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Sample records for prenatal maternal cortisol

  1. Prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations predict neurodevelopment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Head, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and cortical thickness was determined. Child cognitive functioning was evaluated using standardized measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Second Edition). Higher maternal cortisol concentrations during the third trimester were associated with greater child cortical thickness primarily in frontal regions. No significant associations were observed between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child cortical thinning. Elevated third trimester maternal cortisol additionally was associated with enhanced child cognitive performance. Findings in this normative sample of typically developing children suggest that elevated maternal cortisol during late gestation exert lasting benefits for brain development and cognitive functioning 6-9 years later. The benefits of fetal exposure to higher maternal cortisol during the third trimester for child neurodevelopment are consistent with the role cortisol plays in maturation of the human fetus. It is plausible that more extreme elevations in maternal cortisol concentrations late in gestation, as well as exposure to pharmacological levels of synthetic glucocorticoids, may have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetal brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

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    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  3. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  4. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

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    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  5. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

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    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  6. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  7. Changes in endocrine and neurochemical profiles in neonatal pigs prenatally exposed to increased maternal cortisol.

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    Kanitz, Ellen; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Margret

    2006-10-01

    Early life environmental factors are able to influence prenatal development and may cause structural and functional effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neurotransmitter systems in the offspring. These effects seem to be species specific and may depend on the period of gestation when the factors are effective. Elevated maternal cortisol levels are assumed to play a crucial role as a programming factor during prenatal development. Thus, the present study was performed in order to examine the effects of increased maternal cortisol levels during mid- and late gestation on central and peripheral alterations of the HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter profiles in piglets. Endogenous cortisol release was induced by i.m. administration of ACTH to sows every second day either during mid- (day 49 until 75) or late gestation (day 85 until 107). Controls received injections of saline. ACTH treatment of sows during mid- and late gestation had no effects on the gestation length, the number of total born and the frequency of stillborn piglets. However, ACTH treatment during late gestation caused an increase of birth weight (P pigs affect growth, HPA axis and brain neurotransmitter systems in the offspring in a sex-specific manner. The observed alterations in endocrine and neurotransmitter systems are dependent on the gestational period. Late gestation appears to be a more sensitive phase for cortisol-induced programming in pigs. Moreover, the present data show that there are marked developmental differences between laboratory animals and domestic pigs, and highlight the importance of species-specific studies on prenatal influences.

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

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    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  9. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  10. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

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    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

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    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood.

  12. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

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    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  13. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

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    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Mathilakath M Vijayan

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to mon...

  14. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  15. Mercury and psychosocial stress exposure interact to predict maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy.

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    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Tamayo y Ortiz, Marcela; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O

    2015-03-27

    Disrupted maternal prenatal cortisol production influences offspring development. Factors influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis include social (e.g., stressful life events) and physical/chemical (e.g., toxic metals) pollutants. Mercury (Hg) is a common contaminant of fish and exposure is widespread in the US. No prior study has examined the joint associations of stress and mercury with maternal cortisol profiles in pregnancy. To investigate potential synergistic influences of prenatal stress and Hg exposures on diurnal cortisol in pregnant women. Analyses included 732 women (aged 27.4 ± 5.6 years) from a Mexico City pregnancy cohort. Participants collected saliva samples on two consecutive days (mean 19.52 ± 3.00 weeks gestation) and reported life stressors over the past 6 months. Hg was assessed in toe nail clippings collected during pregnancy. There were no main effects of Hg or psychosocial stress exposure on diurnal cortisol (ps > .20) but strong evidence of interaction effects on cortisol slope (interaction B = .006, SE = .003, p = .034) and cortisol at times 1 and 2 (interaction B = -.071, SE = .028, p = .013; B = -.078, SE = .032, p = .014). Women above the median for Hg and psychosocial stress exposure experienced a blunted morning cortisol response compared to women exposed to higher stress but lower Hg levels. Social and physical environmental factors interact to alter aspects of maternal diurnal cortisol during pregnancy. Research focusing solely on either domain may miss synergistic influences with potentially important consequences to the offspring.

  16. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

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    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  17. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  18. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, KRISTINE; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Daniel S Shaw; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizin...

  19. The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms.

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    Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms.

  20. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

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    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  1. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

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    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  2. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

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    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  3. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children's cortisol variability.

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    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Shaw, Daniel S; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D

    2013-11-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children's cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were obtained from 134 adoption-linked families, adopted children and both their adoptive parents and birth mothers, who participated in a longitudinal, prospective US domestic adoption study. Genetic and prenatal influences moderated associations between inconsistency in overreactive parenting from child age 9 months to 4.5 years and children's cortisol variability at 4.5 years differently for mothers and fathers. Among children whose birth mothers had high morning cortisol, adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children with low birth mother morning cortisol adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability. Among children who experienced high levels of prenatal risk, adoptive mothers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted lower cortisol variability and adoptive fathers' inconsistent overreactive parenting predicted higher cortisol variability, whereas among children who experienced low levels of prenatal risk there were no associations between inconsistent overreactive parenting and children's cortisol variability. Findings supported developmental plasticity models and uncovered novel developmental, gene × environment and prenatal × environment influences on children's cortisol functioning.

  4. Maternal prenatal licorice consumption alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in children.

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    Räikkönen, Katri; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heinonen, Kati; Pyhälä, Riikka; Feldt, Kimmo; Jones, Alexander; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Phillips, David I W; Lahti, Jari; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Matthews, Karen A; Strandberg, Timo E; Kajantie, Eero

    2010-11-01

    Overexposure to glucocorticoids has been proposed as a mechanism by which prenatal adversity 'programs' the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA), thereby increasing the risk of adult diseases. Glycyrrhizin, a natural constituent of licorice, potently inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the feto-placental barrier to the higher maternal cortisol levels. We studied if maternal consumption of glycyrrhizin in licorice associates with HPAA function in children. Diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) were measured in children (n=321, mean age=8.1, SD=0.3 years) whose mothers consumed varying levels of glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy; exposure-level groups were labeled high (≥500 mg/week), moderate (250-499 mg/week) and zero-low (0-249 mg/week). In comparison to the zero-low exposure group, children in the high exposure group had 19.2% higher salivary cortisol awakening peak, 33.1% higher salivary cortisol awakening slope, 15.4% higher salivary cortisol awakening area under the curve (AUC), 30.8% higher baseline TSST-C salivary cortisol levels, and their salivary cortisol levels remained high throughout the TSST-C protocol (P-values HPAA function by overexposure to glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acculturation, maternal cortisol and birth outcomes in women of Mexican descent

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    D’Anna, Kimberly L.; Hoffman, M. Camille; Zerbe, Gary O.; Coussons-Read, Mary; Ross, Randal G.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effects of acculturation on cortisol, a biological correlate of maternal psychological distress, and perinatal infant outcomes, specifically gestational age at birth and birth weight. Methods Fifty-five pregnant women of Mexican descent were recruited from a community hospital and collected saliva samples at home over 3 days during pregnancy at 15–18 (early), 26–2 (mid), and 32+ (late) weeks gestation and once in the postpartum period (4–12 weeks). These values were used to determine the diurnal cortisol slope at each phase of pregnancy. Mothers also completed an acculturation survey and gave permission for a medical chart review to obtain neonate information. Results Multiple regression analyses determined that greater acculturation levels significantly predicted earlier infant gestational age at birth (R2=0.09, p=0.03). T-tests revealed that mothers of low birth weight infants weight (acculturation scores than mothers of infants with birth weight >2500g (t=−2.95, p=0.005). A blunted maternal cortisol slope during pregnancy was also correlated with low birth weight (r=−0.29, p=0.05), but not gestational age (r=−0.08, p=0.59). In addition, more acculturated women had a flatter diurnal cortisol slope late in pregnancy (R2=0.21, p=0.01). Finally diurnal maternal cortisol rhythms were identified as a potential mediator between increased acculturation and birth weight. Conclusions This study associated increased acculturation with perinatal outcomes in the US Mexican population. This relationship may be mediated by prenatal maternal diurnal cortisol, which can program the health of the fetus leading to several adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:22366584

  6. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  8. Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol.

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    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups.

  9. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pluess, M; Bolten, M. *; Pirke, K. M.; Hellhammer, D. (Dirk)

    2010-01-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress a...

  10. Maternal cortisol slope at 6 months predicts infant cortisol slope and EEG power at 12 months.

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    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-09-01

    Physiological stress systems and the brain rapidly develop through infancy. While the roles of caregiving and environmental factors have been studied, implications of maternal physiological stress are unclear. We assessed maternal and infant diurnal cortisol when infants were 6 and 12 months. We measured 12-month infant electroencephalography (EEG) 6-9 Hz power during a social interaction. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted steeper 12-month infant slope controlling for 6-month infant slope and breastfeeding. Steeper 6-month maternal slope predicted lower 6-9 Hz power. Six-month maternal area under the cuve (AUCg) was unrelated to 12-month infant AUCg and 6-9 Hz power. Psychosocial, caregiving, and breastfeeding variables did not explain results. At 6 months, maternal and infant slopes correlated, as did maternal and infant AUCg. Twelve-month maternal and infant cortisol were unrelated. Results indicate maternal slope is an informative predictor of infant physiology and suggest the importance of maternal physiological stress in this developmental period. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  12. Maternal cortisol stimulates neurogenesis and affects larval behaviour in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carol; Kurrasch, Deborah M.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2017-01-01

    Excess glucocorticoid transferred from stressed mother to the embryo affects developing vertebrate offspring, but the underlying programming events are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased zygotic glucocorticoid deposition, mimicking a maternal stress scenario, modifies early brain development and larval behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cortisol was microinjected into the yolk at one cell-stage, to mimic maternal transfer, and the larvae [96 hours post-fertilization (hpf)] displayed increased activity in light and a reduction in thigmotaxis, a behavioural model for anxiety, suggesting an increased propensity for boldness. This cortisol-mediated behavioural phenotype corresponded with an increase in primary neurogenesis, as measured by incorporation of EdU at 24 hpf, in a region-specific manner in the preoptic region and the pallium, the teleostean homolog of the hippocampus. Also, cortisol increased the expression of the proneural gene neurod4, a marker of neurogenesis, in a region- and development-specific manner in the embryos. Altogether, excess zygotic cortisol, mimicking maternal stress, affects early brain development and behavioural phenotype in larval zebrafish. We propose a key role for cortisol in altering brain development leading to enhanced boldness, which may be beneficial in preparing the offspring to a stressful environment and enhancing fitness. PMID:28098234

  13. Maternal cortisol stimulates neurogenesis and affects larval behaviour in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Carol; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2017-01-18

    Excess glucocorticoid transferred from stressed mother to the embryo affects developing vertebrate offspring, but the underlying programming events are unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased zygotic glucocorticoid deposition, mimicking a maternal stress scenario, modifies early brain development and larval behaviour in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Cortisol was microinjected into the yolk at one cell-stage, to mimic maternal transfer, and the larvae [96 hours post-fertilization (hpf)] displayed increased activity in light and a reduction in thigmotaxis, a behavioural model for anxiety, suggesting an increased propensity for boldness. This cortisol-mediated behavioural phenotype corresponded with an increase in primary neurogenesis, as measured by incorporation of EdU at 24 hpf, in a region-specific manner in the preoptic region and the pallium, the teleostean homolog of the hippocampus. Also, cortisol increased the expression of the proneural gene neurod4, a marker of neurogenesis, in a region- and development-specific manner in the embryos. Altogether, excess zygotic cortisol, mimicking maternal stress, affects early brain development and behavioural phenotype in larval zebrafish. We propose a key role for cortisol in altering brain development leading to enhanced boldness, which may be beneficial in preparing the offspring to a stressful environment and enhancing fitness.

  14. Disentangling the effects of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences on children’s cortisol variability

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, KRISTINE; Ram, Nilam; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Daniel S Shaw; Fisher, Phil; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental plasticity models hypothesize the role of genetic and prenatal environmental influences on the development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and highlight that genes and the prenatal environment may moderate early postnatal environmental influences on HPA functioning. This article examines the interplay of genetic, prenatal and parenting influences across the first 4.5 years of life on a novel index of children’s cortisol variability. Repeated measures data were o...

  15. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  16. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  17. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  18. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  19. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  20. A physiological increase in maternal cortisol alters uteroplacental metabolism in the pregnant ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, O R; Davies, K L; Ward, J W; de Blasio, M J; Fowden, A L

    2016-11-01

    Fetal nutrient supply is dependent, in part, upon the transport capacity and metabolism of the placenta. The stress hormone, cortisol, alters metabolism in the adult and fetus but it is not known whether cortisol in the pregnant mother affects metabolism of the placenta. In this study, when cortisol concentrations were raised in pregnant sheep by infusion, proportionately more of the glucose taken up by the uterus was consumed by the uteroplacental tissues while less was transferred to the fetus, despite an increased placental glucose transport capacity. Concomitantly, the uteroplacental tissues produced lactate at a greater rate. The results show that maternal cortisol concentrations regulate uteroplacental glycolytic metabolism, producing lactate for use in utero. Prolonged increases in placental lactate production induced by cortisol overexposure may contribute to the adverse effects of maternal stress on fetal wellbeing. Fetal nutrition is determined by maternal availability, placental transport and uteroplacental metabolism of carbohydrates. Cortisol affects maternal and fetal metabolism, but whether maternal cortisol concentrations within the physiological range regulate uteroplacental carbohydrate metabolism remains unknown. This study determined the effect of maternal cortisol infusion (1.2 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) i.v. for 5 days, n = 20) on fetal glucose, lactate and oxygen supplies in pregnant ewes on day ∼130 of pregnancy (term = 145 days). Compared to saline infusion (n = 21), cortisol infusion increased maternal, but not fetal, plasma cortisol (P Cortisol infusion also raised maternal insulin, glucose and lactate concentrations, and blood pH, PCO2 and HCO3(-) concentration. Although total uterine glucose uptake determined by Fick's principle was unaffected, a greater proportion was consumed by the uteroplacental tissues, so net fetal glucose uptake was 29% lower in cortisol-infused than control ewes (P  2-fold greater in cortisol- than

  1. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Zandbelt, N.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Visser, G.H.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal st

  2. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  3. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  4. Can prenatal maternal stress increase the risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress adversely affects a mother's well-being and health and also negatively impacts her offspring. That this relationship also holds true for maternal stress during the pregnancy period is intuitive. However, whether maternal stress increases the risk of asthma development in her offspring is less clear and will be evaluated in this review. There is evidence from murine models to suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the offspring. While recent experimental research adds to the increasing body of evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal maternal stress and asthma risk in the offspring, the epidemiological evidence supporting this notion is insufficient. Almost all existing observational studies suffer from severe methodological limitations. Nevertheless, the results from experimental work on maternal stress during pregnancy and asthma risk in the offspring, in concert with other obvious adverse health effects in the offspring are sufficient to justify a recommendation to reduce maternal stressors, particularly during pregnancy.

  5. Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K G

    2013-12-01

    Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment.

  6. DRD2 and SLC6A3 moderate impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Levitan, Robert; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Both maternal depressive symptoms and infants' dopamine-related genetic characteristics have been linked to infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. This study investigated the interactive influence of maternal depressive symptoms and infant DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes on infant cortisol reactivity; whether this interaction reflects diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility; and whether this interaction influences the flexibility of the infant cortisol response across challenges known to exert differential effects on infant cortisol reactivity. A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads participated in toy frustration (age 16 months) and maternal separation (age 17 months) challenges, and salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, +20, and +40min. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at infant age 16 months. Infant buccal cells were collected at both time points for genotyping. DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and infant cortisol reactivity in a diathesis-stress manner in the context of toy frustration, and in a differential susceptibility manner in the context of maternal separation. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted reduced cortisol flexibility across challenges for infants with at least one A1 allele of DRD2 and infants with the 10/10 genotype of SLC6A3. Results suggest that maternal depressive symptomatology is related to infants' cortisol reactivity and to the flexibility of that reactivity across psychosocial challenges, but this relation is dependent on the infant's genetic characteristics.

  7. Prenatal transportation stress alters temperament and serum cortisol concentrations in suckling Brahman calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Price, D M; Banta, J P; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Welsh, T H; Randel, R D

    2016-02-01

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor used was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 h at 60 ± 5, 80 ± 5, 100 ± 5, 120 ± 5, and 140 ± 5 d of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves ( = 41) were compared with controls ( = 44; dams did not undergo transportation during pregnancy) from 2 wk of age until weaning (average age at weaning = 174.8 ± 1.3 d). Temperament was defined by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = excitable), exit velocity (EV; m/sec), and temperament score (TS; (PS + EV)/2) and was recorded for each calf on d -168, -140, -112, -84, -56, -28, and 0 relative to weaning (d 0 = weaning). Cortisol concentrations were determined in serum samples obtained on d -168, -140, -28, and 0 relative to weaning. Birth weight and weaning weight were not different between treatment groups ( > 0.1). Pen score was greater ( = 0.03) in prenatally stressed calves (2.84 ± 0.21) relative to controls (2.31 ± 0.21). Exit velocity was greater ( Brahman calves that were prenatally stressed were more temperamental and had greater circulating serum concentrations of cortisol than control calves.

