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Sample records for prenatal radiation exposure

  1. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.J. (New York Power Authority, White Plains (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed.

  2. Health effects of prenatal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela M; Fletcher, Stacy

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant women are at risk of exposure to nonionizing and ionizing radiation resulting from necessary medical procedures, workplace exposure, and diagnostic or therapeutic interventions before the pregnancy is known. Nonionizing radiation includes microwave, ultrasound, radio frequency, and electromagnetic waves. In utero exposure to nonionizing radiation is not associated with significant risks; therefore, ultrasonography is safe to perform during pregnancy. Ionizing radiation includes particles and electromagnetic radiation (e.g., gamma rays, x-rays). In utero exposure to ionizing radiation can be teratogenic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic. The effects are directly related to the level of exposure and stage of fetal development. The fetus is most susceptible to radiation during organogenesis (two to seven weeks after conception) and in the early fetal period (eight to 15 weeks after conception). Noncancer health effects have not been detected at any stage of gestation after exposure to ionizing radiation of less than 0.05 Gy (5 rad). Spontaneous abortion, growth restriction, and mental retardation may occur at higher exposure levels. The risk of cancer is increased regardless of the dose. When an exposure to ionizing radiation occurs, the total fetal radiation dose should be estimated and the mother counseled about the potential risks so that she can make informed decisions about her pregnancy management.

  3. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures.

  4. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths; Exposicion Prenatal a Radiaciones Ionizantes: Mitos y Verdades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. R.; Trano, L.; Gisone, P.

    2001-07-01

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the gramework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation; Praenatale Strahlenexposition. Dosisermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Roeser, A. [University Hospital Witten/Herdecke, Wuppertal (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology

    2015-05-15

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  6. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Verreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered.

  7. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, Tine; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  8. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S. [Dept of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping(Sweden); Helmrot, E. [Radiology Dept, County Hospital Ryhov, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Persliden, J. [Dept of Medical Physics, Oerebro Univ Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Cederlund, T. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  9. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  10. Multiple assessment methods of prenatal exposure to radio frequency radiation from telecommunication in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam

    2016-11-18

    To evaluate prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from telecommunication using a mobile phone questionnaire, operator data logs of mobile phone use and a personal exposure meter (PEM). The study included 1228 mother-infants pairs from the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study - a multicenter prospective cohort study ongoing since 2006, in which participants were enrolled at ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy, with a follow-up of a child birth and growth to assess the association between prenatal environmental exposure and children's health. The questionnaire included the average calling frequency per day and the average calling time per day. An EME Spy 100 PEM was used to measure RFR among 269 pregnant women from November 2007 to August 2010. The operators' log data were obtained from 21 participants. The Spearman's correlation test was performed to evaluate correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals between the mobile phone use information from the questionnaire, operators' log data, and data recorded by the PEM. The operators' log data and information from the self-reported questionnaire showed significantly high correlations in the average calling frequency per day (ρ = 0.6, p = 0.004) and average calling time per day (ρ = 0.5, p = 0.02). The correlation between information on the mobile phone use in the self-reported questionnaire and exposure index recorded by the PEM was poor. But correlation between the information of the operators' log data and exposure index for transmission of mobile communication was significantly high: correlation coefficient (p-value) was 0.44 (0.07) for calling frequency per day, and it was 0.49 (0.04) for calling time per day. The questionnaire information on the mobile phone use showed moderate to high quality. Using multiple methods for exposure assessment might be better than using only one method. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):959-972.

  11. Multiple assessment methods of prenatal exposure to radio frequency radiation from telecommunication in the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR from telecommunication using a mobile phone questionnaire, operator data logs of mobile phone use and a personal exposure meter (PEM. Material and Methods: The study included 1228 mother–infants pairs from the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH study – a multicenter prospective cohort study ongoing since 2006, in which participants were enrolled at ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy, with a follow-up of a child birth and growth to assess the association between prenatal environmental exposure and children’s health. The questionnaire included the average calling frequency per day and the average calling time per day. An EME Spy 100 PEM was used to measure RFR among 269 pregnant women from November 2007 to August 2010. The operators’ log data were obtained from 21 participants. The Spearman’s correlation test was performed to evaluate correlation coefficient and 95% confidence intervals between the mobile phone use information from the questionnaire, operators’ log data, and data recorded by the PEM. Results: The operators’ log data and information from the self-reported questionnaire showed significantly high correlations in the average calling frequency per day (ρ = 0.6, p = 0.004 and average calling time per day (ρ = 0.5, p = 0.02. The correlation between information on the mobile phone use in the self-reported questionnaire and exposure index recorded by the PEM was poor. But correlation between the information of the operators’ log data and exposure index for transmission of mobile communication was significantly high: correlation coefficient (p-value was 0.44 (0.07 for calling frequency per day, and it was 0.49 (0.04 for calling time per day. Conclusions: The questionnaire information on the mobile phone use showed moderate to high quality. Using multiple methods for exposure assessment might be better than using only one method. Int J Occup

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  13. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RadiationAnswers.org Ask the Experts Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure Robert Brent, MD, PhD The following information pertains to reproductive risks of radiation exposures to women who are pregnant and have questions ...

  14. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  16. Prenatal exposure to non-ionizing radiation: effects of WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome, peripheral B-cell compartment and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    During embryogenesis, the development of tissues, organs and systems, including the immune system, is particularly susceptible to the effects of noxious agents. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome and the immune B-cell compartment, including antibody production. Sixteen mated (plug-positive) female mice were assigned to each of the following groups: cage control, sham-exposed and microwave-exposed (WiFi signals at 2.45 GHz, whole body, SAR 4 W/kg, 2 h/day, 14 consecutive days starting 5 days after mating). No effects due to exposure to WiFi signals during pregnancy on mating success, number of newborns/mother and body weight at birth were found. Newborn mice were left to grow until 5 or 26 weeks of age, when immunological analyses were performed. No differences due to exposure were found in spleen cell number, B-cell frequency or antibody serum levels. When challenged in vitro with LPS, B cells from all groups produced comparable amounts of IgM and IgG, and proliferated at a similar level. All these findings were consistently observed in the female and male offspring at both juvenile (5 weeks) and adult (26 weeks) ages. Stress-associated effects as well as age- and/or sex-related differences were observed for several parameters. In conclusion, our results do not show any effect on pregnancy outcome or any early or late effects on B-cell differentiation and function due to prenatal exposure to WiFi signals.

  17. Prenatal Substance Exposure: Neurobiological Organization at One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge among 1-month old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Study design We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) in 1,129, 1-month infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (i.e. alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). Results Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had the highest HRs and lowest levels of RSA during a sustained visual attention procedure compared with the other three groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the NNNS exam compared with the other three exposure groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal cocaine exposure only and infants with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Conclusions Problems with arousal regulation were identified among infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with both prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, which may place these infants at risk for developing problems associated with physiological and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. PMID:23743094

  18. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  19. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  20. Prenatal mercury exposure and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Mario; Ballester, Ferran; Enning, Ashley Michel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Valvi, Damaskini; Basterrechea, Mikel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Maruri, Maite; Tardon, Adonina; Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina

    2016-11-01

    Results regarding the association between mercury exposure and anthropometry at birth, gestational length and placental weight are inconsistent, as is the role of seafood intake in these associations. We assessed whether prenatal mercury exposure is associated with anthropometry at birth, placental weight and gestational length in a population with a relatively high exposure to mercury from seafood consumption. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood from 1869 newborns with birth outcome measures, within the Spanish multicenter INMA cohort from 2004 to 2008. We adjusted cohort specific linear and Cox regression models to evaluate the association between T-Hg and birth anthropometry (weight, length, and head circumference), placental weight and gestational length. Non-spontaneous labor was taken to be censoring in the survival analysis. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Geometric mean T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. A doubling of T-Hg was associated with a 7.7g decrease in placental weight (95% CI: -13.6, -1.8) and marginally with head circumference (beta: -0.052cm, 95% CI: -0.109, 0.005). T-Hg was also inversely related to weight and length, although with weaker estimates. Mercury exposure was not associated with the length of gestation. The inverse relation between T-Hg and growth was enhanced when the intake of different seafood groups was adjusted for in the models. Prenatal mercury exposure may be associated with reduced placental and fetal growth. Confounding by fish intake should be considered when assessing these relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal tobacco exposure influences cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Elise A.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.; Keating, Paul; van den Berg, Paul P.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to determine the influence of prenatal tobacco exposure on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that as a result of vasoconstriction caused by prenatal tobacco exposure r(c)SO(2) wou

  2. Statistical Methods for the Evaluation of Health Effects of Prenatal Mercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe;

    2002-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose......Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose...

  3. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  6. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Hui, T.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes approaches to calculating and expressing radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from internal radionuclides. Information was obtained for selected, occupationally significant radioelements that provide a spectrum of metabolic and dosimetric characteristics. Evaluations are also presented for inhaled inert gases and for selected radiopharmaceuticals. Fractional placental transfer and/or ratios of concentration in the embryo/fetus to that in the woman were calculated for these materials. The ratios were integrated with data from biokinetic transfer models to estimate radioactivity levels in the embryo/fetus as a function of stage of pregnancy and time after entry into the transfer compartment or blood of the pregnant woman. These results are given as tables of deposition and retention in the embryo/fetus as a function of gestational age at exposure and elapsed time following exposure. Methodologies described by MIRD were extended to formalize and describe details for calculating radiation absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus. Calculations were performed using a model situation that assumed a single injection of 1 {mu}Ci into a woman`s blood; independent calculations were performed for administration at successive months of pregnancy. Gestational -stage-dependent dosimetric tabulations are given together with tables of correlations and relationships. Generalized surrogate dose factors and categorizations are provided in the report to provide for use in operational radiological protection situations. These approaches to calculation yield radiation absorbed doses that can be converted to dose equivalent by multiplication by quality factor. Dose equivalent is the most common quantity for stating prenatal dose limits in the United States and is appropriate for the types of effect that are usually associated with prenatal exposure. If it is desired to obtain alternatives for other purposes, this value can be multiplied by appropriate weighting factors.

  7. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  8. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    : Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  9. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  10. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. PMID:24655090

  11. Anogenital distance of women in relation to maternal prenatal exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Mira-Escolano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital distance (AGD is a genital development marker which is a sexually dimorphic trait in mammals. Different experimental studies have shown that AGD at birth reflects the androgen exposure of the fetus during its in-utero development. The object of our study was to examine the relation between maternal prenatal exposures to different substances and compounds used on a daily basis during pregnancy and AGD of their daughters as an indirect marker of the intrauterine hormonal environment. This is a cross-sectional study of 100 healthy female undergraduates of ages ranging from 18 to 23. Every participant was subjected to a full gynecological examination, where two AGD variants were measured: AGDAC (anus-clitoris and AGDAF (anus-fourchette. Both the young women and their mothers completed an epidemiological questionnaire on lifestyles, including prenatal exposure to products and gynecological history. Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to study the relation between the mothers’ exposure to products and their daughters’ AGD. A longer AGDAF in the daughters was significantly associated with a higher prenatal exposure of their mothers to insecticides/pesticides and solvents/degreasers (aOR: 3.9; IC 95%: 1.2, 12.7 and 3.8; IC 95%: 1.1-12.6, respectively. Our results show that certain prenatal environmental exposures of mothers might be associated with significant variations of their daughters’ AGD, a sensitive biomarker that reflects androgen fetal exposure during in-utero development.

  12. Prenatal influenza exposure and cardiovascular events in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to pandemic influenza and cardiovascular events in adulthood. Design Using Danish surveillance data to identify months when influenza activity was highest during three previous pandemics (1918, 1957, and 1968), persons were......, the corresponding IRRs were 0·99 (95% CI: 0·97, 1·02), 0·99 (95% CI: 0·92, 1·05), and 0·85 (95% CI: 0·77, 0·94), respectively. Conclusions There was generally no evidence of an association between prenatal influenza exposure and acute MI or stroke in adulthood. However, survivor bias and left truncation of outcomes...

  13. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  14. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  15. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  16. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital distance in Swedish boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Carlstedt, Fredrik; Jönsson, Bo Ag

    2015-01-01

    genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally. CITATION: Bornehag CG, Carlstedt F, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Jensen TK, Bodin A, Jonsson C, Janson S, Swan SH. 2015. Prenatal phthalate exposures and anogenital...

  17. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  18. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  19. Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin; Stein, Areyh; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Van de Bor, Margot; Lumey, Bertie

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., Van Boxtel, M. P. J., Stein, A. D., Blauw, G-J., Van de Bor, M., & Lumey, B. (2011). Prenatal famine exposure and cognition at age 59 years. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 327-337. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyq261

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  1. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  2. ATTENTION FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Dominique A; Suchan, Boris; Schölmerich, Axel; Schneider, Dominik T; Gawehn, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Children born to drug abusers are exposed to teratogenic influences on intrauterine brain development and undergo postnatal withdrawal. We investigated the interplay of different domains and levels of attention functioning in 24 prenatally exposed and 25 nonexposed children who were 5 to 6 years old. Assessment included parent ratings and neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods. Exposed children had a higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms, tended to have poorer performance in an attention test battery, and showed EEG alterations in P3 and N2c. Findings suggest long-term effects of prenatal drug exposure on specific domains and on different levels of attention functioning.

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Childhood Obesity at Nine Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Bada, Henrietta S.; Shankaran, Seetha; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik; Roberts, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and obesity. We tested whether prenatal cocaine exposure increases the likelihood of obesity in 561 9-year-old term children from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS). Overall, 21.6% of children met criterion for obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 95th percentile, age and sex-specific). While there was no overall cocaine effect on obesity, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol were 4 times more likely to be obese (OR 4.11, CI 2.04–9.76) than children not exposed to either drug. No increase in obesity prevalence was found in children exposed to alcohol but not cocaine (OR 1.08, CI .59–1.93) or both (OR 1.21, CI 0.66–2.22). Alcohol exposure may attenuate the effect of cocaine exposure on obesity. Increased obesity associated with cocaine but not alcohol exposure was first observed at 7 years. BMI was also elevated from 3 to 9 years in children exposed to cocaine but not alcohol, due to increasing weight but normal height. Prenatal exposure to cocaine may alter the neuroendocrine system and metabolic processes resulting in increased weight gain and childhood obesity. PMID:21109003

  4. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Yunus, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65-X70). The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1-5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03-2.94). This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1-5 years due to drowning.

  5. Prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning among children in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzar Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern regarding adverse effects of prenatal arsenic exposure on the neurodevelopment of children. We analyzed mortality data for children, who were born to 11,414 pregnant women between 2002 and 2004, with an average age of 5 years of follow-up. Individual drinking-water arsenic exposure during pregnancy was calculated using tubewell water arsenic concentration between last menstrual period and date of birth. There were 84 drowning deaths registered, with cause of death ascertained using verbal autopsy (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes X65–X70. The prenatal water arsenic exposure distribution was tertiled, and the risk of drowning mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and drowning in children aged 1–5 years in the highest exposure tertile (HR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.03–2.94. This study showed that in utero arsenic exposure might be associated with excess mortality among children aged 1–5 years due to drowning.

  6. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi;

    2014-01-01

    , but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all...... exposure appeared to contribute to neurotoxic effects, in particular in regard to visuospatial processing and memory. Thus, addition in the regression analysis of exposure information obtained at a different point in time was not informative and should be avoided. Further studies with better information...

  7. The effect of prenatal natural disaster exposure on school outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Sarah C

    2014-08-01

    This study looks at the impact of exposure to natural disasters during pregnancy on the educational outcomes of North Carolina children at the third grade level. A broad literature relates negative birth outcomes to poor educational performance, and a number of recent studies have examined the effect of prenatal exposure to natural disasters on birth outcomes. This study takes the next step by considering how prenatal exposure affects later outcomes. Combining North Carolina administrative data on births and school performance with disaster declarations from the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) allows for the identification of children who were exposed to disasters during prenatal development. These children are compared with other children born in the same county who were not exposed to disasters while in utero. Regression results suggest that children exposed to hurricanes prenatally have lower scores on third grade standardized tests in math and reading. Those exposed to flooding or tornadoes also have somewhat lower math scores. Additionally, results suggest that these negative effects are more concentrated among children in disadvantaged subgroups, especially children born to black mothers. However, no evidence exists that these effects are mediated by common measures of birth outcomes, including birth weight and gestational age.

  8. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  9. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

  10. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and childhood tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Garcia, Wanda E.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Horton, Megan K.; Barr, Dana B.; Louis, Elan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used for agricultural purposes, has been linked to neurodevelopmental deficits. Possible motor effects at low to moderate levels of exposure have not been evaluated. Methods Prenatal exposure to CPF was measured in umbilical cord blood in a sample of 263 inner-city minority children, who were followed prospectively. At approximately 11 years of age (mean age 10.9 ± 0.85 years, range = 9.0–13.9), during a neuropsychological assessment, children were asked to draw Archimedes spirals. These were rated by a senior neurologist specializing in movement disorders who was blind to CPF exposure level. Results Compared to all other children, those with prenatal CPF exposure in the upper quartile range (n = 43) were more likely to exhibit mild or mild to moderate tremor (≥1) in either arm (p = 0.03), both arms (p = 0.02), the dominant arm (p = 0.01), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.055). Logistic regression analyses showed significant CPF effects on tremor in both arms, either arm, the dominant arm (p-values < 0.05), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.06), after adjustment for sex, age at testing, ethnicity, and medication. Conclusion Prenatal CPF exposure is associated with tremor in middle childhood, which may be a sign of the insecticide's effects on nervous system function. PMID:26385760

  11. Neonatal Metabolomic Profiles Related to Prenatal Arsenic Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jessica E; Bailey, Kathryn A; Olshan, Andrew F; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Douillet, Christelle; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Pathmasiri, Wimal; McRitchie, Susan; Sumner, Susan J; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-03

    Prenatal inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with health effects evident at birth and later in life. An understanding of the relationship between prenatal iAs exposure and alterations in the neonatal metabolome could reveal critical molecular modifications, potentially underpinning disease etiologies. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomic analysis was used to identify metabolites in neonate cord serum associated with prenatal iAs exposure in participants from the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort, in Gómez Palacio, Mexico. Through multivariable linear regression, ten cord serum metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total urinary iAs and/or iAs metabolites, measured as %iAs, %monomethylated arsenicals (MMAs), and %dimethylated arsenicals (DMAs). A total of 17 metabolites were identified as significantly associated with total iAs and/or iAs metabolites in cord serum. These metabolites are indicative of changes in important biochemical pathways such as vitamin metabolism, the citric acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism. These data highlight that maternal biotransformation of iAs and neonatal levels of iAs and its metabolites are associated with differences in neonate cord metabolomic profiles. The results demonstrate the potential utility of metabolites as biomarkers/indicators of in utero environmental exposure.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  13. Teratogenic Mechanisms Associated with Prenatal Medication Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; van Rooijl, Iris A. L. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Roeleveld, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects may originate through multiple mechanisms and may be caused by a variety of possible exposures, including medications in early pregnancy. In this review, we describe six principal teratogenic mechanisms suspected to be associated with medication use: folate antagonism, neural crest cel

  14. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  15. Teratogenic Mechanisms Associated with Prenatal Medication Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; van Rooijl, Iris A. L. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Roeleveld, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects may originate through multiple mechanisms and may be caused by a variety of possible exposures, including medications in early pregnancy. In this review, we describe six principal teratogenic mechanisms suspected to be associated with medication use: folate antagonism, neural crest cel

  16. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  17. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  18. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  19. Umbilical Cord Mercury Concentration as Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    2005-01-01

    biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord.......biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord....

  20. Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi

    2014-01-01

    included mercury concentrations in maternal hair at parturition, cord blood, and child blood and hair at the age-7 clinical examination ( N= 923). In regression analyses, the child's current blood-mercury at age 7 ( N= 694) showed only weak associations with the neuropsychological test variables......, but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all...

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Behavioral Development in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Quaak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, prevalence rates of behavioral disorders in children have increased. One factor possibly implied in the etiology of behavioral disorders is exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. The use of PFASs is highly integrated into everyday life, and exposure is ubiquitous. Exposure to PFASs during early life may be particularly harmful, as it represents a critical time window for brain development. However, research in the area is limited, especially among preschool children. The objective of the current study was to explore the relationship between prenatal exposure to several PFASs and behavioral development at the age of 18 months. Methods: Data from the Dutch cohort LINC (Linking Maternal Nutrition to Child Health were used. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA were measured in cord plasma. The total exposure of PFASs was also calculated (ΣPFASs. Behavioral development was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 (CBCL 1.5–5. The CBCL scales “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder” (ADHD and “Externalizing problems” were used for further analysis. Separate regression models were composed for each combination, in which exposure levels were classified in tertiles. Both whole population and sex-stratified analyses were performed. A family history of ADHD, the educational level, smoking or using alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy were considered as confounders. In total, data from 76 mother-child pairs was included. Results: No significant associations were found between prenatal PFAS exposure and ADHD scores in the whole population and in the sex-stratified analyses. With regard to externalizing behavior, a significant negative association was found between the highest levels of ΣPFAS exposure and externalizing problem behavior in the whole population, but only in the crude model. After stratifying for sex, boys in the second and third tertile of exposure

  2. Prenatal Exposure to BPA and Offspring Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Alonso-Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are the most common metabolic disorders, with prevalence rates that are reaching epidemic proportions. Both are complex conditions affecting virtually all ages and with serious health consequences. The underlying cause of the problem is still puzzling, but both genetic and environmental factors including unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, or the exposure to some environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to have a causal influence. In addition, the impact of early environment has recently emerged as an important factor responsible for the increased propensity to develop adult-onset metabolic disease. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development is the most commonly studied factor affecting early programming of obesity and T2DM. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence shows that exposure to EDCs could also account for this phenomenon. In the present review, we will overview the most relevant findings that confirm the critical role of bisphenol-A, one of the most widespread EDCs, in the development of metabolic disorders.

  3. Prenatal lead exposure and bone growth. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D.; O' Flaherty, E.J.

    1990-07-24

    An experimental system of lead (7439921) related prenatal and postnatal growth retardation in rats was developed. Sprague-Dawley-rats and Long-Evans-rats were used in these studies. Rats were exposed to lead in their drinking water at up to 1000 parts per million. A significant effect on fetal bone mineralization could not be excluded and there was a definite effect on fetal body weight following maternal lead exposure. Reduced food intake during the first week of lead exposure was the primary determinant of reduced body and skeletal growth in the lead exposed weanling female rats. When maternal lead exposure was continued during lactation a greater degree of lead related growth retardation in rat offspring occurred than when maternal lead exposure was terminated at parturition. Combined prenatal and postnatal lead exposure impaired bone resorption and increased growth plate widths. In studies using matrix induced endochondral bone plaques, locally applied lead enhanced plaque mineralization through comineralization of lead with calcium. When lead was administered in drinking water, plaque mineralization was also enhanced through the comineralization of lead with calcium.

  4. Möbius and Prenatal Exposure to Misoprostol. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Ramírez-Cheyne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is a congenital paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that may be associated with involvement of other cranial nerves or other systems. In the United States frequencies from 0.002 to 0.0002 % of all births, and 1/ 50 000 newborns have been calculated. The aim of the study was to present a case of a newborn with Möbius syndrome prenatally exposed to Misoprostol, detected in a third level hospital, under the parameters of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC. Literature search focused on the association of prenatal exposure to Misoprostol and congenital malformations, was realized. Case Presentation: New­born with phenotypic characteristics of Möbius syndrome, 16 -year-old mother with history of use of Misoprostol 200 mcg vaginally and 200 mcg orally during the fourth week of gestation. Discussion: Facial palsy and congenital musculoskeletal anomaly have to be established in order to diagnose Möbius syndrome, the patient meets both. Prenatal exposure to Misoprostol has been associated with the occurrence of birth defects, mainly Möbius syndrome and limb defects of terminal transverse type. One of the teratogenic mechanisms proposed for Misoprostol is vascular disruption, as we propose it could be in this case.

  5. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  6. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  7. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  8. Teratogenic mechanisms associated with prenatal medication exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M H J; van Rooij, Iris A L M; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Roeleveld, Nel

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects may originate through multiple mechanisms and may be caused by a variety of possible exposures, including medications in early pregnancy. In this review, we describe six principal teratogenic mechanisms suspected to be associated with medication use: folate antagonism, neural crest cell disruption, endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, vascular disruption, and specific receptor- or enzyme-mediated teratogenesis. Knowledge about these mechanisms, for some of which evidence is mainly derived from animal models, may not only be relevant for etiologic and post-marketing research, but may also have implications for prescribing behavior for women of reproductive age. Since combinations of seemingly unrelated medications may have effects through similar teratogenic mechanisms, the risk of birth defects may be strongly increased in multi-therapy.

  9. Prenatal antiepileptic exposure associates with neonatal DNA methylation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Kilaru, Varun; Schroeder, James W; Pennell, Page B; Knight, Bettina T; Cubells, Joseph C; Stowe, Zachary N; Brennan, Patricia A

    2012-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses commonly encountered in women during their reproductive years, including epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Despite their widespread use, the impact of prenatal exposure on fetal development remains obscure. To evaluate whether AEDs taken by pregnant mothers influence DNA methylation patterns in their neonates, DNA was extracted from the umbilical cord blood of 201 neonates whose mothers were treated for neuropsychiatric illness during pregnancy and interrogated across 27,578 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. The association of each methylation value with the cumulative duration of prenatal AED exposure was examined using a linear mixed model. The average methylation level across all CpG sites was calculated for each subject, and this global methylation measure was evaluated similarly. Neonates with a longer duration of AED exposure in pregnancy showed a decrease in average global methylation (p = 0.0045). Further, DNA methylation of CpG sites in 14 genes significantly decreased with the duration of prenatal AED exposure even after adjusting for multiple comparisons (FDR < 0.05). For a small subset (n = 19) of these neonates, a second tissue, placenta, was available in addition to cord blood. Methylation of 3 of these 14 CpG sites was also significantly decreased in placental tissue. These novel data suggest decreased DNA methylation in neonates of mothers who took AEDs during pregnancy. The long-term stability and potential impact of these changes warrant further attention, and caution may be warranted before prescribing AEDs to pregnant women.

  10. Prenatal exposure to gamma/neutron irradiation: Sensorimotor alterations and paradoxical effects on learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cicco, D.; Antal, S.; Ammassari-Teule, M. (Istituto di Psicobiologia e Psicofarmacologia del CNR, Rome (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure on gamma/neutron radiations (0.5 Gy at about the 18th day of fetal life) were studied in a hybrid strain of mice (DBA/Cne males x C57BL/Cne females). During ontogeny, measurements of sensorimotor reflexes revealed in prenatally irradiated mice (1) a delay in sensorial development, (2) deficits in tests involving body motor control, and (3) a reduction of both motility and locomotor activity scores. In adulthood, the behaviour of prenatally irradiated and control mice was examined in the open field test and in reactivity to novelty. Moreover, their learning performance was compared in several situations. The results show that, in the open field test, only rearings were more frequent in irradiated mice. In the presence of a novel object, significant sex x treatment interactions were observed since ambulation and leaning against the novel object increased in irradiated females but decreased in irradiated males. Finally, when submitted to different learning tasks, irradiated mice were impaired in the radial maze, but paradoxically exhibited higher avoidance scores than control mice, possibly because of their low pain thresholds. Taken together, these observations indicate that late prenatal gamma/neutron irradiation induces long lasting alterations at the sensorimotor level which, in turn, can influence learning abilities of adult mice.

