maternal Depression and Mother-Infant Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia M; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Planalp, Elizabeth M; Moore, Elizabeth S

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of mothers' prenatal depression on parenting during infancy, ensuing childhood regulation, and body mass index (BMI) at age 3 years. The sample (N = 284) included teen mothers (n = 157), adult mothers with low education (n = 69), and adult mothers with high education (n = 58), and their first-born children. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally through self-report; observational methods and self-report were used to assess mothers' parenting at 4, 6, and 8 months and children's regulation at 18, 24, and 30 months of age. Child BMI was measured at 36 months of age in the laboratory. Structural equation modeling supported mediating processes such that mothers who reported more depressive symptoms prenatally exhibited less positive parenting during infancy. In turn, less positive parenting predicted lower levels of child regulation during toddlerhood, which predicted higher child BMIs at 36 months of age, even after controlling for infant birth weight and concurrent maternal BMI. Models comparing groups (teen mothers, adult low-educated mothers, and adult-high educated mothers) indicated mean differences in maternal depression, parenting, and child regulation, but similar patterns of prediction across groups. The present study provides evidence of cascading psychosocial processes beginning prenatally and continuing through infancy, toddlerhood, and into early childhood. Results have implications for family-wide intervention strategies to help lower the risk for early onset obesity in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  10. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  11. Impact of prenatal care on postpartum child care

    OpenAIRE

    NWARU, BRIGHT

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although prenatal care has come a long way to be regarded as a standard routine care in pregnancy since its formal organization in the early 20th century, with several modifications to its content, it is just of recent that considerable attention was drawn to questions about its effectiveness. This awareness has led to several evaluations of the impact of prenatal care. Initially, these assessments concentrated on the effect of prenatal care on the more traditional outcomes (b...

  12. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods: Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until d...

  13. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  14. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  16. Group Prenatal Care: A Financial Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Rebecca A; Phillips, Lindsay E; O'Dell, Lisa; Husseini, Racha El; Carpino, Sarah; Hartman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated improved perinatal outcomes for group prenatal care (GPC) when compared to traditional prenatal care. Benefits of GPC include lower rates of prematurity and low birth weight, fewer cesarean deliveries, improved breastfeeding outcomes and improved maternal satisfaction with care. However, the outpatient financial costs of running a GPC program are not well established. This study involved the creation of a financial model that forecasted costs and revenues for prenatal care groups with various numbers of participants based on numerous variables, including patient population, payor mix, patient show rates, staffing mix, supply usage and overhead costs. The model was developed for use in an urban underserved practice. Adjusted revenue per pregnancy in this model was found to be $989.93 for traditional care and $1080.69 for GPC. Cost neutrality for GPC was achieved when each group enrolled an average of 10.652 women with an enriched staffing model or 4.801 women when groups were staffed by a single nurse and single clinician. Mathematical cost-benefit modeling in an urban underserved practice demonstrated that GPC can be not only financially sustainable but possibly a net income generator for the outpatient clinic. Use of this model could offer maternity care practices an important tool for demonstrating the financial practicality of GPC.

  17. Support for smoke-free restaurants among Massachusetts adults, 1992-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D R; Mucci, L A

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined trends and predictors of public support for smoke-free restaurants in Massachusetts. Since 1992, the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System has asked survey respondents about their attitudes toward smoking in restaurants. Analyses using data from 1992 to 1999 characterized changes over time in support for smoke-free restaurants and the role of demographic and smoking-related factors in predicting support. During 1992 to 1999, the rate of support for smoke-free restaurants increased from 37.5% to 59.8%, with similar increases among current, former, and never smokers. After adjustment for smoking status, support was associated with socioeconomic characteristics, race/ethnicity, and household smoking rules. Among current smokers, lighter smokers and those who were trying to quit were more likely to endorse smoke-free restaurants. There has been a substantial increase in support for smoke-free restaurants among both smokers and nonsmokers in Massachusetts.

  18. In-flight cabin smoke control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, T I

    1996-12-31

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  19. Flawed oral health of a non-smoking adolescent suggests smoking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2015-06-01

    Smokers often have oral health problems. We studied whether poor oral health among non-smoking adolescents is connected to smoking behaviour in adulthood. We used an age cohort born in 1979 (n = 2582) taking part in annual oral health check-ups between the ages of 13 and 15. Self-reported non-smokers were used as the study population. As measures we used decayed, missing or filled teeth/surfaces (DMF) and decayed teeth (D) and smoking behaviour at ages 13-15 and the depending measure was smoking behaviour at the age of 29. Those who were non-smokers at ages 13-15 and had tooth decay (D > 0) in an oral check-up during that period had higher risk (OR (Odds Ratio) 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) of being a smoker by age 29. Tooth decay at age 15 predicted earlier onset of smoking for those, who became smokers later in life. Dental caries (DMF > 0) was not associated with higher risk of becoming a smoking adult, but those with dental caries at age 13 were more likely to start smoking earlier. Poorer dental health, especially tooth decay in adolescence is a possible indicator of a greater likelihood of transforming from being a non-smoker to a smoker. Dentists should notice this for allocated health promotion. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,