  8. Maternal depression and neurobehavior in newborns prenatally exposed to methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Monica S.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of maternal depression on neonatal neurodevelopment in MA exposed neonates have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the neurobehavioral effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neonates exposed and not exposed to methamphetamine (MA) using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Design The purpose of the IDEAL study is to determine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on child outcome. IDEAL screened 13,808 subjects, 1632 were eligible and consented and 176 mothers were enrolled. Only biological mothers with custody of their child at the one-month visit (n=50 MA; n=86 comparison) had the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) administered. The NNNS was administered to the neonate by an examiner blinded to MA exposure within the first five days of life. General Linear Models tested the effects of maternal depression and prenatal MA exposure on NNNS outcomes, with and without covariates. Significance was accepted at p<.05. Results After adjusting for covariates, regardless of exposure status, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with lower handling and arousal scores, elevated physiological stress scores and an increased incidence of hypotonicity. When adjusting for covariates, MA exposure was associated with lower arousal and higher lethargy scores. Conclusions Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with neurodevelopmental patterns of decreased arousal and increased stress. Prenatal MA exposure combined with maternal depression was not associated with any additional neonatal neurodevelopmental differences. PMID:19059478

  9. Relationships among prenatal depression, plasma cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Melissa M; Schminkey, Donna L; Groer, Maureen W

    2015-05-01

    A secondary pilot study was carried out as part of a larger parent study of thyroid function in pregnancy and postpartum. All women in the parent study (N = 631) had blood samples, demographic data, and measures of perceived stress and dysphoric moods collected between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation. The current study was completed with a subset of 105 pregnant women to examine the relationships among perceived stress, depression, plasma cortisol, and cytokines during the second trimester of pregnancy. Stress was measured using Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and dysphoric moods using the Profile of Mood States Depression/Dejection Scale. Cytokines were measured by a 12-plex analysis on a Luminex-200, and cortisol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on stored plasma samples. Stress and depression scores were highly correlated, and depressive symptoms were inversely correlated with 3 of the 12 cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-7. Cortisol was inversely correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13). These data support the new conceptualizations of normal pregnancy as an inflammatory state that is carefully regulated, as both excessive and inadequate inflammation are potentially hazardous to the health of the pregnancy and fetus.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Bereavement and Childbirths in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...

  11. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  12. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  13. Cortisol reactivity, maternal sensitivity, and learning in 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Trevathan, Wenda R

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. Sixty-three 3-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10 min normal interaction period, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony was measured using Isabella and Belsky's [Isabella, R. A., & Belsky, J. (1991). Interactional synchrony and the origins of infant-mother attachment: A replication study. Child Development, 62, 373-384] coding scheme. The percentage of synchronous behaviors served as a measure of maternal sensitivity. Learning and short-term memory involved relating the infant's mother's voice with a moving colored block in a preferential looking paradigm. Infants whose cortisol increased during the session showed no learning or memory, infants whose cortisol declined appeared to learn and remember the association, while infants whose cortisol did not change evidenced learning, but not memory for the voice/object correspondence. Sensitivity and cortisol reactivity were correlated for mothers, but not for infants. Infant and maternal cortisol values for the first sampling period were highly correlated, but their cortisol reactivity values were uncorrelated, supporting the notion that infants and mothers have coordinated adrenocortical functioning systems when physically together, but become uncoordinated during a separation/learning event.

  14. Prenatal stress and children's cortisol reaction to the first day of school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been found to be related to over-activity and/or dysregulation of the HPA-system in the offspring. These effects are more readily apparent in response to novel situations. The aim of the present report was to examine whether pregnancy stress predicted HPA-axis reactions

  15. Prenatal stress and children’s cortisol reaction to the first day of school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been found to be related to over-activity and/or dysregulation of the HPA-system in the offspring. These effects are more readily apparent in response to novel situations. The aim of the present report was to examine whether pregnancy stress predicted HPA-axis reactions

  16. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  18. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  19. Maternal Plasma DNA and RNA Sequencing for Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Saskia; van Maarle, Merel; Henneman, Lidewij; Oudejans, Cees B M; Cornel, Martina C; Sistermans, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing has recently become indispensable in diagnostic testing and screening. In the prenatal setting, this type of testing is often called noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). With a number of techniques, using either next-generation sequencing or single nucleotide polymorphism-based approaches, fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma can be analyzed to screen for rhesus D genotype, common chromosomal aneuploidies, and increasingly for testing other conditions, including monogenic disorders. With regard to screening for common aneuploidies, challenges arise when implementing NIPT in current prenatal settings. Depending on the method used (targeted or nontargeted), chromosomal anomalies other than trisomy 21, 18, or 13 can be detected, either of fetal or maternal origin, also referred to as unsolicited or incidental findings. For various biological reasons, there is a small chance of having either a false-positive or false-negative NIPT result, or no result, also referred to as a "no-call." Both pre- and posttest counseling for NIPT should include discussing potential discrepancies. Since NIPT remains a screening test, a positive NIPT result should be confirmed by invasive diagnostic testing (either by chorionic villus biopsy or by amniocentesis). As the scope of NIPT is widening, professional guidelines need to discuss the ethics of what to offer and how to offer. In this review, we discuss the current biochemical, clinical, and ethical challenges of cfDNA testing in the prenatal setting and its future perspectives including novel applications that target RNA instead of DNA.

  20. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  2. The association between maternal cortisol and depression during pregnancy, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Olivia R; Gelaye, Bizu; Bain, Paul A; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-09-24

    Timing of cortisol collection during pregnancy is an important factor within studies reporting on the association between maternal cortisol and depression during pregnancy. Our objective was to further examine the extent to which reported associations differed across studies according to time of maternal cortisol collection during pregnancy. On December 15, 2016, records were identified using PubMed/MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine), EMBASE (Elsevier; 1974-), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters). Unique abstracts were screened using the following inclusion criteria: (1) maternal cortisol assessed during pregnancy; (2) antepartum depression assessed during pregnancy using a screening instrument; (3) reports on the association between maternal cortisol and antepartum depression; (4) provides information on timing of cortisol assessment during pregnancy, including time of day and gestation; and (5) not a review article or a case study. One thousand three hundred seventy-five records were identified, resulting in 826 unique abstracts. Twenty-nine articles met all inclusion criteria. On balance, most studies reported no association between maternal cortisol and antepartum depression (N = 17), and saliva and blood were the most common reported matrices. Morning and second and third trimesters were the most common times of collection during pregnancy. Among studies reporting an association (N = 12), second-trimester and third-trimester cortisol assessments more consistently reported an association and elevated cortisol concentrations were observed in expected recovery periods. Our review adds to the existing literature on the topic, highlighting gaps and strategic next steps.

  3. Prenatally programmed hypertension: role of maternal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have led to the hypothesis of the fetal origin of adult diseases, suggesting that some adult diseases might be determined before birth by altered fetal development. Maternal diabetes subjects the fetus to an adverse environment that has been demonstrated to result in metabolic, cardiovascular and renal impairment in the offspring. The growing amount of obesity in young females in developed and some developing countries should contribute to increasing the incidence of diabetes among pregnant women. In this review, we discuss how renal and extrarenal mechanisms participate in the genesis of hypertension induced by a diabetic status during fetal development.

  4. Anogenital distance of women in relation to maternal prenatal exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Mira-Escolano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital distance (AGD is a genital development marker which is a sexually dimorphic trait in mammals. Different experimental studies have shown that AGD at birth reflects the androgen exposure of the fetus during its in-utero development. The object of our study was to examine the relation between maternal prenatal exposures to different substances and compounds used on a daily basis during pregnancy and AGD of their daughters as an indirect marker of the intrauterine hormonal environment. This is a cross-sectional study of 100 healthy female undergraduates of ages ranging from 18 to 23. Every participant was subjected to a full gynecological examination, where two AGD variants were measured: AGDAC (anus-clitoris and AGDAF (anus-fourchette. Both the young women and their mothers completed an epidemiological questionnaire on lifestyles, including prenatal exposure to products and gynecological history. Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to study the relation between the mothers’ exposure to products and their daughters’ AGD. A longer AGDAF in the daughters was significantly associated with a higher prenatal exposure of their mothers to insecticides/pesticides and solvents/degreasers (aOR: 3.9; IC 95%: 1.2, 12.7 and 3.8; IC 95%: 1.1-12.6, respectively. Our results show that certain prenatal environmental exposures of mothers might be associated with significant variations of their daughters’ AGD, a sensitive biomarker that reflects androgen fetal exposure during in-utero development.

  5. Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Learning In Three-Month-Old Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. 63 three-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10-min normal interaction period, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony was measured using Isabella and Belsky's...

  6. Maternal Endocrine Adaptation throughout Pregnancy to Nutritional Manipulation: Consequences for Maternal Plasma Leptin and Cortisol and the Programming of Fetal Adipose Tissue Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bispham, J; Gopalakrishnan, G. S; Dandrea, J; Wilson, V; Budge, H; Keisler, D. H; Broughton Pipkin, F; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M. E

    2003-01-01

    .... We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin...

  7. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  8. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed.

  9. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker to Explore the Role of Maternal Stress in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Chandra Pani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student’s t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol ( than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (. A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (. Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect.

  10. MATERNAL INTERACTION QUALITY MODERATES EFFECTS OF PRENATAL MATERNAL EMOTIONAL SYMPTOMS ON GIRLS' INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; De Bruijn, Anouk T C E; Van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Pop, Victor J M; Van Baar, Anneloes L

    2017-09-01

    The role of mother-infant interaction quality is studied in the relation between prenatal maternal emotional symptoms and child behavioral problems. Healthy pregnant, Dutch women (N = 96, M = 31.6, SD = 3.3) were allocated to the "exposed group" (n = 46), consisting of mothers with high levels of prenatal feelings of anxiety and depression, or the "low-exposed group" (n = 50), consisting of mothers with normal levels of depressive or anxious symptoms during pregnancy. When the children (49 girls, 47 boys) were 23 to 60 months of age (M = 39.0, SD = 9.6), parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (T.M. Achenbach & L.A. Rescorla, ), and mother-child interaction quality during a home visit was rated using the Emotional Availability Scales. There were no differences in mother-child interaction quality between the prenatally exposed and low-exposed groups. Girls exposed to high prenatal emotional symptoms showed more internalizing problems, if maternal interaction quality was less optimal. No significant effects were found for boys. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Association of Maternal Body Mass Index with Adverse Maternal and Prenatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Alijahan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine association between abnormal maternal body mass index and adverse maternal/prenatal outcomesMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive-correlation study 8270 pregnant women referred to rural and urban health centers of Ardabil district (from Mar 2009 to Dec 2010 were studied. Data were collected from prenatal healthcare records using a self designed questionnaire. Women with twin pregnancy, less than 18 and above 35 of age, and women with systemic or chronic disease were excluded from the study. The variables examined in this study include, demographic information (e.g. age, social and economy status, and literacy, present pregnancy information (e.g. parity, hemoglobin level, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and prenatal information (e.g. preterm delivery, low birth weight, and congenital malformation. Data were analyzed through Kruscal wallis, chi-square, and logistic regression tests using SPSS-16.Results: Eight point two, 25 and 15.4% pregnant of women were underweight, overweight, and obese, respectively. Obese women were at increased risk for macrosomia (OR=1.820, CI: 1.345-2.447, p=0.001, unwanted pregnancy (OR= 1.436, CI: 1.198-1.720, p=0.001, pregnancy induced hypertension (OR= 1.633, CI: 1.072-2.486, p=0.022, preeclampsia (OR= 4.666, CI: 2.353-9.2550, p=0.001, and still birth (OR= 2.602, CI: 1.306-5.184, p=0.007. However, the risk of low birth weight delivery in underweight women were 1.6 times higher than the normal cases (OR= 1.674, CI: 0962-2.912, p=0.068.Conclusion: Considering high prevalence of abnormal maternal body mass index and its associated adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes; consultation before pregnancy is recommended in order to achieve normal body mass index and reduce the relevant complications.

  12. Cortisol secretion and change in sleep problems in early childhood: Moderation by maternal overcontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Hummel, Alexandra C; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18-20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers' cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood.

  13. Circulating maternal cortisol levels during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernholm, Ylva Vladic; Nyberg, Annie; Cardell, Monica; Höybye, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Maternal S-cortisol levels increase throughout pregnancy and peak in the third trimester. Even higher levels are seen during the physical stress of delivery. Since analgesia for women in labor has improved, it is possible that maternal stress during labor is reduced. The aim of this study was to compare maternal S-cortisol during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section. Twenty healthy women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and healthy women (n = 20) undergoing elective cesarean section were included in the study. S-cortisol was measured during three stages of spontaneous vaginal delivery (tvd1, tvd2 and tvd3), as well as before and after elective cesarean section (tcs1 and tcs2). In the vaginal delivery group, mean S-cortisol at tvd1 was 1325 ± 521 nmol/L, at tvd2 1559 ± 591 nmol/L and at tvd3 1368 ± 479 nmol/L. In the cesarean section group, mean S-cortisol at tcs1 was 906 ± 243 nmol/L and at tcs2 831 ± 257 nmol/L. S-cortisol was higher in the vaginal delivery group at the onset of labor as compared to the cesarean section preoperative group (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences between S-cortisol levels postpartum as compared to postoperatively (p cesarean section, indicating higher stress levels. A reduction in the hydrocortisone dose at childbirth in women with adrenal insufficiency should be considered, particularly in women undergoing an elective cesarean section.

  14. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  15. Interparental Violence, Maternal Emotional Unavailability and Children's Cortisol Functioning in Family Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the specificity of pathways among interparental violence, maternal emotional unavailability, and children's cortisol reactivity to emotional stressors within interparental and parent-child relationships. The study also tested whether detrimental family contexts were associated, on average, with…

  16. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  17. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep.

  18. Elevated Midpregnancy Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Is Associated with Prenatal, But Not Postpartum, Maternal Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rich-Edwards, J. W; Mohllajee, A. P; Kleinman, K; Hacker, M. R; Majzoub, J; Wright, R. J; Gillman, M. W

    2008-01-01

    Context: Elevated hypothalamic CRH has been implicated in melancholic major depression in nonpregnant individuals, but the role of placental CRH in maternal prenatal and postpartum depression is largely unexplored. Objective...

  19. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age....

  20. Inadequate use of prenatal services among Brazilian women: the role of maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Surkan, Pamela J; Olinto, Maria Teresa A

    2009-03-01

    To improve the uptake of prenatal care, it is important to know how the use of prenatal care varies by maternal attitudes and social and demographic factors. Information about social and demographic variables, prenatal care, parity, pregnancy planning, abortion attempts, satisfaction with pregnancy and satisfaction with the relationship with the child's father was collected from 611 postpartum women in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between these variables and whether the women's use of prenatal care was adequate, partially inadequate or inadequate. About 40% of women had inadequate or partially inadequate prenatal care. After adjustment for other covariates, including satisfaction with the pregnancy, women having an unplanned pregnancy were significantly more likely to have had inadequate care than women who had planned their pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.0). Not living with the child's father (2.8) and dissatisfaction with pregnancy (2.1) were also associated with inadequate use of prenatal care. Women having their second or higher order birth were significantly more likely to report inadequate use of prenatal care than women having their first birth (3.9-9.0). Household income was inversely associated with inadequate use of care. The study suggests that maternal attitudes may be important for adequate prenatal care. Interventions should be created to encourage women with negative maternal attitudes to use prenatal care and to ensure that they have access to the care they need.

  1. Interparental Violence, Maternal Emotional Unavailability and Children’s Cortisol Functioning in Family Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the specificity of pathways among interparental violence, maternal emotional unavailability, and children’s cortisol reactivity to emotional stressors within the interparental and parent-child relationships. The study also tested whether detrimental family contexts were associated on average with hypocortisolism or hypercortisolism responses to stressful family interactions in young children. Participants included 201 toddlers and their mothers from impoverished backgrounds who experienced disproportionate levels of family violence. Assessments of interparental violence were derived from maternal surveys and interviews, whereas maternal emotional unavailability was assessed through maternal reports and observer ratings of caregiving. Salivary cortisol levels were sampled at three timepoints before and after laboratory paradigms designed to elicit children’s reactivity to stressful interparental and parent-child contexts. Results indicated that interparental violence and mother’s emotional unavailability were differentially associated with children’s adrenocorticol stress reactivity. Furthermore, these family risk contexts predicted lower cortisol change in response to distress. The results are interpreted in the context of risky family and emotional security theory conceptualizations that underscore how family contexts differentially impact children’s physiological regulatory capacities. PMID:21967568

  2. Toddler inhibited temperament, maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment, and intrusive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior.

  3. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  4. Tandem mass spectrometry determined maternal cortisone to cortisol ratio and psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy-interaction with birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellgren, Charlotte; Edvinsson, Åsa; Olivier, Jocelien D; Fornes, Romina; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ubhayasekera, S J Kumari A; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bergquist, Jonas; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Maternal serum cortisol has been suggested to be influenced by psychiatric morbidity, and may also influence fetal growth. However, several studies found equal cortisol levels in depressed and healthy pregnant women. Placental 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) shields the fetus

  5. Maternal salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy are positively associated with overweight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Henriksen, Tine B; Grønborg, Therese K

    2015-01-01

    cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. METHODS: Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring...... from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second...... and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified...