  11. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second

  12. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-02-28

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer.

  13. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation...

  14. Depression-like effect of prenatal buprenorphine exposure in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Hung

    Full Text Available Studies indicate that perinatal opioid exposure produces a variety of short- and long-term neurobehavioral consequences. However, the precise modes of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed agonist/antagonist at the opioid receptors, is currently being used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of depression-like consequence following prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine and sheds light on potential mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days. Results showed that pups at postnatal day 21 but not the dams had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by elevation of oxidative stress, reduction of plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serotonin, and attenuation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation, protein kinase A activity, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, and CREB DNA-binding activity. Since BDNF/serotonin and CREB signaling could orchestrate a positive feedback loop, our findings suggest that the induction of oxidative stress, reduction of BDNF and serotonin expression, and attenuation of CREB signaling induced by prenatal exposure to supra-therapeutic dose of buprenorphine provide evidence of potential mechanism for the development of depression-like neurobehavior.

  15. Prenatal lead exposure and childhood blood pressure and kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Moore, Sophie E; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kippler, Maria; Vahter, Marie

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to lead, a common environmental pollutant, is known to cause cardiovascular and nephrotoxic effects in adults. Potential effects of early-life lead exposure on these functions are, however, less well characterized. To assess blood pressure and kidney function in preschool-aged children in relation to prenatal lead exposure. This prospective study in rural Bangladesh measured children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure in triplicate at the follow-up at 4.5±0.11 years. Their kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated based on serum cystatin C concentrations, and by kidney volume, measured by sonography. Exposure to lead was assessed by concentrations in the mothers' blood (erythrocyte fraction; Ery-Pb) in gestational weeks (GW) 14 and 30, the effects of which were evaluated separately in multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses. We found no associations between maternal exposure to lead [n~1500 for GW14 and 700 for GW30] and children's blood pressure or eGFR. However, we found an inverse association between late gestation lead and kidney volume, although the sample size was limited (n=117), but not with early gestation lead (n=573). An increase of 85µg/kg in Ery-Pb (median concentration at GW30) was associated with a 6.0cm(3)/m(2) decrease in kidney volume (=0.4SD; p=0.041). After stratifying on gender, there seemed to be a somewhat stronger association in girls. Prenatal lead exposure may cause long-lasting effects on the kidney. This warrants follow-up studies in older children, as well as additional studies in other populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  17. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation (absorbed dose) or to the potential biological effect in tissue exposed to radiation (equivalent dose). Sv or Sievert The International System of Units (SI) unit for dose equivalent equal to 1 joule/kilogram. The sievert has replaced the rem; one ...

  18. Mental retardation after prenatal exposure. Re-analysis indicated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paile, W. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland). Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority

    2000-05-01

    The current risk assessment for severe mental retardation after prenatal exposure to the A-bomb radiation is based on 21 cases exposed to more than 0.005 Gy, of which 17 were exposed in the most sensitive period 8-15 weeks p.c. The latest analysis, applying the best fitting model, indicates a threshold with a lower 95% bound of 0.06-0.31 Gy, depending on whether 2 cases with Down's syndrome are included or not. The authors have interpreted this as suggesting a threshold in the low-dose region. In the dose group 0.10-0.49 Gy, except one case with Down's syndrome there is only one other case, exposed 8 weeks p.c. to 0.14 Gy. However, in a RERF report (TR 13-91) concerning brain abnormalities detected by MRI in retarded persons, the same case is described. According to this report he was actually exposed to 0.86 Gy. The distance was 1060 m, and his mother exhibited severe epilation. These details indicate that the higher dose is correct and the lower dose is erroneous. In a small material the misclassification of one case has a deep influence on the result of the data analysis. Reclassification of this case will lead to a considerable change in the estimated threshold, notably in the 95% lower bound of the threshold. There will be no indication of severe retardation after less than 0.5 Gy even in the most sensitive period. This does not preclude a milder effect on intelligence from lower doses. The fraction of severe retardation after exposure to 1 Sv in the period 8-15 weeks p.c. has been estimated at 40%. The effect on intelligence score has been estimated at 30 IQ units per Sv in the same period. These estimates have been combined in ICRP 60 to create a model, based on a presumed normal distribution of IQ scores, according to which the final outcome for an individual is determined by his expected IQ without exposure. Thus the dose required to make an otherwise normal individual retarded would be high, while a much lower dose would be enough to bring an

  19. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  20. Association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and obesity development at ages 5 and 7 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L; Heitmann, Berit L; Andersen, Helle R

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life.......Chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities may act as obesogens and interfere with the body's natural weight-control mechanisms, especially if exposure occurs during prenatal life....

  1. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  2. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  3. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  4. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  5. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure and traumatic childhood experiences: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan; Cook, Penny A; Norgate, Sarah; Mukherjee, Raja

    2017-05-25

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and traumatic childhood experiences (trauma) such as abuse or neglect can each cause central nervous system neurobiological changes or structural damage which can manifest as cognitive and behavioural dysfunction. In cases where both exposures have occurred, the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment may be greater, but this interaction has not been well studied. Here we present a systematic review that identified five primary research studies which investigated either the impact of trauma in children with PAE, or of PAE in children with trauma. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, narrative analysis was applied. Children in these cohorts with both exposures were more likely to show deficits in language, attention, memory and intelligence, and exhibit more severe behavioural problems than children with one exposure in absence of the other. However, the current literature is scarce and methodologically flawed. Further studies are required that: assess dual exposure in other neurodevelopmental domains; feature developmentally impaired yet non-exposed controls; and account for the wide spectrum of effects and different diagnostic criteria associated with PAE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  8. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Bellinger, David C; Coull, Brent A; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex. To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning. Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2) was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex. Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black); 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04). The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  9. Effect of prenatal haloperidol exposure on behavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Singh, Mandavi

    2002-01-01

    Pregnant Charles-Foster rats were exposed to haloperidol (HAL), a neuroleptic drug that binds to and blocks dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) from Gestation Day (GD) 12 to 20. The animals from both treated as well as vehicle control groups were allowed to deliver on GD 21. The offspring culled at birth on the basis of sex and weight were subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 8 weeks. The HAL-treated rat offspring showed a significant increase in anxiogenic behavior on the open field, elevated plus-maze and elevated zero-maze tests when compared with the vehicle-treated (control) rat offspring of the same age group. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to HAL during a critical period of brain development leaves a lasting imprint on the brain, resulting in abnormal anxiety states, possibly through dopaminergic neurotransmission mechanisms.

  10. Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yanyan; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the association between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood, taking maternal depression into account. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study including all Danish singletons born alive between 1997 and 2008 (n...... = 734 237). Information on antidepressant medication and diagnosis of depression and epilepsy was obtained from Danish National Registers. The exposed group comprised children of mothers who used antidepressants from 30 days before pregnancy until the date of birth. The reference group comprised...... children of mothers who used no antidepressants from 6 months before pregnancy to birth. We estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of epilepsy and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 12 438 (1.7%) children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy...

  11. Exogenous prenatal corticosterone exposure mimics the effects of prenatal stress on adult brain stress response systems and fear extinction behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Brian C; Sheela Rani, C S; Frazer, Alan; Strong, Randy; Morilak, David A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of cognitive and emotional disorders later in life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal stress (PNS) in rats results in long-term, stable changes in central stress-response systems and impairs the ability to extinguish conditioned fear responding, a component of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maternal corticosterone (CORT), released during prenatal stress, is a possible mediator of these effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether fetal exposure to CORT at levels induced by PNS is sufficient to alter the development of adult stress neurobiology and fear extinction behavior. Pregnant dams were subject to either PNS (60 min immobilization/day from ED 14-21) or a daily injection of CORT (10mg/kg), which approximated both fetal and maternal plasma CORT levels elicited during PNS. Control dams were given injections of oil vehicle. Male offspring were allowed to grow to adulthood undisturbed, at which point they were sacrificed and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, hypothalamus, and a section of the rostral pons containing the locus coeruleus (LC) were dissected. PNS and prenatal CORT treatment decreased glucocorticoid receptor protein levels in the mPFC, hippocampus, and hypothalamus when compared to control offspring. Both treatments also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the LC. Finally, the effect of prenatal CORT exposure on fear extinction behavior was examined following chronic stress. Prenatal CORT impaired both acquisition and recall of cue-conditioned fear extinction. This effect was additive to the impairment induced by previous chronic stress. Thus, these data suggest that fetal exposure to high levels of maternal CORT is responsible for many of the lasting neurobiological consequences of PNS as they relate to the processes underlying extinction of learned fear. The data further suggest that adverse prenatal environments constitute a

  12. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  13. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eGrewen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged postnatal environmental influences. We measured resting state functional connectivity during unsedated sleep in infants at 2-6 weeks (+MJ: 20 with PME in combination with nicotine, alcohol, opiates, and/or SSRI; -MJ: 23 exposed to the same other drugs without marijuana, CTR: 20 drug free controls. Connectivity of subcortical seed regions with high fetal CB1R expression was examined. Marijuana-specific differences were observed in insula and three striatal connections: anterior insula – cerebellum, right caudate – cerebellum, right caudate – right fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital, left caudate – cerebellum. +MJ neonates had hypoconnectivity in all clusters compared with -MJ and CTR groups. Altered striatal connectivity to areas involved in visual spatial and motor learning, attention, and in fine-tuning of motor outputs involved in movement and language production may contribute to neurobehavioral deficits reported in this at-risk group. Disrupted anterior insula connectivity may contribute to altered integration of interoceptive signals with salience estimates, motivation, decision-making, and later drug use. Compared with CTRs, both +MJ and -MJ groups demonstrated hyperconnectivity of left amygdala seed with orbital frontal cortex and hypoconnectivity of posterior thalamus seed with hippocampus, suggesting vulnerability to multiple drugs in these circuits.

  14. Prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials and overweight and obesity in danish schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, A; Kahlert, J; Holsteen, V

    2015-01-01

    admissions during pregnancy. We defined overweight and obesity among the children using standard age- and sex-specific cutoffs. We computed sex-specific adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of overweight and obesity associated with exposure to prenatal antibacterials, adjusting for maternal age at delivery......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to antibacterials may permanently dysregulate fetal metabolic patterns via epigenetic pathways or by altering maternal microbiota. We examined the association of prenatal exposure to systemic antibacterials with overweight and obesity in schoolchildren......, marital status, smoking in pregnancy and multiple gestation; we also stratified the analyses by birth weight. RESULTS: Among 9886 schoolchildren, 3280 (33%) had prenatal exposure to antibacterials. aPRs associated with the exposure were 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.45) for overweight and 1...

  15. Novel biomarkers of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in human meconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Teresa R.; Kelly, Tamsin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Derauf, Chris; Haning, William; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Strauss, Arthur; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Meconium analysis can detect fetal exposure to drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. Methamphetamine and amphetamine have previously been observed in meconium of methamphetamine-exposed neonates; the presence of other metabolites has not been investigated. Detection of such analytes may lead to more sensitive identification and, thus improved medical treatment of affected infants. Methods and Materials Forty-three methamphetamine-positive meconium specimens were analyzed for newly identified methamphetamine biomarkers, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, p-hydroxyamphetamine, and norephedrine. Due to methamphetamine adulteration in illicit ecstasy and to simultaneously monitor 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine prenatal exposure, MDMA, its metabolites and related sympathomimetic amines were assayed. Results Methamphetamine, amphetamine and unconjugated p-hydroxymethamphetamine were the most prevalent and abundant analytes present in meconium; however, unconjugated p-hydroxyamphetamine and norephedrine also were identified. Discussion It is possible that one of these additional analytes could be important for predicting toxicity or maternal or neonatal outcome measures in fetuses exposed to methamphetamine at specific gestational ages or with different metabolic capabilities. Although these new biomarkers were present in lower concentrations than methamphetamine and amphetamine in the meconium of previously confirmed specimens, additional research will determine if inclusion of these analytes can increase identification of methamphetamine-exposed neonates. Conclusion Novel methamphetamine biomarker concentrations were characterized in meconium of infants exposed in utero to methamphetamine. PMID:19125148

  16. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  17. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-11-19

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy.

  18. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal...

  19. Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure and Genetic Predisposition to Cognitive Deficit at Age 8 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Smith, George Davey; Golding, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive consequences at school age associated with prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure may need to take into account nutritional and sociodemographic cofactors as well as relevant genetic polymorphisms....

  20. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  1. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  2. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalindi Bakshi

    Full Text Available Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1 activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21 prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  3. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure triggers PKC-mediated hyper-phosphorylation of the mGluR1 leading to uncoupling of mGluR1 from its signaling components. Hence, blockade of excessive PKC activation may alleviate abnormalities in mGluR1 signaling and restores mGluR1-regulated brain functions in prenatal cocaine-exposed brains.

  4. [Prenatal exposure to birth control pills: risk of fetal death and congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellesen, Rikke; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-06-19

    About 1% of pregnant women uses oral contraceptives during the first part of their pregnancy and thereby exposes their offspring to artificial estrogens. Artificial estrogens, such as oral contraceptives, accidentally used during pregnancy may have a negative impact on the fetus. This article reviews the literature on prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives and the risk of congenital malformations and fetal death. The conclusion is that prenatal exposure to oral contraceptives may be associated with a slightly elevated risk of certain specific congenital malformations.

  5. Prenatal smoking exposure and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD: a finnish nationwide population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Joelsson, Petteri; Chudal, Roshan; Talati, Ardesheer; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S.; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal smoking exposure has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is commonly associated with a wide spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity. The association between smoking and neuropsychiatric comorbidity of ADHD has remained understudied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and offspring ADHD, and test whether the smoking-ADHD associations are stronger when ADHD is accompanied by oth...

  6. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  7. Selenium protects neonates against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to manganese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn exposure can affect brain development. Whether Selenium (Se can protect neonates against neurotoxicity from Mn exposure remains unclear. We investigated this issue in 933 mother-newborn pairs in Shanghai, China, from 2008 through 2009. Umbilical cord serum concentrations of Mn and Se were measured and Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA tests were conducted. The scores <37 were defined as the low NBNA. The median concentrations of cord serum Mn and Se were 4.0 µg/L and 63.1 µg/L, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, the interaction between Se and Mn was observed. Cord blood Mn levels had different effects on NBNA scores stratified by different cord blood Se levels. With Seexposure group with a low Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Seexposure group with a high Se level [Mn ≥ P75 (9.1 µg/L and Se ≥ P50 (63.1 µg/L] (38.0 ± 1.6 & 39.5 ± 0.9, p<0.001. Mn/Se ratio and NBNA scores were moderately correlated (r =  -0.41, p<0.001. Our findings suggest that Se has a protective effect on neonates' brain development against neurotoxicity from prenatal exposure to Mn. Se supplementation should be considered during pregnancy, especially in areas with low natural Se.

  8. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  9. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  10. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Swan, Shanna H.; Main, Katharina M.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS exposure. Objectives: We prospectively examined associations between prenatal TCS exposure and anthropometric measures at birth and anogenital distance (AGD) at 3 months of age. Methods: Pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort (n = 514) provided urine samples at approximately gestational week 28 (median 28.7 weeks, range 26.4–34.0), and urinary TCS concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between prenatal TCS exposure and measures of size at birth (birth weight, length, head and abdominal circumference) and AGD at 3 months of age (median 3.3 months, range 2.3–6.7 months), controlling for potential confounders. Results: Newborn boys in the highest quartile of prenatal TCS exposure had a 0.7-cm [95% confidence interval (CI): –1.2, –0.1, p = 0.01] smaller head circumference than boys in the lowest quartile. Additionally in boys, inverse associations of borderline statistical significance were observed between prenatal TCS exposure and abdominal circumference at birth and AGD at 3 months of age (p-values < 0.10). Prenatal TCS exposure was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes in girls. However, AGD was measured in fewer girls, and we observed no significant interactions between a child’s sex and prenatal TCS exposure in anthropometric measures at birth. Conclusion: Prenatal TCS exposure was associated with reduced head and abdominal circumference at birth and with reduced AGD at 3 months of age in boys, although the last two findings were statistically nonsignificant. These findings require replication but are

  11. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... than non-exposed children (margarine initiation 27·4 (95 % CI 10·8, 44·0) g). No differences in the odds of high (>4000 g) or low ( weight were observed between the children exposed and non-exposed to vitamin D fortification prenatally. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified...

  12. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η(2) = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014

  13. Impaired Odor Identification in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits. PMID:23683527

  14. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR.

  16. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and childhood neurodevelopment in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Lin; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Caifeng; Ding, Guodong; Chen, Limei; Kamijima, Michihiro; Ueyama, Jun; Gao, Yu; Tian, Ying

    2017-08-23

    Although studies in laboratory animals demonstrate neurodevelopmental deficits caused by prenatal or postnatal organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, there is limited evidence on effects induced by not only prenatal but also postnatal exposure of children to OPs. We measured diethylphosphate (DE), dimethylphosphate (DM), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in maternal and child urine at 12 and 24months of age and examined their relationship with developmental quotients (DQs) in 12-month-old infants and 24-month-old children in Shandong, China. The median concentrations of total DAP metabolites (DAPs) in child urine [371.97nmol/g creatinine (12-month-old infants), 538.64nmol/g creatinine (24-month-old children)] were higher than those in maternal urine (352.67nmol/g creatinine). Prenatal OP exposure was negatively associated with 24-month-old children's DQs, especially among boys. A 10-fold increase in prenatal DEs and DAPs was associated with a 2.59- and 2.49-point decrease in social domain DQ scores in 24-month-old children (n=262), respectively. However, positive association of postnatal exposure to OPs and 24-month-old children's DQs was observed (n=237). Neither prenatal nor postnatal exposure to OPs was related to 12-month-old infants' DQs. These data suggested that prenatal OP exposure could adversely affect children's neurodevelopment at 24months of age, especially among boys. The prenatal period might be a critical window of OP exposure. In view of the positive association with postnatal OP exposure, it is necessary to interpret findings with caution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging.

  18. The Maternal Lifestyle Study: Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between sleep problems and prenatal exposure to cocaine, opiates, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine in children 1 month to 12 years of age. Design Sleep data was collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of children participating in the Maternal Lifestyle multisite study. Setting Hospital based research centers in Providence, RI, Miami, FL, Detroit, MI, and Memphis, TN Participants There were 808 participants: 374 exposed to cocaine and/or opiates; 434 comparison. Main exposure Prenatal cocaine, opiate, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine exposure. Outcome measure Sleep problems in early, middle, and late childhood, assessed as composites of maternal report items. Results Of the five substances, prenatal nicotine exposure was the only unique predictor of sleep problems (B = .074, R2 Δ = .008, p = .012) with adjustment for covariates including SES, marital status, physical abuse, prenatal medical care, and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to nicotine was positively associated with children's sleep problems persisting throughout the first 12 years of life. Targeting this group of children for educational and behavioral efforts to prevent and treat sleep problems is merited given that good sleep may serve as a protective factor for other developmental outcomes. PMID:20439796

  19. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Treit

    Full Text Available Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144 and healthy controls (n = 145, aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with

  20. Prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles and effect on the male reproductive system in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Jette Gjerke; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Talsness, Chris

    2009-01-01

    compared to controls. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to SRM2975 was not associated with endocrine disruptor activity in adulthood. There was no significant change in expression levels of aquaporins 7, 8 and 9 in testes tissue, measured as mRNA expression and protein levels......In utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles may reduce sperm production in adulthood. We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust particles on the male reproductive system and assessed endocrine disruption and regulation of aquaporin expression as possible mechanisms...... by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to SRM2975 was associated with reduced daily sperm production in adulthood, which was not possible to clearly associate with altered endocrine function or expression of aquaporins in the testes....

  1. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  2. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  3. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  4. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Augustyn, M; Knight, W G; Pell, T; Zuckerman, B

    2001-03-28

    Despite recent studies that failed to show catastrophic effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, popular attitudes and public policies still reflect the belief that cocaine is a uniquely dangerous teratogen. To critically review outcomes in early childhood after prenatal cocaine exposure in 5 domains: physical growth; cognition; language skills; motor skills; and behavior, attention, affect, and neurophysiology. Search of MEDLINE and Psychological Abstracts from 1984 to October 2000. Studies selected for detailed review (1) were published in a peer-reviewed English-language journal; (2) included a comparison group; (3) recruited samples prospectively in the perinatal period; (4) used masked assessment; and (5) did not include a substantial proportion of subjects exposed in utero to opiates, amphetamines, phencyclidine, or maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirty-six of 74 articles met criteria and were reviewed by 3 authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. After controlling for confounders, there was no consistent negative association between prenatal cocaine exposure and physical growth, developmental test scores, or receptive or expressive language. Less optimal motor scores have been found up to age 7 months but not thereafter, and may reflect heavy tobacco exposure. No independent cocaine effects have been shown on standardized parent and teacher reports of child behavior scored by accepted criteria. Experimental paradigms and novel statistical manipulations of standard instruments suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased attentiveness and emotional expressivity, as well as differences on neurophysiologic and attentional/affective findings. Among children aged 6 years or younger, there is no convincing evidence that prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with developmental toxic effects that are different in severity, scope, or kind from the sequelae of multiple other risk factors. Many findings once thought

  5. Prenatal Exposures to Perfluorinated Chemicals and Anthropometry at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Fei, Chunyuan; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fetal exposure to the perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), has been associated with lower birth weight and lower weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in early infancy. It is, however, unclear if exposure to prenatal PFOS and PFOA has...

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Hansen, Ase M;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated in fe...

  7. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play.

  8. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in rats: programming effects on stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Brydges, Nichola M; Wood, Emma R; Drake, Amanda J; Hall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Human epidemiological studies have provided compelling evidence that prenatal exposure to stress is associated with significantly increased risks of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Exposure to excessive maternal glucocorticoids may underlie this fetal programming effect. In the current study, we assessed how prenatal dexamethasone administration during the last week of gestation affects stress reactivity and cognition in adult offspring. Stress reactivity was assessed by evaluating anxiety-like behavior on an elevated plus maze and in an open field. In addition, to characterize the long-term cognitive outcomes of prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids, animals were assessed on two cognitive tasks, a spatial reference memory task with reversal learning and a delayed matching to position (DMTP) task. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone had no observable effect on anxiety-like behavior, but affected cognition in the adult offspring. Prenatally dexamethasone-exposed animals showed a transient deficit in the spatial reference memory task and a trend to faster acquisition during the reversal-learning phase. Furthermore, prenatally dexamethasone-treated animals also showed faster learning of new platform positions in the DMTP task. These results suggest that fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids programs a phenotype characterized by cognitive flexibility and adaptability to frequent changes in environmental circumstances. This can be viewed as an attempt to increase the fitness of survival in a potentially hazardous postnatal environment, as predicted by intrauterine adversity. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in rats could be used as an animal model for studying some cognitive components of related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 µg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract. PMID:24349678

  10. Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Montes, L P; Hernández-Valero, M A; Flores-Pimentel, D; García-Fábila, M; Amaya-Chávez, A; Barr, D B; Borja-Aburto, V H

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = -0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = -0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = -0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = -0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...

  12. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to chronic mild stress and toluene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Andersen, Maud Bering; Hansen, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether prenatal chronic stress, in combination with exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, would increase effects in the offspring compared with the effects of either exposure alone. Development and neurobehavioral effects were investigated...... in female offspring of pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) during gestational days (GD) 9-20, or 1500 ppm toluene, 6 h/day during gestational days 7-20, or a combination of the two. Prenatal CMS was associated with decreased thymic weight and increased auditory startle response...... function due to CMS were observed. In the present experimental setting, there was no indication of the two exposures potentiating each other with respect to adverse effects on the nervous system. However, the effects of prenatal CMS indicate that stress during fetal life may interfere with the development...

  14. An Overview of the Mechanisms of Abnormal GABAergic Interneuronal Cortical Migration Associated with Prenatal Ethanol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoda, Botros B

    2017-02-03

    GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction. Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms behind disrupted GABAergic interneuronal migration encountered with prenatal alcohol exposure is crucial for understanding and managing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This review explores the molecular pathways regulating GABAergic interneuronal cortical migration that might be altered by prenatal ethanol exposure thus opening new avenues for further research in this topic.

  15. Association between prenatal exposure to bacterial infection and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prenatal exposure to nonviral infection may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia, and we hypothesized an association between maternal bacterial infection during pregnancy and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia. Data on maternal infections from...... the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort were linked with the Danish National Psychiatric Register. Offspring cases of narrowly defined schizophrenia (International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision [ICD-8]) and more broadly defined schizophrenia (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were identified before the ages of 32......-34 and 45-47 years, respectively. The effect of prenatal exposure to bacterial infections was adjusted for prenatal exposure to analgesics and parental social status. In a risk set of 7941 individuals, 85 cases (1.1%) of ICD-8 schizophrenia were identified by the age of 32-34 years and 153 cases (1...

  16. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Special Education in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. METHODS As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. RESULTS Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population. PMID

  17. Distinct neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to sulpiride (SUL) and risperidone (RIS) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jing; Liu, Zhening; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Hao, Yihui; Xu, Lin; Lu, Xiao-Hong

    2008-02-15

    Antipsychotic treatment during pregnancy is indicated when risk of drug exposure to the fetus is outweighed by the untreated psychosis in the mother. Although increased risk of congenital malformation has not been associated with most available antipsychotic drugs, there is a paucity of knowledge on the subtle neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal receptor blockade by these drugs. In the present study, antipsychotic drugs, sulpiride (SUL, a selective D2 receptor antagonist) and risperidone (RIS, a D2/5HT2 receptor antagonist) were administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from gestational day 6 to 18. Both RIS and SUL prenatal exposed rats had lower birth body weights compared to controls. RIS exposure had a significant main effect to retard body weight growth in male offspring until postnatal day (PND) 60. Importantly, water maze tests revealed that SUL prenatal exposure impaired visual cue response in visual task performance (stimulus-response, S-R memory), but not place response as reflected in hidden platform task (spatial memory acquisition and retention). In addition, prenatal SUL treatment reduced spontaneous activity as measured in open field. Both behavioral deficits suggest that SUL prenatal exposure may lead to subtle disruption of striatum development and related learning and motor systems. RIS exposure failed to elicit deficits in both water maze tasks and increased rearing in open field test. These results suggest prenatal exposure to SUL and RIS may produce lasting effects on growth, locomotion and memory in rat offspring. And the differences may exist in the effects of antipsychotic drugs which selectively block dopamine D2 receptors (SUL) as compared to second generation drugs (RIS) that potently antagonize serotonin and dopamine receptors.

  18. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  19. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure differentially affects hippocampal neurogenesis in the adolescent and aged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R

    2014-07-25

    Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.

  2. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS......, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637....

  3. Changes in peripheral nervous system activity produced in rats by prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carratu, M.R. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Renna, G. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Giustino, A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); De Salvia, M.A. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy)); Cuomo, V. (Inst. of Pharmacology, Bari Univ. (Italy))

    1993-06-01

    The present experiments were designed to investigate whether alterations of peripheral nervous system activity may be produced in male Wistar rats by prenatal exposure (from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy) to relatively low levels of CO (75 and 150 ppm). The voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents recorded from sciatic nerve fibres showed that prenatal exposure to CO produced modifications of sodium current properties. In particular, in 40-day-old rats exposed to CO (75 and 150 ppm) during gestation, the inactivation kinetics of transient sodium current were significantly slowed. Analysis of the potential dependence of steady-state Na inactivation, h[sub [infinity

  4. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  5. Prenatal famine exposure has sex-specific effects on brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Caan, Matthan W A; Swaab, Dick F; Nederveen, Aart J; Majoie, Charles B; Schwab, Matthias; Painter, Rebecca C; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2016-08-01

    Early nutritional deprivation might cause irreversible damage to the brain. Prenatal exposure to undernutrition has been shown to be associated with increased central nervous system anomalies at birth and decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Little is known about the potential effect on the brain in older age. We investigated brain size and structure at age 68 years after prenatal famine exposure. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of the brain were made in 118 Dutch famine birth cohort members. Of these 118 (44% male, age range 65-69 years), 41 had been exposed to famine in early gestation and 77 had been prenatally unexposed. Structural volumes were automatically assessed using FreeSurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed and anisotropy and diffusivity were computed. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery was performed to assess white matter hyperintensities. Exposure to famine in early gestation was associated with smaller intracranial volume in males, but not females. Volumes of total brain, grey and white matter were also smaller in early exposed males, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for intracranial volume. Prenatally exposed males but not females, had a smaller intracranial and total brain volume compared to unexposed subjects. Our findings show that prenatal undernutrition permanently affected brain size.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww132_video_abstractaww132_video_abstract.

  6. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. (St. Mary' s Coll., Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  7. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  8. Impaired brain development in the rat following prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate at gestational day 17 and neurotrophin distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Grace, AA; Korf, J; Stampachiacchiere, B; Aloe, L

    2004-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, are the consequence of a disrupted development of the CNS. Accordingly, intrauterine exposure to toxins may increase the risk for psychopathology. We investigated whether prenatal exposure of rats to the neurotoxin methylaxoxymethanol acet

  9. Interaction between paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure on metabolic markers in children using a multiplex approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nellemann, Christine; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine;

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal environmental exposures may influence the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases later in life. This study used a multiplex approach to investigate non-fasting serum levels of metabolic markers in a cohort of school-aged children for whom associations between prenatal pesticide exposure...... and body fat content and blood pressure were previously found to be dependent on paraoxonase1 (PON1) Q192R genotype. In children with the PON1 192 R-allele, leptin, glucagon, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were positively associated with prenatal pesticide exposure. For PON1 192 QQ......-homozygote children none of the biomarkers were significantly affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. In children with the R-allele, leptin was associated with both body fat measures and prenatal pesticide exposure and seems to mediate body fat accumulation in exposed children. These findings support our previous...

  10. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters Renal DNA Methyltransferase Expression in Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Deng, Youcai; Liao, Xi; Wei, Yanling; Li, Xiaohui; Su, Min; Yu, Jianhua; Yi, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to inflammation results in hypertension during adulthood but the mechanisms are not well understood. Maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in the fetal environment. As reported in many recent studies, IL-6 regulates DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) through the transcription factor friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1). The present study explores the role of intrarenal DNMTs during development of hypertension induced by prenatal exposure to LPS. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control, LPS, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor), and the combination of LPS and PDTC. Expression of IL-6, Fli-1, TNF-α, DNMT1 and DNMT3B was significantly increased in the offspring of LPS-treated rats. Global DNA methylation level of renal cortex also increased dramatically in rat offspring of the LPS group. Prenatal PDTC administration reversed the increases in gene expression and global DNA methylation level. These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to LPS may result in changes of intrarenal DNMTs through the IL-6/Fli-1 pathway and TNF-α, which probably involves hypertension in offspring due to maternal exposure to inflammation. PMID:28103274

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  15. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  16. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  17. Prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate impairs development of the mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Munekazu; Gendai, Yuuya; Kagawa, Nao; Nagao, Tetsuji

    2016-09-30

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is currently the most commonly used phthalate for the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates including DEHP have been labeled as potential endocrine disruptors. The effect on the development of the neocortex, however, is unknown. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal DEHP exposure at 1 and 100mg/kg/day or 100 and 500mg/kg/day in fetal and newborn mice, we performed a detailed histologic analysis of the developing dorsal telencephalon and neocortex. The observation of fetuses exposed to DEHP revealed reductions of proliferation and neurogenesis (1 and 100mg/kg) and an increase in cell death (500mg/kg). In addition, the newborns prenatally exposed to DEHP showed an abnormal neuronal distribution and a decrease in neurons. These findings suggest that prenatal DEHP exposure induces neurodevelopmental toxicity associated with the neural stem cell niche and corticogenesis.

  18. Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cristofer S; Thompson, William W; Goodson, Barbara; Weintraub, Eric S; Croen, Lisa A; Hinrichsen, Virginia L; Marcy, Michael; Robertson, Anne; Eriksen, Eileen; Lewis, Edwin; Bernal, Pilar; Shay, David; Davis, Robert L; DeStefano, Frank

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and/or immunoglobulin preparations and ASD and 2 ASD subcategories: autistic disorder (AD) and ASD with regression. A case-control study was conducted in 3 managed care organizations (MCOs) of 256 children with ASD and 752 controls matched by birth year, gender, and MCO. ASD diagnoses were validated through standardized in-person evaluations. Exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was determined from electronic immunization registries, medical charts, and parent interviews. Information on potential confounding factors was obtained from the interviews and medical charts. We used conditional logistic regression to assess associations between ASD, AD, and ASD with regression and exposure to ethylmercury during prenatal, birth-to-1 month, birth-to-7-month, and birth-to-20-month periods. There were no findings of increased risk for any of the 3 ASD outcomes. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for ASD associated with a 2-SD increase in ethylmercury exposure were 1.12 (0.83-1.51) for prenatal exposure, 0.88 (0.62-1.26) for exposure from birth to 1 month, 0.60 (0.36-0.99) for exposure from birth to 7 months, and 0.60 (0.32-0.97) for exposure from birth to 20 months. In our study of MCO members, prenatal and early-life exposure to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations was not related to increased risk of ASDs.

  19. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  20. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle R Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. METHODS: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed. Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. RESULTS: Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele.

  2. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  3. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  4. Prenatal dioxin exposure and neurocognitive development in Hong Kong 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Lam, Hugh Simon; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Nelson, Edmund Anthony Severn; Wong, Tze Wai; Fielding, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In utero exposure to dioxins and related compounds have been associated with adverse neurocognitive development in infants. It is unclear whether neurodevelopmental deficits persist to childhood. We assessed the association of prenatal dioxin exposure with neurocognitive function in 11-year-old children, and to test whether the association is modified by duration of breastfeeding. In this prospective study of 161 children born in Hong Kong in 2002, prenatal dioxin exposure was proxied by the dioxin toxicity equivalence (TEQ) in breast milk collected during the early postnatal period as determined by the Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) bioassay. We used multivariate linear regression analyses to assess the association of prenatal dioxin exposure with the performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, Hong Kong, the Hong Kong List Learning Test, the Tests for Everyday Attention for Children and the Grooved Pegboard Test, adjusting for child's sex, mother's place of birth, mother's habitual seafood consumption, mother's age at delivery and socioeconomic position. Measures of neurocognitive and intellectual function, including full-scale IQ, fine motor coordination, verbal and non-verbal reasoning, learning ability and attention at 11 years old did not show significant variations with prenatal dioxin exposures (proxied by CALUX-TEQ total dioxin load in early breast milk). None of these associations varied by breastfeeding duration or sex. Neurocongitive function, as measured with psychological tests, in 11-year-old children was not associated with prenatal dioxin exposure to background levels of dioxins in the 2000s in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  6. Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Islam, Tariqul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Mohammad Hasan; Yunus, Mohammad; Graziano, Joseph H; Harjes, Judith; Baron, John A; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Argos, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a public health concern in many parts of the world, with elevated concentrations in groundwater posing a threat to millions of people. Arsenic is associated with various cancers and an array of chronic diseases; however, the relationship with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality is less established. We evaluated associations between individual-level prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality in a pregnancy study among 498 women nested in a larger population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh. Creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration, a comprehensive measure of exposure from water, food, and air sources, reflective of the prenatal period was available for participants. Self-reported pregnancy outcomes (livebirth, stillbirth, spontaneous/elective abortion) were ascertained. Generalized estimating equations, accounting for multiple pregnancies of participants, were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Vital status of livebirths was subsequently ascertained through November 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to child mortality. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and the risk of stillbirth (greater than median; adjusted OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.04, 6.01). We also observed elevated risk of child mortality (greater than median; adjusted HR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.78, 4.68) in relation to prenatal arsenic exposure. Prospective studies should continue to evaluate prenatal and early life health effects of arsenic exposure and arsenic remediation strategies for women of child-bearing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and child growth during the first year of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garced, Sheyla, E-mail: sgarced@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Torres-Sanchez, Luisa, E-mail: ltorress@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Cebrian, Mariano E., E-mail: mcebrian@cinvestav.mx [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F., Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Claudio, Luz, E-mail: luz.claudio@mssm.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health Program, 17 E 102nd Street, CAM Building, 3 West, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1057, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth, E-mail: lizbeth@insp.mx [National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta Maria Ahuacatitlan, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Background: Due to its long-term persistence in the environment and its ability to cross the placental barrier, prenatal p,p Prime -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) exposure continues to be a public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth, at birth and during the first year of life. Methods: 253 pregnant women were recruited between January 2001 and June 2005 in a prospective cohort in Morelos, Mexico. Serum levels of DDE were measured during each trimester of pregnancy by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Using the generalized mixed-effects models, the association between DDE and child growth parameters (weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, BMI-for-age and head circumference-for-age Z-scores) from birth to 1 year of age was assessed. Maternal dietary intake was considered as covariable among others. Results: DDE levels were 6.3{+-}2.8 ng/mL (first trimester), 6.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (second trimester), and 7.6{+-}2.9 ng/mL (third trimester). After adjusting for potential confounder variables, no significant associations were observed with prenatal DDE exposure and each of the selected parameters. Conclusions: Our results show no evidence of an association between prenatal DDE exposure and child growth during the first year of life.

  8. When the right (Drug) should be left : Prenatal drug exposure and heterotaxy syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Nicole R; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Cobben, Jan-Maarten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies reported an association between prenatal propylthiouracil exposure and birth defects, including abnormal arrangement across the left-right body axis, suggesting an association with heterotaxy syndrome. METHODS: This case-control and case-finding study used data from 1981 t

  9. The effects of prenatal HIV exposure on language functioning in Kenyan children : establishing an evaluative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, K. J.; Abubakar Ali, Amina; Newton, Charles R.; Holding, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Background: HIV infection has been associated with impaired language development in prenatally exposed children. Although most of the burden of HIV occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, there have not been any comprehensive studies of HIV exposure on multiple aspects of language development using instrument

  10. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.;

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  11. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  12. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  13. Treatment of Challenging Behavior Exhibited by Children with Prenatal Drug Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Chin, Michelle D.; Rush, Karena S.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature exists describing the harmful effects of prenatal drug exposure on infant and child development. However, there is a paucity of research examining strategies to ameliorate sequelae such as externalizing behavior problems. In the present study, functional analysis procedures were used to assess challenging behavior…

  14. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of i

  15. When the Right (Drug) Should Be Left : Prenatal Drug Exposure and Heterotaxy Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Nicole R.; Kusters, Cynthia D. J.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Cobben, Jan-Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported an association between prenatal propylthiouracil exposure and birth defects, including abnormal arrangement across the left-right body axis, suggesting an association with heterotaxy syndrome. Methods: This case-control and case-finding study used data from 1981 t

  16. Morphologic and Immunologic effects in the rat after prenatal exposure to Cyclophosphamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel EM; Verhoef A; van Loveren H; Piersma AH

    1993-01-01

    Several teratogens have been shown to alter postnatal immune function after prenatal exposure. Until now, relatively little is known about the perinatal maturation of the immune system and about the effects of teratogens on this process. Therefore, further research is necessary into the field of i

  17. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Carmelinda A; Fried, Peter A; Cameron, Ian; Smith, Andra M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition were investigated in young adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood, which allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a Go/No-Go task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants prenatally exposed to nicotine demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve response inhibition including the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe, the thalamus and the basal ganglia. In addition, prenatally exposed participants showed greater activity in relatively large posterior regions of the cerebellum. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure leads to altered neural functioning during response inhibition that continues into adulthood. This alteration is compensated for by recruitment of greater neural resources within regions of the brain that subserve response inhibition and the recruitment of additional brain regions to successfully perform the task. Response inhibition is an important executive functioning skill and impairments can impede functioning in much of everyday life. Thus, awareness of the continued long-term neural physiological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure is critical.

  18. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children's motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status...... of smoking exposure in comparison with self-report. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, is associated with maternal interview based assessment of motor development in infancy (age at crawling, standing-up and walking) and motor skills at young...... school age (assessed by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07)). METHOD: In 2002-2004, 1,253 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine were included in the INUENDO birth cohort. The participating women filled in questionnaires and 1,177 provided blood samples, which were...

  19. Assessment of internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Young; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. S.; Song, M. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    This report describes the contents and results for implementation of internal radiation monitoring programme, measurement of uranium lung deposition by lung counter and assessment of committed effective dose for radiation workers of KNFC. The aim of radiation protection was achieved by implementing this activity. 9 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  20. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  1. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  2. Prenatal Earthquake Exposure and Midlife Uric Acid Levels Among Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunpeng; Li, Yanping; Cui, Liufu; Cai, Jianfang; Shi, Jihong; Cheng, Feon W; Li, Yuqing; Curhan, Gary C; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-05-01

    To test whether prenatal exposure to earthquake (as a surrogate for acute prenatal stress) could have unfavorable effects on uric acid levels later in life. We included 536 individuals who had been prenatally exposed to the Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and 536 sex- and age-matched individuals without that exposure. Serum uric acid concentrations were measured based on fasting blood samples, which were repeatedly collected in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Mean uric acid concentrations in 2010 and the increasing rate from 2006 to 2010 were compared between the 2 groups, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and other potential confounders. We also used multiple logistic regression to estimate the risk of hyperuricemia (>416 μmole/liter in men or >357 μmole/liter in women) in 2010 by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for the previously mentioned covariates. Participants with prenatal exposure to the earthquake had higher concentrations of serum uric acid (adjusted means 315 μmole/liter versus 296 μmole/liter; P = 0.001) and a higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (multivariate adjusted OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.09-2.66]) in 2010 relative to those without the exposure. Prenatal exposure to the earthquake was consistently significantly associated with a faster increase in uric acid concentration from 2006 to 2010 (P uric acid and higher odds of hyperuricemia in early adulthood. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Maternal serotonin transporter genotype affects risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Patrick M; Hudson, Melissa; Connors, Susan L; Tilley, Michael R; Liu, Xudong; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-11-01

    Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures to prenatal stress do not always result in ASD, suggesting that other factors may interact with environmental stressors to increase ASD risk. The present study examined a maternal genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) affecting stress tolerance and its interaction with the effect of environmental stressors on risk for ASD. Two independent cohorts of mothers of ASD children recruited by the University of Missouri and Queen's University were surveyed regarding the prenatal environment and genotyping on 5-HTTLPR was performed to explore this relationship. In both samples, mothers of children with ASD carrying the stress susceptible short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR experienced a greater number of stressors and greater stress severity when compared to mothers carrying the long allele variant. The temporal peak of stressors during gestation in these mothers was consistent with previous findings. Additionally, increased exposure to prenatal stress was not reported in the pregnancies of typically developing siblings from the same mothers, regardless of maternal genotype, suggesting against the possibility that the short allele might increase the recall of stress during pregnancy. The present study provides further evidence of a specific maternal polymorphism that may affect the risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1151-1160. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... regression. Age-7 blood-mercury concentrations were positively associated with titers of multiple neural- and non-neural-specific antibodies, mostly of the IgM isotype. Additionally, prenatal blood-mercury and -PCBs were negatively associated with anti-keratin IgG and prenatal PFOS was negatively associated...

  5. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    children were in the unexposed group. All children were followed up from birth until their death, migration, onset of autism, or the end of 2006. Information on autism was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios in the exposed group...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure inducing the apoptosis of mossy cells in hippocampus of SMS2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Wu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Deng, Jiexin; Ma, Zhanyou; Fan, Wenjuan; He, Weiya; Deng, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis through the ceramide pathway, sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockout (SMS2-/-) mice were used to make the prenatal alcohol exposure model, and the role of ceramide regulation on alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis was studied in the offspring. Initially the levels of serum sphingomyelin (SM) were detected with enzymatic method in P0 pups after alcohol exposure in parents. Then the apoptosis of mossy cells in the offspring hippocampus was investigated after prenatal alcohol exposure with immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. Finally the expression of activated Caspase 8 and activated Caspase 3 in the offspring hippocampus was detected with Western blot analysis. Our results showed that SM levels were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner (palcohol exposure in wild-type (WT) and SMS2-/- pups. However, SM levels of serum in SMS2-/- pups were significantly lower than that in WT pups (palcohol-induced neuroapoptosis. In both WT pups and SMS2-/- pups, the number of apoptotic mossy cells in the hippocampus increased after prenatal alcohol exposure in a dose dependent manner (palcohol exposure, consistent with results from TUNEL assay and immunocytochemistry. Our study suggests that mossy cells may be the easily attacked cells for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and ceramide is involved in the alcohol-induced neural apoptosis. The mechanism probably lies in the accumulated ceramide in SMS2 mice, and the increase of activated Caspase 8 and Caspase 3 promotes alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis.

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Homauni Afshari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have shown that prenatal stress affects development of fetal brain. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to combined stress on memory retention of passive avoidance learning in rats. Methods: This experimental study was performed on 16 male and 16 female Wistar rats in 2014. The rats were divided into four groups: male and female control groups, with natural pregnancy and two male and female treatment groups with exposure to combined stress (electromagnetic field, immobility and social stress in the second and third weeks of embryonic development. The learning was evaluated using shuttle box setup. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Findings: The prenatal combined stress caused decrease in the latency time to enter the dark chamber in male and female new born rats in post-training periods especially the second week compared to the control groups. Conclusion: With regards to the results, prenatal exposure to combined stress can reduce the memory retention of passive avoidance learning.

  8. Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Martha; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Li, Mengying; Caruso, Deanna; Hong, Xiumei; Kaczaniuk, Jamie; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Fallin, M Daniele; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-08-11

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior studies have examined prenatal MIA exposure and ASD risk in an under-represented minority population of African ancestry. To overcome these limitations, we estimated the association between prenatal exposure to fever and maternal infections and ASD in a prospective birth cohort of an understudied minority population in a city in the United States. No association was found between prenatal exposure to genitourinary infections or flu and the risk of ASD in a nested sample of 116 ASD cases and 988 typically developing controls in crude or adjusted analyses. Prenatal exposure to fever was associated with increased ASD risk (aOR 2.02 [1.04-3.92]) after adjustment for educational attainment, marital status, race, child sex, maternal age, birth year, gestational age, and maternal smoking. This effect may be specific to fever during the third trimester (aOR 2.70 [1.00-7.29]). Our findings provide a focus for future research efforts and ASD prevention strategies across diverse populations. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. We looked at whether activation of the immune system during pregnancy increases the chance a child will develop ASD. We examined 116 children with ASD and 988 children without ASD that came from a predominantly low income, urban, minority population. We found that

  9. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Seetha; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Lester, Barry; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Poole, Ken; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Woldt, Eunice

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome. Design/Methods This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships. Results At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index. Conclusion High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term. PMID:20486281

  10. Prenatal exposure to zinc oxide particles alters monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuka; Tachibana, Ken; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-sized particles (NPs) are beneficial materials used for sunscreens and cosmetics. Although ZnO NPs are widely used for cosmetics, the health effects of exposure during pregnancy on offspring are largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs on the monoaminergic system of the mouse brain. Subcutaneous administration of ZnO NPs to the pregnant ICR mice (total 500 μg/mouse) were carried out and then measured the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and noradrenalin, and their metabolites in 9 regions of the brain of offspring (6-week-old) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis demonstrated that DA levels were increased in hippocampus in the ZnO NP exposure group. In the levels of DA metabolites, homovanillic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. Furthermore, DA turnover levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala in the ZnO NP exposure group. We also found changes of the levels of serotonin in the hypothalamus, and of the levels of 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolite) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the ZnO NP-exposed group. The levels of 5-HT turnover were increased in each of the regions except for the cerebellum by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. The present study indicated that prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs might disrupt the monoaminergic system, and suggested the possibility of detrimental effects on the mental health of offspring.

  11. Prenatal exposure to arsenic impairs behavioral flexibility and cortical structure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Htet eAung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to arsenic from well water in developing countries is suspected to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although it has been demonstrated that exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 suppresses neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in vitro, it is largely unknown how developmental exposure to NaAsO2 impairs higher brain function and affects cortical histology. Here, we investigated the effect of prenatal NaAsO2 exposure on the behavior of mice in adulthood, and evaluated histological changes in the prelimbic cortex (PrL, which is a part of the medial prefrontal cortex that is critically involved in cognition. Drinking water with or without NaAsO2 (85 ppm was provided to pregnant C3H mice from gestational days 8 to 18, and offspring of both sexes were subjected to cognitive behavioral analyses at 60 weeks of age. The brains of female offspring were subsequently harvested and used for morphometrical analyses. We found that both male and female mice prenatally exposed to NaAsO2 displayed an impaired adaptation to repetitive reversal tasks. In morphometrical analyses of Nissl- or Golgi-stained tissue sections, we found that NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons in layers V and VI of the PrL, but not other layers of the PrL. More strikingly, prenatal NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant decrease in neurite length but not dendrite spine density in all layers of the PrL. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to NaAsO2 leads to behavioral inflexibility in adulthood and cortical disarrangement in the PrL might contribute to this behavioral impairment.

  12. Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health in Russian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Sergey V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the child's later asthma or chronic respiratory symptoms and to our knowledge no studies have elaborated respiratory infections and allergies in this context. Objective To assess the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on respiratory health of Russian school children. Methods We studied a population of 5951 children (8 to12 years old from 9 Russian cities, whose parents answered a questionnaire on their children's respiratory health, home environment, and housing characteristics. The main health outcomes were asthma, allergies, chronic respiratory symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and upper respiratory infections. We used adjusted odds ratios (ORs from logistic regression analyses as measures of effect. Results Prenatal exposure due to maternal smoking had the strongest effects on asthma (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.19–5.08, chronic bronchitis (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.08–1.96 and respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing (adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.90–1.89. The associations were weaker for exposure during early-life (adjusted ORs 1.38/1.27/1.15 respectively and after 2 years of age (adjusted ORs 1.45/1.34/1.18 compared to prenatal exposure and the weakest or non-existent for current exposure (adjusted ORs 1.05/1.09/1.06. Upper respiratory infections were associated more strongly with early-life exposure (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.09–1.42 than with prenatal (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.01 or current exposure (adjusted OR1.05, 95% CI 0.92–1.20. The risk of allergies was also related to early life exposure to tobacco smoke (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.13–1.42. Conclusion Adverse effects of tobacco smoke on asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic respiratory symptoms are strongest when smoking takes place during pregnancy. The relations are weaker for exposure during early-life and after 2

  13. Swimming exercise ameliorates depression-like behaviors induced by prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Yongjun; Lu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yanmin; Sheng, Hui; Ni, Xin

    2012-08-30

    Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) leads to affective dysfunction in adulthood, which may be associated with the alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Physical exercise has been shown to ameliorate depressive symptoms. The objectives of present study were to investigate whether prenatal exposure to GCs induces depression-like behaviors in adult offspring rats, and determine whether swimming exercise alleviates the depression-like behaviors induced by this paradigm. Pregnant rats received dexamethasone (DEX) (0.1mg/kg/day) in the last third of pregnancy or vehicle. DEX treatment reduced body weight in 1, 3, 6, 9-week old male offspring, and 3, 6, 9-week old female offspring. DEX treatment resulted in an elevated level of serum corticosterone in adult offspring (9weeks). Female and male adult offspring rats exhibited decreased number of poking into holes and rearing and decreased central distance traveled in open field test (OFT), and reduced sucrose consumption, suggesting prenatal DEX exposure increase depression-like behaviors in the adult offspring rats. Four-week swimming exercise reduced serum corticosterone levels, and alleviated the depressive behavior by reversing the decreased number of poking into holes and rearing as well as decreased central distance traveled, and reversing the reduced sucrose consumption in male and female adult offspring. These findings suggested prenatal exposure to GCs increase the activity of HPA axis and depression-like behaviors of adult offsprings. Swimming exercise decreases HPA activity and ameliorates depression in rats exposed to DEX prenatally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression, and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b, and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf. Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH–exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  15. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  16. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants.

  17. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  18. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Mullen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology.

  19. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Brian R; Ross, Brennan; Chou, Joan Wang; Khankan, Rana; Khialeeva, Elvira; Bui, Kimberly; Carpenter, Ellen M

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors-reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon-gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescent and young adult mice. In the current study, we examine the consequences of these factors on reelin protein expression and neuronal cell morphology in adult mice. While the cell populations that express reelin in the adult brain appear unchanged in location and distribution, the levels of full length and cleaved reelin protein show persistent reductions following prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon. Cell positioning and organization in the hippocampus and cerebellum are largely normal in animals with either reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos oxon, but cellular complexity and dendritic spine organization is altered, with a skewed distribution of immature dendritic spines in adult animals. Paradoxically, combinatorial exposure to both factors appears to generate a rescue of the dendritic spine phenotypes, similar to the mitigation of behavioral and morphological changes observed in our prior study. Together, our observations support an interaction between reelin expression and chlorpyrifos oxon exposure that is not simply additive, suggesting a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors in regulating brain morphology. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure.

  1. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given. (ACR)

  2. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  3. Identifying sensitive windows for prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and mitochondrial DNA content in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria José; Just, Allan C; Guerra, Marco Sánchez; Kloog, Itai; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Brennan, Kasey J; García, Adriana Mercado; Coull, Brent; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez Rojo, Martha María; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O

    2017-01-01

    Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can serve as a marker of cumulative oxidative stress (OS) due to the mitochondria's unique genome and relative lack of repair systems. In utero particulate matter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5) exposure can enhance oxidative stress. Our objective was to identify sensitive windows to predict mtDNA damage experienced in the prenatal period due to PM2.5 exposure using mtDNA content measured in cord blood. Women affiliated with the Mexican social security system were recruited during pregnancy in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study. Mothers with cord blood collected at delivery and complete covariate data were included (n=456). Mothers' prenatal daily exposure to PM2.5 was estimated using a satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model and place of residence during pregnancy. DNA was extracted from umbilical cord leukocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine mtDNA content. A distributive lag regression model (DLM) incorporating weekly averages of daily PM2.5 predictions was constructed to plot the association between exposure and OS over the length of pregnancy. In models that included child's sex, mother's age at delivery, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, birth year, maternal education, and assay batch, we found significant associations between higher PM2.5 exposure during late pregnancy (35-40weeks) and lower mtDNA content in cord blood. Increased PM2.5 during a specific prenatal window in the third trimester was associated with decreased mtDNA content suggesting heightened sensitivity to PM-induced OS during this life stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on parasympathetic functioning from 3 to 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

    2014-05-01

    We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load.