  6. Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENTRINGER, SONJA; BUSS, CLAUDIA; SHIRTCLIFF, ELIZABETH A.; CAMMACK, ALISON L.; YIM, ILONA S.; CHICZ-DEMET, ALEKSANDRA; SANDMAN, CURT A.; WADHWA, PATHIK D.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of maternal stress during pregnancy may depend, in part, on the timing in gestation of the occurrence of stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of stage of gestation on maternal psychophysiological responses to stress using a standardized laboratory paradigm and on the cortisol response to awakening (CAR). A longitudinal design was employed to quantify maternal psychophysiological stress reactivity [changes in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and psychological distress in response to the trier social stress test (TSST)] and the CAR at approximately 17 and 31 weeks gestation in a sample of 148 women. To account for the possible effects of habituation when being exposed to the same stress protocol twice, a non-pregnant comparison group (CG, N = 36) also underwent these assessments at two time points, with a comparable time interval between the assessments. In both groups, the TSST elicited significant changes in maternal HR, mean arterial pressure, and psychological distress levels but not a significant increase in cortisol levels. Among the pregnant women (pregnant group(PG)), the stressor-induced increases in HR, blood pressure, and psychological distress were significantly lower at the second (31 weeks gestation) compared to the first (17 weeks gestation) assessment of pregnancy (all p < 0.01). The maternal CAR was also significantly attenuated in later compared to earlier gestation (p = 0.003). In the CG, there were no significant differences in psychophysiological stress responses and in the CAR across the two assessments. Among pregnant women there is a progressive attenuation of psychophysiological stress responses with advancing gestation. This attenuation is unlikely to be attributable to habituation. Individual differences in the degree of attenuation of stress responses over gestation may represent a novel marker of stress susceptibility in human pregnancy. PMID:20067400

  7. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001) in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05). Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  8. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Meise

    Full Text Available Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001 in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05. Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels.

  9. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23,665 deliveries, 198 were classified as patients with little or no prenatal care who received traditional, individualized, and physician-based discontinuous prenatal care (community-based model), and 187 were classified as control patients who received tertiary hospital-based continuous prenatal care. The effects on perinatal outcome were significantly different between the two groups. The cases in the hospital-based care group were less likely to be associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. After adjustment of confounding factors, the factors associated with pregnant women who received little or no prenatal care by individualized physician groups were diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mmHg, serum aspartate transaminase level ≥ 150 IU/L, and low-birth-weight deliveries. This study also demonstrated the dose-response effect of inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive prenatal care status on fetal birth weight and gestational periods (weeks to delivery). The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Tandem mass spectrometry determined maternal cortisone to cortisol ratio and psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy-interaction with birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Charlotte; Edvinsson, Åsa; Olivier, Jocelien D; Fornes, Romina; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ubhayasekera, S J Kumari A; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bergquist, Jonas; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-07-01

    Maternal serum cortisol has been suggested to be influenced by psychiatric morbidity, and may also influence fetal growth. However, several studies found equal cortisol levels in depressed and healthy pregnant women. Placental 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) shields the fetus from maternal cortisol by conversion to cortisone, a function that may be compromised by maternal stress. We aimed to compare the serum ratio of cortisone to cortisol, in women with and without psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy. A secondary aim was to investigate whether fetal growth, approximated by infant birth weight, was associated with the cortisone to cortisol ratio. We performed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of serum cortisol and cortisone in late pregnancy in 94 women with antenatal psychiatric morbidity and 122 controls (cohort 1). We also compared the placental gene expression of HSD11B1 and 2 in another group of 69 women with psychiatric morbidity and 47 controls (cohort 2). There were no group differences in cortisol to cortisone ratio, absolute levels of cortisone and cortisol (cohort 1), or expression of HSD11B1 or 2 (cohort 2). However, cortisone to cortisol ratio was positively associated with birth weight in women with psychiatric morbidity, also after adjustment for gestational length, fetal sex, maternal height, smoking, SSRI use, and time of blood sampling (standardized β=0.35, pcortisone to cortisol ratio does not seem to be affected by psychiatric morbidity, but psychiatric morbidity may increase fetal exposure to cortisol or other metabolic factors influencing fetal growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Antidepressants may mitigate the effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant auditory sensory gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sharon K; Mendoza, Jordan H; D'Anna, Kimberly; Zerbe, Gary O; McCarthy, Lizbeth; Hoffman, Camille; Freedman, Robert; Ross, Randal G

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal maternal anxiety has detrimental effects on the offspring's neurocognitive development, including impaired attentional function. Antidepressants are commonly used during pregnancy, yet their impact on offspring attention and their interaction with maternal anxiety has not been assessed. The authors used P50 auditory sensory gating, a putative marker of early attentional processes measurable in young infants, to assess the impact of maternal anxiety and antidepressant use. A total of 242 mother-infant dyads were classified relative to maternal history of anxiety and maternal prenatal antidepressant use. Infant P50 auditory sensory gating was recorded during active sleep at a mean age of 76 days (SD=38). In the absence of prenatal antidepressant exposure, infants whose mothers had a history of anxiety diagnoses had diminished P50 sensory gating. Prenatal antidepressant exposure mitigated the effect of anxiety. The effect of maternal anxiety was limited to amplitude of response to the second stimulus, while antidepressant exposure had an impact on the amplitude of response to both the first and second stimulus. Maternal anxiety disorders are associated with less inhibition during infant sensory gating, a performance deficit mitigated by prenatal antidepressant exposure. This effect may be important in considering the risks and benefits of antidepressant use during pregnancy. Cholinergic mechanisms are hypothesized for both anxiety and antidepressant effects, although the cholinergic receptors involved are likely different for anxiety and antidepressant effects.

  12. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  13. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortisol in mother's milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L; Foster, Alison B; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P; Capitanio, John P

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother's milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother's milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother's milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother-infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother's milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be "programming" through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype.

  15. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  16. Attenuation of maternal psychophysiological stress responses and the maternal cortisol awakening response over the course of human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cammack, Alison L; Yim, Ilona S; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A; Wadhwa, Pathik D

    2010-05-01

    The effects of maternal stress during pregnancy may depend, in part, on the timing in gestation of the occurrence of stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of stage of gestation on maternal psychophysiological responses to stress using a standardized laboratory paradigm and on the cortisol response to awakening (CAR). A longitudinal design was employed to quantify maternal psychophysiological stress reactivity [changes in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and psychological distress in response to the trier social stress test (TSST)] and the CAR at approximately 17 and 31 weeks gestation in a sample of 148 women. To account for the possible effects of habituation when being exposed to the same stress protocol twice, a non-pregnant comparison group (CG, N = 36) also underwent these assessments at two time points, with a comparable time interval between the assessments. In both groups, the TSST elicited significant changes in maternal HR, mean arterial pressure, and psychological distress levels but not a significant increase in cortisol levels. Among the pregnant women (pregnant group(PG)), the stressor-induced increases in HR, blood pressure, and psychological distress were significantly lower at the second (31 weeks gestation) compared to the first (17 weeks gestation) assessment of pregnancy (all p stress responses and in the CAR across the two assessments. Among pregnant women there is a progressive attenuation of psychophysiological stress responses with advancing gestation. This attenuation is unlikely to be attributable to habituation. Individual differences in the degree of attenuation of stress responses over gestation may represent a novel marker of stress susceptibility in human pregnancy.

  17. Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Shahbaba, Babak; Pruessner, Jens C; Head, Kevin; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-05-15

    Stress-related variation in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergent function, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders. Studies in animals suggest limbic regions in the developing brain are particularly sensitive to exposure to the stress hormone cortisol. However, the nature, magnitude, and time course of these effects have not yet been adequately characterized in humans. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in 65 normal, healthy mother-child dyads to examine the association of maternal cortisol in early, mid-, and late gestation with subsequent measures at approximately 7 y age of child amygdala and hippocampus volume and affective problems. After accounting for the effects of potential confounding pre- and postnatal factors, higher maternal cortisol levels in earlier but not later gestation was associated with a larger right amygdala volume in girls (a 1 SD increase in cortisol was associated with a 6.4% increase in right amygdala volume), but not in boys. Moreover, higher maternal cortisol levels in early gestation was associated with more affective problems in girls, and this association was mediated, in part, by amygdala volume. No association between maternal cortisol in pregnancy and child hippocampus volume was observed in either sex. The current findings represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first report linking maternal stress hormone levels in human pregnancy with subsequent child amygdala volume and affect. The results underscore the importance of the intrauterine environment and suggest the origins of neuropsychiatric disorders may have their foundations early in life.

  18. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  19. Prenatal Lead Exposure Modifies the Impact of Maternal Self-Esteem on Children's Inattention Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994-2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. When children were 7-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, P values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels of maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6- to 1.3-point decrease in Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent Form T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Normative prenatal evaluation at a philanthropic maternity hospital in São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Claudia Regina Hostim; Bonadio, Isabel Cristina; Tsunechiro, Maria Alice

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study counted with the participation of 301 pregnant women seen in 2009 at a philanthropic maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo (a prenatal support program named Pré-Natal do Amparo Maternal - PN-AM). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prenatal care according to the initial gestational age, the number of appointments that were held, the continuity of the assistance, and relate the appropriateness with the socio-demographic, obstetric and local variables of the initial prenatal care. The analysis criteria used was initiating prenatal care before 120 days of gestation and attending at least six appointments. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Chi-Square Test. Results showed that 41.5% of the pregnant women initiated prenatal care at another health care service and transferred spontaneously to the PN-AM; 74.1% initiated the prenatal care early and 80.4% attended at least six appointments; 63.1% met both criteria simultaneously. Appropriate prenatal care showed a statistically significant difference for mother's age, steady partner, employment, place of residence, having a companion during the appointment and place where prenatal care was initiated.

  1. Family cohesion, acculturation, maternal cortisol, and preterm birth in Mexican-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz RJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Jeanne Ruiz,1 Rita H Pickler,2 C Nathan Marti,3 Nancy Jallo41College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Abacist Analytics, Austin, TX, USA; 4School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the potential moderating effects of family cohesion and acculturation on the physiological stress response (cortisol as a predictor of preterm birth (PTB in pregnant Mexican-American women.Methods: The sample included 470 participants; 33 had preterm births. All participants were self-identified as Mexican-American. In this cross-sectional study, family cohesion was measured by a self-report questionnaire. Acculturation was measured by self-report questionnaire as well as by years in the United States and country of birth. Stress was measured by serum cortisol. All measures were obtained at 22—24 weeks gestation. Additional data including history of PTB were obtained from the health record. Data analysis was primarily conducted using logistic regression.Results: The relationship between stress and PTB was predicted by family cohesion (estimate/standard error [E/SE] = —2.46, P = 0.014 and acculturation (E/SE = 2.56, P = 0.011. In addition, there was an interaction between family cohesion and history of previous PTB (E/SE = —2.12, P = 0.035.Conclusion: Results indicate that the impact of cortisol on PTB is predicted by acculturation and family cohesion such that higher levels of cortisol in conjunction with higher levels of acculturation and lower levels of family cohesion are associated with increased risk of PTB. In addition, low family cohesion in combination with a history of PTB was associated with higher levels of PTB. Assessment of family cohesion, including problem solving, adherence to family decisions, family shared space, and activity, should be included as part of prenatal

  2. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  4. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  5. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future.

  6. Maternal and fetal metabonomic alterations in prenatal nicotine exposure-induced rat intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang-hua; Yan, You-e; Liang, Gai; Liu, Yan-song; Li, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Ben-jian; Chen, Liao-bin; Yu, Hong; He, Xiao-hua; Wang, Hui

    2014-08-25

    Prenatal nicotine exposure causes adverse birth outcome. However, the corresponding metabonomic alterations and underlying mechanisms of nicotine-induced developmental toxicity remain unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize the metabolic alterations in biofluids in nicotine-induced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rat model. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered with different doses of nicotine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg d) from gestational day (GD) 11-20. The metabolic profiles of the biofluids, including maternal plasma, fetal plasma and amniotic fluid, were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic techniques. Prenatal nicotine exposure caused noticeably lower body weights, higher IUGR rates of fetal rats, and elevated maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels compared to the controls. The correlation analysis among maternal, fetal serum CORT levels and fetal bodyweight suggested that the levels of maternal and fetal serum CORT presented a positive correlation (r=0.356, n=32, Pfetal (r=-0.639, n=32, Pfetal bodyweight. The fetal metabonome alterations included the stimulation of lipogenesis and the decreased levels of glucose and amino acids. The maternal metabonome alterations involved the enhanced blood glucose levels, fatty acid oxygenolysis, proteolysis and amino acid accumulation. These results suggested that prenatal nicotine exposure is associated with an altered maternal and fetal metabonome, which may be related to maternal increased glucocorticoid level induced by nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mild perinatal adversities moderate the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol: Evidence for differential susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Rippe, Ralph C A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van den Akker, Erica L T; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-03-13

    It has been shown that following exposure to mild perinatal adversity, children have greater susceptibility to both the negative and positive aspects of their subsequent environment. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 1,776), we investigated whether mild perinatal adversity moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and children's hair cortisol levels, a biomarker of chronic stress. Mild perinatal adversity was defined as late preterm birth (gestational age at birth of 34-37 weeks, 6 days) or small for gestational age (birth weight between the 2.5th and 10th percentile for full term gestational age). Harsh parenting was assessed by maternal self-report at 3 years. Children's hair cortisol concentrations were measured from hair samples collected at age 6. There were no significant bivariate associations between mild perinatal adversities and harsh parenting and hair cortisol. However, mild perinatal adversities moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol levels. Children with mild perinatal adversity had lower cortisol levels if parented more harshly and higher cortisol levels in the absence of harsh parenting than children who did not experience mild perinatal adversity. These results provide further evidence that mild perinatal adversity is a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences.

  8. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ming Liu; Shuenn-Dyh Chang; Po-Jen Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Materials and Methods: Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23...

  9. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions in the infection model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Urs; Schwendener, Severin; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2006-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the risk of schizophrenia is enhanced by prenatal maternal infection with viral or bacterial pathogens. Recent experimentation in rodents has yielded additional support for a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and the emergence of psychosis-related abnormalities in brain and behaviour in later life. However, little is known about the putative roles of maternal postnatal factors in triggering and modulating the emergence of psychopathology following prenatal immunological stimulation. Here, we aimed to dissect the relative contributions of prenatal inflammatory events and postnatal maternal factors in precipitating juvenile and adult psychopathology in the resulting offspring with a cross-fostering design. Pregnant mice were exposed to the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C; at 5 mg/kg, intravenously), or vehicle treatment on gestation day 9, and offspring born to PolyI:C- and vehicle-treated dams were then simultaneously cross-fostered to surrogate rearing mothers, which had either experienced inflammatory or vehicle treatment during pregnancy. Prenatal PolyI:C administration did not affect the expression of latent inhibition (LI) at a juvenile stage of development, but led to the post-pubertal emergence of LI disruption in both aversive classical and instrumental conditioning regardless of the postnatal rearing condition. In addition, deficits in conditioning as such led to a pre- and post-pubertal loss of LI in prenatal control animals that were adopted by PolyI:C-treated surrogate mothers. Our findings thus indicate that the adoption of prenatally immune-challenged neonates by control surrogate mothers does not possess any protective effects against the subsequent emergence of psychopathology in adulthood. At the same time, however, the present study highlights for the first time that the adoption of prenatal control animals by immune-challenged rearing mothers is

  10. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels.

  11. Evaluating the culture of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Griffin, D K; Jestice, K; Hackett, G; Cooper, J; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1998-09-01

    Fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood are important candidate cells for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have cultured erythroblasts from 16 maternal blood samples, both with and without prior enrichment by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), in a semi-solid medium containing growth factors. Individual colonies were examined by PCR with sex chromosome-specific primers and microsatellite marker primers. No conclusive Y-chromosome specific amplification could be demonstrated in any of the 16 cases, even when the mother was confirmed to be carrying a male fetus. All colonies tested by microsatellite marker PCR were of maternal origin. Our results suggest that the probability of obtaining fetal colonies from fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood is very low and that approaches for culturing fetal erythroblasts in vitro cannot yet be used reliably for prenatal diagnosis using current methods for fetal cell enrichment.

  12. [Non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesarini, Carla; Argibay, Pablo; Otaño, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  13. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  14. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  15. Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Silveira Ramos

    2006-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the detection of fetal DNA in the maternal circulation represents the greatest advantage over the conventional methods of prenatal diagnosis. The applications of this methodology involve the detection of the fetal sex, and diagnosis, intra-uterine treatment, and evaluation of the prognosis of many diseases. Fetal cells detected in the maternal circulation have also been shown to be implicated in autoimmune diseases and to represent a potential source of stem cells. O...

  16. The Maternal Lifestyle Study: Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships between sleep problems and prenatal exposure to cocaine, opiates, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine in children 1 month to 12 years of age. Design Sleep data was collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of children participating in the Maternal Lifestyle multisite study. Setting Hospital based research centers in Providence, RI, Miami, FL, Detroit, MI, and Memphis, TN Participants There were 808 participants: 374 exposed to cocaine and/or opiates; 434 comparison. Main exposure Prenatal cocaine, opiate, marijuana, alcohol, and nicotine exposure. Outcome measure Sleep problems in early, middle, and late childhood, assessed as composites of maternal report items. Results Of the five substances, prenatal nicotine exposure was the only unique predictor of sleep problems (B = .074, R2 Δ = .008, p = .012) with adjustment for covariates including SES, marital status, physical abuse, prenatal medical care, and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusion Prenatal exposure to nicotine was positively associated with children's sleep problems persisting throughout the first 12 years of life. Targeting this group of children for educational and behavioral efforts to prevent and treat sleep problems is merited given that good sleep may serve as a protective factor for other developmental outcomes. PMID:20439796

  17. A Non-invasive Prenatal Diagnosis Method: Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Dundar Yenilmez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis for genetic diseases nowadays is still carried out by invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordocentesis. These techniques, however, accompanied with risk of fetal losses. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on the analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma have potential to be a safer alternative to invasive methods. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has been a long-standing research theme in prenatal medicine. The discovery of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma in 1997 has opened new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The measurement and detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum has led to clinical applications for the identification of fetal aneuploidies, pre-eclamptic pregnancies, noninvasive diagnosis of fetal Rhesus D genotype and some single gene disorders. The detection of fetal DNA sequences is a reality and could reduce the risk of invasive techniques for certain fetal disorders in the near future. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 317-334

  18. Maternal Perspectives of Prenatal Sonogram in a North-Eastern Population in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu AC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists on maternal perspectives of prenatal sonogram in north-eastern Nigeria. This study was aimed at documenting the views and expectations of pregnant women concerning prenatal sonogram as well as their level of awareness of its purpose, limitations and safety in a predominantly Moslem society. A survey was carried out on a convenience sample of 150 patients referred from ante-natal clinics for prenatal sonogram, by administering semi-structured questionnaires. The results show that 61.3% of the women had prenatal sonogram, with little or no information about the purpose, capabilities and limitations of the procedure. 24.7% had neither formal western nor Islamic educational background that may have influenced their perceptions. Most of the women (81.3% were sponsored by either government or their husbands, 72.7% perceived sonogram to be affordable and 63.4% viewed sonographic results as reliable. The perceived main reasons for having a prenatal sonogram were to determine the expected date of delivery and foetal well-being, and to obtain reassurance of maternal health. Sex determination and number of foetuses were the least considered reasons. The study indicates that providing pregnant women with adequate information and sensitising them to the purpose and limitations of sonograms is necessary to guarantee its rational utilisation. Improving patient care, enhancing the skill of sonographers and providing more facilities would improve the services and patients’ perspectives of prenatal sonography.

  19. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  20. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  1. Prenatal maternal psychological stress and childhood asthma and wheezing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, Kim F E; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Roukema, Jolt; Roeleveld, Nel; Merkus, Peter J F M; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyse observational studies on prenatal maternal psychological stress and the subsequent development of asthma and wheezing in early childhood.All available published literature from 1960 until November 2013 was systematically searched through electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and Web of Science). All observational studies assessing associations between any form of prenatal maternal psychological stress and respiratory morbidity in the child were included. Data extraction, quality assessment and meta-analyses were performed.The overall meta-analysis included 10 studies and showed that the prevalence of wheezing, asthma and other respiratory symptoms is higher in children of mothers who were exposed to or experienced some form of psychological stress during pregnancy than in mothers who did not (pooled OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.36-1.80)). Comparable results were observed in subgroup analyses of stress exposure, perceived stress, asthma and wheezing.This study demonstrates that prenatal maternal psychological stress is associated with respiratory morbidity, including asthma and wheezing in the child. Future studies examining the early origins of asthma and wheezing need to account for the impact of prenatal maternal stress.

  2. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, Heidi A; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Buxbaum, Joseph D;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed the role of prenatal maternal smoking in risk for Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder (TS/CT) and pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD: In an analysis of 73,073 singleton pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort, we calculated incidence...

  3. Congenital cerebral palsy and prenatal exposure to self-reported maternal infections, fever, or smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Miller, Jessica E; Bech, Bodil H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the association between maternal self-reported infections, fever, and smoking in the prenatal period and the subsequent risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: We included the 81,066 mothers of singletons born between 1996...

  4. Influence of a prenatal stressor on ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in yearling Brahman heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test whether prenatal stress affects postnatal adrenocortical responsiveness to exogenous adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH) in calves of Brahman cows transported for 2-hour periods at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed yearl...

  5. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2016-05-04

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg.

  6. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Iliadis

    Full Text Available The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology.The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition, a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided.Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L. A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7-9.7. This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5-14.1. Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively.Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression.

  7. Experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing of women of advanced maternal age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kyoko; Turale, Sue; Skirton, Heather; Doris, Faye; Tsujino, Kumiko; Ito, Misae; Kutsunugi, Saeko

    2016-03-01

    The number of pregnant women of advanced maternal age has increased worldwide. Women in this group have an increased chance of fetal abnormality. To explore Japanese women's experiences regarding maternal age-specific risks and prenatal testing, we conducted a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women aged 35 years or over who had given birth within the previous three months to a healthy, term infant. Thematic analysis of transcribed interview data was performed and three major themes were identified: inadequate understanding of genetic risks; insufficiently informed choice regarding prenatal testing; and need for more information from health professionals. Some participants were not aware of maternal age-specific risks to the fetus. Many took their cues from health professionals and did not raise the topic themselves, but would have considered prenatal testing if made aware of the risks. Nurses, midwives and other health professionals need to adequately inform pregnant women about the genetic risks to the fetus and offer testing at an appropriate stage early in the pregnancy.

  8. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants and anogenital distance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Besselink, Harrie; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; KaterinaSarri; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the potential endocrine disruptive effect of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through maternal diet, by measuring anogenital distance in newborns and young children. We included 231 mothers and their newborns measured at birth from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece and the Hmar study in Barcelona, Spain and 476 mothers and their children measured between 1 and 2 years from the Rhea study. We used food frequency questionnaires to assess maternal diet and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) and other POPs in maternal samples. We defined a "high-fat diet" score, as a prenatal exposure estimate, that incorporated intakes of red meat, processed meat, fatty fish, seafood, eggs and high-fat dairy products during pregnancy. Increasing maternal "high-fat diet" score was related to increasing dioxin-like activity and serum concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood. An inverse dose-response association was found between "high-fat diet" score and anoscrotal distance in newborn males. The highest tertile of the maternal score was associated with -4.2 mm (95% CI -6.6 to -1.8) reduction in anoscrotal distance of newborn males, compared to the lowest tertile. A weak positive association was found between the "high-fat diet" score and anofourchetal distance in newborn females. In young children we found no association between maternal "high-fat diet" score and anogenital distances. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet may be linked to high prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptive effects, resulting to phenotypic alterations of the reproductive system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal programing: at the intersection of maternal stress and immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Christopher L; Bale, Tracy L

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to prenatal insults such as maternal stress and pathogenic infections has been associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The mechanisms by which these programing events occur likely involve complex interactions between the maternal hormonal milieu, the placenta, and the developing fetus, in addition to compounding factors such as fetal sex and gestational stage of development. Despite the diverse biological processes involved, examination of common pathways in maternal stress and immune activation offers intriguing possibilities for elucidation of mechanistic insight. Further, the endocrine and sex-specific placenta is a tissue poised to be a key mediator in fetal programing, located at the intersection of the maternal and embryonic environments. In this review, we will discuss the potential shared mechanisms of maternal stress and immune pathway activation, with a particular focus on the important contribution and role of the placenta. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inadequate prenatal care and maternal country of birth: a retrospective study of southeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Encarnación; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen; de Dios Luna-Del Castillo, Juan; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the association between the maternal country of birth and inadequacy in the use of prenatal care, and to identify factors that might explain this association. A retrospective case series was carried out in a public hospital in southern Spain, including 6873 women who delivered between 2005 and 2007. The maternal country of birth was categorised into four regional groups: Spain, Maghreb (north-west Africa), Eastern Europe and Others (non-Spain), while the use of prenatal care was quantified according to a modified Kotelchuck index: APNCU-1M and APNCU 2M. The effect of country of birth on inadequate prenatal care was analysed using a multiple logistic regression model designed to accommodate factors such as age, parity, previous miscarriages, and pre-gestational and gestational risks. Likelihood ratio tests were performed to assess any interactions. A significant association was found between maternal country of birth and inadequate prenatal care regardless of the index used. Under APNCU 1-M the strength of association was strongest for Eastern European origin (odds ratio (OR) 6.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.32), followed by the Maghreb (OR: 5.58, 95% CI: 4.69-6.64). These associations remained virtually unchanged after adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions were observed between age and parity, with the highest risk of inadequacy seen among the Eastern European childbearing women over 34 years of age having 1-2 previous children (OR: 7.63, 95% CI: 3.65-15.92). Prenatal health care initiatives would benefit from the study of a larger number of variables to address the differences between different groups of women. We recommend the widespread use of standardised indices for the study of prenatal care utilisation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  12. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  13. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; O'Connor, Thomas G; Roth, Christine; Susser, Ezra; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of maternal prenatal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood) as well as maternal prenatal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early interventions.

  14. The Influence of Maternal Prenatal and Early Childhood Nutrition and Maternal Prenatal Stress on Offspring Immune System Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gestational age and neurologic development of the fetus may shape the elicited response. This creates a possible sensitive window of programming or vulnerability. This review will explore the effects of prenatal maternal and infant nutritional status (from conception until early childhood as well as prenatal maternal stress and anxiety on early programming of immune function, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. We will describe fetal immune system development and maternal-fetal immune interactions to provide a better context for understanding the influence of nutrition and stress on the immune system. Finally, we will discuss the implications for prevention of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a focus on nutrition. Although certain micronutrient supplements have shown to both reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and enhance fetal immune development, we do not know whether their impact on immune development contributes to the preventive effect on neurodevelopmental disorders. Future studies are needed to elucidate this relationship, which may contribute to a better understanding of preventative mechanisms. Integrating studies of neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal exposures with the simultaneous evaluation of neural and immune systems will shed light on mechanisms that underlie individual vulnerability or resilience to neurodevelopmental disorders and ultimately contribute to the development of primary preventions and early

  15. MATERNAL TRAUMA AFFECTS PRENATAL MENTAL HEALTH AND INFANT STRESS REGULATION AMONG PALESTINIAN DYADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Diab, Safwat Y; Kangaslampi, Samuli; Qouta, Samir; Kankaanpää, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-09-01

    We examined how diverse and cumulated traumatic experiences predicted maternal prenatal mental health and infant stress regulation in war conditions and whether maternal mental health mediated the association between trauma and infant stress regulation. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip who reported exposure to current war trauma (WT), past childhood emotional (CEA) and physical abuse, socioeconomic status (SES), prenatal mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms), and perceived stress during their secondtrimester of pregnancy as well as infant stress regulation at 4 months. While all trauma types were associated with high levels of prenatal symptoms, CEA had the most wide-ranging effects and was uniquely associated with depression symptoms. Concerning infant stress regulation, mothers' CEA predicted negative affectivity, but only among mothers with low WT. Against hypothesis, the effects of maternal trauma on infant stress regulation were not mediated by mental health symptoms. Mothers' higher SES was associated with better infant stress regulation whereas infant prematurity and male sex predisposed for difficulties. Our findings suggest that maternal childhood abuse, especially CEA, should be a central treatment target among war-exposed families. Cumulated psychosocial stressors might increase the risk for transgenerational problems. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gary J W; Gronowski, Ann M; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-20

    The identification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal circulation has made non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) possible. Maternal plasma cell free DNA is a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA, of which, fetal DNA represents a minor population in maternal plasma. Therefore, methods with high sensitivity and precision are required to detect and differentiate fetal DNA from the large background of maternal DNA. In recent years, technical advances in the molecular analysis of fetal DNA (e.g., digital PCR and massively parallel sequencing (MPS)) has enabled the successful implementation of noninvasive testing into clinical practice, such as fetal sex assessment, RhD genotyping, and fetal chromosomal aneuploidy detection.With the ability to decipher the entire fetal genome from maternal plasma DNA, we foresee that an increased number of non-invasive prenatal tests will be available for detecting many single-gene disorders in the near future. This review briefly summarizes the technical aspects of the NIPT and application of NIPT in clinical practice.

  17. The relationship of maternal anxiety, plasma catecholamines, and plasma cortisol to progress in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, R P; Lederman, E; Work, B A; McCann, D S

    1978-11-01

    The relationships among maternal anxiety, selected stress-related biochemical factors, and progress in three defined phases of labor were determined for 32 married, normal, primigravid women, 20 to 32 years of age. Comparisons of plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in third-trimester pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery are provided. At the onset of Phase 2 of labor (3 cm. of cervical dilatation), self-reported anxiety and endogenous plasma epinephrine are significantly correlated. With the deletion of subjects to control for the effect of medications, higher epinephrine levels are significantly associated with lower uterine contractile activity at the onset of Phase 2 and with longer labor in Phase 2 (3 to 10 cm. of cervical dilatation). The relationship between epinephrine and progress in labor is explained by an adrenoreceptor theory.

  18. Associations of prenatal maternal smoking with offspring hyperactivity: causal or confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K. M.; Smith, G. Davey; Susser, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure and hyperactivity remains controversial. To mitigate limitations of prior studies, we used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a historical sample where smoking during pregnancy was common. Method Data were drawn from a longitudinally followed subsample of the Child Health and Development Study (n = 1752), a population-based pregnancy cohort ascertained in 1961–1963 in California. Maternal prenatal smoking was common (33.4%). Maternal and paternal smoking patterns were assessed at three time points by mother report. Hyperactivity was assessed at the mean of age of 10 years based on mother report to a personality inventory. Results Unadjusted, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with offspring hyperactivity [β = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.33] and, to a similar degree, when the father smoked (β = 0.18, 95% CI 0.07–0.30). After adjustment, maternal smoking remained robustly predictive of offspring hyperactivity (β = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09–0.40) but father smoking was not (β = 0.02, 95% CI −0.20 to 0.24). When examined among the pairs matched on propensity score, mother smoking was robustly related to offspring hyperactivity whether the father smoked (β = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03–0.49) or did not smoke (β = 0.30, 95% CI 0.04–0.57). By number of cigarettes, associations with hyperactivity were present for 10–19 and 20+ cigarettes per day among mothers. Conclusions In a pregnancy cohort recruited in a time period in which smoking during pregnancy was common, we document associations between prenatal smoking exposure and offspring hyperactivity. Novel approaches to inferring causality continue to be necessary in describing the potential adverse consequences of prenatal smoking exposure later in life. PMID:23676207

  19. Brief Report: Are Autistic-Behaviors in Children Related to Prenatal Vitamin Use and Maternal Whole Blood Folate Concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M.; Froehlich, Tanya; Kalkbrenner, Amy; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Fazili, Zia; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal multivitamin/folic acid supplement use may reduce the risk of autism spectrum disorders. We investigated whether 2nd trimester prenatal vitamin use and maternal whole blood folate (WBF) concentrations were associated with Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores at 4-5 years of age in a prospective cohort of 209 mother-child pairs. After…

  20. Brief Report: Are Autistic-Behaviors in Children Related to Prenatal Vitamin Use and Maternal Whole Blood Folate Concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M.; Froehlich, Tanya; Kalkbrenner, Amy; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Fazili, Zia; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal multivitamin/folic acid supplement use may reduce the risk of autism spectrum disorders. We investigated whether 2nd trimester prenatal vitamin use and maternal whole blood folate (WBF) concentrations were associated with Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores at 4-5 years of age in a prospective cohort of 209 mother-child pairs. After…

  1. Detection of fetal mutations causing hemoglobinopathies by non-invasive prenatal diagnosis from maternal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E D′Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies enables couples at risk to have a healthy child. Currently used fetal sampling procedures are invasive with some risk of miscarriage. A non-invasive approach to obtain fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA for diagnosis would eliminate this risk. Aim: To develop and evaluate a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic approach for hemoglobinopathies using cell-free fetal DNA circulating in the maternal plasma. Settings and Design: Couples referred to us for prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies where the maternal and paternal mutations were different were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Maternal peripheral blood was collected at different periods of gestation before the invasive fetal sampling procedure was done. The blood was centrifuged to isolate the plasma and prepare DNA. A size separation approach was used to isolate fetal DNA. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based protocols were developed for detection of the presence or absence of the paternal mutation. Results and Conclusions: There were 30 couples where the parental mutations were different. Of these, in 14 cases the paternal mutation was absent and in 16 cases it was present in the fetus. Using cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma, the absence of the paternal mutation was accurately determined in 12 of the 14 cases and the presence of the paternal mutation was correctly identified in 12 of the 16 cases. Thus, this non-invasive approach gave comparable results to those obtained by the conventional invasive fetal sampling methods in 24 cases giving an accuracy of 80.0%. Although the nested PCR approach enabled amplification of small quantities of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma at different periods of gestation after size separation to eliminate the more abundant maternal DNA, an accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of the paternal mutation in the fetus was not possible in all cases to make it clinically

  2. Maternal serotonin transporter genotype affects risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Patrick M; Hudson, Melissa; Connors, Susan L; Tilley, Michael R; Liu, Xudong; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-11-01

    Stress exposure during gestation is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous research showed that prenatal stress increases risk for ASD with peak exposure during the end of the second and the beginning of the third trimester. However, exposures to prenatal stress do not always result in ASD, suggesting that other factors may interact with environmental stressors to increase ASD risk. The present study examined a maternal genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) affecting stress tolerance and its interaction with the effect of environmental stressors on risk for ASD. Two independent cohorts of mothers of ASD children recruited by the University of Missouri and Queen's University were surveyed regarding the prenatal environment and genotyping on 5-HTTLPR was performed to explore this relationship. In both samples, mothers of children with ASD carrying the stress susceptible short allele variant of 5-HTTLPR experienced a greater number of stressors and greater stress severity when compared to mothers carrying the long allele variant. The temporal peak of stressors during gestation in these mothers was consistent with previous findings. Additionally, increased exposure to prenatal stress was not reported in the pregnancies of typically developing siblings from the same mothers, regardless of maternal genotype, suggesting against the possibility that the short allele might increase the recall of stress during pregnancy. The present study provides further evidence of a specific maternal polymorphism that may affect the risk for ASD with exposure to prenatal stress. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1151-1160. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  4. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    and length, Caesarean (C)-section, week of delivery) and early postnatal factors (exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to compare maternal reports on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors between the first......To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal...... reports showed moderate correlation for the introduction of several types of food (cereals ICC=0.64, Pless than or equal to0.05; fruits ICC=0.70, Pless than or equal to0.05; meat ICC=0.83, Pless than or equal to0.05; vegetables ICC=0.75, Pless than or equal to0.05), and high correlation (ICC=0.88, Pless...