  5. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  6. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  7. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  8. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  9. Ionising radiation exposure in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleveld H; LSO

    2003-01-01

    The Dutch population is exposed to ionising radiation from various sources, both natural and man-made. This is a review of the radiation exposure for members of the public from all sources for the year 2000. The average annual effective dose per capita is estimated at 2.5 mSv, which is almost the

  10. Prenatal Exposure to 1-Bromopropane Suppresses Kainate-Induced Wet Dog Shakes in Immature Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueta, Yukiko; Kanemitsu, Masanari; Egawa, Sumie; Ishidao, Toru; Ueno, Susumu; Hori, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is used in degreasing solvents and spray adhesives. The adverse effects of 1-BP have been reported in human cases and adult animal models, and its developmental toxicity has also been reported, but its effects on developmental neurotoxicity have not been investigated in detail. We evaluated the effects in rat pups of prenatal exposure to 1-BP on behaviors such as scratching and wet dog shakes (WDS), which were induced by injection of kainate (KA). Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to vaporized 1-BP with 700 ppm from gestation day 1 to day 20 (6 h/day). KA at doses of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.0 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected into a control group and a 1-BP-exposed group of pups on postnatal day 14. There was no significant difference in scratching between the control and the prenatally 1-BP-exposed groups, while suppression of the occurrence ratio of WDS was observed at the low dose of 0.1 mg/kg of KA in the prenatally 1-BP-exposed pups. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to 1-BP affects neurobehavioral responses in the juvenile period.

  11. Prenatal exposure to betamethasone decreases anxiety in developing rats: hippocampal neuropeptide y as a target molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velísek, Libor

    2006-10-01

    Repeated antenatal administration of betamethasone is frequently used as a life-saving treatment in obstetrics. However, limited information is available about the outcome of this therapy in children. The initial prospective studies indicate that there are behavioral impairments in children exposed to repeated courses of prenatal betamethasone during the third trimester of pregnancy. In this study, pregnant rats received two betamethasone injections on day 15 of gestation. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of a powerful anxiolytic molecule neuropeptide Y (NPY) was determined on postnatal day (PN) 20 in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (structures related to anxiety and fear) of the offspring. Prenatal betamethasone exposure induced significant increases in NPY expression in the hippocampus but not in the amygdala. Indeed, behavioral tests in the offspring, between PN20 and PN22 in the open field, on the horizontal bar, and in the elevated plus maze, indicated decreases in anxiety, without impairments in motor performance or total activity. Decreased body weight in betamethasone-exposed rats confirmed long-lasting effects of prenatal exposure. Thus, prenatal betamethasone treatment consistently increases hippocampal NPY, with decreases in anxiety-related behaviors and hippocampal role in anxiety in rats. Animal models may assist in differentiation between pathways of the desired main effect of the antenatal corticosteroid treatment and pathways of unwanted side effects. This differentiation can lead to specific therapeutic interventions directed against the side effects without eliminating the beneficial main effect of the corticosteroid treatment.

  12. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  13. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  14. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  15. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  16. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure and neonatal neurobehavioral outcome in the USA and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Wouldes, Trecia; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Derauf, Chris; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Wilcox, Tara; Lester, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use among pregnant women is a world-wide problem, but little is known of its impact on exposed infants. Design The prospective, controlled longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study of prenatal MA exposure from birth to 36 months was conducted in the US and NZ. The US cohort has 183 exposed and 196 comparison infants; the NZ cohort has 85 exposed and 95 comparison infants. Exposure was determined by self-report and meconium assay with alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco exposures present in both groups. The NICU Neurobehavior Scale (NNNS) was administered within 5 days of life. NNNS summary scores were analyzed for exposure including heavy exposure and frequency of use by trimester and dose-response relationship with the amphetamine analyte. Results MA Exposure was associated with poorer quality of movement, more total stress/abstinence, physiological stress, and CNS stress with more nonoptimal reflexes in NZ but not in the USA. Heavy MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and excitability. First trimester MA use predicted more stress and third trimester use more lethargy and hypotonicity. Dose-response effects were observed between amphetamine concentration in meconium and CNS stress. Conclusion Across cultures, prenatal MA exposure was associated with a similar neurobehavioral pattern of under arousal, low tone, poorer quality of movement and increased stress. PMID:20615464

  17. Determination of maternal-fetal biomarkers of prenatal exposure to ethanol: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, X; Friguls, B; Ortigosa, S; Papaseit, E; Martínez, S E; Manich, A; Garcia-Algar, O; Pacifici, R; Vall, O; Pichini, S

    2012-10-01

    The deleterious effects exerted by prenatal ethanol exposure include physical, mental, behavioural and/or learning disabilities that are included in the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Objective assessment of exposure to ethanol at both prenatal and postnatal stages is essential for early prevention and intervention. Since pregnant women tend to underreport alcohol drinking by questionnaires, a number of biological markers have been proposed and evaluated for their capability to highlight gestational drinking behaviour. These biomarkers include classical biomarkers (albeit indirect) of alcohol-induced pathology (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) acetaldehyde-derived conjugates, and finally derivatives of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphaditylethanol (PEth)). Since ethanol itself and acetaldehyde are only measured few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices such as blood, urine and sweat, they are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. In the past few years, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and in some case wide time-window of detection in non-conventional matrices from the pregnant mother (oral fluid and hair) and fetus-newborn (neonatal hair, meconium, placenta and umbilical cord). This article reviews bioanalytical procedures for the determination of these markers of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and related prenatal exposure. In addition, clinical toxicological applications of these procedures are presented and discussed.

  18. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ON BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE FINDINGS AT 7.5 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Sabrina D.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine child behavioral and cognitive outcomes after prenatal exposure to methamphetamine. Study design 412 mother-infant pairs (204 methamphetamine-exposed and 208 unexposed matched comparisons) were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. The 151 children exposed to methamphetamine and 147 comparisons who attended the 7.5 year visit were included. Exposure was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium toxicology. Maternal interviews assessed behavioral and cognitive outcomes using the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale – Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Results After adjusting for covariates, children exposed to methamphetamine had significantly higher cognitive problems subscale scores than comparisons and were 2.8 times more likely to have cognitive problems scores that were above average on the CPRS-R:S No association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and behavioral problems, measured by the oppositional, hyperactivity and ADHD Index subscales, were found. Conclusion Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased cognitive problems which may impact academic achievement and lead to increased negative behavioral outcomes. PMID:24630350

  19. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Radiation exposure in the moon environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the

  1. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  2. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  3. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  4. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  5. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  7. Joint Effects of Exposure to Prenatal Infection and Peripubertal Psychological Trauma in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debost, Jean-Christophe P G; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Meyer, Urs; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal infection and traumatizing experiences have both been linked with schizophrenia, but none of these factors seem sufficient to cause the disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that these environmental insults act in synergy to increase schizophrenia risk. To estimate the independent and joint effects of exposure to prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma on the risk of schizophrenia. Danish nationwide registers were linked in this prospective cohort study. We used survival analysis to report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Analyses were adjusted for age and calendar period and stratified by sex. A total of 979701 persons born between 1980 and 1998 were followed up from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2013, with 9656 having a hospital contact for schizophrenia. Females exposed to prenatal infection had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.30-2.00), but not males (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.28). Peripubertal trauma was associated with increased risk in both sexes. Males, however, had a significantly higher risk of schizophrenia after exposure to both prenatal infection and peripubertal psychological trauma (IRR: 2.85, 95% CI: 2.32-3.51), with significant interaction between infection and peripubertal trauma on the multiplicative scale (P = .007). Our study demonstrated for the first time that prenatal infection and psychological trauma in peripubertal life can act in synergy to increase the risk of schizophrenia, with a potentially stronger susceptibility in males. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Understanding Specific Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical...

  9. Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cognitive dysfunction in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Camann, David; Spengler, John; Butscher, Maria; Mroz, Elzbieta; Majewska, Renata; Flak, Elżbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants produced by combustion of fossil fuel and other organic materials. Both experimental animal and human studies have reported the harmful impacts of PAH compounds on fetal growth and neurodevelopment, including verbal IQ of children. Here, we have assessed the association between cognitive function of children and prenatal PAH exposures. The study is part of an ongoing, longitudinal investigation of the health effec...

  10. A Complex Interaction Between Reduced Reelin Expression and Prenatal Organophosphate Exposure Alters Neuronal Cell Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Brian R. Mullen; Brennan Ross; Joan Wang Chou; Rana Khankan; Elvira Khialeeva; Kimberly Bui; Ellen M. Carpenter

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and major depressive disorders. Prior studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that the combinatorial effect of two factors—reduced expression of reelin protein and prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon—gives rise to acute biochemical effects and to morphological and behavioral phenotypes in adolescen...

  11. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Astapova, Olga; Evans, Neil P; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-12-01

    Increased occurrence of reproductive disorders has raised concerns regarding the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on reproductive health, especially when such exposure occurs during fetal life. Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to growth retardation, postnatal hypergonadotropism, compromised estradiol-positive feedback, polycystic ovaries, and infertility in the adult. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to affect ovarian morphology or estradiol-positive feedback, suggesting that effects of prenatal T may be facilitated via conversion of T to estradiol, thus raising concerns regarding fetal exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe. Suffolk ewes were administered MXC (n=10), BPA (n=10) (5 mg/kg.d sc in cotton seed oil) or the vehicle (C; n=16) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. On d 60 of treatment, maternal MXC concentrations in fat tissue and BPA in blood averaged approximately 200 microg/g fat and 37.4+/-3.3 ng/ml, respectively. Birth weights of BPA offspring were lower (P<0.05) relative to C. There was no difference in the time of puberty between groups. BPA females were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and ended their breeding season later, compared with C. Characterization of cyclic changes after synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in five C, six MXC, and six BPA females found that the onset of the LH surge was delayed in MXC (P<0.05) and the LH surge magnitude severely dampened (P<0.05) in BPA sheep. These findings suggest that prenatal BPA and MXC exposure have long-term differential effects on a variety of reproductive endocrine parameters that could impact fertility.

  12. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  14. Prenatal plus postnatal exposures to phthalates and child health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a class of chemicals predominantly used as plasticizers in many plastics since the 1930's, in a wide variety of manufacturing applications and consumer products. Given their extensive use and their leakage from plastics, they are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with potential detrimental health effects. Di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer. There is widespread exposure to phthalates in the general population and therefore it is importat to investigate the toxic potential of these compounds. In particular, phthalate exposure has been shown to cause developmental and reproductive anomalies in animal models, and there is concern that these compounds may be causing adverse effects on human reproductive health. Phthalate effects are suspected to be much more severe after in uterus exposure. Phthalate esters are considered endocrine balance and development of the mammalian testis, thus exerting harmful effects on mammalian reproduction and fertility. Health risk assessments for the phthalate exposure of the general population should be performed and current PVC plasticizers, especially the ones used for infants should be replaces with high quality materials.

  15. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  16. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  17. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  18. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  19. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  1. In-flight radiation exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    During high-altitude flight, the cosmic radiation dose rate in an airliner is greater than it is at ground level. For a casual traveler, the impact on pregnancy from cosmic radiation exposure during flight is trivial. Pregnant frequent flyers, pilots, and flight attendants can, however, receive exposures that exceed current recommended values if they do not appropriately modify their work schedules. In addition to the galactic cosmic-ray background that is the source of this radiation, severe disturbances on the sun may cause eruptions that significantly raise radiation levels at airliner altitudes for brief periods, possibly having an impact even on casual travelers. This article will help obstetrician-gynecologists provide advice to their pregnant patients about in-flight radiation risks. That advice should be influenced by an understanding of recommended radiation exposure limits and a perspective on how those limits relate to the potential for real harm. Resources provided by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and others to help pregnant women and their physicians make informed decisions about the acceptability of this type of exposure are described.

  2. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure, home environment, and primary caregiver risk factors predict child behavioral problems at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children's developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child's caregiving environment.

  3. Cranial radiation exposure during cerebral catheter angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Sandoval, Daniel; Buchan, Andrew; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Taylor, Christopher L

    2014-10-01

    Radiation exposure to patients and personnel remains a major concern in the practice of interventional radiology, with minimal literature available on exposure to the forehead and cranium. In this study, we measured cranial radiation exposure to the patient, operating interventional neuroradiologist, and circulating nurse during neuroangiographic procedures. We also report the effectiveness of wearing a 0.5 mm lead equivalent cap as protection against radiation scatter. 24 consecutive adult interventional neuroradiology procedures (six interventional, 18 diagnostic) were prospectively studied for cranial radiation exposures in the patient and personnel. Data were collected using electronic detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Mean fluoroscopy time for diagnostic and interventional procedures was 8.48 (SD 2.79) min and 26.80 (SD 6.57) min, respectively. Mean radiation exposure to the operator's head was 0.08 mSv, as measured on the outside of the 0.5 mm lead equivalent protective headgear. This amounts to around 150 mSv/year, far exceeding the current deterministic threshold for the lens of the eye (ie, 20 mSv/year) in high volume centers performing up to five procedures a day. When compared with doses measured on the inside of the protective skullcap, there was a statistically significant reduction in the amount of radiation received by the operator's skull. Our study suggests that a modern neurointerventional suite is safe when equipped with proper protective shields and personal gear. However, cranial exposure is not completely eliminated with existing protective devices and the addition of a protective skullcap eliminates this exposure to both the operator and support staff. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Prenatal exposure to low doses of atrazine affects mating behaviors in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2014-07-01

    Performing appropriate mating behaviors is crucial to male reproductive success, especially in species where mating is predominantly via female mate choice. Mating behaviors are hormonally regulated and may be sexually selected traits: courtship displays are selected via mate choice, while forced copulations and aggressive behaviors are selected for via intrasexual competition. Endocrine disrupting compounds interfere with proper hormonal functioning in exposed animals. Exposures during developmentally crucial life stages can have irreversible effects lasting through adulthood. I tested the effects of prenatal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of a commonly used herbicide, atrazine (1 and 13.5μg/L) on mating behaviors in male guppies. Guppies were used as a model organism to test the effects of atrazine exposure on wildlife reproductive health. Adult female guppies were mated and exposed to the treatments throughout the gestation period, and offspring born to them were raised without further treatment. At adulthood, the males were tested for the effects of prenatal exposure on their mating behaviors such as courtship displays, gonopodium swings, forced copulatory attempts, and competitive and aggressive behaviors towards rivals who were not exposed to atrazine. I also tested female preference for treated males compared to control males. Atrazine-exposed males were less likely to perform the mating behaviors, and performed them less frequently, than control males. Atrazine exposure also made males less aggressive towards rivals. Females preferred untreated males over atrazine-treated males. In all cases, a non-monotonic pattern was seen, highlighting the significance of low-dose exposures.

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects flavor recognition and stress-related behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during (re)exposure to this flavor. Furthermore, we investigated whether varying stress levels, caused by different test settings, affected behavior of animals during (re)exposure. Piglets were exposed to anisic flavor through the maternal diet during late gestation and/or during lactation or never. Piglets that were prenatally exposed to the flavor through the maternal diet behaved differently compared with unexposed pigs during reexposure to the flavor in several tests, suggesting recognition of the flavor. The differences between groups were more pronounced in tests with relatively high stress levels. This suggests that stress levels, caused by the design of the test, can affect the behavior shown in the presence of the flavor. We conclude that prenatal flavor exposure affects behaviors of piglets that are indicative of recognition and that these behaviors are influenced by stress levels during (re)exposure.

  6. Predicted Radiation Exposure from Mining at Kvanefjeld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    Baseline surveys of gamma radiation and environmental radioactivity have been carried out by Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd (GMEL) to show existing levels in the town of Narsaq and in the Kvanefjeld project area. Radiation levels in Narsaq are low but elevated in the project area due...... integrating dosimeters. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has reviewed the impact of Kvanefjeld operations on the future workforce to estimate radiation doses to individuals. Calculations were performed with conservative assumptions that reveal the annual radiation dose to workers to be between 1...... and 5 millisieverts (mSv). This range of annual doses is below the internationally accepted limits for occupational exposure of 20 mSv averaged over five consecutive years and 50 mSv in any single year. The radiation dose estimates calculated by DTU are consistent with actual measured radiation doses...

  7. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  8. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  9. Tissues may adapt to radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    French scientists discovered radioactivity and developed vaccination, so it is perhaps appropriate that a prominent French cancer specialist should be promoting the idea of a radiation vaccination effect - or radiation adaptation, as he prefers to call it. Raymond Latarjet, of the Institut Curie in Paris, maintains that recent studies at the gene level are showing evidence that with low doses of radiation, there is time for a cell repair mechanism to take effect, and that this seems to provide some protection against subsequent exposure to high doses. He cited experiments in his laboratory in which exposure to a dose of 4 Gy (400 rad) had, predictably, produced a large number of gene mutations in a specimen, but the number of mutations was less than half that number in a specimen that had been exposed to a dose of 0.02 Gy some six hours before exposure to the 4 Gy.

  10. Prenatal exposure to bereavement and type-2 diabetes: a Danish longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in

  11. Altered reward processing in adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Mennigen, Eva; Ripke, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    Higher rates of substance use and dependence have been observed in the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Animal studies indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine alters the development of brain areas related to reward processing, which might be a risk factor for substance use and addiction later in life. However, no study has examined the effect of maternal smoking on the offspring's brain response during reward processing. To determine whether adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking differ from their nonexposed peers in the response of the ventral striatum to the anticipation or the receipt of a reward. An observational case-control study. Data were obtained from the IMAGEN Study, a European multicenter study of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and emotional reactivity in adolescents. The IMAGEN sample consists of 2078 healthy adolescents (age range, 13-15 years) recruited from March 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, in local schools. We assessed an IMAGEN subsample of 177 adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and 177 nonexposed peers (age range, 13-15 years) matched by sex, maternal educational level, and imaging site. Response to reward in the ventral striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatally exposed adolescents, we observed a weaker response in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation (left side, F = 14.98 [P < .001]; right side, F = 15.95 [P < .001]) compared with their nonexposed peers. No differences were found regarding the responsivity of the ventral striatum to the receipt of a reward (left side, F = 0.21 [P = .65]; right side, F = 0.47 [P = .49]). The weaker responsivity of the ventral striatum to reward anticipation in prenatally exposed adolescents may represent a risk factor for substance use and development of addiction later in life. This result highlights the need for education and preventive

  12. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Amirreza; Schwartz, Deborah H; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity. To examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. The Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. A total of 378 adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years; Tanner stage 4 and 5 of sexual maturation), half of whom were exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking (mean [SD], 11.1 [6.8] cigarettes/d). Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall (percentage of energy intake consumed as fat). Body adiposity was measured with anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. Volumes of key brain structures involved in reward processing, namely the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Exposed vs nonexposed subjects exhibited a higher total body fat (by approximately 1.7 kg; P = .009) and fat intake (by 2.7%; P = .001). They also exhibited a lower volume of the amygdala (by 95 mm3; P fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (r = -0.15; P = .006). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala.

  13. Cancer Mortality Among Techa Riverside Residents (Southern Urals). Chronically Exposed to Radiation During the Prenatal Period and in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumova, E. V.; Akleyev, A. V.

    2004-07-01

    Imperfect technology and lack of management and utilization facilities for reprocessing liquid waste released by the Mayak PA resulted in a protracted combined (external and internal) environmental radiation exposure of the population resident on the banks of the Techa River. The followup of 8.640 subjects exposed during the prenatal period and in childhood covered the period of 49 years (1.1.1950-31.12.1998), the total person-years under observation amounted to 222,686. From 1950 through 1998 1,231 death cases were registered in the catchment area (5 raions in Chelyabinsk OBlast through which the Techa flows). In 70 cases death was caused by solid cancers, and in 12 cases by leukemia. Analyses of solid cancer mortality yielded higher rates for men as compared to women (p<0.001). No significant differences in death rates were observed between different ethnic groups (Slavs vs Tartars and Bashkirs). A statistically significant increase in solid cancer mortality with attained age was shown (p<0.001). The age at first exposure was demonstrated to be a factor modifying the solid cancer mortality rate (p=0.049). The highest risk of death from solid cancers was manifested by persons whose exposure started in the prenatal period or at the age under 5 years. There were 4.6 excess cases in this group of 30 observed solid cancer cases, whereas in the group including subjects aged 5 years or older at first exposure only 1 excess case was registered among the 40 observed cancer cases. The obtained leukemia mortality ERR value (CLL excluded) was 7.76, p=0.09. The excess leukemia death was found to be 7.6 out of of 10 observed cases. The analysis performed should be regarded as a preliminary one, taking into account the need to further extend the followup of the cohort and a potential verification of dose estimates in the future. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) increases aggression and modulates maternal behavior in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Natali; Levy, Sigal; Avitsur, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. SSRIs cross the placental barrier and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus. Although no gross SSRI-related teratogenic effects were reported, infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are at higher risk for various developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI on social and maternal behavior in mice. To this end, pregnant female dams were exposed to saline or fluoxetine (FLX) throughout pregnancy, and the behavior of the offspring was examined. The results indicate that in utero FLX increased aggression in adult males and delayed emergence of maternal behavior in adult females. Social exploration and recognition memory were not affected by prenatal FLX exposure. These findings support the notion that alterations in the development of serotonergic pathways following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are associated with changes in social and maternal behavior throughout life.

  15. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  16. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  17. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.

  18. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  19. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  1. Prenatal MDMA exposure delays postnatal development in the rat: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuland, Emilie; Germaux, Marie-Aure; Galineau, Laurent; Chalon, Sylvie; Belzung, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA (ecstasy) is a synthetic illicit drug which is widely consumed throughout the world. Drug abuse during pregnancy may have an impairing effect on the progeny of drug-abusing mothers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal MDMA exposure on the progeny development, using a rat model. Pregnant animals were injected daily with MDMA (10 mg/kg) between the 13th and 20th days of gestation. Male and female pups were then tested throughout the lactation period on the appearance and improvement of physical and sensory motor parameters. Appearance of some physical features (eyes opening and incisor eruption) and neurological reflexes as well as improving performances in negative geotaxis, gait and inclined board tests were delayed in pups prenatally exposed to MDMA compared to saline-treated pups. In contrast, functions that are necessary for survival such as forelimb reflex (that enables suckling) were present in both groups. At four weeks of age, MDMA animals recovered to normal level in all studied parameters. The delay in physical and neurological reflex development could be interpreted as alterations in maturation of some neuronal circuitries induced by prenatal MDMA exposure.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  4. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Larsen, Helle; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    children from 498 pregnancies. PREDICT is a placebo-controlled randomized trial examining progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed, and neurophysiological development was evaluated by the parent-completed Ages and Stages...... between the groups in number or length of admissions, and we found no overall differences in rates of diagnoses. However, the odds ratio for a diagnosis related to the heart was 1.66 (95%CI 0.80;3.37) in favor of placebo among all children, 2.29 (1.02;5.12) in dichorionic twins, and 8.19 (1......) centile) was decreased in the progesterone group (OR 0.34 (0.14;0.86)). CONCLUSIONS: Second and third trimester exposure to progesterone does not seem to have long-term harmful effects on children, but future studies should focus on cardiac disease in the offspring. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudra...

  5. Clinical observations in children after prenatal benzodiazepine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laegreid, L

    1990-01-01

    Eight children excessively exposed to benzodiazepines (BZD) in utero are described. Five of the 8 mothers admitted regular use of BZD and in 3 mothers, stored serum from early pregnancy could be analysed and found positive for BZD and its metabolite. All the children had similar dysmorphic features, in addition, 1 child had aplasia of one kidney and 2 had cleft palate. At follow-up 2 children had become microcephalic. 2 were severely mentally retarded, 5 had a mild mental retardation and only 1 was of normal intelligence. In a case-control study, 4 neonatal diagnoses of congenital malformations, in our experience characteristic of fetal BZD exposure, were chosen as inclusion criteria. In 8 of 18 cases, blood samples from early pregnancy were positive for BZD as compared to 2 of 60 control samples. An association between BZD-positive serum tests and the particular diagnoses could be demonstrated (p = 0.00006).

  6. Exposure from residual radiation after synchrotron shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M.F. [Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, CA 92324 (United States)], E-mail: mfmoyers@roadrunner.com; Lesyna, D.A. [Optivus Proton Therapy, San Bernardino, CA 92408 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Personnel exposure from residual radiation present after an accelerator is shutdown for preventative or corrective maintenance is an important aspect that governs the manner in which a light ion facility can be used. This radiation is not only a safety issue for maintenance personnel but also can affect the patient throughput of the facility. Measurements were made with survey instruments around the synchrotron accelerator at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Facility and personnel dosimetry records of maintenance staff were reviewed. Results showed that the residual radiation in this facility design is very low, does not significantly impact maintenance staff safety, and has placed no restrictions on patient throughput.

  7. Longitudinal Study of Maternal Report of Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; High, Pamela C.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of cocaine exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 subjects: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups, including birth size, caretaker changes, and maternal SES and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (mean [SD], 5 [4.93] vs 7.7 [4.85], p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (R2 = .028, p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all p’s <.01). Together, these preliminary findings suggest possible neurotoxic sleep effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors. PMID:19787489

  8. Longitudinal study of maternal report of sleep problems in children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; High, Pamela C; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Lagasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow up of cocaine-exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 participants: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups including birth size, caretaker changes, maternal socioeconomic status, and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all ps effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors.

  9. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizure is a common type of seizure in childhood, probably caused by both genetic and early environmental factors. Little is known about the effect of environmental factors that operate in prenatal life, although the fetal brain may be particular vulnerable as a result...... of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  10. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and risk of fractures in late childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Frederiksen, Peder; Osmond, Clive

    2017-01-01

    availability in relation to fracture risk. The study did not provide evidence that prenatal exposure to extra vitamin D from a mandatory fortification programme of 1·25 µg vitamin D/100 g margarine was sufficient to influence the risk of fractures in late childhood, regardless of season of birth. Replication......Prenatal low vitamin D may have consequences for bone health. By means of a nationwide mandatory vitamin D fortification programme, we examined the risk of fractures among 10-18-year-old children from proximate birth cohorts born around the date of the termination of the programme. For all subjects...... in fracture rates across birth cohorts was analysed by fitting an age-cohort model to the data. We addressed the potential modification of the effect of vitamin D availability by season of birth. The risk of fractures was increased among both girls and boys who were born before the vitamin D fortification...