  5. Prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, and children's motor developmental milestones and motor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Høgenhof; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Pedersen, Henning Sloth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have indicated an association between prenatal smoking exposure and children's motor difficulties. However, results are inconsistent and exposure is most often self-reported. Studies indicate that measurement of serum cotinine can result in a more accurate status...... of smoking exposure in comparison with self-report. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether prenatal smoking exposure, measured as maternal serum cotinine, is associated with maternal interview based assessment of motor development in infancy (age at crawling, standing-up and walking) and motor skills at young...... school age (assessed by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07)). METHOD: In 2002-2004, 1,253 pregnant women from Greenland and Ukraine were included in the INUENDO birth cohort. The participating women filled in questionnaires and 1,177 provided blood samples, which were...

  6. Breast-Milk Cortisol and Cortisone Concentrations Follow the Diurnal Rhythm of Maternal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voorn, Bibian; de Waard, Marita; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Rotteveel, Joost; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Finken, Martijn Jj

    2016-11-01

    Very preterm infants often receive donor milk from mothers who deliver at term, but its composition differs from that of their own mother's milk. Because breast-milk glucocorticoids can support developing neonates, we explored concentration variability within and between mothers. We hypothesized that breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations would be higher after very preterm delivery [gestational age (GA) cortisone, and the cortisone-to-(cortisol+cortisone) ratio of mothers who delivered at (median) GA: 28.6 wk or at term weekly during the first month postpartum. Study 2 assessed variations in milk cortisol, cortisone, and the cortisone-to-(cortisol+cortisone) ratio over 24 h, and tested Pearson correlations between milk and salivary concentrations in mothers who delivered at term (median GA: 38.9 wk) during week 4 postpartum. In these studies, foremilk glucocorticoids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of milk cortisol, milk cortisone, and the milk cortisone-to-(cortisol+cortisone) ratio with prematurity (study 1) or collection time (study 2) were studied with longitudinal data analyses. In study 1, giving birth to a very preterm infant was associated with reductions in milk cortisol and cortisone concentrations of 50% (β: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.99; P = 0.05) and 53% (β: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.93; P = 0.03), respectively, when adjusted for collection time. In study 2, concentrations of milk cortisol and cortisone were associated with collection time (both P cortisone (r = 0.93, P cortisone-to-(cortisol+cortisone) ratio (r = 0.64, P < 0.01) were correlated with one another. Breast-milk glucocorticoid concentrations follow the diurnal rhythm of maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and are lower in mothers who deliver very preterm. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress.

  8. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Amirreza; Schwartz, Deborah H; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity. To examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. The Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. A total of 378 adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years; Tanner stage 4 and 5 of sexual maturation), half of whom were exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking (mean [SD], 11.1 [6.8] cigarettes/d). Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall (percentage of energy intake consumed as fat). Body adiposity was measured with anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. Volumes of key brain structures involved in reward processing, namely the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Exposed vs nonexposed subjects exhibited a higher total body fat (by approximately 1.7 kg; P = .009) and fat intake (by 2.7%; P = .001). They also exhibited a lower volume of the amygdala (by 95 mm3; P fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (r = -0.15; P = .006). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala.

  9. Frontal-Subcortical Protein Expression following Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Michelle Y.; Sylvia Lam; Urs Meyer; Joram Feldon; Qi Li; Ran Wei; Lawrence Luk; Siew Eng Chua; Pak Sham; Yu Wang; Grainne Mary McAlonan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal immune activation (MIA) during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry, with targeted western blot analyses for confirmation, we investigated the impact of MIA on the pr...

  10. Prenatal maternal stress predicts childhood asthma in girls: project ice storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Lim, Robert; Laplante, David P; Kobzik, Lester; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N = 68). No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR = 1.11; 90% CI = 1.01-1.23), doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR = 1.09; 90% CI = 1.00-1.19), and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR = 1.12; 90% CI = 1.01-1.25). Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample.

  11. Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing (NIPAT) through Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huijuan; Deng, Yongqiang; Mu, Haofang; Feng, Xiaoli; Yin, Lu; Du, Zhou; Chen, Fang; He, Nongyue

    2016-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels in order to verify the performance in clinical cases. Combining targeted deep sequencing of selective SNP and informative bioinformatics pipeline, we calculated the combined paternity index (CPI) of 17 cases to determine paternity. Sequencing-based NIPAT results fully agreed with invasive prenatal paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future. PMID:27631491

  12. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Childhood Asthma in Girls: Project Ice Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how prenatal maternal stress (PNMS influences risks of asthma in humans. In this small study, we sought to determine whether disaster-related PNMS would predict asthma risk in children. In June 1998, we assessed severity of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec Ice Storm. Lifetime asthma symptoms, diagnoses, and corticosteroid utilization were assessed when the children were 12 years old (N=68. No effects of objective hardship or timing of the exposure were found. However, we found that, in girls only, higher levels of prenatal maternal subjective distress predicted greater lifetime risk of wheezing (OR=1.11; 90% CI = 1.01–1.23, doctor-diagnosed asthma (OR=1.09; 90% CI = 1.00–1.19, and lifetime utilization of corticosteroids (OR=1.12; 90% CI = 1.01–1.25. Other perinatal and current maternal life events were also associated with asthma outcomes. Findings suggest that stress during pregnancy opens a window for fetal programming of immune functioning. A sex-based approach may be useful to examine how prenatal and postnatal environments combine to program the immune system. This small study needs to be replicated with a larger, more representative sample.

  13. Prenatal maternal stress and wheeze in children: novel insights into epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Saskia; Bieg, Matthias; Gu, Zuguang; Thürmann, Loreen; Bauer, Tobias; Bauer, Mario; Ishaque, Naveed; Röder, Stefan; Gu, Lei; Herberth, Gunda; Lawerenz, Christian; Borte, Michael; Schlesner, Matthias; Plass, Christoph; Diessl, Nicolle; Eszlinger, Markus; Mücke, Oliver; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Herrmann, Carl; Weichenhan, Dieter; Wright, Rosalind J; Lehmann, Irina; Eils, Roland

    2016-06-28

    Psychological stress during pregnancy increases the risk of childhood wheeze and asthma. However, the transmitting mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since epigenetic alterations have emerged as a link between perturbations in the prenatal environment and an increased disease risk we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) to analyze changes in DNA methylation in mothers and their children related to prenatal psychosocial stress and assessed its role in the development of wheeze in the child. We evaluated genomic regions altered in their methylation level due to maternal stress based of WGBS data of 10 mother-child-pairs. These data were complemented by longitudinal targeted methylation and transcriptional analyses in children from our prospective mother-child cohort LINA for whom maternal stress and wheezing information was available (n = 443). High maternal stress was associated with an increased risk for persistent wheezing in the child until the age of 5. Both mothers and children showed genome-wide alterations in DNA-methylation specifically in enhancer elements. Deregulated neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter receptor interactions were observed in stressed mothers and their children. In children but not in mothers, calcium- and Wnt-signaling required for lung maturation in the prenatal period were epigenetically deregulated and could be linked with wheezing later in children's life.

  14. Contribution of maternal radionuclide burdens to prenatal radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Hui, T.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes approaches to calculating and expressing radiation doses to the embryo/fetus from internal radionuclides. Information was obtained for selected, occupationally significant radioelements that provide a spectrum of metabolic and dosimetric characteristics. Evaluations are also presented for inhaled inert gases and for selected radiopharmaceuticals. Fractional placental transfer and/or ratios of concentration in the embryo/fetus to that in the woman were calculated for these materials. The ratios were integrated with data from biokinetic transfer models to estimate radioactivity levels in the embryo/fetus as a function of stage of pregnancy and time after entry into the transfer compartment or blood of the pregnant woman. These results are given as tables of deposition and retention in the embryo/fetus as a function of gestational age at exposure and elapsed time following exposure. Methodologies described by MIRD were extended to formalize and describe details for calculating radiation absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus. Calculations were performed using a model situation that assumed a single injection of 1 {mu}Ci into a woman`s blood; independent calculations were performed for administration at successive months of pregnancy. Gestational -stage-dependent dosimetric tabulations are given together with tables of correlations and relationships. Generalized surrogate dose factors and categorizations are provided in the report to provide for use in operational radiological protection situations. These approaches to calculation yield radiation absorbed doses that can be converted to dose equivalent by multiplication by quality factor. Dose equivalent is the most common quantity for stating prenatal dose limits in the United States and is appropriate for the types of effect that are usually associated with prenatal exposure. If it is desired to obtain alternatives for other purposes, this value can be multiplied by appropriate weighting factors.

  15. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L.; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator ...

  16. Prenatal exposure to fipronil disturbs maternal aggressive behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Julia Z; Udo, Mariana S B; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica M; Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Bernardi, Maria M; Spinosa, Helenice S

    2015-01-01

    Fipronil is a second-generation phenilpirazol insecticide that is used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for protection against fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches and other pests. The insecticide blocks the chloride channels associated with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors in mammals and the chloride channels associated with the GABA and glutamate (Glu) receptors in insects. In this study, a commercial product that contain fipronil was administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats at dosages of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/day from the 6th to the 20th day of gestation (n=10 pregnant rats/group) to assess the maternal aggressive behavior (on the 6th day of lactation) and the histopathology of the ovaries and the thyroid gland of the dams. The fipronil caused a disturbance of the maternal aggressive behavior; the aggression against a male intruder decreased at the lowest dose, but increased at the highest dose, without interfering with the general activity of the dams in the open field test at either dose. The histopathological analysis revealed no abnormalities. The differential effects of fipronil behavior appeared to be a consequence of actions on central nervous system areas that control these behaviors. We suggest that fipronil acts on maternal aggressive behavior through GABA(A) receptors.

  17. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Encephalomalacia after Maternal Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalyn Love

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Encephalomalacia in a developing fetus is a rare and devastating neurological finding on radiologic imaging. Maternal diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA can lead to metabolic and vascular derangements which can cause fetal encephalomalacia. Case - We report the case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman with White's Class C diabetes mellitus who presented in the 25th week of gestation with DKA. Four weeks after her discharge, marked fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly was noted on ultrasound. A subsequent fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated extensive, symmetric cystic encephalomalacia, primarily involving both cerebral hemispheres. The pregnancy was continued with close fetal and maternal surveillance. The patient underwent a repeat cesarean delivery in her 37th week. The infant had a 1 month neonatal intensive care unit stay with care rendered by a multiple disciplinary team of pediatric subspecialists. The postnatal course was complicated by global hypotonia, poor feeding, delayed development and ultimately required anticonvulsants for recurrent seizures. He died at the age of 9 months from aspiration during a seizure. Discussion - Although the maternal mortality from DKA has declined, DKA still confers significant neurological fetal morbidity to its survivors.

  18. Altered reward processing in adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Mennigen, Eva; Ripke, Stephan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Walaszek, Bernadeta; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    Higher rates of substance use and dependence have been observed in the offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Animal studies indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine alters the development of brain areas related to reward processing, which might be a risk factor for substance use and addiction later in life. However, no study has examined the effect of maternal smoking on the offspring's brain response during reward processing. To determine whether adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking differ from their nonexposed peers in the response of the ventral striatum to the anticipation or the receipt of a reward. An observational case-control study. Data were obtained from the IMAGEN Study, a European multicenter study of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and emotional reactivity in adolescents. The IMAGEN sample consists of 2078 healthy adolescents (age range, 13-15 years) recruited from March 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011, in local schools. We assessed an IMAGEN subsample of 177 adolescents with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and 177 nonexposed peers (age range, 13-15 years) matched by sex, maternal educational level, and imaging site. Response to reward in the ventral striatum measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatally exposed adolescents, we observed a weaker response in the ventral striatum during reward anticipation (left side, F = 14.98 [P < .001]; right side, F = 15.95 [P < .001]) compared with their nonexposed peers. No differences were found regarding the responsivity of the ventral striatum to the receipt of a reward (left side, F = 0.21 [P = .65]; right side, F = 0.47 [P = .49]). The weaker responsivity of the ventral striatum to reward anticipation in prenatally exposed adolescents may represent a risk factor for substance use and development of addiction later in life. This result highlights the need for education and preventive

  19. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) increases aggression and modulates maternal behavior in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Natali; Levy, Sigal; Avitsur, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs in pregnant women. SSRIs cross the placental barrier and affect serotonergic neurotransmission in the fetus. Although no gross SSRI-related teratogenic effects were reported, infants born following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are at higher risk for various developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI on social and maternal behavior in mice. To this end, pregnant female dams were exposed to saline or fluoxetine (FLX) throughout pregnancy, and the behavior of the offspring was examined. The results indicate that in utero FLX increased aggression in adult males and delayed emergence of maternal behavior in adult females. Social exploration and recognition memory were not affected by prenatal FLX exposure. These findings support the notion that alterations in the development of serotonergic pathways following prenatal exposure to SSRIs are associated with changes in social and maternal behavior throughout life.

  20. Natural selection acts in opposite ways on correlated hormonal mediators of prenatal maternal effects in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Postma, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Doligez, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although many experimental studies have demonstrated their potency in shaping offspring phenotypes, we know remarkably little about their adaptive value. Using long-term data on a wild collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis)

  1. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Dan

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia.Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples.Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential to be used to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis

  2. Maternal socio-economic indices for prenatal care research in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Klemetti, Reija; Kun, Huang; Hong, Wang; Yuan, Shen; Wu, Zhuochun; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-12-01

    The conceptualization and measurement of socio-economic status (SES) is difficult in developing settings. In the absence of SES indices for women in rural China, we constructed SES indices for prenatal care research, and examined their relation to perinatal care and outcomes. This study utilized data of 4364 rural women having recently given birth, collected by a cross-sectional survey in three rural Chinese provinces in 2007. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct the SES indices and multilevel logistic regression was use to relate the indices to low birthweight, short exclusive breastfeeding (≤4 months), childbirth at the county or higher level health facility, caesarean section, inadequate prenatal care and no postnatal care. Three separate SES indices (wealth, occupational and educational indices) were obtained from the PCA analysis, capturing maternal, paternal and household SES characteristics. After adjusting for individual level factors, village and township wealth, higher levels of the indices were inversely associated with inadequate prenatal care. Higher occupational status was positively associated with short exclusive breastfeeding and childbirth at the county or higher level health facility, but inversely associated with no postnatal care. Higher educational status was positively associated with no postnatal care. Three SES indices (wealth, occupational and educational) were obtained from this study for prenatal care research. The indices gave mostly varying results on their associations with perinatal care and outcomes, indicating that SES measures may be outcome-specific.