  11. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Liu, X; Popovac, D; Factor-Litvak, P; Kline, J; Waternaux, C; LoIacono, N; Graziano, J H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate associations between the timing of lead (Pb) exposure on early intelligence, we examined the results of psychometric evaluations at ages 3, 4, 5, and 7 years, from 442 children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy from a smelter town and a non-lead-exposed town in Yugoslavia. We compared the relative contribution of prenatal blood lead (BPb) with that of relative increases in BPb in either the early (0-2 years) or the later (from 2 years on) postnatal period to child intelligence measured longitudinally at ages 3 and 4 (McCarthy GCI), 5 (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, WPPSI-R IQ), and 7 (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-version III, WISC-III IQ), controlling for: Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) quality; maternal age, intelligence, education, and ethnicity; and birthweight and gender. Elevations in both prenatal and postnatal BPb were associated with small decrements in young children's intelligence.

  12. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  13. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  14. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  15. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  16. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K; Allen, Barrett D; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K; Chmielewski, Nicole N; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M; Britten, Richard A; Baulch, Janet E; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-10-10

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain.

  17. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  18. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  19. Assessment of prenatal exposure to ethanol by meconium analysis: results of an Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; Vagnarelli, Federica; Tarani, Luigi; Raimondi, Francesco; Maffucci, Rosalba; Sacher, Bruno; Bisceglia, Massimo; Rapisardi, Gherardo; Elicio, Maria Rosaria; Biban, Paolo; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Pierantozzi, Andrea; Morini, Luca

    2012-03-01

    This study estimated in 7 Italian cities the prevalence of prenatal exposure to ethanol by determining fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs; palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic esters) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in neonatal meconium samples. A total of 607 meconium samples were obtained from neonatal wards of 7 public hospitals: Verona and San Daniele del Friuli in the northeast of the country, Reggio Emilia in the middle east, Florence and Rome in the center, and Naples and Crotone in the southwest of the peninsula. Meconium biomarkers were assessed by a validated methodology using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the results categorized using the accepted cutoff of 2 nmol/g total amount of 7 FAEEs and 2 nmol/g EtG, to differentiate between heavy maternal ethanol use during pregnancy and occasional or no use at all. On the basis of the above-reported cutoffs, the overall prevalence of newborns prenatally exposed to maternal ethanol was 7.9%: 0% in Verona, 4.0% in San Daniele del Friuli, 4.9% in Naples, 5.0% in Florence, 6.2% in Crotone, up to 10.6% in Reggio Emilia, and 29.4% in Rome. Low maternal education level and younger maternal age were associated with biomarker scores over the cutoff. There was also a significant correlation between the highest percentage of prenatal exposure in the capital and certain maternal sociodemographic characteristics. These results indicate considerable variability in the prevalence of fetal exposure to ethanol in different Italian cities, as determined by the objective measurement of biomarkers in meconium. These data, together with previous ones obtained in Barcelona, Spain, indicate that gestational ethanol exposure is widespread, at least in parts of Europe. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  1. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children's progress during the first years of life.

  2. Prenatal exposure to maternal infection alters cytokine expression in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakubo, A; Jarskog, L F; Lieberman, J A; Gilmore, J H

    2001-01-15

    Prenatal exposure to infection appears to increase the risk of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We have hypothesized that cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, play a key mechanistic role in this association. E16 timed pregnancy rats were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to model prenatal exposure to infection. Placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brains were collected 2 and 8h after LPS exposure. There was a significant treatment effect of low-dose (0.5mg/kg) LPS on placenta cytokine levels, with significant increases of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.0001), IL-6 (P<0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P=0.0001) over the 2 and 8h time course. In amniotic fluid, there was a significant effect of treatment on IL-6 levels (P=0.0006). Two hours after maternal administration of high-dose (2.5mg/kg) LPS, there were significant elevations of placenta IL-6 (P<0.0001), TNF-alpha (P<0.0001), a significant increase of TNF-alpha in amniotic fluid (P=0.008), and a small but significant decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.035) in fetal brain. Maternal exposure to infection alters pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the fetal environment, which may have a significant impact on the developing brain.

  3. Radiation exposure reduction in APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, C. J.; Hwang, H. R. [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Matteson, D. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Pittsburgh (United States)

    2003-06-15

    The primary contributors to the total occupational radiation exposure in operating nuclear power plants are operation and maintenance activities during refueling outages. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) includes a number of design improvements and plans to utilize advanced maintenance methods and robotics to minimize the annual collective dose. The major radiation exposure reduction features implemented in APR1400 are a permanent refueling pool seal, quick opening transfer tube blind flange, improved hydrogen peroxide injection at shutdown, improved permanent steam generator work platforms, and more effective temporary shielding. The estimated average annual occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 based on the reference plant experience and an engineering judgment is determined to be in the order of 0.4 man-Sv, which is well within the design goal of 1 man-Sv. The basis of this average annual occupational radiation exposure estimation is an eighteen (18) month fuel cycle with maintenance performed to steam generators and reactor coolant pumps during refueling outage. The outage duration is assumed to be 28 days. The outage work is to be performed on a 24 hour per day basis, seven (7) days a week with overlapping twelve (12) hour work shifts. The occupational radiation exposure for APR 1400 is also determined by an alternate method which consists of estimating radiation exposures expected for the major activities during the refueling outage. The major outage activities that cause the majority of the total radiation exposure during refueling outage such as fuel handling, reactor coolant pump maintenance, steam generator inspection and maintenance, reactor vessel head area maintenance, decontamination, and ICI and instrumentation maintenance activities are evaluated at a task level. The calculated value using this method is in close agreement with the value of 0.4 man-Sv, that has been determined based on the experience and engineering judgement

  4. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects.

  5. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of {sup 137}Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  13. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  14. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  15. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  16. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates.

  17. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates and childhood respiratory tract infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Casas, Maribel; Morales, Eva; Valvi, Damaskini; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; Luque, Noelia; Rubio, Soledad; Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Martínez, David; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-02-01

    There is growing concern that prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, which are widely used in consumer products, might affect susceptibility to infections and the development of allergy and asthma in children, but there are currently very few prospective studies. We sought to evaluate whether prenatal exposure to BPA and phthalates increases the risk of respiratory and allergic outcomes in children at various ages from birth to 7 years. We measured BPA and metabolites of high-molecular-weight phthalates, 4 di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (Σ4DEHP) and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and 3 low-molecular-weight phthalate (LMWP) metabolites (Σ3LMWP) in urine samples collected during the first and third trimesters in pregnant women participating in the Infancia y Medio Ambiente-Sabadell birth cohort study. The occurrence of chest infections, bronchitis, wheeze, and eczema in children was assessed at ages 6 and 14 months and 4 and 7 years through questionnaires given to the mothers. Atopy (specific IgE measurement) and asthma (questionnaire) were assessed at ages 4 and 7 years, respectively. The relative risks (RRs) of wheeze (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .02), chest infections (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.32; P = .05), and bronchitis (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .04) at any age increased for each doubling in concentration of maternal urinary BPA. Σ4DEHP metabolites were associated with the same outcomes (wheeze: RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04-1.50, P = .02; chest infections: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35; P = .11; bronchitis: RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43; P = .04). MBzP was associated with higher risk of wheeze (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.00-1.33; P = .05). The risk of asthma at age 7 years was also increased with increasing prenatal BPA, Σ4DEHP, and MBzP exposure. There were no other exposure-outcome associations. Prenatal exposure to BPA and high-molecular-weight phthalates might increase the risk of asthma symptoms and respiratory tract

  18. Associations of Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Dopamine Related Genes ANKK1 and DRD2 to Verbal Language

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and reading disability (RD) are common pediatric neurobehavioral disorders that frequently co-occur, suggesting they share etiological determinants. Recently, our group identified prenatal nicotine exposure as a factor for RD and poor reading performance. Using smoking questionnaire and language data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we first determined if this risk could be expanded to other communication disorders by evaluating whether prenat...

  19. Prenatal Stress as a Modifier of Associations between Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Development: results from a Multicentre Pregnancy Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, J Bruce; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Swan, Shanna H

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with altered male reproductive tract development, and in particular, shorter anogenital distance (AGD). AGD, a sexually dimorphic index of prenatal androgen exposure, may also be altered by prenatal stress. How these exposures interact to impact AGD is unknown. Here, we examine the extent to which associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant AGD are modified by prenatal exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Phthalate metabolites [including those of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (ΣDEHP)] were measured in first trimester urine from 738 pregnant women participating in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES). Women completed questionnaires on SLEs, and permitted infant AGD measurements at birth. Subjects were classified as 'lower' and 'higher' stress (0 first trimester SLEs vs. 1+).We estimated relationships between phthalate concentrations and AGD (by infant sex and stress group) using adjusted multiple regression interaction models. In the lower stress group, first trimester ΣDEHP was inversely associated with two measures of male AGD: anoscrotal distance (AGD-AS; β = -1.78; 95% CI -2.97, -0.59) and anopenile distance (AGD-AP; β = -1.61; 95% CI -3.01, -0.22). By contrast, associations in the higher stress group were mostly positive and non-significant in male infants. No associations were observed in girls. Associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and altered genital development were only apparent in sons of mothers who reported no SLEs during pregnancy. Prenatal stress and phthalates may interact to shape fetal development in ways that have not been previously explored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prenatal Cannabis and Tobacco Exposure in Relation to Brain Morphology: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Franken, Ingmar H A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhulst, Frank C; Lahey, Benjamin B; White, Tonya

    2016-06-15

    Cannabis use during pregnancy has been associated with negative behavioral outcomes and psychopathology in offspring. However, there has been little research evaluating alterations in brain structure as a result of maternal cannabis use. In this prospective study, we investigated the association between prenatal cannabis exposure and brain morphology in young children. We matched 96 children prenatally exposed to tobacco only (without cannabis) with 113 unexposed control subjects on the basis of age and gender and subsequently selected 54 children exposed to prenatal cannabis (mostly combined with tobacco exposure). These children (aged 6 to 8 years) were part of a population-based study in the Netherlands, the Generation R Study, and were followed from pregnancy onward. We assessed brain volumetric measures and cortical thickness in magnetic resonance imaging scans using FreeSurfer. We performed vertexwise analyses in FreeSurfer and linear regression analyses adjusting for relevant covariates using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Prenatal cannabis exposure was not associated with global brain volumes, such as total brain volume, gray matter volume, or white matter volume. However, prenatal cannabis exposure was associated with differences in cortical thickness: compared with nonexposed control subjects, cannabis-exposed children had thicker frontal cortices. Prenatal tobacco exposure compared with nonexposed control subjects was associated with cortical thinning, primarily in the superior frontal and superior parietal cortices. Our findings suggest an association between prenatal cannabis exposure and cortical thickness in children. Further research is needed to explore the causal nature of this association. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  2. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants and anogenital distance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Besselink, Harrie; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; KaterinaSarri; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the potential endocrine disruptive effect of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through maternal diet, by measuring anogenital distance in newborns and young children. We included 231 mothers and their newborns measured at birth from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece and the Hmar study in Barcelona, Spain and 476 mothers and their children measured between 1 and 2 years from the Rhea study. We used food frequency questionnaires to assess maternal diet and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) and other POPs in maternal samples. We defined a "high-fat diet" score, as a prenatal exposure estimate, that incorporated intakes of red meat, processed meat, fatty fish, seafood, eggs and high-fat dairy products during pregnancy. Increasing maternal "high-fat diet" score was related to increasing dioxin-like activity and serum concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood. An inverse dose-response association was found between "high-fat diet" score and anoscrotal distance in newborn males. The highest tertile of the maternal score was associated with -4.2 mm (95% CI -6.6 to -1.8) reduction in anoscrotal distance of newborn males, compared to the lowest tertile. A weak positive association was found between the "high-fat diet" score and anofourchetal distance in newborn females. In young children we found no association between maternal "high-fat diet" score and anogenital distances. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet may be linked to high prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptive effects, resulting to phenotypic alterations of the reproductive system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alteration of Pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling parameters by prenatal chronic Lead exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebriyaei Zadeh A

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of prenatal chronic lead exposure on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced kindling parameters (seizure index, seizure latency and seizure stage in rats was studied. Adult female rats with a weight range of 140-180 g were selected and pretreated with lead acetate (0.05% w/v orally, 25 days prior to mating. The control group was given distilled water containing sodium acetate solution (0.05% w/v. After delivery, treatment was ceased, and after lactation, male neonates were separated from the females in both groups. After maturation of male rats, the PTZ-kindling was induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (30 mg/kg. Kindling parameters in the control and treated groups were determined. The results indicated that animals with prenatal lead exposure have full kindling state with 9-19 (16.87±1.54 injections, whereas this value for control group was 12-23 (18.62±1.48 injections. The seizure latency for the treated group was lower (P<0.05 than the control (2.29±0.44 min versus 3.65±0.45 min. The seizure severity (regarding to seizure index was statistically higher in the treated group (P<0.05. The seizure stages were also different in the treated and control groups (P<0.05. The seizure frequency of first and second stages of kindling in the control group was higher than that of treated one (P<0.05. Also the seizure frequency in the third and fourth kindling stages of case group was higher than controls (P<0.05. It is concluded that prenatal lead exposure alters seizure susceptibility in rat PTZ-Kindling model.

  4. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neuronal glutamatergic functions. nPMs are collected continuously for one month from a local freeway and stored as an aqueous suspension, prior to re-aerosolization for exposure of mice under controlled dose and duration. This paradigm was used for a pilot study of prenatal nPM impact on neonatal neurons and adult behaviors. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were exposed to re-aerosolized nPM (350 µg/m(3 or control filtered ambient air for 10 weeks (3×5 hour exposures per week, encompassing gestation and oocyte maturation prior to mating. Prenatal nPM did not alter litter size, pup weight, or postnatal growth. Neonatal cerebral cortex neurons at 24 hours in vitro showed impaired differentiation, with 50% reduction of stage 3 neurons with long neurites and correspondingly more undifferentiated neurons at Stages 0 and 1. Neuron number after 24 hours of culture was not altered by prenatal nPM exposure. Addition of exogenous nPM (2 µg/ml to the cultures impaired pyramidal neuron Stage 3 differentiation by 60%. Adult males showed increased depression-like responses in the tail-suspension test, but not anxiety-related behaviors. These pilot data suggest that prenatal exposure to nPM can alter neuronal differentiation with gender-specific behavioral sequelae that may be relevant to human prenatal exposure to urban vehicular aerosols.

  5. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years....... Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither...... hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure...

  6. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  7. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Cheng-Jian; Breton, Carrie V.; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Anto, Josep M.; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stephane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F.; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Monica; Jaddoe, Vincent V. W.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Remy; Sunyer, Jordi; Soderhall, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J.; Pershagen, Goran; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Melen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker

  8. Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruzieva, Olena; Xu, Chengjian; Breton, Carrie V; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Antó, Josep M; Auffray, Charles; Ballereau, Stéphane; Bellander, Tom; Bousquet, Jean; Bustamante, Mariona; Charles, Marie-Aline; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Gehring, Ulrike; Guxens, Mònica; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Merid, Simon Kebede; Kere, Juha; Kumar, Ashish; Lemonnier, Nathanael; Lepeule, Johanna; Nystad, Wenche; Page, Christian Magnus; Panasevich, Sviatlana; Postma, Dirkje; Slama, Rémy; Sunyer, Jordi; Söderhäll, Cilla; Yao, Jin; London, Stephanie J; Pershagen, Göran; Koppelman, Gerard H; Melén, Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution is considered to be associated with adverse effects on child health. This may partly be mediated by mechanisms related to DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between exposure to air pollution, using nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as marker

  9. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  10. Prenatal tobacco exposure and self-regulation in early childhood: Implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Clark, Caron A C; De Jong, Desiree M; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) has a well-documented association with disruptive behavior in childhood, but the neurocognitive effects of exposure that underlie this link are not sufficiently understood. The present study was designed to address this gap, through longitudinal follow-up in early childhood of a prospectively enrolled cohort with well-characterized prenatal exposure. Three-year-old children (n = 151) were assessed using a developmentally sensitive battery capturing both cognitive and motivational aspects of self-regulation. PTE was related to motivational self-regulation, where children had to delay approach to attractive rewards, but not cognitive self-regulation, where children had to hold information in mind and inhibit prepotent motor responses. Furthermore, PTE predicted motivational self-regulation more strongly in boys than in girls, and when propensity scores were covaried to control for confounding risk factors, the effect of PTE on motivational self-regulation was significant only in boys. These findings suggest that PTE's impact on neurodevelopment may be greater in boys than in girls, perhaps reflecting vulnerability in neural circuits that subserve reward sensitivity and emotion regulation, and may also help to explain why PTE is more consistently related to disruptive behavior disorders than attention problems.

  11. Enhanced learning deficits in female rats following lifetime pb exposure combined with prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Stern, Sander; Weston, Doug; Allen, Joshua L; Liu, Sue

    2010-10-01

    Pb (lead) exposure and stress are co-occurring risk factors (particularly in low socioeconomic communities) that also act on common biological substrates and produce common adverse outcomes, including cognitive impairments. This study sought to determine whether lifetime Pb exposure combined with prenatal stress would enhance the cognitive deficits independently associated with each of these risk factors and to explore associated mechanisms of any observed impairments. Learning was evaluated using a multiple schedule of repeated learning and performance in female rats subjected to lifetime Pb exposure (0 or 50 ppm Pb in drinking water beginning in dams 2 months prior to breeding; blood Pb levels ∼10 μg/dl), to prenatal restraint stress on gestational days 16 and 17, or to both. Blood Pb, corticosterone levels, brain monoamines, and hippocampal nerve growth factor levels were also measured. Sequence-specific learning deficits produced by Pb, particularly the number of responses to correctly learn response sequences, were further enhanced by stress, whereas performance measures were unimpaired. Statistical analyses indicated significant relationships among corticosterone levels, frontal cortex dopamine (DA), nucleus accumbens dopamine turnover, and total responses required to learn sequences. This study demonstrates that Pb and stress can act together to produce selective and highly condition-dependent deficits in learning in female rats that may be related to glucocorticoid-mediated interactions with mesocorticolimbic regions of brain. These findings also underscore the critical need to evaluate toxicants in the context of other risk factors pertinent to human diseases and disorders.

  12. Status-Relevant Experiences and Conspicuous Consumption - the Moderating Role of Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gert; Palacios-Fenech, Javier

    2016-09-20

    In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products. However, we demonstrate that some individuals are predictably more responsive to those experiences than others. We used a physiological measure (the proportion of the length of the index finger and ring finger of the right hand, 2D:4D) as a proxy for individual differences in exposure to prenatal androgens (i.e., testosterone). This measure has been related to dominant and competitive behavior later in life. We predict and find that individuals with a low 2D:4D (i.e., high exposure to prenatal androgens) were more responsive to the status-relevant experiences: they became more interested in luxury goods after these experiences. This was not the case for high 2D:4D individuals.

  13. Exposure assessment of aluminum arc welding radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-yu; Lan, Cheng-hang; Juang, Yow-jer; Tsao, Ta-ho; Dai, Yu-tung; Liu, Hung-hsin; Chen, Chiou-jong

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure, especially optical radiation levels, and potential health hazard from aluminum arc welding processes based on the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) method. The irradiance from the optical radiation emissions can be calculated with various biological effective parameters [i.e., S(lambda), B(lambda), R(lambda)] for NIR hazard assessments. The aluminum arc welding processing scatters bright light with NIR emission including ultraviolet radiation (UVR), visible, and infrared spectra. The UVR effective irradiance (Eeff) has a mean value of 1,100 microW cm at 100 cm distance from the arc spot. The maximum allowance time (tmax) is 2.79 s according to the ACGIH guideline. Blue-light hazard effective irradiance (EBlue) has a mean value of 1840 microW cm (300-700 nm) at 100 cm with a tmax of 5.45 s exposure allowance. Retinal thermal hazard effective calculation shows mean values of 320 mW cm(-2) sr(-1) and 25.4 mW (cm-2) (380-875 nm) for LRetina (spectral radiance) and ERetina (spectral irradiance), respectively. From this study, the NIR measurement from welding optical radiation emissions has been established to evaluate separate types of hazards to the eye and skin simultaneously. The NIR exposure assessment can be applied to other optical emissions from industrial sources. The data from welding assessment strongly suggest employees involved in aluminum welding processing must be fitted with appropriate personal protection devices such as masks and gloves to prevent serious injuries of the skin and eyes upon intense optical exposure.

  14. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT],...

  15. Hippocampal cell proliferation is reduced following prenatal ethanol exposure but can be rescued with voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van A; Olson, Andrea K; Swann, Sarah E; Mohades, Gisou; Webber, Alina J; Weinberg, Joanne; Christie, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion of ethanol during pregnancy has a number of deleterious consequences for the unborn offspring, producing structural and functional deficits that affect the brain and many other organs into adulthood. The hippocampus is a brain area that is particularly sensitive to ethanol's adverse effects. In a previous study we showed that voluntary exercise can ameliorate deficits in long-term potentiation and behavior that occur following prenatal ethanol exposure (Eur J Neurosci, 2005, 21, 1719-1726). In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on neurogenesis in adulthood, and tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise would ameliorate any deficits observed. Sprague-Dawley females were administered one of three diets throughout gestation: (i) ethanol (E), a liquid diet containing 36.5% ethanol-derived calories; (ii) pair-fed (PF), a liquid control diet, with maltose-dextrin isocalorically substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by an E partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and (iii) ad-libitum-fed control (C), normal laboratory chow and water, ad libitum. The offspring were housed individually at postnatal day (PND) 35, and at PND 50 were randomly assigned to cages either with or without an exercise wheel. BrdU (200 mg/kg, I.P.) was injected on PND 57, and animals terminated either 24 h (proliferation) or 4 weeks (neurogenesis) later. Our results demonstrate that prenatal ethanol exposure significantly decreases both cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Animals in the PF condition also showed reduced neurogenesis. In contrast, all animals that engaged in voluntary exercise showed a significant increase in cell proliferation and neurogenesis. These results indicate that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress both cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and that these effects may be, at least in part, nutritionally mediated. Importantly, voluntary exercise appears to have beneficial effects

  16. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and childhood autism in association with prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants found to be endocrine disruptive and neurotoxic in animals. Positive correlations between PFASs and neurobehavioral problems in children were reported in cross-sectional data, but findings from prospective studies are limited....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or childhood autism in children. METHODS: Among 83,389 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002, we identified 890 ADHD cases and 301...

  17. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  18. Behavioural effects in rats after prenatal exposure to dearomatized white spirit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    months, learning and memory deficits were observed in exposed offspring. The differences were not related to poorer swimming capabilities. because swim speeds were similar to control values. The results show that prenatal exposure to 800 ppm white spirit caused longlasting learning and memory deficits......), the performance in a Morris water maze was similar in exposed and control animals. When testing for memory at the age of 2 months, the exposed male offspring used more time to locate the hidden platform. After platform relocation, impaired cognitive function was revealed in the exposed females. At the age of 5...

  19. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  20. Impact of low dose prenatal ethanol exposure on glucose homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rats aged up to eight months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Probyn

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to alcohol prenatally has a myriad of detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. It is unknown whether chronic low-moderate exposure of alcohol prenatally has similar and lasting effects on the adult offspring's health. Using our recently developed Sprague-Dawley rat model of 6% chronic prenatal ethanol exposure, this study aimed to determine if this modest level of exposure adversely affects glucose homeostasis in male and female offspring aged up to eight months. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured in late fetal and postnatal life. The pancreas of 30 day old offspring was analysed for β-cell mass. Glucose handling and insulin action was measured at four months using an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin challenge, respectively. Body composition and metabolic gene expression were measured at eight months. Despite normoglycaemia in ethanol consuming dams, ethanol-exposed fetuses were hypoglycaemic at embryonic day 20. Ethanol-exposed offspring were normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic under basal fasting conditions and had normal pancreatic β-cell mass at postnatal day 30. However, during a glucose tolerance test, male ethanol-exposed offspring were hyperinsulinaemic with increased first phase insulin secretion. Female ethanol-exposed offspring displayed enhanced glucose clearance during an insulin challenge. Body composition and hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue metabolic gene expression levels at eight months were not altered by prenatal ethanol exposure. Low-moderate chronic prenatal ethanol exposure has subtle, sex specific effects on glucose homeostasis in the young adult rat. As aging is associated with glucose dysregulation, further studies will clarify the long lasting effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  1. Modeling Impaired Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2016-03-01

    Radiation impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is one of several factors associated with cognitive detriments after treatment of brain cancers in children and adults with radiation therapy. Mouse models have been used to study radiation-induced changes in neurogenesis, however the models are limited in the number of doses, dose fractions, age and time after exposure conditions that have been studied. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis using a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to represent the time, age and dose-dependent changes to several cell populations participating in neurogenesis as reported in mouse experiments exposed to low-LET radiation. We considered four compartments to model hippocampal neurogenesis and, consequently, the effects of radiation treatment in altering neurogenesis: (1) neural stem cells (NSCs), (2) neuronal progenitor cells or neuroblasts (NB), (3) immature neurons (ImN) and (4) glioblasts (GB). Because neurogenesis is decreasing with increasing mouse age, a description of the age-related dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis is considered in the model, which is shown to be an important factor in comparisons to experimental data. A key feature of the model is the description of negative feedback regulation on early and late neuronal proliferation after radiation exposure. The model is augmented with parametric descriptions of the dose and time after irradiation dependences of activation of microglial cells and a possible shift of NSC proliferation from neurogenesis to gliogenesis reported at higher doses (∼10 Gy). Predictions for dose-fractionation regimes and for different mouse ages, and prospects for future work are then discussed.

  2. Prenatal Versus Postnatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Intensive Care Use in Children Hospitalized With Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michelle D; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Mowad, Eugene; Dunn, Michelle; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    Among children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we examined the associations between in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, and risk of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged bronchiolitis. For 3 consecutive years, from November 1, 2007 until March 31, 2010, site teams collected data from participating families, including information about prenatal maternal smoking and postnatal tobacco exposure. Analyses used chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable logistic regression. Among 2207 enrolled children, 216 (10%) had isolated in utero exposure to maternal smoking, 168 (8%) had isolated postnatal tobacco exposure, and 115 (5%) experienced both. Adjusting for age, sex, race, birth weight, viral etiology, apnea, initial severity of retractions, initial oxygen saturation, oral intake, and postnatal tobacco exposure, children with in utero exposure to maternal smoking had greater odds of being admitted to the ICU (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.00). Among children with in utero exposure to maternal smoking, those with additional postnatal tobacco exposure had a greater likelihood of ICU admission (aOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.37) compared to children without postnatal tobacco smoke exposure (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.04). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy puts children hospitalized with bronchiolitis at significantly higher risk of intensive care use. Postnatal tobacco smoke exposure may exacerbate this risk. Health care providers should incorporate this information into counseling messages. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prenatal organochlorine compound exposure, rapid weight gain, and overweight in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Michelle A; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Guxens, Mónica; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis; Goñi, Fernando; Fochs, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-02-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may increase obesity risk, empirical data are limited, and it is uncertain how early in life any effects may begin. We explored whether prenatal exposure to several organochlorine compounds (OCs) is associated with rapid growth in the first 6 months of life and body mass index (BMI) later in infancy. Data come from the INMA (Infancia y Medio-Ambiente) Child and Environment birth cohort in Spain, which recruited 657 women in early pregnancy. Rapid growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight-for-age z-scores > 0.67, and elevated BMI at 14 months, as a z-score ≥ the 85th percentile. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk of rapid growth or elevated BMI associated with 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorohexane, and polychlorinated biphenyls in first-trimester maternal serum. After multivariable adjustment including other OCs, DDE exposure above the first quartile was associated with doubling of the risk of rapid growth among children of normal-weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), but not overweight, mothers. DDE was also associated with elevated BMI at 14 months (relative risk per unit increase in log DDE = 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.03). Other OCs were not associated with rapid growth or elevated BMI after adjustment. In this study we found prenatal DDE exposure to be associated with rapid weight gain in the first 6 months and elevated BMI later in infancy, among infants of normal-weight mothers. More research exploring the potential role of chemical exposures in early-onset obesity is needed.

  4. Urinary Biomarkers of Prenatal Atrazine Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in the PELAGIE Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Gwendolina; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Garlantézec, Ronan; Petit, Claire; Durand, Gaël; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite evidence of atrazine toxicity in developing organisms from experimental studies, few studies—and fewer epidemiologic investigations—have examined the potential effects of prenatal exposure. Objectives: We assessed the association between adverse birth outcomes and urinary biomarkers of prenatal atrazine exposure, while taking into account exposures to other herbicides used on corn crops (simazine, alachlor, metolachlor, and acetochlor). Methods: This study used a case-cohort design nested in a prospective birth cohort conducted in the Brittany region of France from 2002 through 2006. We collected maternal urine samples to examine pesticide exposure biomarkers before the 19th week of gestation. Results: We found quantifiable levels of atrazine or atrazine mercapturate in urine samples from 5.5% of 579 pregnant women, and dealkylated and identified hydroxylated triazine metabolites in 20% and 40% of samples, respectively. The presence versus absence of quantifiable levels of atrazine or a specific atrazine metabolite was associated with fetal growth restriction [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–2.2] and small head circumference for sex and gestational age (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). Associations with major congenital anomalies were not evident with atrazine or its specific metabolites. Head circumference was inversely associated with the presence of quantifiable urinary metolachlor. Conclusions: This study is the first to assess associations of birth outcomes with multiple urinary biomarkers of exposure to triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides. Evidence of associations with adverse birth outcomes raises particular concerns for countries where atrazine is still in use. PMID:21367690

  5. Prenatal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin alters brain dopaminergic signaling in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuriya, Yogesh K; Srivastava, Pranay; Shukla, Rajendra K; Gupta, Richa; Singh, Dhirendra; Parmar, Devendra; Pant, Aditya B; Khanna, Vinay K

    2017-07-01

    The present study is focused to decipher the molecular mechanisms associated with dopaminergic alterations in corpus striatum of developing rats exposed prenatally to lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), a new generation type II synthetic pyrethroid. There was no significant change in the mRNA and protein expression of DA-D1 receptors at any of the doses of LCT (0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg body weight) in corpus striatum of developing rats exposed prenatally to LCT on PD22 and PD45. Prenatal exposure to LCT (1 and 3mg/kg body weight) resulted to decrease the levels of mRNA and protein of DA-D2 receptors in corpus stratum of developing rats on PD22 as compared to controls. Decrease in the binding of 3H-Spiperone in corpus striatum, known to label DA-D2 receptors was also distinct in developing rats on PD22. These rats also exhibited decrease in the expression of proteins - TH, DAT and VMAT2 involved in pre-dopaminergic signaling. Further, decrease in the expression of DARPP-32 and pCREB associated with increased expression of PP1α was evident in developing rats on PD22 as compared to controls. Interestingly, a trend of recovery in the expression of these proteins was observed in developing rats exposed to LCT at moderate dose (1.0mg/kg body weight) while alteration in the expression of these proteins continued to persist in those exposed at high dose (3.0mg/kg body weight) on PD45 as compared to respective controls. No significant change in the expression of any of these proteins was observed in corpus striatum of developing rats prenatally exposed to LCT at low dose (0.5mg/kg body weight) on PD22 and PD45 as compared to respective controls. The results provide interesting evidence that alterations in dopaminergic signaling on LCT exposure are due to selective changes in DA-D2 receptors in corpus striatum of developing rats. Further, these changes could be attributed to impairment in spontaneous motor activity on LCT exposure in developing rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Aerobic Fitness and Neurocognitive Function Scores in Young Faroese Adults and Potential Modification by Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Debes, Frodi; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    deviation (SD) increase in VO2Max was associated with better scores on short-term memory and cognitive processing speed by 0.21 SD (95% CI: -0.04, 0.46) and 0.28 SD (95% CI: 0.02, 0.54), respectively. In the group with lower prenatal methylmercury exposure, a 1 SD increase in VO2Max was associated...... with increased scores on cognitive processing speed by 0.45 SD (95% CI: 0.08, 0.81) and with a slightly lesser benefit in short-term memory. No such association was observed in the group with high prenatal methylmercury exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Higher aerobic capacity was associated with better performance...... in short-term memory and processing speed. However, prenatal methylmercury exposure seemed to attenuate these positive associations....

  7. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  8. Animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproate: behavioral changes and liver parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Rodrigues, Leticia; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2011-08-23

    Autism is characterized by behavioral impairments in three main domains: social interaction; language, communication and imaginative play; and range of interests and activities. This syndrome has attracted social attention by its high prevalence. The animal model induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) has been proposed to study autism. Several characteristics of behavioral abnormalities found in the VPA rats, such as repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and deficit in social interaction have been correlated with autism. Features like flexibility to change strategy, social memory and metabolic status of the induced rats have not been examined. Thus, the main aim of this work was to investigate additional behavioral rodent similarities with autism, as well as, liver redox parameters after prenatal exposure to VPA. Young rats from the VPA group presented aberrant approach to a stranger rat, decreased conditioned place preference to conspecifics, normal spatial learning and a lack of flexibility to change their strategy. As adults, they presented inappropriate social approach to a stranger rat, decreased preference for social novelty, apparently normal social recognition and no spatial learning deficits. Examination of the liver from the VPA group presented significantly increased (12%) levels of catalase (CAT) activity, no alteration in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and a decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio. TBARS, sulfhydril and carbonyl contents, and serum levels of aminotransferases remained unchanged. In summary, rats prenatally exposed to VPA presented decreased flexibility to change strategy and social impairments similar to the autism symptoms, contributing to the understanding of neurodevelopmental symptoms and oxidative imbalance associated to the autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and the risk of congenital cerebral palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fei, Chunyuan; Bossi, Rossana; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Streja, Elani; Uldall, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early or midpregnancy, and 6 PFASs were quantifiable in more than 90% of the samples. We found a higher risk of CP in boys with higher maternal PFAS levels; per 1-unit (natural-log ng/mL) increase, the risk ratios were 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 2.8) for perfluorooctane sulfonate and 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.6) for perfluorooctanoic acid. We also observed a dose-response pattern of CP risk in boys per quartile of maternal level of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid (P for trend < 0.01). PFASs were associated with both unilateral and bilateral spastic CP subphenotypes. No association between PFASs and CP was found in girls. Prenatal exposures to PFASs may increase the risk of CP in boys, but the finding is novel and replication is needed.

  10. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.

  11. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Omer, V E; Ali, S F; Holson, R R; Duhart, H M; Scalzo, F M; Slikker, W

    1991-01-01

    MDMA is a hallucinogenic drug that is used by the general public as a recreational drug of abuse. The neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal MDMA exposure are unknown. Groups of pregnant rats were gavaged with 0, 2.5, or 10 mg/kg MDMA during gestation on alternate gestational days 6-18. Gestational duration, litter size, neonatal birth weights and physical appearance at birth were unaffected by MDMA treatments. Pregnancy weight gain was significantly reduced by MDMA treatment. Progeny growth, maturational parameters (eye opening and incisor eruption times), surface righting reflex, swimming performance, forelimb grip strength, milk-induced behaviors, passive avoidance behavior, figure-8 maze activity over 48 hours, the density of brain serotonin (5-HT) uptake sites, and brain 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were unaffected by MDMA treatments. Olfactory discrimination on postnatal days (PND) 9-11 was enhanced in both male and female MDMA-treated progeny, while negative geotaxis (PND 7-10) was delayed in female pups. In contrast to progeny, MDMA caused dose-dependent decreases in 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in discrete brain areas of the dam. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to MDMA at the levels used here produces only subtle behavioral alterations in developing rats. The dam is more at risk for MDMA-induced 5-HT depletion than is the conceptus.

  13. Ionizing Radiation Environments and Exposure Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space radiation environments for historically large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are simulated to characterize exposures to radio-sensitive organs for missions to low-Earth orbit (LEO), moon, near-Earth asteroid, and Mars. Primary and secondary particles for SPE and GCR are transported through the respective atmospheres of Earth or Mars, space vehicle, and astronaut's body tissues using NASA's HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code. Space radiation protection methods, which are derived largely from ground-based methods recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) or International Commission on Radiological Protections (ICRP), are built on the principles of risk justification, limitation, and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). However, because of the large uncertainties in high charge and energy (HZE) particle radiobiology and the small population of space crews, NASA develops distinct methods to implement a space radiation protection program. For the fatal cancer risks, which have been considered the dominant risk for GCR, the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model has been developed from recommendations by NCRP; and undergone external review by the National Research Council (NRC), NCRP, and through peer-review publications. The NSCR model uses GCR environmental models, particle transport codes describing the GCR modification by atomic and nuclear interactions in atmospheric shielding coupled with spacecraft and tissue shielding, and NASA-defined quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates for HZE particles. By implementing the NSCR model, the exposure risks from various heliospheric conditions are assessed for the radiation environments for various-class mission types to understand architectures and strategies of human exploration missions and ultimately to contribute to the optimization of radiation safety and well-being of space crewmembers participating in long-term space missions.

  14. Cognitive deficits at age 22 years associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    methylmercury exposure was assessed in terms of the mercury concentration in cord blood and maternal hair. Clinical examinations of 847 cohort members at age 22 years were carried out in 2008-2009 using a panel of neuropsychological tests that reflected major functional domains. Subjects with neurological...... and psychiatric diagnoses were excluded from the data analysis, thus leaving 814 subjects. Multiple regression analysis included covariates previously identified for adjustment. Deficits in Boston Naming Test (BNT) and other tests of verbal performance were significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury...... to about 2.2 IQ points at a 10-fold increased prenatal methylmercury exposure. Thus, although the cognitive deficits observed were smaller than at examinations at younger ages, maternal diets with contaminated seafood were associated with adverse effects in this birth cohort at age 22 years. The deficits...

  15. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2016-01-01

    that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...... consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study...... was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented...

  16. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury alters development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral sympathetic target tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Orband, L.; Cowdery, T.; Kavlock, R.J.; Bartolome, J.

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to methylmercury on sympathetic neurotransmission, effects on development of adrenergic receptor binding sites in peripheral tissues was evaluated. In the liver, methylmercury produced a dose-dependent increase in alpha/sub 1/, alpha/sub 2/, and beta-receptor binding of radioliganda throughout the first 5 weeks of postnatal life. Similarly, renal alpha-receptor subtypes showed increased binding capabilities, but binding to alpha-receptor sites was reduced. At least some of the changes in receptors appear to be of functional significance, as physiological reactivity to adrenergic stimulation is altered in the same directions in these two tissues. The actions of methylmercury displayed tissue specificity in that the same receptor populations were largely unaffected in other tissues (lung, heart). These results suggest that methylmercury exposure in utero alters adrenergic responses through targeted effects on postsynaptic receptor populations in specific tissues.

  17. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Finkielman, Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen, Benjamin A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and...... neurobehavioral programming. These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting the need to limit the widespread exposure and use of APAP by pregnant women....... and precursor of APAP, aniline, resulted in a similar reduction. Decrease in neuronal number in the SDN-POA is associated with reductions in male sexual behaviour. Consistent with the changes, male mice exposed in uteri to APAP exhibited changes in urinary marking behaviour as adults and had a less aggressive...

  18. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medwid, Samantha; Guan, Haiyan; Yang, Kaiping

    2016-04-01

    The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offsprings were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females; (2) although BPA elevated plasma corticosterone levels in both sexes, it stimulated the expression of StAR and cyp11A1, the two rate-limiting factors in the steroidogenic pathway, only in female adrenal glands; and interestingly (3) BPA did not alter plasma ACTH levels or adrenal expression of the key steroidogenic transcription factor SF-1 in either sex. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the long-term consequences of developmental BPA exposure on adrenal steroidogenesis.

  19. Prenatal lead exposure and relationship with maternal exposure determinants in a public maternity hospital of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María; González, Horacio F; Girardelli, Ana; Caro, Laura Sanchez; Lobisuto, Mario; Delgado, Griselda; Disalvo, Liliana

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is a health hazard that may cause cognitive development impairments and other adverse effects in children. We conducted a cross sectional study analyzing cord blood lead levels (CBLL) of newborns and their relationship with maternal determinants of lead exposure. Mothers answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic, lifestyle habits and environmental characteristics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare CBLL geometrical means (GM) corresponding to the presence or absence of each lead exposure determinant, and Chi square test to study the relationship between CBLL and maternal lead exposure determinants. A total of 159 newborns participated in the study. CBLL GM was 2.1 μg/dL; and 25% of the participants had a measurable CBLL (LOQ=3.3 μg/dl). Although the participants had several determinants of lead exposure, we only found a significant relationship with inside household determinants, such as presence of lead piping (p=0.026), unplastered walls (p=0.046) and peeling paint (p=0.048). Our results show that CBLL GM was similar to that reported in several studies conducted around the world. However, 25% of the participants might have some degree of risk for lead poisoning.

  20. Children's exposure to diagnostic medical radiation and cancer risk: epidemiologic and dosimetric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kim, Kwang pyo [National Cancer Institute, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kyung Hee University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    While the etiology of most childhood cancers is largely unknown, epidemiologic studies have consistently found an association between exposure to medical radiation during pregnancy and risk of childhood cancer in offspring. The relation between early life diagnostic radiation exposure and occurrence of pediatric cancer risks is less clear. This review summarizes current and historical estimated doses for common diagnostic radiologic procedures as well as the epidemiologic literature on the role of maternal prenatal, children's postnatal and parental preconception diagnostic radiologic procedures on subsequent risk of childhood malignancies. Risk estimates are presented according to factors such as the year of birth of the child, trimester and medical indication for the procedure, and the number of films taken. The paper also discusses limitations of the methods employed in epidemiologic studies to assess pediatric cancer risks, the effects on clinical practice of the results reported from the epidemiologic studies, and clinical and public health policy implications of the findings. Gaps in understanding and additional research needs are identified. Important research priorities include nationwide surveys to estimate fetal and childhood radiation doses from common diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic studies to quantify pediatric and lifetime cancer risks from prenatal and early childhood exposures to diagnostic radiography, CT, and fluoroscopically guided procedures. (orig.)

  1. Prenatal cocaine exposure effects on arousal-modulated attention during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, B Z; Gardner, J M

    1996-07-01

    The organization of arousal and attention as a function of intrauterine cocaine exposure was investigated in 180 normal nursery infants prior to hospital discharge and at 1 month of age. This was done by studying visual looking preferences when infants were in three arousal conditions: less aroused (after feeding); more aroused-endogenous (before feeding); and more aroused-exogenous (after feeding but including 8-Hz visual stimulation prior to each visual preference trial). The stimuli were light panels illuminated at three temporal frequencies between 1 and 8 Hz presented in pairs using a balanced presentation series of trials. Infants not exposed to cocaine demonstrated strong arousal-modulated attention, preferring faster frequencies when less aroused and slower frequencies when more aroused in both endogenous and exogenous conditions. In contrast, cocaine-exposed infants showed a lack of arousal-modulated attention and preferred faster frequencies of stimulation regardless of arousal condition. Similar differences in arousal-modulated attention as a function of cocaine exposure were obtained at 1 month after birth, indicating that these effects lasted longer than would be reasonable to attribute to the active presence of cocaine or its metabolites. This form of stimulus-seeking behavior was shown to be independent of confounding factors associated with prenatal cocaine exposure such as the absence of prenatal care, alcohol use, minority status, or gender, as well as mediating factors associated with growth such as birthweight. A direct and more chronic effect of intrauterine cocaine exposure on arousal-modulated attention and presumably on the developing CNS therefore was supported.

  2. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Sietske A; Soechitram, Shalini D; Sauer, Pieter J J; Bos, Arend F

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether prenatal background exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old boys and girls. In a Dutch observational cohort study, we measured 10 PCBs and 6 OH-PCBs in maternal blood samples of 98 pregnant women. We assessed their infants neurologically with Touwen examination at 3 months and calculated an Optimality Score (OS, range 0-53, low-high optimality). We calculated correlation coefficients between compound levels and OS. Subsequently, we tested whether levels were associated with specific clusters and whether levels differed between infants with "normal" (dysfunction on ≤1 cluster) and "non-optimal" development (dysfunction on ≥2 clusters). The mean OS was 48 (range 44-52). Higher exposure to PCB-146 correlated significantly with higher OS (r = 0.209; p = 0.039). In boys, higher exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 correlated with lower OS (r = -0.305; p = 0.030). Higher exposure to 9 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs was associated with better visuomotor and/or better sensorimotor function. Infants classified as "non-optimal" (n = 36) had significantly lower prenatal exposure to 6 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs (p < 0.05) compared with infants classified as "normal" (n = 62). In conclusion, higher prenatal exposure to Dutch background PCB levels is associated with better neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants. Prenatal exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 is associated with less optimal neurological functioning in boys.

  3. Strain Differences in Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumor Incidence in Long Evans and Sprague Dawley Rat Offspring Following Prenatal Atrazine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that prenatal exposure to the chlorotriazine herbicide atrazine (ATR) during mammary bud outgrowth (late gestation) delays postnatal mammary epithelial progression in Long Evans (LE) rats. Our laboratory has recently found that prenatal exposure to ATR also effe...

  4. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  5. The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Lester, Barry M; DeGarmo, David S; Lagasse, Linda L; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-08-01

    The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

  6. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  7. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  8. Radiation exposure to operators during vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Sawada, Satoshi

    2005-10-01

    To measure the radiation received by physicians during percutaneous vertebroplasty with use of two types of injection devices with the interventional equipment guided by computed tomography (CT) and an angiographic/CT system. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, the 1-mL syringe group and the bone cement injector group. Percutaneous vertebroplasties were performed with the IVR-CT system, which combines angiographic and CT equipment with a single fluoroscopy table. Radiation dose to operators was measured as equivalent dose penetrating at a 10-mm tissue depth with use of electronic personal dosimeters attached outside and inside lead aprons. Effective radiation dose (HE) was estimated based on the radiation dose outside the lead apron (Ha) and the radiation dose inside the lead apron (Hb). Differences between the groups in doses and fluoroscopic duration were analyzed. In the 1-mL syringe group and bone cement injector group, mean Ha measurements were 320.8 microSv and 116.2 microSv, respectively. Mean Hb measurements were 14.5 microSv versus 7.8 microSv and mean HE measurements were 48.2 microSv versus 19.7 microSv. Significant differences were found in Ha, Hb, and HE. However, duration of fluoroscopy did not differ significantly between groups. Radiation dose was relatively high for operators performing percutaneous vertebroplasty. The bone cement injector was useful in reducing the level of radiation exposure to operators during vertebroplasty.

  9. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  10. Diazepam and its metabolites in the mothers' and newborns' hair as a biomarker of prenatal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senczuk-Przybylowska, M; Florek, E; Piekoszewski, W; Merritt, T A; Lechowicz, E; Mazela, J; Kulza, M; Breborowicz, G H; Krzyscin, M; Markwitz, W; Miechowicz, I

    2013-08-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to benzodiazepines for therapeutic purposes during gestation. The goal of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines. Time of exposure during course of pregnancy is a significant aspect of fetal exposure to drugs. Benzodiazepine concentration assay in hair of mothers and newborns exposed prenatally to these drugs was performed in the studies. Development, validation and evaluation of benzodiazepine determination method in mothers and their newborns enables assessment of health risks for the child and implementation of adequate therapeutic procedures. We used A LC-ESI-MS/MS method that allowed determination of diazepam (the main benzodiazepine used by pregnant women was diazepam) and its metabolites (nordazepam, oxazepam) in hair of mothers and newborns. LOQ 10 pg/mg of hair was used in the study. concentration of nordazepam was higher than parent drug (diazepam) and higher in newborns' hair when compared to mothers'. The mean concentrations of diazepam in mothers' hair were 31.6±36.0 and 34.1±42.4 pg/mg in the second and third trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean concentration of diazepam in newborns' hair was higher and reached levels of 53.3±36.5 pg/mg. The mean concentration of nordazepam in the mothers' hair corresponding to the second and third trimester was 52.9±48.1 and 89.9±122.8 pg/mg, respectively. Nordazepam in the newborns' hair was detected at the mean level of 108.1±144.2 pg/mg. It was concluded that diazepam and nordazepam are permanently incorporated into the hair structure. Presence of diazepam and its metabolites in newborn's hair confirms that these benzodiazepines permeate placental barrier. Segmental analysis of mothers' hair enabled the assessment of drug administration time. Diazepam and its metabolites determined in hair of newborns may serve as biomarkers of prenatal exposure to these drugs. The performed LC-MS/MS analysis was accurate enough to determine even low concentrations

  11. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S J; Day, N; Streissguth, A P

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggesting that these changes are largely the result of the alcohol exposure rather than maternal behavior. In the periadolescent period, people exposed to alcohol during development show a variety of difficulties in the social domain as measured by checklists filled out by either a parent or teacher. Rats exposed to alcohol during development show changes in play and parenting behaviors. In adulthood, prenatal alcohol exposure is related to high rates of trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, depression, suicide, and failure to care for children. These high rates all suggest that there may be fundamental problems in the social domain. In other animals, perinatal alcohol exposure alters aggression, active social interactions, social communication and recognition, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in adults. In conclusion, research suggests that people exposed to alcohol during development may exhibit striking changes in social behavior; the animal research suggests that these changes may be largely the result of the alcohol insult and not the environment.

  12. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  13. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  14. New Meconium Biomarkers of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure Increase Identification of Affected Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Teresa R.; Kelly, Tamsin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Haning, William; Grotta, Sheri Della; Strauss, Arthur; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure is poorly reflected in neonatal meconium. Often, maternal self-reported MAMP use is not corroborated by positive results in amphetamines immunoassays of meconium, and even if initial test results are positive, they frequently are not confirmed for MAMP or amphetamine (AMP) by chromatographic analysis. The presence of the MAMP metabolites p-hydroxymethamphetamine (pOHMAMP), p-hydroxyamphetamine (pOHAMP), and norephedrine (NOREPH) in meconium may improve the identification of MAMP- and AMP-exposed neonates. METHODS Immunoassay-positive and -negative meconium samples were subjected to liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric reanalysis for these recently identified metabolites. RESULTS pOHAMP and NOREPH were detected only when MAMP and/or AMP were present and thus do not appear to be promising biomarkers of prenatal MAMP exposure. pOHMAMP, in contrast, identified 6 additional neonates whose mothers reported MAMP exposure, yet had a meconium sample screened as negative; pOHMAMP was more likely to be present if maternal MAMP use continued into the third trimester. Although the pOHMAMP results for meconium samples corroborated the maternal self-reports, the confirmation rate for positive meconium screening results did not improve with the inclusion of these new biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS pOHMAMP identified additional MAMP-exposed neonates; therefore, MAMP, AMP, and pOHMAMP should be included in meconium chromatographic analyses. To maximize the identification of MAMP-exposed children requires improvement in immunoassay screening tests to reduce false-negative and false-positive results. Additional research will help clarify which AMP-related compounds, if any, contribute to unconfirmed positive results in screening tests. Furthermore, nonamphetamine compounds endogenous to the complex meconium matrix also may cross-react, making chromatographic confirmation of screening results essential. PMID:20185623

  15. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  17. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of cerebral cortex: I. Neuronal generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes profound disruptions in the development of the cerebral cortex. Therefore, the effect of in utero ethanol exposure on the generation of neurons was determined. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet in which ethanol constituted 37.5% of the total caloric content (Et) or pair-fed an isocaloric control diet (Ct) from gestational day (GD) 6 to the day of birth. The time of origin of cortical neurons was determined in the mature pups of females injected with (3H)thymidine on one day during the period from GD 10 to the day of birth. The brains were processed by standard autoradiographic techniques. Ethanol exposure produced multiple defects in neuronal ontogeny. The period of generation was 1-2 days later for Et-treated rats than for rats exposed prenatally to either control diet. Moreover, the generation period was 1-2 days longer in Et-treated rats. The numbers of neurons generated on a specific day was altered; from GD 12-19 significantly fewer neurons were generated in Et-treated rats than in Ct-treated rats, whereas after GD 19 more neurons were born. The distribution of neurons generated on a specific day was disrupted; most notable was the distribution of late-generated neurons in deep cortex of Et-treated rats rather than in superficial cortex as they are in controls. Cortical neurons in Et-treated rats tended to be smaller than in Ct-treated rats, particularly early generated neurons in deep cortex. The late-generated neurons in Et-treated rats were of similar size to those in Ct-treated rats despite their abnormal position in deep cortex. Neurons in Ct-treated rats tended to be rounder than those in Et-treated rats which were more polarized in the radial orientation.

  18. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network.

  19. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  20. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  1. Estimating maternal and prenatal exposure to glyphosate in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Heather; Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2012-11-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide in common use, in both agricultural and residential settings. Controlled residue studies show that glyphosate persists in food crops, allowing for the potential of a large number of people to be exposed. Glyphosate is generally considered safe however there are a number of studies suggesting formulations or additives that may have adverse health effects. To assess the degree of exposure of pregnant women, this study measured glyphosate in composite food samples and estimated exposure based on food frequency questionnaire. 43 pregnant women were recruited and completed a self administered questionnaire with a food frequency component and provided a composite food sample. Twenty food samples were analysed with very low glyphosate concentrations (mean 0.08 mg/kg, range 0.002-0.5 mg/kg) with residues detected in more than 75% of the samples. Maternal dietary exposure was very low (0.001 mg/kg bw/day) and was considerably lower than the predicted National Estimated Daily Intake of glyphosate (0.02 mg/kg bw/day). The estimated exposure based on measured glyphosate in composite food samples corresponded to 0.4% of the acceptable daily intake for glyphosate, and the predicted concentration from dietary information was 4% which is comparable to the National Estimated Daily Intake of 5.5% of the Acceptable Daily Intake of glyphosate. Prenatal exposures were estimated to be significantly lower. While residues of glyphosate are present in food, this study demonstrates that exposure concentrations are low and confirms the current models used to estimate glyphosate exposure.

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity: methylmercury and prenatal exposure protection in the context of the Minamata Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boischio, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant of public environmental health concern due to its long-range atmospheric distribution, environmental distribution, and neurotoxic effects. Following biological methylation, methylmercury (MeHg) can be un-evenly bioaccumulated within aquatic food chains. Fish consumption can be a significant route of human exposure to MeHg. MeHg exposure in the prenatal stage, at relatively low levels, has recently been established as harmful during neurological development, potentially leading to intellectual disability. The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global agreement, currently under ratification, to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds. The resolution regarding the role of the World Health Organization and ministries of health in the implementation of the Convention includes protection of human health from critical exposures to MeHg. Riverside populations living in areas with artisanal small-scale gold mining, and relying heavily on fish consumption, have been identified as the most vulnerable population in terms of MeHg exposure and developmental neurotoxicity. This article focuses on the proper design and dissemination of fish advisories within the context of implementation of the Convention.