  3. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-03-24

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  4. Application of Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma in Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵茵; 邹丽

    2004-01-01

    Summary: To explore the application of fetal DNA in maternal plasma for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis, the DNA template was extracted by hydroxybenzene-chloroform from 44 maternal (7-41weeks) plasma. The Fetus-derived Y sequence DYZ-1 gene (149bp) was chosen to be amplified by PCR. The fragment was identified in all the plasma of male bearing pregnant women with the diagnostic accordance rate being 100.00 %. Two of the 22 female bearing pregnant women had false positive results. Among the 44 pregnant women, the diagnostic accordance rate was 88. 89 % at early pregnant stage, 100.00 % at medium pregnant stage, and 96.55 % at late stage respectively.The final accuracy of 95. 45 % was obtained in all cases. It was concluded that by means of hydroxybenzene-chloroform extraction the authors of this article promoted the concentration and purity of the DNA template, and diagnosed more accurately. The results showed that free fetal DNA in the maternal plasma could be regarded as the gene resource for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Prenatal exposure to maternal infection alters cytokine expression in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakubo, A; Jarskog, L F; Lieberman, J A; Gilmore, J H

    2001-01-15

    Prenatal exposure to infection appears to increase the risk of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We have hypothesized that cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, play a key mechanistic role in this association. E16 timed pregnancy rats were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to model prenatal exposure to infection. Placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brains were collected 2 and 8h after LPS exposure. There was a significant treatment effect of low-dose (0.5mg/kg) LPS on placenta cytokine levels, with significant increases of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.0001), IL-6 (P<0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P=0.0001) over the 2 and 8h time course. In amniotic fluid, there was a significant effect of treatment on IL-6 levels (P=0.0006). Two hours after maternal administration of high-dose (2.5mg/kg) LPS, there were significant elevations of placenta IL-6 (P<0.0001), TNF-alpha (P<0.0001), a significant increase of TNF-alpha in amniotic fluid (P=0.008), and a small but significant decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.035) in fetal brain. Maternal exposure to infection alters pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the fetal environment, which may have a significant impact on the developing brain.

  6. [Potential role of prenatal care in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prual, A; De Bernis, L; El Joud, D Ould

    2002-02-01

    Prenatal care has been implemented in developing countries according to the same mode as applied in industrialized countries without considering its real effectiveness in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. Several recent studies suggest that the goals should be revisited in order to implement a program of prenatal care based on real scientific evidence. Based on the current literature, we propose a potentially effective content for prenatal care adapted to the context of developing countries. Four antenatal consultations would be enough if appropriately timed at 12, 26, 32 and 36 weeks pregnancy. The purpose of these consultations would be: 1) to screen for three major risk factors, which, when recognized, lead to specific action: uterine, scare, malpresentation, premature rupture of the membranes; 2) to prevent and/or detect (and treat) specific complications of pregnancy: hypertension, infection (malaria, venereal disease, HIV, tetanus, urinary tract infection); anemia and trace element deficiencies, gestational diabetes mellitus; 3) to provide counseling, support and information for pregnant women and their families (including the partner) concerning: severe signs and symptoms of pregnancy and delivery, community organization of emergency transfer, delivery planning. These potentially effective actions can only have a real public health impact if implemented within an organized maternal health system with a functional network of delivery units, if truly quality care is given, and if the relationships between health care providers and the population are based on mutual respect. Sub-Saharan African women use prenatal care extensively when it is accessible; this opportunity must be used to implement evidence-based actions with appropriate and realistic goals.

  7. Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Using Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu K.; Yuen, Tony; Jiang, Peiyong; Pina, Christian; Chan, K. C. Allen; Khattab, Ahmed; Liao, Gary J. W.; Yau, Mabel; Kim, Se-Min; Chiu, Rossa W. K.; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive condition that arises from mutations in CYP21A2 gene, which encodes for the steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase. To prevent genital ambiguity in affected female fetuses, prenatal treatment with dexamethasone must begin on or before gestational week 9. Currently used chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis provide genetic results at approximately 14 weeks of gestation at the earliest. This means that mothers who want to undergo prenatal dexamethasone treatment will be unnecessarily treating seven of eight fetuses (males and three of four unaffected females), emphasizing the desirability of earlier genetic diagnosis in utero. Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a noninvasive method for early prenatal diagnosis of fetuses at risk for CAH. Patients: Fourteen families, each with a proband affected by phenotypically classical CAH, were recruited. Design: Cell-free fetal DNA was obtained from 3.6 mL of maternal plasma. Using hybridization probes designed to capture a 6-Mb region flanking CYP21A2, targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed to analyze genomic DNA samples from parents and proband to determine parental haplotypes. Plasma DNA from pregnant mothers also underwent targeted MPS to deduce fetal inheritance of parental haplotypes. Results: In all 14 families, the fetal CAH status was correctly deduced by targeted MPS of DNA in maternal plasma, as early as 5 weeks 6 days of gestation. Conclusions: MPS on 3.6 mL plasma from pregnant mothers could potentially provide the diagnosis of CAH, noninvasively, before the ninth week of gestation. Only affected female fetuses will thus be treated. Our strategy represents a generic approach for noninvasive prenatal testing for an array of autosomal recessive disorders. PMID:24606108

  8. Prenatal ultrasound screening: false positive soft markers may alter maternal representations and mother-infant interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Viaux-Savelon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a "soft marker" (SM that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. CONCLUSION: False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

  9. Maternal serum persistent organic pollutants in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Rantakokko, Panu V; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; McKeague, Ian W; Kiviranta, Hannu A; Sourander, Andre; Brown, Alan S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research emphasizes the contribution of environmental as well as genetic factors to the etiology of autism but studies testing associations between chemical exposures and autism have been limited. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has previously been associated with decrements in cognitive and developmental performance. We conducted a pilot study in the Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism (FiPS-A). Seventy-five cases with autism and 75 controls matched on sex, birth year, urbanization and maternal age were sampled from first-born children in the Finnish Maternity Cohort, which includes over 1million births. The study sample included births occurring from 1991 to 2000. Subjects were followed up for autism through 2007. DDT, DDE, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-170, PCB-180, hexachlorobenzene, and BDE-47 were measured in archived maternal serum samples taken during pregnancy using gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Correlations between pollutant measures were assessed and mechanistically-related weighting schemes for summarizing PCB levels were compared. Case and control differences were assessed using graphical and statistical methods. All analytes, with the exception of DDT and BDE-47, were detected above the limit of quantification in all samples. The correlation between levels of individual PCB congeners and weighted summary measures was high (0.71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted model the odds ratios for autism were 1.91 (p=0.29) and 1.79 (p=0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to the levels which previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to

  10. Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different.

  11. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  12. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT],...

  13. Attitudes and Knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellows Regarding Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Paul; Hardisty, Emily; Sayres, Lauren; Wiegand, Samantha; Vora, Neeta

    2016-02-01

    Using cell-free DNA in maternal serum to detect fetal aneuploidy has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes and knowledge of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (MFM) fellows regarding noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). A 13 question survey was sent via listserv to US-based MFM fellows. One hundred sixteen fellows responded, a 42.3% response rate, with >75% reporting they are comfortable ordering NIPT. Most (82%) preferred that a patient discuss options with a provider or genetic counselor. Three common methods used to learn about NIPT were: formal educational activities (n = 78, 69%), self-review of the literature (n = 76, 67%), and discussions with peers (n = 73, 65%). On questions related to trisomy 21, accuracy was >70%. However, accuracy was lower regarding use in twin pregnancies (42%) and monosomy X screening (50%).

  14. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  15. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  16. Inadequate prenatal care use among Canadian mothers: findings from the Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debessai, Y; Costanian, C; Roy, M; El-Sayed, M; Tamim, H

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate predictors of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) use among pregnant women in Canada. Data for this secondary analysis was drawn from the Maternity Experiences Survey, a cross sectional, nationally representative survey that assessed peri- and post-natal experiences of mothers aged 15 and above in the Canadian provinces and territories. PNC use was measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine socio-economic, demographic, maternal, delivery related and health service characteristics associated with inadequate PNC use. Prevalence of inadequate PNC was at 18.9%. Regression analysis revealed that mothers who were immigrants (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% (confidence interval) CI: 1.13-1.74), primiparous (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44), smoked (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.04-1.69) or consumed alcohol (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.03-1.68) during their pregnancy were more likely to receive inadequate PNC. Mothers with a family doctor as PNC provider versus those with an obstetrician (OR=1.26; 95% CI: 1.08-1.48) were more likely to have inadequate PNC. This is the first nationwide study in Canada to examine the factors associated with inadequate PNC use. Results of this study may help design interventions that target women with profiles of socio-demographic and behavioral risk to optimize their PNC use.

  17. Prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in the first decades of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yongfu; Cnattingius, Sven; Olsen, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    .07-3.23), endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases (MRR 3.23, 95% CI 2.02-5.17), diseases of nervous system (MRR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.58), and congenital malformations (MRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.80). No excess mortality risk in offspring was observed for unnatural causes of death. CONCLUSION: Prenatal maternal......BACKGROUND: The loss of a close relative is one of the most stressful life events. In pregnancy, this experience has been associated with a higher risk of fetal death and under-five mortality, but little is known about potential effects on long-term mortality in offspring. We examined......, spouse, sibling, or parent during or 1 year before pregnancy were categorized as exposed. RESULTS: Prenatal maternal bereavement was associated with a 10% increased all-cause mortality risk in offspring [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18]. The association...

  18. Variation in maternal urinary cortisol profiles across the peri-conceptional period: a longitudinal description and evaluation of potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnaschy, P A; Salvante, K G; Zeng, L; Pyles, C; Ma, H; Blais, J C; Wen, L; Barha, C K

    2015-06-01

    How do women's first morning urinary cortisol levels, a marker of stress axis activity, vary during the peri-conceptional period (the 12 weeks around conception)? First morning urinary cortisol follows an overall increasing trajectory across the peri-conceptional period, interrupted by 2 week-long decreases during the week preceding conception and the fifth week following conception. Later gestational stages (i.e. second and third trimesters) are characterized by increasing levels of circulating cortisol. This increase is hypothesized to constitute a response to the energy demands imposed by fetal growth, and the development of energy reserves in preparation for nursing and performing regular activities while carrying pregnancy's extra weight and volume. This study is based on a data set collected as part of a longitudinal, naturalistic investigation into the interactions between the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)) and reproductive (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA)) axes. Biomarkers of HPAA and HPGA function were quantified in first morning urinary specimens collected every other day from 22 healthy women who conceived a pregnancy during the study. We analyzed the longitudinal within- and between-individual variation in first morning urinary cortisol levels across the 12-week peri-conceptional period. Participants were recruited from two rural, aboriginal, neighboring communities in Guatemala. Cortisol, estradiol and progesterone metabolites (estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide, respectively) and hCG levels were quantified in first morning urinary specimens using immunoassays to determine time of conception and confirm pregnancy maintenance. Linear mixed-effects models with regression splines were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of changes in cortisol trajectories. Overall, maternal first morning urinary cortisol increased from 6 weeks prior to conception (geometric mean ± SD = 58.14 ± 36.00 ng/ml) to 6

  19. High and low protein∶ carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation alter maternal-fetal cortisol regulation in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kanitz

    Full Text Available Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%, low (LP, 6.5% or adequate (AP, 12.1% protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein∶carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health.

  20. Association between maternal social deprivation and prenatal care utilization: the PreCARE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Clémentine; Estellat, Candice; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Blondel, Béatrice; Alfaiate, Toni; Schmitz, Thomas; Oury, Jean-François; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Luton, Dominique; Ravaud, Philippe; Azria, Elie

    2017-05-16

    Maternal social deprivation is associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Inadequate prenatal care utilization (PCU) is likely to be an important intermediate factor. The health care system in France provides essential health services to all pregnant women irrespective of their socioeconomic status. Our aim was to assess the association between maternal social deprivation and PCU. The analysis was performed in the database of the multicenter prospective PreCARE cohort study. The population source consisted in all parturient women registered for delivery in 4 university hospital maternity units, Paris, France, from October 2010 to November 2011 (N = 10,419). This analysis selected women with singleton pregnancies that ended after 22 weeks of gestation (N = 9770). The associations between maternal deprivation (four variables first considered separately and then combined as a social deprivation index: social isolation, poor or insecure housing conditions, no work-related household income, and absence of standard health insurance) and inadequate PCU were tested through multivariate logistic regressions also adjusted for immigration characteristics and education level. Attendance at prenatal care was poor for 23.3% of the study population. Crude relative risks and confidence intervals for inadequate PCU were 1.6 [1.5-1.8], 2.3 [2.1-2.6], and 3.1 [2.8-3.4], for women with a deprivation index of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, compared to women with deprivation index of 0. Each of the four deprivation variables was significantly associated with an increased risk of inadequate PCU. Because of the interaction observed between inadequate PCU and mother's country of birth, we stratified for the latter before the multivariate analysis. After adjustment for the potential confounders, this social gradient remained for women born in France and North Africa. The prevalence of inadequate PCU among women born in sub-Saharan Africa was 34

  1. Intimate partner violence is associated with increased maternal hair cortisol in mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Daruy-Filho, Ledo; Martinez, Manuela; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The chronic consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) on HPA activation are a topic of debate. The current study investigated hair cortisol concentrations in female victims of IPV and their children. A total of 52 mother-child dyads were divided into two groups depending on exposure to IPV: IPV group (n=27 dyads) and control group (n=25 dyads). Hair cortisol concentration was measured in 1-cm-long hair strands, representing 30days of exposure before assessment. PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed in the mother and child. Women reporting IPV presented with higher hair cortisol levels, depression and PTSD symptoms severity in comparison to control women. Children who witnessed IPV reported more severe PTSD symptoms, but depressive symptoms and hair cortisol were not statistically different than those in control children. Correlation analyses revealed a positive association between the number of injury events and the level of hair cortisol in children. No associations between the hair cortisol levels in mothers and those in their children were found. Higher hair cortisol levels detected in women exposed to IPV reflected long-lasting changes in HPA axis functioning associated with chronic stress exposure. Children whose parents recurrently engage in violent conflicts with intimate partners may often feel threatened and consequently reporting more PTSD-related symptoms. Given that experiencing and witnessing violence during childhood and adolescence are predictive of intimate partner violence in adulthood, the need of early interventions is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural variation in gestational cortisol is associated with patterns of growth in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Birnie, Andrew K; Korgan, Austin C; Santo, Jonathan B; French, Jeffrey A

    2012-02-01

    High levels of prenatal cortisol have been previously reported to retard fetal growth. Although cortisol plays a pivotal role in prenatal maturation, heightened exposure to cortisol can result in lower body weights at birth, which have been shown to be associated with adult diseases like hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This study examines the relationship between natural variation in gestational cortisol and fetal and postnatal growth in marmoset monkeys. Urinary samples obtained during the mother's gestation were analyzed for cortisol. Marmoset body mass index (BMI) was measured from birth through 540 days in 30- or 60-day intervals. Multi-level modeling was used to test if marmoset growth over time was predicted by changes in gestational cortisol controlling for time, sex, litter, and litter size. The results show that offspring exposed to intra-uterine environments with elevated levels of cortisol had lower linear BMI rates of change shortly after birth than did offspring exposed to lower levels of cortisol, but exhibited a higher curvilinear growth rate during adolescence. Average daily change in gestational cortisol during the first trimester had a stronger relationship with postnatal growth than change during the third trimester. Higher exposure to cortisol during gestation does alter developmental trajectories, however there appears to be a catch-up period during later post-natal growth. These observations contribute to a larger discussion about the relationship of maternal glucocorticoids on offspring development and the possibility of an earlier vulnerable developmental window.

  3. Prenatal lead exposure and relationship with maternal exposure determinants in a public maternity hospital of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Enrique; Varea, Ana; Apezteguía, María; González, Horacio F; Girardelli, Ana; Caro, Laura Sanchez; Lobisuto, Mario; Delgado, Griselda; Disalvo, Liliana

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is a health hazard that may cause cognitive development impairments and other adverse effects in children. We conducted a cross sectional study analyzing cord blood lead levels (CBLL) of newborns and their relationship with maternal determinants of lead exposure. Mothers answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic, lifestyle habits and environmental characteristics. We used Mann-Whitney's test to compare CBLL geometrical means (GM) corresponding to the presence or absence of each lead exposure determinant, and Chi square test to study the relationship between CBLL and maternal lead exposure determinants. A total of 159 newborns participated in the study. CBLL GM was 2.1 μg/dL; and 25% of the participants had a measurable CBLL (LOQ=3.3 μg/dl). Although the participants had several determinants of lead exposure, we only found a significant relationship with inside household determinants, such as presence of lead piping (p=0.026), unplastered walls (p=0.046) and peeling paint (p=0.048). Our results show that CBLL GM was similar to that reported in several studies conducted around the world. However, 25% of the participants might have some degree of risk for lead poisoning.

  4. Maternal PUFA Status but Not Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure Is Associated with Children’s Language Functions at Age Five Years in the Seychelles12

    OpenAIRE

    Strain, J.J.; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W.; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S.; McAfee, Alison J.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E.; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M.W.; McSorley, Emeir M.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were mea...

  5. Longitudinal Study of Maternal Report of Sleep Problems in Children with Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C.; High, Pamela C.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow-up of cocaine exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 subjects: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups, including birth size, caretaker changes, and maternal SES and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (mean [SD], 5 [4.93] vs 7.7 [4.85], p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (R2 = .028, p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all p’s <.01). Together, these preliminary findings suggest possible neurotoxic sleep effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors. PMID:19787489

  6. Longitudinal study of maternal report of sleep problems in children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; High, Pamela C; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Lagasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    Sleep data were collected by maternal report in a prospective longitudinal follow up of cocaine-exposed and unexposed children. There were 139 participants: 23 with no prenatal drug exposure, 55 exposed to cocaine alone or in combination with other drugs, and 61 exposed to drugs other than cocaine. Characteristics differed between exposure groups including birth size, caretaker changes, maternal socioeconomic status, and postnatal drug use. Compared to those with no drug exposure, children with prenatal drug exposure other than cocaine experienced greater sleep problems (p = .026). Prenatal nicotine exposure was a unique predictor of sleep problems (p = .048). Early sleep problems predicted later sleep problems (all ps effects that persist over time. Larger studies, however, need to be conducted that better control for potential postnatal confounding factors.