  3. Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes partial diabetes insipidus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Daniel S; Sato, Aileen K; Uyehara, Catherine F T; Claybaugh, John R

    2004-08-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol in adult rats and humans leads to reduced AVP-producing neurons, and prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure has been reported to cause changes in the morphology of AVP-producing cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats. The present studies further characterize the effects of PE exposure on AVP in the young adult rat, its hypothalamic synthesis, pituitary storage, and osmotically stimulated release. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet with 35% of the calories from ethanol or a control liquid diet for days 7-22 of pregnancy. Water consumption and urine excretion rate were measured in the offspring at 60-68 days of age. Subsequently, the offspring were infused with 5% NaCl at 0.05 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with plasma samples taken before and at three 40-min intervals during infusion for measurement of AVP and osmolality. Urine output and water intake were approximately 20% greater in PE-exposed rats than in rats with no PE exposure, and female rats had a greater water intake than males. The relationship between plasma osmolality and AVP in PE-exposed rats was parallel to, but shifted to the right of, the control rats, indicating an increase in osmotic threshold for AVP release. Pituitary AVP was reduced by 13% and hypothalamic AVP mRNA content was reduced by 35% in PE-exposed rats. Our data suggest that PE exposure can cause a permanent condition of a mild partial central diabetes insipidus.

  4. Postnatal endocrine dysfunction resulting from prenatal exposure to carbofuran, diazinon or chlordane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, J S; Avery, D L; Grady, R R; Kitay, J I

    1978-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides of three different classes initiated persistent postnatal endocrine dysfunction. Adrenal function and hepatic metabolism of corticosterone were studied in adult hybrid mice exposed during development to either an organophosphate (Diazinon), a carbamate (Carbofuran), or an organochlorine (Chlordane). Animals were exposed to relatively low levels of the toxins in utero and neonatally via the mothers' milk. Exposure to lower doses of the anticholinesterase compounds, Diazinon or Carbofuran, resulted in impairment of hepatic metabolism of corticosterone in vitro due to a loss in reductive capacity per unit liver weight. Plasma levels of corticosterone were also elevated in these animals, but without a concomitant increase in adrenal steroidogenesis in vitro. The effects of exposure to Chlordane were more complex. In male animals, exposure to lower doses of chlordane resulted in an increase in plasma corticosterone levels without an apparent increase in hepatic metabolism of corticosterone or adrenal steroidogenesis. In contrast, side-chain metabolism of corticosterone was decreased in female mice exposed to Chlordane. Similar effects on pituitary-adrenal function were not evident for the offspring of mice exposed to higher doses of the toxins. Possible mechanisms for this non-linear dose-response are discussed.

  5. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites is Associated with Neurological Functioning in 3-Month-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Sietske A.; Soechitram, Shalini D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether pre

  7. The effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on childhood growth patterns from birth to 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaneh, Rachel; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Lin, Hai; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2012-03-01

    We examined the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on growth parameters from birth to age 3 years. The 412 subjects included (n = 204 exposed) were enrolled at birth in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study, a longitudinal study assessing the effects of prenatal MA exposure on childhood outcomes. Individual models were used to examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on weight, head circumference, height, and weight-for-length growth trajectories. After adjusting for covariates, height trajectory was lower in the exposed versus the comparison children (p = 0.021) over the first 3 years of life. Both groups increased height on average by 2.27 cm per month by age 3 years. In term subjects, MA exposure was also associated with a lower height trajectory (p = 0.034), with both the exposed and comparison groups gaining 2.25 cm per month by age 3 years. There was no difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length growth trajectories between the comparison and the exposed groups. Children exposed prenatally to MA have a modest decrease in height growth trajectory during the first 3 years of life with no observed difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length trajectories.

  8. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  9. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite), c

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  11. Associations of prenatal nicotine exposure and the dopamine related genes ANKK1 and DRD2 to verbal language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, John D; Powers, Natalie R; Cho, Kelly; Miller, Laura L; Mueller, Kathryn L; Ring, Susan M; Tomblin, J Bruce; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Language impairment (LI) and reading disability (RD) are common pediatric neurobehavioral disorders that frequently co-occur, suggesting they share etiological determinants. Recently, our group identified prenatal nicotine exposure as a factor for RD and poor reading performance. Using smoking questionnaire and language data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we first determined if this risk could be expanded to other communication disorders by evaluating whether prenatal nicotine exposure increases risk for LI and poor performance on language tasks. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased LI risk (OR = 1.60; p = 0.0305) in a dose-response fashion with low (OR = 1.25; p = 0.1202) and high (OR = 3.84; p = 0.0002) exposures. Next, hypothesizing that the effects of prenatal nicotine may also implicate genes that function in nicotine related pathways, we determined whether known nicotine dependence (ND) genes associate with performance on language tasks. We assessed the association of 33 variants previously implicated in ND with LI and language abilities, finding association between ANKK1/DRD2 and performance on language tasks (p≤0.0003). The associations of markers within ANKK1 were replicated in a separate LI case-control cohort (pnicotine-related pathways and dopamine signaling in language processing, particularly in comprehension and phonological memory.

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects progenitor cell numbers in olfactory bulbs and dentate gyrus of vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts...... vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years......). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group...

  13. Hyperactivity induced by prenatal BrdU exposure across several experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Shioda, Seiji

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral results are sometimes not reproducible even in the positive controls of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) tests. Effects of several factors on the results should be considered. In the present paper, we examined the effects of strain-, gender-, and test-condition differences on BrdU-induced hyperactivity. The results showed that BrdU-induced hyperactivity was reproducible in two rat strains (SD and F344 rats), rodent species (rat and mouse), and both sexes. When the level of background sound in a test room was increased, the hyperactivity was persistent, resulting in no effect of background sound on BrdU-induced hyperactivity. Thus, we have demonstrated that the BrdU-animal model is a useful positive control via prenatal exposure to validate the entire DNT test process. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  15. Examining the relationships between prenatal methamphetamine exposure, early adversity, and child neurobehavioral disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother-infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed.

  16. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  17. Prenatal Paraquat exposure induces neurobehavioral and cognitive changes in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Bali, Yassine; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed. In offspring, the PQ was responsible for an overall delay of innate reflexes and a deficit in motor development. All exposed animals showed a decrease in the level of locomotor activity, increased levels of anxiety-like behavior and pronounced cognitive impairment in adulthood. These results demonstrated that Paraquat led to the onset of many behavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes in prenatally exposed mice.

  18. An evaluation of social skills in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C; Becker, M; McLennan, J; Urichuk, L; Andrew, G

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social skills deficits among children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who were both referred to a respite programme. Thirty-seven children with PAE and 23 non-exposed children (aged 3 to 8 years) were evaluated on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) by their caregivers and respite workers. As compared with the non-exposed children, those with PAE showed more deficits on caregiver ratings of responsibility, hyperactivity, internalizing problems and overall social skills, as well as respite worker ratings of hyperactivity. The social skills among the PAE group were not related to home placement variables. Among both groups, caregivers rated social skills lower than respite workers, and among the PAE group, girls tended to display more social skills deficits than boys. The SSRS is useful in identifying unique social skills deficits among children with PAE. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Predictive accuracy of the Miller assessment for preschoolers in children with prenatal drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Mary-Ann L; Harris, Susan R

    2005-01-01

    The Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP) is a standardized test purported to identify preschool-aged children at risk for later learning difficulties. We evaluated the predictive validity of the MAP Total Score, relative to later cognitive performance and across a range of possible cut-points, in 37 preschool-aged children with prenatal drug exposure. Criterion measures were the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), Test of Early Reading Ability-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, and Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. The highest predictive accuracy was demonstrated when the WPPSI-R was the criterion measure. The 14th percentile cutoff point demonstrated the highest predictive accuracy across all measures.

  20. Estimation of health effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure using structural equation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in epidemiology always involve concerns regarding validity, especially measurement error, confounding, missing data, and other problems that may affect the study outcomes. Widely used standard statistical techniques, such as multiple regression analysis, may...... to some extent adjust for these shortcomings. However, structural equations may incorporate most of these considerations, thereby providing overall adjusted estimations of associations. This approach was used in a large epidemiological data set from a prospective study of developmental methyl......-mercury toxicity. RESULTS: Structural equation models were developed for assessment of the association between biomarkers of prenatal mercury exposure and neuropsychological test scores in 7 year old children. Eleven neurobehavioral outcomes were grouped into motor function and verbally mediated function...

  1. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  2. Neuronal reduction in frontal cortex of primates after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mark W; Palmour, Roberta M; Ervin, Frank R; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-07

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) show behavioral and intellectual impairments that indicate frontal lobe dysfunction, but the extent of damage to this region has not been clarified by brain imaging studies. This study uses the St Kitts vervet monkey, a species that voluntarily consumes beverage alcohol, to examine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant vervets were allowed to drink the equivalent of 3-5 standard drinks four times a week during the third trimester. Using unbiased stereology, we estimated neuronal reduction and found significantly fewer cells in the frontal lobes of FASD offspring as well as an increased density of interstitial white matter neurons. These cytoarchitectonic effects are consistent with the behavioral and cognitive changes observed in FASD.

  3. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in vertebrate brain development. However, there is little understanding of the direct effects of fetal thyroid dysfunction, i.e., not acquired through the mother, on learning ability. In the present study, we use a chick embryo as a fetal model to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs on imprinting behavior in hatched chicks. Methimazole (MMI) at 20micromol/egg or 5micromol/egg of propylthiouracil (PTU) was administered to eggs on day 14 while the control was given only a vehicle. An imprinting test was conducted after the chicks hatched. Day-old chicks were exposed to a rotating training object for 150min. The next day, the trained chicks were exposed to the training object and a novel object. The imprinting preference was represented as a preference score (PS) calculated as the rate of following the training object to following the training and novel objects. In the MMI-treated chicks, the PS was 0.68+/-0.06 (range, 0.38-0.88), which was significantly lower than that in the control chicks (0.86+/-0.04, p<0.01). In the PTU-treated chicks, the PS was 0.69+/-0.04 (range, 0.52-0.89), which was also significantly lower than that in the control (0.88+/-0.02, p<0.001). The present findings suggested that fetal thyroid dysfunction inhibited brain development, leading to impaired learning and memory. Our chick model can be considered useful for investigating the direct effects of prenatal exposure to antithyroid drugs or substances in the environment on learning ability after birth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental pathways from prenatal marijuana exposure to Cannabis Use Disorder in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonon, Kristen; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Jack; Kim, Kevin H; Day, Nancy L

    Earlier studies reported an association between prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) and cognitive and behavioral problems in the offspring. A recent publication demonstrated the relation between PME and offspring marijuana use at age 22. There are no reports of the association between PME and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) at 22years, the age when use of marijuana and CUD peak. Subjects are from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Study, a longitudinal study of PME and other exposures during pregnancy. The cohort of mothers and their offspring has been followed since the fourth prenatal month through 22years of age. A path analysis was conducted on 590 mother-child pairs, representing 77% of the birth cohort, to examine potential pathways from PME to CUD in offspring at 22years of age. There is no direct effect of PME on CUD. There are, however, two indirect pathways from PME to CUD. In the first, the pathway from PME to CUD goes through offspring early age of marijuana onset. In the second, offspring depression at age 10 and early age of marijuana onset predict CUD. Although there is no direct effect of PME on CUD, there are significant indirect pathways from PME to CUD that affect the rate of CUD in the population. Thus, PME, offspring depression, and an early age of marijuana initiation, are significant points for intervention. As marijuana is legalized in more states, the rates of marijuana use will increase significantly, including during pregnancy, and the consequences of the association between PME and CUD will become even more significant from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in 10 Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Martin S; Dewailly, Eric; Robertson, Lyndon; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Côté, Suzanne; Dumas, Pierre; Ayotte, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal exposures to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds (DLC), as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), were analyzed in pregnant women from 10 Caribbean countries. A total of 438 samples were collected and descriptive statistics calculated and compared to comparable Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) and U.S. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. Maternal POPs blood concentrations were found to be generally relatively low in the Caribbean samples compared with the U.S. and Canada datasets. Evidence of exposure to DLC and PBDE was established. DLC levels ranged from a geometric mean low of 3.96 pg/g lipids in Antigua and Barbuda to a high of 11.4 pg/g lipids in St. Lucia. Several of the PBDEs (15, 17, 25, 28, 33, 100) were detected in less than 60% of the country' samples. For PBDE-47, significantly higher levels were found in Bermuda, while Jamaica recorded a significantly low level. The overall calculated concentration of PBDE-47 for the Caribbean (5.33 μg/kg lipids) was significantly lower than the concentrations measured for the U.S. (10.83 μg/kg lipids) and Canada (23.90 μg/kg lipids). This study confirms that prenatal expose to multiple environmental chemicals is taking place in the Caribbean and highlights the need to implement surveillance programs that continuously monitor, intervene, and evaluate the levels of these toxic environmental contaminants to ensure that they are reduced as much as possible and that the health risk to humans, in particular the unborn child, are minimized.

  7. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  8. Influence of prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn sex on global methylation of cord blood DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Pilsner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. DESIGN: Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs, maternal blood As (mbAs and cord blood As (cbAs. Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. RESULTS: In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1 and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively. Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58 but negative among female newborns (N = 43; tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07. Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute h...

  10. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

    Full Text Available The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring.This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement.A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3% were exposed and 981,989 (23.8% had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96-1.01] and 1.01 [0.98-1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94-0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04-1.14], the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12-1.48] or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01-1.27].Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a firmer conclusion.

  11. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  12. Radiation exposure from depleted uranium: The radiation bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexandra C; Rivas, Rafael; Tesoro, Leonard; Kovalenko, Gregor; Kovaric, Nikola; Pavlovic, Peter; Brenner, David

    2017-09-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a radioactive heavy metal used primarily in military applications. Published data from our laboratory have demonstrated that DU exposure in vitro to immortalized human osteoblast cells (HOS) is both neoplastically transforming and genotoxic. In vivo studies have also demonstrated that DU is leukemogenic and genotoxic. DU possesses both a radiological (alpha particle) and chemical (metal) component but is generally considered a chemical biohazard. Studies have shown that alpha particle radiation does play a role in DU's toxic effects. Evidence has accumulated that non-irradiated cells in the vicinity of irradiated cells can have a response to ionization events. The purpose of this study was to determine if these "bystander effects" play a role in DU's toxic and neoplastic effects using HOS cells. We investigated the bystander responses between DU-exposed cells and non-exposed cells by co-culturing the two equal populations. Decreased cell survival and increased neoplastic transformation were observed in the non-DU exposed cells following 4 or 24h co-culture. In contrast Ni (II)- or Cr(VI)- exposed cells were unable to alter those biological effects in non-Ni(II) or non-Cr(VI) exposed co-cultured cells. Transfer experiments using medium from the DU-exposed and non-exposed co-cultured cells was able to cause adverse biological responses in cells; these results demonstrated that a factor (s) is secreted into the co-culture medium which is involved in this DU-associated bystander effect. This novel effect of DU exposure could have implications for radiation risk and for health risk assessment associated with DU exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-03-15

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm (2)(3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm (2)(5×MPE) on the headband

  14. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns exposed to maternal cigarette smoke (CS in utero have an increased risk of developing chronic diseases, cancer, and acquiring decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Although the literature reports many deleterious effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the fetus, the molecular alterations and mechanisms of action are not yet clear. Smoking may act directly on nuclear DNA by inducing mutations or epigenetic modifications. Recent studies also indicate that smoking may act on mitochondrial DNA by inducing a change in the number of copies to make up for the damage caused by smoking on the respiratory chain and lack of energy. In addition, individual genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in determining the effects of smoking during development. Furthermore, prior exposure of paternal and maternal gametes to cigarette smoke may affect the health of the developing individual, not only the in utero exposure. This review examines the genetic and epigenetic alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA associated with smoke exposure during the most sensitive periods of development (prior to conception, prenatal and early postnatal and assesses how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development.

  15. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  16. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  17. Associations of prenatal nicotine exposure and the dopamine related genes ANKK1 and DRD2 to verbal language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Eicher

    Full Text Available Language impairment (LI and reading disability (RD are common pediatric neurobehavioral disorders that frequently co-occur, suggesting they share etiological determinants. Recently, our group identified prenatal nicotine exposure as a factor for RD and poor reading performance. Using smoking questionnaire and language data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we first determined if this risk could be expanded to other communication disorders by evaluating whether prenatal nicotine exposure increases risk for LI and poor performance on language tasks. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased LI risk (OR = 1.60; p = 0.0305 in a dose-response fashion with low (OR = 1.25; p = 0.1202 and high (OR = 3.84; p = 0.0002 exposures. Next, hypothesizing that the effects of prenatal nicotine may also implicate genes that function in nicotine related pathways, we determined whether known nicotine dependence (ND genes associate with performance on language tasks. We assessed the association of 33 variants previously implicated in ND with LI and language abilities, finding association between ANKK1/DRD2 and performance on language tasks (p≤0.0003. The associations of markers within ANKK1 were replicated in a separate LI case-control cohort (p<0.05. Our results show that smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for LI and poor performance on language tasks and that ANKK1/DRD2 contributes to language performance. More precisely, these findings suggest that prenatal environmental factors influence in utero development of neural circuits vital to language. Our association of ANKK1/DRD2 further implicates the role of nicotine-related pathways and dopamine signaling in language processing, particularly in comprehension and phonological memory.

  18. Effects of repeated prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on long-term potentiation in the juvenile guinea-pig hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Jackson, Michael F; MacDonald, John F; Matthews, Stephen G

    2007-06-15

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) are routinely used to treat women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung maturation. There is now strong evidence that exposure to excess glucocorticoid during periods of rapid brain development has permanent consequences for endocrine function and behaviour in the offspring. Prenatal exposure to sGC alters the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) subunits in the fetal and neonatal hippocampus. Given the integral role of the NMDA-R in synaptic plasticity, we hypothesized that prenatal sGC exposure will have effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) after birth. Further, this may occur in either the presence or absence of elevated cortisol concentrations, in vitro. Pregnant guinea-pigs were injected with betamethasone (Beta, 1 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle on gestational days (gd) 40, 41, 50, 51, 60 and 61 (term approximately 70 days), a regimen comparable to that given to pregnant women. On postnatal day 21, LTP was examined at Schaffer collateral synapses in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile animals exposed to betamethasone or vehicle, in utero. Subsequently, the acute glucocorticoid receptor (GR)- and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent effects of cortisol (0.1-10 microM; bath applied 30 min before LTP induction) were examined. There was no effect of prenatal sGC treatment on LTP under basal conditions. The application of 10 microM cortisol depressed excitatory synaptic transmission in all treatment groups regardless of sex. Similarly, LTP was depressed by 10 microM cortisol in all groups, with the exception of Beta-exposed females, in which LTP was unaltered. Hippocampal MR and GR protein levels were increased in Beta-exposed females, but not in any other prenatal treatment group. This study reveals sex-specific effects of prenatal exposure to sGC on LTP in the presence of elevated cortisol, a situation that would occur in vivo during stress.

  19. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on...

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Anogenital Distance in Male Infants from a Low-Exposed Danish Cohort (2010-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    human studies have been conducted, but associations between the anti-androgenic phthalates and male AGD have been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association between phthalate exposure in late pregnancy in Danish women pregnant in 2010-2012 and AGD in their male infants at 3 months of age (n...... gestational week 28 (range, 20.4-30.4) and adjusted for osmolality. AGD, penile width, and weight were measured 3 months after the expected date of birth. Associations between prenatal phthalate and AGD and penile width were estimated using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and weight...... phthalates exposures in this low exposed Danish population. CITATION: Jensen TK, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Lassen TH, Swan SH, Bornehag CG, Skakkebaek NE, Main KM, Lind DV, Husby S, Andersson AM. 2016. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and anogenital distance in male infants from a low-exposed Danish cohort...

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  3. Preadolescent behavior problems after prenatal cocaine exposure: Relationship between teacher and caretaker ratings (Maternal Lifestyle Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Henrietta S.; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Lester, Barry; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Das, Abhik; Tan, Sylvia; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and childhood behavior problems as observed by the parent or caretaker. However, these behavior problems may not manifest in a structured environment, such as a school setting. Objective We determined whether there is an association between PCE and school behavior problems and whether ratings of behavior problems from the teacher differ from those noted by the parent or caretaker. Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multicenter study, enrolled 1388 children with and without PCE at one month of age for longitudinal assessment. Teachers masked to prenatal drug exposure status completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF/6-18) when children were 7, 9, and 11 years old. We also administered the Child Behavior Checklist-parent report (CBCL) to the parent/caretaker at same ages and then at 13 years. We performed latent growth curve modeling to determine whether high PCE will predict externalizing, internalizing, total behavior, and attention problems at 7 years of age and whether changes in problems' scores over time differ between those exposed and non-exposed from both teacher and parent report. Besides levels of PCE as predictors, we controlled for the following covariates, namely: site, child characteristics (gender and other prenatal drug exposures), family level influences (maternal age, depression and psychological symptomatology, continuing drug use, exposure to domestic violence, home environment, and socioeconomic status), and community level factors (neighborhood and community violence). Results The mean behavior problem T scores from the teacher report were significantly higher than ratings by the parent or caretaker. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a significant relationship between intercepts of problem T scores from teacher and parent ratings; i.e., children that were rated poorly by teachers were also rated poorly by their parent/caretaker or vice versa. After

  4. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  5. Prenatal corticosterone exposure programs growth, behavior, reproductive function and genes in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper was to understand the role of prenatal corticosterone exposure on growth, aggressive behavior, reproductive performance and gene expression in the chicken. The phenotype, physiology, reproductive function and behavioral characteristics of an organism are not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors that play a critical role in shaping offspring morphology. Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development influences offspring growth, physiology and behaviors associated with alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and serotonergic system gene expression. Another influential factor for phenotype, physiology and behavioral development is maternal derived steroid hormones that deposit in the egg. In avian species, maternal influences have aroused much attention after the discovery that avian eggs contain a variety of maternal derived steroid hormones. In addition, the environment condition during ontogeny has played a critical role in behavioral development. In avian species, for example laying chicken, high quality mother care produced chicks that were less fearful. Laying hen maternal care is found to reduce cannibalistic pecking phenomenon. Genetic selection and selection experiments will also play a critical role in animals breeding for the housing systems of the future. To optimize animal welfare and to reduce risks factors such as pecking behavior, fundamental approaches are required that merge selection of the optimal genotype with provision of a positive environment for parents and offspring, both throughout ontogeny and later life.

  6. Prenatal xenobiotic exposure and intrauterine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis programming alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Xu, Dan; Luo, Hanwen; Lu, Juan; Liu, Lian; Ping, Jie; Wang, Hui

    2014-11-05

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most important neuroendocrine axes and plays an important role in stress defense responses before and after birth. Prenatal exposure to xenobiotics, including environmental toxins (such as smoke, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide), drugs (such as synthetic glucocorticoids), and foods and beverage categories (such as ethanol and caffeine), affects fetal development indirectly by changing the maternal status or damaging the placenta. Certain xenobiotics (such as caffeine, ethanol and dexamethasone) may also affect the fetus directly by crossing the placenta into the fetus due to their lipophilic properties and lower molecular weights. All of these factors probably result in intrauterine programming alteration of the HPA axis, which showed a low basal activity but hypersensitivity to chronic stress. These alterations will, therefore, increase the susceptibility to adult neuropsychiatric (such as depression and schizophrenia) and metabolic diseases (such as hypertension, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). The "over-exposure of fetuses to maternal glucocorticoids" may be the main initiation factor by which the fetal HPA axis programming is altered. Meantime, xenobiotics can directly induce abnormal epigenetic modifications and expression on the important fetal genes (such as hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor, adrenal steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, et al) or damage by in situ oxidative metabolism of fetal adrenals, which may also be contributed to the programming alteration of fetal HPA axis.

  7. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  8. Critical Windows of Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium and Size at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cadmium (Cd exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls. For each log unit increase in Cd (µg/g creatinine levels from the 1st trimester, there was a decrease in birth weight by 116.99 g (95% confidence interval (CI: −208.87, −25.11 g. The Cd levels from the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also borderline significantly associated with ponderal index in girls. Joint estimation of trimester-specific effects suggested that associations with Cd levels for ponderal index (pint = 0.02 were significantly different across trimesters, and differences for effects across trimesters for birth weight were marginally significant (pint = 0.08 in girls. No significant associations were observed between Cd levels from any trimester and birth size in boys. Maternal Cd exposure during earlier periods of pregnancy may have a larger impact on delayed fetal growth.