  7. Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

  8. Trisomy 7 mosaicism prenatally misdiagnosed and maternal uniparental disomy in a child with pigmentary mosaicism and Russell- Silver syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F; Holder-Espinasse, M; Duban-Bedu, B; Bouquillon, S; Boute-Benejean, O; Bazin, A; Rouland, V; Manouvrier-Hanu, S; Delobel, B

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of true mosaic trisomy 7 is rare in amniotic fluid and can be misinterpreted as pseudomosaic. The phenotype is highly variable and may be modified by a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 leading to mild Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS). We report here the third postnatal case of mosaic trisomy 7 with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 in a boy presenting a mild RSS. Fetal karyotype performed in amniocentesis for intrauterine growth retardation was considered normal. Mosaic trisomy 7 was diagnosed after birth, on fibroblasts karyotype performed for blaschkolinear pigmentary skin anomalies and failure to thrive. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 was observed in blood sample. Retrospectively, trisomic 7 cells were identified in one prenatal long-term flask culture revealing a prenatal diagnosis failure. This report emphasizes the difficulty of assessing fetal mosaicism and distinguishing it from pseudomosaicism in cultured amniocytes. It is important to search for uniparental disomy as an indirect clue of trisomy 7 mosaicism and a major prognosis element. Although there are only few prenatal informative cases, detection of trisomy 7 in amniocentesis appears to be associated with a relatively good outcome when maternal uniparental disomy has been ruled out.

  9. Project Ice Storm: Prenatal Maternal Stress Affects Cognitive and Linguistic Functioning in 5 1/2-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, David P.; Brunet, Alain; Schmitz, Norbert; Ciampi, Antonio; King, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The study used data from Project Ice Storm to determine the extent to which exposure to prenatal maternal stress due to a natural disaster can explain variance in the intellectual and language performance of offspring at age 5 1/2.

  10. An epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of prenatal maternal stress in neonates: A model approach for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Pappa, Irene; Walton, Esther; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Rippe, Ralph C A; Roza, Sabine J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Felix, Janine F; Cecil, Charlotte A M; Relton, Caroline L; Gaunt, Tom R; McArdle, Wendy; Mill, Jonathan; Barker, Edward D; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been associated with neonatal differential DNA methylation. However, the available evidence in humans is largely based on candidate gene methylation studies, where only a few CpG sites were evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and offspring genome-wide cord blood methylation using different methods. First, we conducted a meta-analysis and follow-up pathway analyses. Second, we used novel region discovery methods [i.e., differentially methylated regions (DMRs) analyses]. To this end, we used data from two independent population-based studies, the Generation R Study (n = 912) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, n = 828), to (i) measure genome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood and (ii) extract a prenatal maternal stress composite. The meta-analysis (ntotal = 1,740) revealed no epigenome-wide (meta P meta-analysis (meta P meta-analysis, the current study indicates that there are no large effects of prenatal maternal stress exposure on neonatal DNA methylation. Such replication efforts are essential in the search for robust associations, whether derived from candidate gene methylation or epigenome-wide studies.

  11. An epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of prenatal maternal stress in neonates: A model approach for replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); I. Pappa (Irene); E. Walton (Esther); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); V. Mileva-Seitz; R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); S.J. Roza (Sabine); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.F. Felix (Janine); C.A.M. Cecil (Charlotte A.M.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); J. Mill (Jonathan); E.D. Barker (Edward D.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been associated with neonatal differential DNA methylation. However, the available evidence in humans is largely based on candidate gene methylation studies, where only a few CpG sites were evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine th

  12. Research Review: Maternal Prenatal Distress and Poor Nutrition--Mutually Influencing Risk Factors Affecting Infant Neurocognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Georgieff, Michael K.; Osterholm, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accumulating data from animal and human studies indicate that the prenatal environment plays a significant role in shaping children's neurocognitive development. Clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science research suggests that two experiences relatively common in pregnancy--an unhealthy maternal diet and psychosocial…

  13. Incentives for increasing prenatal care use by women in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sara R; Everetts, David; Haas, David M

    2015-12-15

    Prenatal care is recommended during pregnancy as a method to improve neonatal and maternal outcomes. Improving the use of prenatal care is important, particularly for women at moderate to high risk of adverse outcomes. Incentives are sometimes utilized to encourage women to attend prenatal care visits. To determine whether incentives are an effective tool to increase utilization of timely prenatal care among women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015) and the reference lists of all retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cluster-RCTs that utilized direct incentives to pregnant women explicitly linked to initiation and frequency of prenatal care were included. Incentives could include cash, vouchers, coupons or products not generally offered to women as a standard of prenatal care. Comparisons were to no incentives and to incentives not linked directly to utilization of care. We also planned to compare different types of interventions, i.e. monetary versus products or services. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and methodological quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We identified 11 studies (19 reports), six of which we excluded. Five studies, involving 11,935 pregnancies were included, but only 1893 pregnancies contributed data regarding our specified outcomes. Incentives in the studies included cash, gift card, baby carrier, baby blanket or taxicab voucher and were compared with no incentives. Meta-analysis was performed for only one outcome 'Return for postpartum care' and this outcome was not pre-specified in our protocol. Other analyses were restricted to data from single studies.Trials were at a moderate risk of bias overall. Randomization and allocation were adequate and risk of selection bias was low in three studies and unclear in two studies. None of the studies were blinded to the

  14. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  15. Prenatal stress produces anxiety prone female offspring and impaired maternal behaviour in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Donald, Ramona D; Robson, Sheena K; Ison, Sarah H; Jarvis, Susan; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2014-04-22

    Numerous studies have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) can have profound effects on postnatal well-being. Here, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used to investigate PNS effects owing to the direct relevance for farm animal welfare and the developing status of the pig as a large animal model in translational research. Pregnant primiparous sows were exposed, in mid-gestation, to either a social stressor (mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics) or were kept in stable social groups. The ratio of levels of mRNAs for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors 1 and 2 in the amygdala, measured for the first time in the pig, was substantially increased in 10-week-old female, but not male, PNS progeny indicating a neurobiological propensity for anxiety-related behaviour. Mature female offspring were observed at parturition in either a behaviourally restrictive crate or open pen. Such PNS sows showed abnormal maternal behaviour in either environment, following the birth of their first piglet. They spent more time lying ventrally, more time standing and showed a higher frequency of posture changes. They were also more reactive towards their piglets, and spent longer visually attending to their piglets compared to controls. Associated with this abnormal maternal care, piglet mortality was increased in the open pen environment, where protection for piglets is reduced. Overall, these data indicate that PNS females have their brain development shifted towards a pro-anxiety phenotype and that PNS can be causally related to subsequent impaired maternal behaviour in adult female offspring.

  16. Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutritional manipulation: consequences for maternal plasma leptin and cortisol and the programming of fetal adipose tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispham, J; Gopalakrishnan, G S; Dandrea, J; Wilson, V; Budge, H; Keisler, D H; Broughton Pipkin, F; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2003-08-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction at specific stages of gestation has differential effects on fetal development such that the offspring are programmed to be at increased risk of adult disease. We investigated the effect of gestational age and maternal nutrition on the maternal plasma concentration of leptin and cortisol together with effects on fetal adipose tissue deposition plus leptin, IGF-I, IGF-II ligand, and receptor mRNA abundance near to term. Singleton bearing ewes were either nutrient restricted (NR; consuming 3.2-3.8 MJ/d of metabolizable energy) or fed to appetite (consuming 8.7-9.9 MJ/d) over the period of maximal placental growth, i.e. between 28 and 80 d gestation. After 80 d gestation, ewes were either fed to calculated requirements, consuming 6.7-7.5 MJ/d, or were fed to appetite and consumed 8.0-10.9 MJ/d. Pregnancy resulted in a rise in plasma leptin concentration by 28 d gestation, which continued up to 80 d gestation when fed to appetite but not with nutrient restriction. Plasma cortisol was also lower in NR ewes up to 80 d gestation, a difference no longer apparent when food intake was increased. At term, irrespective of maternal nutrition in late gestation, fetuses sampled from ewes NR in early gestation possessed more adipose tissue, whereas when ewes were fed to appetite throughout gestation, fetal adipose tissue deposition and leptin mRNA abundance were both reduced. These changes may result in the offspring of NR mothers being at increased risk of obesity in later life.

  17. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

    Full Text Available The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring.This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement.A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3% were exposed and 981,989 (23.8% had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96-1.01] and 1.01 [0.98-1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94-0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04-1.14], the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12-1.48] or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01-1.27].Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a firmer conclusion.

  18. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed 65,212 children born in Denmark from 1970-1989 who underwent health examinations from 7 to 13 years of age in public or private schools in Copenhagen. We identified 459 children as exposed to prenatal stress, defined by being born to mothers who were bereaved by death of a close family member from one year before pregnancy until birth of the child. We compared the prevalence of overweight between the exposed and the unexposed. Body mass index (BMI values and prevalence of overweight were higher in the exposed children, but not significantly so until from 10 years of age and onwards, as compared with the unexposed children. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for overweight was 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.61 at 12 years of age and 1.63 (95% CI 1.00-2.61 at 13 years of age. The highest ORs were observed when the death occurred in the period from 6 to 0 month before pregnancy (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.42 at age 12, and OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.97 at age 13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that severe pre-pregnancy stress is associated with an increased risk of overweight in the offspring in later childhood.

  19. Interacting effect of MAOA genotype and maternal prenatal smoking on aggressive behavior in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Sarah; Zohsel, Katrin; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Hohm, Erika; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Findings on the etiology of aggressive behavior have provided evidence for an effect both of genetic factors, such as variation in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and adverse environmental factors. Recent studies have supported the existence of gene × environment interactions, with early experiences playing a key role. In the present study, the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure, MAOA genotype and their interaction on aggressive behavior during young adulthood were examined. In a sample of 272 young adults (129 males, 143 females) from an epidemiological cohort study, smoking during pregnancy was measured with a standardized parent interview at the offspring's age of 3 months. Aggressive behavior was assessed between the ages of 19 and 25 years using the Young Adult Self-Report. DNA was genotyped for the MAOA 5' untranslated region variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (VNTR). Results revealed a significant interaction between MAOA and smoking during pregnancy, indicating higher levels of aggressive behavior in young adults carrying the MAOA low-expressing genotype who had experienced prenatal nicotine exposure (n = 8, p = .025). In contrast, in carriers of the MAOA high-expressing genotype, maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect on aggressive behavior during young adulthood (n = 20, p = .145). This study extends earlier findings demonstrating an interaction between MAOA genotype and prenatal nicotine exposure on aggressive behavior into young adulthood. The results point to the long-term adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on the offspring's mental health, possibly underlining the importance of smoking cessation during pregnancy. According to the nature of the study (particularly sample size and power), analyses are exploratory and results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  20. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Z Chen

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392 pregnancies, among which 25 involved a trisomy 13 fetus and 37 involved a trisomy 18 fetus, by massively parallel sequencing. By using our previously reported standard z-score approach, we demonstrated that this approach could identify 36.0% and 73.0% of trisomy 13 and 18 at specificities of 92.4% and 97.2%, respectively. We aimed to improve the detection of trisomy 13 and 18 by using a non-repeat-masked reference human genome instead of a repeat-masked one to increase the number of aligned sequence reads for each sample. We then applied a bioinformatics approach to correct GC content bias in the sequencing data. With these measures, we detected all (25 out of 25 trisomy 13 fetuses at a specificity of 98.9% (261 out of 264 non-trisomy 13 cases, and 91.9% (34 out of 37 of the trisomy 18 fetuses at 98.0% specificity (247 out of 252 non-trisomy 18 cases. These data indicate that with appropriate bioinformatics analysis, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing is achievable.

  1. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos: significance for maternal stress and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Cauley, Marty; Johnson, Joshua E; Cooper, Ellen M; Stapleton, Heather M; Ferguson, P Lee; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment given in preterm labor and are also elevated by maternal stress; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous, so human developmental coexposures to these two agents are common. This study explores how prenatal dexamethasone exposure modifies the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used organophosphates. We administered dexamethasone to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-19 at a standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg); offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1 mg/kg) that produces barely-detectable (<10%) inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. Dexamethasone did not alter brain chlorpyrifos concentrations, nor did either agent alone or in combination affect brain thyroxine levels. Assessments were carried out from adolescence through adulthood encompassing T-maze alternation, Figure 8 maze (locomotor activity, habituation), novelty-suppressed feeding and novel object recognition tests. For behaviors where chlorpyrifos or dexamethasone individually had small effects, the dual exposure produced larger, significant effects that reflected additivity (locomotor activity, novelty-suppressed feeding, novel object recognition). Where the individual effects were in opposite directions or were restricted to only one agent, we found enhancement of chlorpyrifos' effects by prenatal dexamethasone (habituation). Finally, for behaviors where controls displayed a normal sex difference in performance, the combined treatment either eliminated or reversed the difference (locomotor activity, novel object recognition). Combined exposure to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos results in a worsened neurobehavioral outcome, providing a proof-of-principle that prenatal glucocorticoids can create a subpopulation with enhanced vulnerability to environmental toxicants.

  2. Potential biomarkers for Turner in maternal plasma: possibility for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolialexi, Aggeliki; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Papantoniou, Nikos; Vougas, Konstantinos; Antsaklis, Aris; Fountoulakis, Michael; Mavrou, Ariadni; Tsangaris, George Th

    2010-10-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, caused by the complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. To identify biomarkers for TS, we compared the protein composition of maternal plasma samples from pregnant women with normal and TS fetuses, using a proteomic approach consisting of 2D-E separation and MS analysis for the identification of the differentially expressed proteins. Samples were routinely obtained in the second trimester of pregnancy, stored, and used after prenatal determination of the fetal karyotype. Nine proteins (C1S, CO3, CLUS, AFAM, HABP2, IGHA1, HPT, SHBG, and CD5L) were significantly increased in the plasma of women carrying TS fetuses, whereas KNG1, IGJ, and TTHY were decreased. Identified proteins were further evaluated by immunoblot analysis while functional network association was carried out to asses significance. The identification of specific biomarkers may facilitate the development of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and improve our understanding of the pathology of TS. Nevertheless, testing a larger cohort of pregnant women is necessary to evaluate the relevance of the reported findings.

  3. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofs, Sally A; Atmar, Robert L; Keitel, Wendy A; Hanlon, Cathleen; Stanton, Jeffrey J; Tan, Jie; Flanagan, Joseph P; Howard, Lauren; Ling, Paul D

    2013-06-15

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta.

  5. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing Using Cell Free DNA in Maternal Plasma: Recent Developments and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have facilitated non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT through the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. NIPT can be used to identify monogenic disorders including the identification of autosomal recessive disorders where the maternally inherited mutation needs to be identified in the presence of an excess of maternal DNA that contains the same mutation. In the future, simultaneous screening for multiple monogenic disorders is anticipated. Several NIPT methods have been developed to screen for trisomy. These have been shown to be effective for fetal trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Although the testing has been extended to sex chromosome aneuploidy, robust estimates of the efficacy are not yet available and maternal mosaicism for gain or loss of an X-chromosome needs to be considered. Using methods based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, diandric triploidy can be identified. NIPT is being developed to identify a number of microdeletion syndromes including α-globin gene deletion. NIPT is a profoundly important development in prenatal care that is substantially advancing the individual patient and public health benefits achieved through conventional prenatal screening and diagnosis.

  6. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  7. Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing Using Cell Free DNA in Maternal Plasma: Recent Developments and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter

    2014-05-21

    Recent advances in molecular genetic technologies have facilitated non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) through the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. NIPT can be used to identify monogenic disorders including the identification of autosomal recessive disorders where the maternally inherited mutation needs to be identified in the presence of an excess of maternal DNA that contains the same mutation. In the future, simultaneous screening for multiple monogenic disorders is anticipated. Several NIPT methods have been developed to screen for trisomy. These have been shown to be effective for fetal trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Although the testing has been extended to sex chromosome aneuploidy, robust estimates of the efficacy are not yet available and maternal mosaicism for gain or loss of an X-chromosome needs to be considered. Using methods based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms, diandric triploidy can be identified. NIPT is being developed to identify a number of microdeletion syndromes including α-globin gene deletion. NIPT is a profoundly important development in prenatal care that is substantially advancing the individual patient and public health benefits achieved through conventional prenatal screening and diagnosis.