  9. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and

  10. Measurement of absorbed dose and proposed radiation exposure level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masayuki; Furukawa, Tomo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). Hospital

    2003-03-01

    Absorbed dose was measured in clinical X-ray examinations using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). Moreover, we distributed the levels of radiation exposure into 3 classes. The presumed dose of the internal organs, e.g., uterus dose, was computed to depth doses with a surface dose. This information provides a prediction of the influence of radiation, and the examination can be performed with the informed consent of the patient. Moreover, we examined the distribution of the level of absorbed dose. We proposed two kinds of radiation exposure level, one to the fetus in a pregnant woman and a general level of radiation exposure that is not applied to pregnant women. The levels were as follows: 0.5 mGy and 100 mGy were considered the boundaries for fetal radiation exposure in a pregnant woman, and 200 mGy and 3 Gy were considered the boundaries for the general level of radiation exposure (excluding pregnant women). (author)

  11. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

  12. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, David L.; Abbott, Joel E.; Su, Jeannie J.; Shi, William; Slater, Richard; Miller, Daniel; Siemens, Michelle J.; Sur, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at two academic institutions. This was collected using the Instadose™ dosimeter and reported both continuously and categorically as high and low dose using a 10 mrem dose threshold, the approximate amount of radiation received from one single chest X-ray. Predictors of increased radiation exposure were determined using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 91 PNL cases in 66 patients were reviewed. Median surgery duration and fluoroscopy time were 142 (38–368) min and 263 (19–1809) sec, respectively. Median attending urologist, urology resident, anesthesia, and nurse radiation exposure per case was 4 (0–111), 4 (0–21), 0 (0–5), and 0 (0–5) mrem, respectively. On univariate analysis, stone area, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery duration, and fluoroscopy time were associated with high attending urologist and resident radiation exposure. Preexisting access that was utilized was negatively associated with resident radiation exposure. However, on multivariate analysis, only fluoroscopy duration remained significant for attending urologist radiation exposure. Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury. PMID:28216931

  13. Biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure: a critical review of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Hofer, Ryan

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was a review of published studies utilizing measurement of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium as biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure. We completed a literature search of PubMed using the terms meconium, fatty acid ethyl esters, biomarkers, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We included only peer reviewed studies utilizing analysis of meconium for the presence of FAEE in humans through the year 2007. We found 10 articles reporting on original research examining the relationship of FAEE from meconium and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The 10 articles used six different PAE assessment strategies and four different analytical techniques for determining FAEE endpoints. The articles included 2,221 subjects (range 4 to 725) with 455 (20.5%) subjects identified as exposed using the methods stated in the articles. FAEE levels above the studies' respective cutoffs were reported for 502 (22.6%) subjects. The accurate identification of alcohol-exposed pregnancies represents a significant challenge in the development of FAEE detection cutoffs to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the test. We present several options for the improvement of exposure assessment in future studies of FAEE as biomarkers for PAE. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and attention and executive function at 9-12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Kogut, Katherine; Gaspar, Fraser W; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim G; Parra, Kimberly; Villaseñor, Diana; Bradman, Asa; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    California children's exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) are among the highest measured worldwide. We previously reported associations for prenatal and childhood PBDE exposures with decrements in attention, processing speed, fine motor coordination, and cognition in children at ages 5 and 7 years. Here, we investigate associations of PBDEs with attention and executive function at ages 9 to 12 years in the expanded CHAMACOS cohort. We measured PBDEs in prenatal and child age 9 year serum samples for families enrolled in the study since pregnancy ("CHAM1", N=321). In a subsequent cohort for which families were enrolled at child age 9 ("CHAM2", N=301), we measured PBDEs in maternal and child samples collected at child age 9, and used predictive modeling to estimate prenatal exposure levels. We examined associations of measured and estimated PBDE concentrations on children's attention and executive functioning at ages 9, 10½, and 12 years. Geometric means for prenatal and childhood ΣPBDE levels (sum of PBDE-47, -99, -100, -153) for the expanded CHAMACOS cohort were 26.3 and 63.2 ng/g lipid, respectively, and did not differ significantly between CHAM1 and CHAM2 families. We found consistent associations of prenatal exposure to PBDEs with poorer attention and executive function, measured with parent report and direct neuropsychological testing of the child. For example, using GEE models of repeated outcome measures at ages 9 and 12, a 10-fold increase in prenatal ΣPBDE was associated with poorer response consistency on the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (β=2.9; 95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) and poorer working memory on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (β=2.5; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.4). Child age 9 ΣPBDE levels were associated with poorer parent-reported attention and executive function for girls but not boys. Our results suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be a potential target for PBDE exposure and add to a growing

  15. Prenatal levonorgestrel exposure induces autism-like behavior in offspring through ERβ suppression in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuanlin; Lu, Qiaomei; Zheng, Dan; Chu, Zhigang; Liu, Zhaoyu; Chen, Haijia; Ruan, Qiongfang; Ge, Xiaohu; Zhang, Ziyun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lou, Wenting; Huang, Yongjian; Wang, Yifei; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Zhengxiang; Xie, Weiguo; Zhou, Yikai; Yao, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. ASD is now diagnosed in more than one out of 100 children and is biased towards males by a ratio of at least 4:1. Many possible explanations and potential causative factors have been reported, such as genetics, sex, and environmental factors, although the detailed mechanisms of ASD remain unclear. The dams were exposed through oral contraceptives to either vehicle control (VEH) alone, levonorgestrel (LNG) alone, ethinyl estradiol (EE) alone, or a combination of LNG/EE for 21 days during their pregnancy. The subsequent 10-week-old offspring were used for autism-like behavior testing, and the limbic tissues were isolated for analysis. In another experimental group, 8-week-old male offspring were treated by infusion of ERβ overexpression/knockdown lentivirus in the amygdala, and the offspring were analyzed after 2 weeks. We show that prenatal exposure of either LNG alone or a LNG/EE combination, but not EE alone, results in suppression of ERβ (estrogen receptor β) and its target genes in the amygdala with autism-like behavior in male offspring, while there is a much smaller effect on female offspring. However, we find that there is no effect on the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Further investigation shows that ERβ suppression is due to LNG-mediated altered methylation on the ERβ promoter and results in tissue damage with oxidative stress and the dysfunction of mitochondria and fatty acid metabolism, which subsequently triggers autism-like behavior. Overexpression of ERβ in the amygdala completely restores LNG-induced ERβ suppression and autism-like behaviors in offspring, while ERβ knockdown mimics this effect, indicating that ERβ expression in the amygdala plays an important role in autism-like behavior development. We conclude that prenatal levonorgestrel exposure induces autism-like behavior in offspring through ER

  16. Prenatal carbofuran exposure inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and causes learning and memory deficits in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Sharma, Vinod Praveen; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Neurogenesis is a process of generation of new neurons in the hippocampus and associated with learning and memory. Carbofuran, a carbamate pesticide, elicits several neurochemical, neurophysiological, and neurobehavioral deficits. We evaluated whether chronic prenatal oral exposure of carbofuran during gestational days 7-21 alters postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis at postnatal day 21. We found carbofuran treatment significantly decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) positive cell proliferation and long-term survival in the hippocampus only but not in the cerebellum. We observed a reduced number of transcription factor SOX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) colabeled cells, decreased nestin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and decreased histone-H3 phosphorylation following carbofuran treatment, suggesting a decreased pool of neural progenitor cells (NPC). Colocalization of BrdU with doublecortin (DCX), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and GFAP suggested decreased neuronal differentiation and increased glial differentiation by carbofuran. The number of DCX(+) and NeuN(+) neurons, NeuN protein levels, and fibers length of DCX(+) neurons were decreased by carbofuran. Carbofuran caused a significant downregulation of mRNA expression of the neurogenic genes/transcription factors such as neuregulin, neurogenin, and neuroD1 and upregulation of the gliogenic gene Stat3. Carbofuran exposure led to increased BrdU/caspase 3 colabeled cells, an increased number of degenerative neurons and profound deficits in learning and memory processes. The number and size of primary neurospheres derived from the hippocampus of carbofuran-treated rats were decreased. These results suggest that early gestational carbofuran exposure diminishes neurogenesis, reduces the NPC pool, produces neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, and causes cognitive impairments in rat offspring.

  17. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  18. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

  19. Fish consumption during pregnancy, prenatal mercury exposure, and anthropometric measures at birth in a prospective mother-infant cohort study in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Amurrio, Ascensión; Vioque, Jesús; Lacasaña, Marina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective was to assess the association of consumption of different types of fish and prenatal mercury exposure with birth weight, birth length, and classification as small for gestational age (SGA) in newborns...

  20. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falgreen Eriksen, H‐L; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2012-01-01

    ..., Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191–1200. Objective...

  1. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

  2. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Strøm, M; Olsen, S F;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine the associations...... between prenatal exposures to POPs and allergic sensitization and lung function in 20-year-old offspring. METHODS: In a Danish cohort of 965 pregnant women established in 1988-1989, six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were...... function [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] (n = 414). RESULTS: There were no associations between maternal concentrations of POPs and offspring allergic sensitization at 20 years of age. Maternal concentrations of POPs were, however, positively associated...

  3. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5. Increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize

  4. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  5. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  6. Risk of affective disorders following prenatal exposure to severe life events: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  8. Is air pollution a plausible candidate for prenatal exposure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? : a systematic review / y Dhanashree Vernekar

    OpenAIRE

    Vernekar, Dhanashree

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of existing literature that investigates biological plausibility of prenatal hazardous air pollutants’ (HAPs) exposure, in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related outcomes. Method: Electronic databases Pubmed, Biomed Central and National Database for Autism Research, and grey literature pertaining to air pollution association with ASD and related outcomes were searched using specific keywords. The search included 190 HAPs as defi...

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Children’s Intelligence at 5 Years of Age in a Prospective Cohort Study in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Susan Claire; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Butscher, Maria; Camann, David; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Li, Zhigang; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia; Perera, Frederica

    2010-01-01

    Background In this prospective cohort study of Caucasian mothers and children in Krakow, Poland, we evaluated the role of prenatal exposure to urban air pollutants in the pathogenesis of neurobehavioral disorders. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and child intelligence at 5 years of age, controlling for potential confounders suspected to play a role in neurodevelopment. Methods A cohort o...

  12. Maternal PUFA Status but Not Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure Is Associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles12

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, J.J.; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S.; McAfee, Alison J.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E.; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M.W.; McSorley, Emeir M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were mea...

  13. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  14. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age....

  15. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters synaptic plasticity in the dorsolateral striatum of rat offspring via changing the reactivity of dopamine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhou

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to high-level ethanol (EtOH has been reported to produce hyperlocomotion in offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated synaptic plasticity in cortical afferent to the dorsolateral (DL striatum is involved in the pathogensis of hyperlocomotion. Here, prenatal EtOH-exposed rat offspring were used to investigate whether maternal EtOH exposure affected synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum. We found high-frequency stimulation (HFS induced a weaker long-term potentiation (LTP in EtOH rats than that in control rats at postnatal day (PD 15. The same protocol of HFS induced long-term depression (LTD in control group but still LTP in EtOH group at PD 30 or PD 40. Furthermore, enhancement of basal synaptic transmission accompanied by the decrease of pair-pulse facilitation (PPF was observed in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D1-type receptors (D1R antagonist SCH23390 recovered synaptic transmission and blocked the induction of abnormal LTP in PD 30 EtOH offspring. The perfusion with D2-type receptors (D2R agonist quinpirole reversed EtOH-induced LTP into D1R- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent LTD. The data provide the functional evidence that prenatal ethanol exposure led to the persistent abnormal synaptic plasticity in the DL striatum via disturbing the balance between D1R and D2R.

  17. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  18. [Prenatal alcohol exposure as an etiological factor in neuropsychiatric diseases of childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Sergio Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an almost neglected condition as an important etiological factor for the induction of a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric diseases that may appear during childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Children born to alcoholic mothers may show a spectrum of diseases ranging from an apparent normality to a profound mental retardation, passing through epilepsy, attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity, autism and pervasive developmental disorders, and different types of learning disorders. When adolescents, they may develop different kinds of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. Finally, in adulthood, they may suffer from different types of affective and psychotic disorders, among others. A great number of those children may not develop their full mental and social potentiality as free individuals. They usually have diverse types of cognitive, attentional, mnemonic and affective impairments. Not infrequently, they engage in antisocial behaviors, have school or work troubles. In this work, I review the present clinical classifications of the disorders emerging from a PAE and the several neuropsychiatric diseases that can be induced by them, in order to call attention to the Argentinian neuropsychiatric community about the increasingly, although underdiagnosed, frequency of these disorders in our country.

  19. Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual model of the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and child self-regulation via maternal harshness and language development was examined. Specifically, the model tested whether PCE was associated with self-regulation either directly or indirectly via high maternal harshness and poor language development. The role of child sex, autonomic reactivity, and cumulative environmental risk as potential moderators was also explored. The sample was 216 mother-child dyads recruited at birth and assessed at 2, 7, 13, 24, 36, and 48 months of child ages. Participating mothers were primarily African American (72%). Results indicated a significant indirect association between PCE and child effortful control at 36 months via higher maternal harshness. Autonomic reactivity moderated the association between maternal harshness and self-regulation such that among children with poor autonomic reactivity, high maternal harshness was associated with lower conscience at 3 years. Child sex and environmental risk did not moderate the association between PCE and self-regulation. Thus, the quality of caregiving experience played a significant role in the development of self-regulation among PCE children, especially those at higher autonomic risk. In particular, PCE children who also exhibit poor autonomic reactivity may be particularly susceptible to environmental influences such as parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ethanolic leaves extract of Datura metel in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeez Olakunle Ishola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Datura metel contains atropine alkaloids and has been used to treat complication like asthma and, bronchitis, because of its anticholinergic properties. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prenatal effects of ethanolic extract of D. metel leaves exposure on the development of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats (12 females and 8 males were purchased. The females were grouped into four groups (A_D. Group A were given 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract on the first day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group B were given 500 mg/kg body weight on the 8 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group C were given 500 mg/kg body weight on 15 th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period and Group D were given normal saline throughout the gestation period. Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7 th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of D. metel leaf is teratogenic in the late stage of pregnancy, is abortificient and can serve as a contraceptive.

  1. Placental Transfer of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Associations with Thyroid Hormones: Beijing Prenatal Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Luan, Hemi; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in wildlife and human samples worldwide. Toxicology research showed that PFASs could interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, eight PFASs, fifteen PFAS precursors and five thyroid hormones were analyzed in 157 paired maternal and cord serum samples collected in Beijing around delivery. Seven PFASs and two precursors were detected in both maternal and cord sera with significant maternal-fetal correlations (r = 0.336 to 0.806, all P fetal versus maternal serum were from 0.25:1 (perfluorodecanoic acid, PFDA) to 0.65:1 (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Spearman partial correlation test showed that maternal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was negatively correlated with most maternal PFASs (r = -0.261 to -0.170, all P fetal PFASs (r = -0.229 to -0.165 for T3; r = -0.293 to -0.169 for FT3, all P < 0.05). Our results suggest prenatal exposure of fetus to PFASs and potential associations between PFASs and thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans.

  2. An intergenerational effect of neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration induced by prenatal ethanol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Shen, Lang; Luo, Han-Wen; Chen, Liao-Bin; Wu, Dong-Fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-09-12

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls. Following chronic stress, the percentage increase in CORT from the basal state tended to be greater for some PEE groups compared with controls while the percentage reduction of glucose and percentage elevation of TG were smaller. These results revealed that the low basal activity and hyper-responsiveness of the HPA axis as well as glucocorticoid-associated glucose and lipid phenotypic alterations were partially retained in F2, which indicates PEE-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration may have an intergenerational effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  4. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure results in dysfunction of the renal dopamine D1 receptor in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Luo, Hao; Chen, Caiyu; Chen, Ken; Wang, Jialiang; Cai, Yue; Zheng, Shuo; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-11-01

    Adverse environment in early life can modulate the adult phenotype, including blood pressure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero results in increased blood pressure in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Studies have shown that the renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) plays an important role in maintaining sodium homeostasis and normal blood pressure; dysfunction of D1R is associated with oxidative stress and hypertension. In this study, we determined if dysfunction of the renal D1R is involved in fetal-programmed hypertension, and if oxidative stress contributes to this process. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) or saline at gestation days 8, 10, and 12. As compared with saline-injected (control) dams, offspring of LPS-treated dams had increased blood pressure, decreased renal sodium excretion, and increased markers of oxidative stress. In addition, offspring of LPS-treated dams had decreased renal D1R expression, increased D1R phosphorylation, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 2 (GRK2) and type 4 (GRK4) protein expression, and impaired D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis. All of the findings in the offspring of LPS-treated dams were normalized after treatment with TEMPOL, an oxygen free radical scavenger. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure, via an increase in oxidative stress, impairs renal D1R function and leads to hypertension in the offspring. Normalization of renal D1R function by amelioration of oxidative stress may be a therapeutic target of fetal programming of hypertension.

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure impairs cognitive function of progeny via insulin growth factor II epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Hou, Jing; Chen, Bo; Shao, Xue; Zhu, Ruiming; Bu, Qian; Gu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhang, Baolai; Du, Changman; Fu, Dengqi; Kong, Jueying; Luo, Li; Long, Hailei; Li, Hongyu; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2015-10-01

    Studies have showed that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCOC) can impair cognitive function and social behavior of the offspring; however, the mechanism underlying such effect is poorly understood. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf-II), an imprinted gene, has a critical role in memory consolidation and enhancement. We hypothesized that epigenetic regulation of hippocampal Igf-II may attribute to the cognitive deficits of PCOC offspring. We used Morris water maze and open-field task to test the cognitive function in PCOC offspring. The epigenetic alteration involved in hippocampal Igf-II expression deficit in PCOC offspring was studied by determining Igf-II methylation status, DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) expressions and L-methionine level. Moreover, IGF-II rescue experiments were performed and the downstream signalings were investigated in PCOC offspring. In behavioral tests, we observed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety in PCOC offspring; moreover, hippocampal IGF-II mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased. Hippocampal methylation of cytosine-phospho-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides in differentially methylated region (DMR) 2 of Igf-II was elevated in PCOC offspring, which may be driven by the upregulation of L-methionine and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1. Importantly, intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant IGF-II reactivated the repressed calcium calmodulin kinase II α (CaMKIIα) and reversed cognitive deficits in PCOC offspring. Collectively, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure during pregnancy impairs cognitive function of offspring through epigenetic modification of Igf-II gene. Enhancing IGF-II signaling may represent a novel therapeutical strategy for cocaine-induced cognitive impairment.

  7. Prenatal exposure of ethanol induces increased glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seol-Heui

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal ethanol exposure during pregnancy induces a spectrum of mental and physical disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. The central nervous system is the main organ influenced by FASD, and neurological symptoms include mental retardation, learning abnormalities, hyperactivity and seizure susceptibility in childhood along with the microcephaly. In this study, we examined whether ethanol exposure adversely affects the proliferation of NPC and de-regulates the normal ratio between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation using primary neural progenitor culture (NPC and in vivo FASD models. Methods Neural progenitor cells were cultured from E14 embryo brain of Sprague-Dawley rat. Pregnant mice and rats were treated with ethanol (2 or 4 g/kg/day diluted with normal saline from E7 to E16 for in vivo FASD animal models. Expression level of proteins was investigated by western blot analysis and immunocytochemical assays. MTT was used for cell viability. Proliferative activity of NPCs was identified by BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. Results Reduced proliferation of NPCs by ethanol was demonstrated using BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. In addition, ethanol induced the imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation via transient increase in the expression of Pax6, Ngn2 and NeuroD with concomitant decrease in the expression of Mash1. Similar pattern of expression of those transcription factors was observed using an in vivo model of FASD as well as the increased expression of PSD-95 and decreased expression of GAD67. Conclusions These results suggest that ethanol induces hyper-differentiation of glutamatergic neuron through Pax6 pathway, which may underlie the hyper-excitability phenotype such as hyperactivity or seizure susceptibility in FASD patients.

  8. Effect of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the pyramidal tract in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol induces a relative increase in the numbers of pyramidal tract axons relative to the number of corticospinal projection neurons in somatosensory/motor cortices in the adult rat. The present study examines the effects of ethanol on the numbers of axons in the developing caudal pyramidal tract, i.e., corticospinal axons. Electron microscopic analyses of the pyramidal tracts of the offspring of pregnant rat dams fed a control diet ad libitum, pair-fed a liquid control diet, or fed an ethanol-containing diet ad libitum were performed. The pups were 5-, 15-, 30- and 90-days-old. The numbers of axons in control rats fell precipitously after postnatal day (P) 15 and the frequency of myelinated axons rose dramatically between P15 and P90. Ethanol exposure had no significant effect on the numbers of pyramidal tract axons at any age. Moreover, no ethanol-induced differences in the numbers of axons in different stages of myelination, i.e., axons that were "free" of glial associations, glia-engulfed, invested by 1-2 layers of myelin, or myelinated by 3+ layers of myelin, were detected on P15. Thus, it appears that (a) pyramidal tract axons are lost or pruned during the first two postnatal weeks and (b) postnatal development of pyramidal tract axons (e.g., pruning and myelination) is not affected by ethanol. The implications are that the ethanol-induced increase in the number of axons relative to the number of somata of corticospinal neurons detected in pups and adults results from the effects of ethanol on early stages (initiation) of axogenesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Structural Brain Imaging in Children and Adolescents Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V.; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Quinn, Brian T.; Lala, Meenakshi D.; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M.; Kosofsky, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 8–10 years, were studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 non-cocaine exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, thalamus and putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse-correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes, for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE and 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13–15 years old. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continues into 13–15 years of age. We found that the differences in structural volumes between CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are matched by study design or controlled for. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort, and while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  10. Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Thomas F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the occurrence of congenital anomalies among children whose mothers were exposed around the time of conception. Methods The study included 1,658 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 2,999 children of unexposed mothers. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on all of their prior births, including the presence of anomalies, residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results Children whose mothers had high exposure levels around the time of conception had an increased risk of congenital anomalies. The adjusted odds ratio of all anomalies combined among children with prenatal exposure in the uppermost quartile was 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.5. No meaningful increases in the risk were seen for lower exposure levels. Increases were also observed in the risk of neural tube defects (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 14.0 and oral clefts (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 15.0 among offspring with any prenatal exposure. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the risk of certain congenital anomalies is increased among the offspring of women who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water around the time of conception. Because these results are limited by the small number of children with congenital anomalies that were based on maternal reports, a follow-up investigation should be conducted with a larger number of affected children who are identified by independent records.

  11. Moderate alcohol exposure compromises neural tube midline development in prenatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Sari, Youssef; Powrozek, Teresa; Goodlett, Charles R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2003-08-12

    We previously reported that fetal alcohol treatment compromised the development of the midline raphe and the serotonin neurons contained in it. In this study, we report that the timely development of midline neural tissue during neural tube formation is sensitive to alcohol exposure. Pregnant dams were treated from embryonic day 7 (E7, prior to neurulation) or E8.5 (at neurulation) with the following diets: (a) alcohol (ALC), given as either a 20% or 25% ethanol-derived calorie (EDC) liquid diet, or (b) isocaloric liquid diet pair-fed (PF), or (c) standard rat chow (Chow). Fetal brains from each group were examined on E13, E15, or E18. Neural tube development was compromised as a result of alcohol exposure in the following ways: (1) approximately 60% of embryos at E13 and 20% at E15 showed perforation of the floor plate in the diencephalic vesicle, (2) although completely closed at E13, 70-80% of embryos failed to complete the formation of neural tissue at the roof as the alcohol exposure continued to E15, and (3) 60-80% of embryos show delayed 'occlusion' of the ventral canal by newly formed nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and S100beta-positive glia in the brainstem of E15. The compromised (incomplete) neural tube midline (cNTM) occurred near the ventricles at E13 and E15, but was later completed at E18. In all cases, the cNTM was accompanied by an enlarged ventricle, and dose-dependent brain weight reduction. The midline of the neural tube at the roof and floor plates is known to mediate timely trophic induction for neural differentiation. Prenatal midline deficits also have the potential to affect the development of midline neurons such as raphe, septal nuclei, and the timely crossing of commissural fibers. The results of the liquid diet alcohol exposure paradigm suggest it is more a model for Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) featuring neuropsychiatric disorders than for full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with noticeable facial

  12. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    OpenAIRE

    Jolyon H Hendry; Simon, Steven L.; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations li...

  13. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.

  14. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  15. Variation of space radiation exposure inside spherical and hemispherical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z.W. [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, C-209 Howell Science Complex, Greenville, NC 27858-4353 (United States); National Space Science and Technology Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)], E-mail: linz@ecu.edu; Baalla, Y. [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States); Townsend, L.W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    We calculate the space radiation exposure to blood-forming organs everywhere inside a hemispherical dome that represents a lunar habitat. We derive the analytical pathlength distribution from any point inside a hemispherical or a spherical shell. Because the average pathlength increases with the distance from the center, the center of the hemispherical dome on the lunar surface has the largest radiation exposure while locations on the inner surface of the dome have the lowest exposure. This conclusion differs from an earlier study on a hemispherical dome but agrees with another earlier study on a spherical-shell shield. We also find that the reduction in the radiation exposure from the center to the inner edge of the dome can be as large as a factor of 3 or more for the radiation from solar particle events while being smaller for the radiation from galactic cosmic rays.

  16. Prenatal phenolic compounds exposure and neurobehavioral development at 2 and 7years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Chien, Chun-Ju; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2017-12-15

    Phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) are known as endocrine-disrupting compounds and are commonly used. Their impacts on the neurodevelopment of children are inconclusive. The current study aims to investigate the association between umbilical cord blood levels of BPA, NP, OP and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 7years of age. The study was based on the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, a prospective birth cohort. We collected cord blood plasma to measure phenolic compound levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the follow-up, 208 mother-child pairs with 2-year-old children and 148 mother-child pairs with 7-year-old children were recruited in this study. We used the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) for neurodevelopmental assessments at 2 and 7years of age, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. The detection rates of BPA, NP, and OP were 55.9%, 77.6%, and 68.3%, respectively. In this study, the median BPA, NP, and OP levels in 2-year-olds were 3.3, 72.6, and 3.3 (ng/ml), respectively. However, the median levels of BPA, NP, and OP were 3.2, 49.3, and 6.6 (ng/ml), respectively. The levels of phenolic compounds were log10-transformed for statistical analysis. Gender stratification was performed. In the WISC-IV neurocognitive assessment, we found both a significant negative association and a trend between cord blood plasma BPA levels and full-scale IQ (p for trend<0.01), the verbal comprehension index (p for trend<0.01), and the perceptual reasoning index (p for trend<0.01) in the study population. After stratification by sex, significant associations were found in full-scale IQ (p for trend=0.03) and the verbal comprehension (p for trend<0.01) index in boys. In girls, prenatal BPA exposure had adverse effects on full-scale IQ (p for trend=0

  17. Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jakob; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Schendel, Diana; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Importance Valproate is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychological disorders and may be the only treatment option for women of childbearing potential. However, prenatal exposure to valproate may increase the risk of autism. Objective To determine whether prenatal exposure to valproate is associated with an increased risk of autism in offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based study of all children born alive in Denmark from 1996 to 2006. National registers were used to identify children exposed to valproate during pregnancy and diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (childhood autism [autistic disorder], Asperger syndrome, atypical autism, and other or unspecified pervasive developmental disorders). We analyzed the risks associated with all autism spectrum disorders as well as childhood autism. Data were analyzed by Cox regression adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age at conception, paternal age at conception, parental psychiatric history, gestational age, birth weight, sex, congenital malformations, and parity). Children were followed up from birth until the day of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, death, emigration, or December 31, 2010, whichever came first. Main Outcomes and Measures Absolute risk (cumulative incidence) and the hazard ratio (HR) of autism spectrum disorder and childhood autism in children after exposure to valproate in pregnancy. Results Of 655 615 children born from 1996 through 2006, 5437 were identified with autism spectrum disorder, including 2067 with childhood autism. The mean age of the children at end of follow-up was 8.84 years (range, 4-14; median, 8.85). The estimated absolute risk after 14 years of follow-up was 1.53% (95% CI, 1.47%- 1.58%) for autism spectrum disorder and 0.48% (95% CI, 0.46%-0.51%) for childhood autism. Overall, the 508 children exposed to valproate had an absolute risk of 4.42% (95% CI, 2.59%-7.46%) for autism spectrum disorder (adjusted HR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1

  18. [Cognitive impairments in persons exposed to radiation during the period of prenatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtovaya, E Yu; Kantina, T E; Belova, M V; Akleyev, A V

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cognitive status in persons exposed to ionizing radiation in prenatal period. The study included in-utero exposed people (n = 77), and the comparison group (n = 73), which consisted of people who lived in the territories of the Chelyabinsk Oblast that were not radioactive. The following methods were used: clinical, clinical-psychological (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the WAIS test, the proverb interpretation task, neurophysiological (EEG) methods, laboratory-based methods (cholesterol, high and low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, cortisol, melatonin), and methods of statistical data processing. The number of people with non-psychotic mental disorders with the prevalence of organic mental disorders (cognitive and asthenic) was significantly higher among in-utero exposed subjects. A neurophysiological study revealed more severe changes in the bioelectric brain activity with the presence of pathological and theta-rhythms in exposed persons. The clinical-psychological study revealed a significant decrease in the analytic/synthetic ability in exposed people and significantly lower level of the general and verbal IQ. These changes were accompanied by higher levels of cortisol and melatonin which led to the activation and tension of the adaptation mechanisms in in-utero exposed subjects.

  19. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...