  8. Prenatal anxiety, maternal stroking in infancy, and symptoms of emotional and behavioral disorders at 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Hellier, Jennifer; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Animal findings of long-term effects of maternal behaviors mediated via altered GR gene expression will, if translated into humans, have far reaching implications for our understanding of child and adolescent psychopathology. We have previously shown that mothers' self-reported stroking of their infants modifies associations between prenatal depression and anxiety and child outcomes at 29 weeks and 2.5 years. Here, we examine whether the effect of early maternal stroking is evident at 3.5 years, and in a much larger sample than in previous publications. A general population sample of 1233 first-time mothers completed anxiety measures at 20 weeks gestation, 865 reported on infant stroking at 9 weeks, and 813 on child symptoms at 3.5 years. Maternal stroking moderated the association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and internalizing (p = 0.010) and externalizing (p = 0.004) scores, such that an effect of PSA to increase symptoms was markedly reduced for mothers who reported high levels of stroking. There was no effect of maternal stroking on general anxiety. The findings confirm the previously reported effect of maternal stroking, and in a much larger sample. They indicate that there are long-term effects of early maternal stroking, modifying associations between prenatal anxiety and child emotional and behavioral symptoms.

  9. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  10. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  11. Maternal zinc deficiency impairs brain nestin expression in prenatal and postnatal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effects of maternal dietary zinc deficiency on prenatal and postnatal brain development were investigated in ICR strain mice.From d 1 of pregnancy(E0)until postnatal d 20(P20),maternal mice were fed experimental diets that contained 1 mg Zn/kg/day(severe zinc deficient,SZD),5 mg Zn/kg/day(marginal zinc deficient,MZD),30 mg Zn/kg/day(zinc adequately supplied,ZA)or 100 mg Zn/kg/day(zinc supplemented,ZS and pair-fed,PF).Brains of offspring from these dietary groups were examined at various developmental stages for expression of nestin,an intermediate filament protein found in neural stem cells and young neurons,Immunocytochemistry showed nestin expression in neural tube 10.5 d post citrus(dpc)as well as in the cerebral cortex and neural tube from 10.5 dpc to postnatal d 10(P10).Nestin immunoreactivities in both brain and neural tube of those zinc-supplemented control groups(ZA,ZS,PF)were stronger than those in zinc-deficient groups(SZD and MZD).Western blot analysis confirmed that nestin levels in pooled brain extracts from each of the zinc-supplemented groups(ZA,ZS,PF)were much higher than those from the zinc-deficient groups(SZD and MZD)from 10.5 dpc to P10.Immunostaining and Western blots showed no detectable nestin in any of the experimental and control group brains after P20.These observations of an association between maternal zinc deficiency and decreased nestin protein levels in brains of offspring suggest that zinc deficiency suppresses development of neural stem cells,an effect which may lead to neuroanatomical and behavioral abnormalities in adults.

  12. The association between maternal and partner experienced racial discrimination and prenatal perceived stress, prenatal and postnatal depression: findings from the growing up in New Zealand cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Atatoa-Carr, Polly

    2016-09-22

    A growing number of studies document the association between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and adverse children's outcomes, but our understanding of how experiences of racial discrimination are associated with pre- and post-natal maternal mental health, is limited. In addition, existent literature rarely takes into consideration racial discrimination experienced by the partner. We analysed data from the Growing Up in New Zealand study to examine the burden of lifetime and past year experiences of racial discrimination on prenatal and postnatal mental health among Māori, Pacific, and Asian women in New Zealand (NZ), and to study the individual and joint contribution of mother's and partner's experiences of lifetime and past year racial discrimination to women's prenatal and postnatal mental health. Our findings show strong associations between lifetime and past year experiences of ethnically-motivated interpersonal attacks and unfair treatment on mother's mental health. Māori, Pacific, and Asian women who had experienced unfair treatment by a health professional in their lifetime were 66 % more likely to suffer from postnatal depression, compared to women who did not report these experiences. We found a cumulative effect of lifetime experiences of ethnically-motivated personal attacks on poor maternal mental health if both the mother and the partner had experienced a racist attack. Experiences of racial discrimination have severe direct consequences for the mother's mental health. Given the importance of mother's mental health for the basic human needs of a healthy child, racism and racial discrimination should be addressed.

  13. Maternal glucocorticoid elevation and associated blood metabonome changes might be involved in metabolic programming of intrauterine growth retardation in rats exposed to caffeine prenatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou, Hao; Liu, Yansong; Liang, Gai; Huang, Jing; Hu, Jieqiong; Yan, You-e; Li, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Yuanzhen [Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center for Reproductive Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal caffeine exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), fetuses are over-exposed to high levels of maternal glucocorticoids (GC), and intrauterine metabolic programming and associated metabonome alteration that may be GC-mediated. However, whether maternal metabonomes would be altered and relevant metabolite variations might mediate the development of IUGR remained unknown. In the present studies, we examined the dose- and time-effects of caffeine on maternal metabonome, and tried to clarify the potential roles of maternal GCs and metabonome changes in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. Pregnant rats were treated with caffeine (0, 20, 60 or 180 mg/kg · d) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20, or 180 mg/kg · d caffeine from GD9. Metabonomes of maternal plasma on GD20 in the dose–effect study and on GD11, 14 and 17 in the time–course study were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Caffeine administration reduced maternal weight gains and elevated both maternal and fetal corticosterone (CORT) levels. A negative correlation between maternal/fetal CORT levels and fetal bodyweight was observed. The maternal metabonome alterations included attenuated metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced lipolysis and protein breakdown, and amino acid accumulation, suggesting GC-associated metabolic effects. GC-associated metabolite variations (α/β-glucoses, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, β-hydroxybutyrate) were observed early following caffeine administration. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine exposure induced maternal GC elevation and metabonome alteration, and maternal GC and relevant discriminatory metabolites might be involved in the metabolic programming of caffeine-induced IUGR. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine exposure elevated maternal blood glucocorticoid levels. • Prenatal caffeine exposure altered maternal blood metabonomes. • Maternal

  14. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas actuales de diagnóstico prenatal de enfermedades génicas y cromosómicas incluyen procedimientos invasivos que conllevan un pequeño, pero significativo, riesgo. Por muchos años se ha estudiado la posibilidad de utilizar células fetales en circulación materna; sin embargo, ha fracasado su implementación clínica debido a su escasez y persistencia luego del parto. Desde hace más de una década se detectó ADN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas. Este sería de origen placentario e indetectable después del parto, y fuente de material fetal para el desarrollo de técnicas diagnósticas utilizando sangre materna. No obstante, la mayoría del ADN libre en circulación materna es de origen materno con una contribución fetal del 3% al 6% aumentando a lo largo de la gestación. Dado que los métodos actuales no permiten separar el ADN libre fetal del materno, las aplicaciones se focalizan en el análisis de genes no presentes en la madre, tales como secuencias del cromosoma Y, o gen RHD en madres Rh negativas, o mutaciones paternas o de novo. Asimismo, la detección de ARN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas abrió la posibilidad de obtener información acerca de patrones de expresión génica de tejidos embrionarios y, utilizando genes que se expresan sólo en la unidad feto-placentaria, se podría establecer un control de presencia de material fetal, independiente del material genético de la madre. El presente trabajo describe las evidencias acerca del pasaje de ácidos nucleicos fetales a circulación materna, su aplicación actual en el diagnóstico prenatal y posibles usos futuros.Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a

  15. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13–19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P Teenage mothers (Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  17. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  18. A latent modeling approach to genotype-phenotype relationships: maternal problem behavior clusters, prenatal smoking, and MAOA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, L M; Mustanski, B; Metzger, A; Pine, D S; Kistner-Griffin, E; Cook, E; Wakschlag, L S

    2012-08-01

    This study illustrates the application of a latent modeling approach to genotype-phenotype relationships and gene × environment interactions, using a novel, multidimensional model of adult female problem behavior, including maternal prenatal smoking. The gene of interest is the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene which has been well studied in relation to antisocial behavior. Participants were adult women (N = 192) who were sampled from a prospective pregnancy cohort of non-Hispanic, white individuals recruited from a neighborhood health clinic. Structural equation modeling was used to model a female problem behavior phenotype, which included conduct problems, substance use, impulsive-sensation seeking, interpersonal aggression, and prenatal smoking. All of the female problem behavior dimensions clustered together strongly, with the exception of prenatal smoking. A main effect of MAOA genotype and a MAOA × physical maltreatment interaction were detected with the Conduct Problems factor. Our phenotypic model showed that prenatal smoking is not simply a marker of other maternal problem behaviors. The risk variant in the MAOA main effect and interaction analyses was the high activity MAOA genotype, which is discrepant from consensus findings in male samples. This result contributes to an emerging literature on sex-specific interaction effects for MAOA.

  19. Comparative Study of Prenatal Care Value in Incidence of Maternal and Fetal Complication in Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aghahoseini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preeclampsia/eclampsia is one of the most serious condition peculiar to pregnancy, which defined as occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria in pregnancy and convulsion in eclamptic women. There are major risk for eclamptic and pre eclamptic women due to maternal and fetal complications. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, preeclamptic and eclamptic patients who were visited at Shariati hospital were divided into two groups due to having proper prenatal care or not. Maternal and fetal complication were studied in that two group. Maternal variables were included: incidence of preterm labor, eclampsia, mode of delivery, long term hospitalization, need for ICU, need to antihypertensive drugs over postportum, insistence of hypertension up to 6 weeks, postpartum trombocytosis, incidence of cesarean section due to abruptio placenta and IUGR, elevation of serum creatinine, incidence of HELLP syndrome and death of mother fetal variables were included incidence of IUGR and IUFD, pre term delivery and for need NICU. Relationship of demographic characteristics such as maternal age, parity, educational level, mode of delivery, presence of underlying disease, and educational level of person who referred the patient were studied. Results: These variables except of educational level, and referral level were there was statistically significant difference between incidence of all of variables, in exception of mode of delivery. That means incidence of complications is lower in group with adequate prenatal care. Conclusion: It seems that adequate pernatal care can reduce or obligate maternal and fetal complication in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

  20. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Salatino-Oliveira; Joseph Murray; Christian Kieling; Júlia Pasqualini Genro; Guilherme Polanczyk; Luciana Anselmi; Fernando Wehrmeister; Barros, Fernando C; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Luis Augusto Rohde; Mara Helena Hutz

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val 158 Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire w...

  1. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  2. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, W; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, M; Gräbner, M; Nürnberg, G; Bellmann, O; Hennig, U; Rehfeldt, C; Metges, C C

    2013-06-01

    Inadequate maternal nutrition during gestation may cause an adverse environment for the fetus leading to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) systems later in life. In the present study, we investigated the effects of diets with low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios on cortisol concentrations of pregnant gilts as well as the long-term effects on the function of the HPA and SAM axes in their offspring. Throughout gestation, 33 German Landrace gilts were fed high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6.5%), or adequate (AP, 12.1%) protein diets, which were made isocaloric by adjusting the carbohydrate content. The salivary cortisol concentrations of the sows were measured in the course of the gestation period. The offspring were cross-fostered, and the plasma cortisol and catecholamine concentrations of the offspring were determined on postnatal d (PND) 1 and 27 and under specific challenging conditions: after weaning (PND 29) and after ACTH and insulin challenges (PND 68 and 70, respectively). Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding and neurotransmitter concentrations were measured in stress-related brain regions, and histological analyses of the adrenal were performed. Maternal salivary cortisol concentrations increased throughout gestation (P pigs show a considerable plasticity to cope with maternal malnutrition.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  4. Preadolescent behavior problems after prenatal cocaine exposure: Relationship between teacher and caretaker ratings (Maternal Lifestyle Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Henrietta S.; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Lester, Barry; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Das, Abhik; Tan, Sylvia; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and childhood behavior problems as observed by the parent or caretaker. However, these behavior problems may not manifest in a structured environment, such as a school setting. Objective We determined whether there is an association between PCE and school behavior problems and whether ratings of behavior problems from the teacher differ from those noted by the parent or caretaker. Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multicenter study, enrolled 1388 children with and without PCE at one month of age for longitudinal assessment. Teachers masked to prenatal drug exposure status completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF/6-18) when children were 7, 9, and 11 years old. We also administered the Child Behavior Checklist-parent report (CBCL) to the parent/caretaker at same ages and then at 13 years. We performed latent growth curve modeling to determine whether high PCE will predict externalizing, internalizing, total behavior, and attention problems at 7 years of age and whether changes in problems' scores over time differ between those exposed and non-exposed from both teacher and parent report. Besides levels of PCE as predictors, we controlled for the following covariates, namely: site, child characteristics (gender and other prenatal drug exposures), family level influences (maternal age, depression and psychological symptomatology, continuing drug use, exposure to domestic violence, home environment, and socioeconomic status), and community level factors (neighborhood and community violence). Results The mean behavior problem T scores from the teacher report were significantly higher than ratings by the parent or caretaker. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a significant relationship between intercepts of problem T scores from teacher and parent ratings; i.e., children that were rated poorly by teachers were also rated poorly by their parent/caretaker or vice versa. After

  5. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  6. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and prenatal maternal smoking: rising attributed risk in the Back to Sleep era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batal Holly A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental smoking and prone sleep positioning are recognized causal features of Sudden Infant Death. This study quantifies the relationship between prenatal smoking and infant death over the time period of the Back to Sleep campaign in the United States, which encouraged parents to use a supine sleeping position for infants. Methods This retrospective cohort study utilized the Colorado Birth Registry. All singleton, normal birth weight infants born from 1989 to 1998 were identified and linked to the Colorado Infant Death registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between outcomes of interest and prenatal maternal cigarette use. Potential confounders analyzed included infant gender, gestational age, and birth year as well as maternal marital status, ethnicity, pregnancy interval, age, education, and alcohol use. Results We analyzed 488,918 birth records after excluding 5835 records with missing smoking status. Smokers were more likely to be single, non-Hispanic, less educated, and to report alcohol use while pregnant (p Conclusions Due to a decreased overall rate of SIDS likely due to changing infant sleep position, the attributed risk associating maternal smoking and SIDS has increased following the Back to Sleep campaign. Mothers should be informed of the 2-fold increased rate of SIDS associated with maternal cigarette consumption.

  7. Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R; Schuetze, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances and child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. We investigated whether maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, maternal harshness moderated the association between prenatal cocaine exposure to child internalizing in kindergarten such that prenatal cocaine exposure increased risk for internalizing problems at high levels of maternal harshness from 7 to 36months and decreased risk at low levels of harshness. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and child internalizing in kindergarten was not mediated by maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk. However, cumulative environmental risk (from 1month of child age to kindergarten) was predictive of child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward reducing maternal harshness in high risk samples characterized by maternal substance use in pregnancy.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Autism-Specific Maternal Autoantibodies Alters Proliferation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells, Enlarges Brain, and Increases Neuronal Size in Adult Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Camacho, Jasmin; Fox, Elizabeth; Miller, Elaine; Ariza, Jeanelle; Kienzle, Devon; Plank, Kaela; Noctor, Stephen C; Van de Water, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect up to 1 in 68 children. Autism-specific autoantibodies directed against fetal brain proteins have been found exclusively in a subpopulation of mothers whose children were diagnosed with ASD or maternal autoantibody-related autism. We tested the impact of autoantibodies on brain development in mice by transferring human antigen-specific IgG directly into the cerebral ventricles of embryonic mice during cortical neurogenesis. We show that autoantibodies recognize radial glial cells during development. We also show that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies increased stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the embryonic neocortex, increased adult brain size and weight, and increased the size of adult cortical neurons. We propose that prenatal exposure to autism-specific maternal autoantibodies directly affects radial glial cell development and presents a viable pathologic mechanism for the maternal autoantibody-related prenatal ASD risk factor.

  9. Scoping Review on Maternal Health among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada: Prenatal, Intrapartum, and Postnatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Skinner, A.; Mantini, A.; Kurtz Landy, C.

    2017-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen a dramatic increase in both the childbearing age and diversity of women migrating to Canada. The resulting health impact underscores the need to explore access to health services and the related maternal health outcome. This article reports on the results of a scoping review focused on migrant maternal health within the context of accessible and effective health services during pregnancy and following delivery. One hundred and twenty-six articles published between 2000 and 2016 that met our inclusion criteria and related to this group of migrant women, with pregnancy/motherhood status, who were living in Canada, were identified. This review points at complex health outcomes among immigrant and refugee women that occur within the compelling gaps in our knowledge of maternal health during all phases of maternity. Throughout the prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal periods of maternity, barriers to accessing healthcare services were found to disadvantage immigrant and refugee women putting them at risk for challenging maternal health outcomes. Interactions between the uptake of health information and factors related to the process of immigrant settlement were identified as major barriers. Availability of appropriate services in a country that provides universal healthcare is discussed. PMID:28210508

  10. Moderators of the Relation between Shyness and Behavior with Peers: Cortisol Dysregulation and Maternal Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among shyness, physiological dysregulation, and maternal emotion socialization in predicting children's social behavior with peers during the kindergarten year (N = 66; 29 girls). For shy children, interactions with peers represent potential stressors that can elicit negative emotion and physiological…

  11. Estimating maternal and prenatal exposure to glyphosate in the community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Heather; Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2012-11-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide in common use, in both agricultural and residential settings. Controlled residue studies show that glyphosate persists in food crops, allowing for the potential of a large number of people to be exposed. Glyphosate is generally considered safe however there are a number of studies suggesting formulations or additives that may have adverse health effects. To assess the degree of exposure of pregnant women, this study measured glyphosate in composite food samples and estimated exposure based on food frequency questionnaire. 43 pregnant women were recruited and completed a self administered questionnaire with a food frequency component and provided a composite food sample. Twenty food samples were analysed with very low glyphosate concentrations (mean 0.08 mg/kg, range 0.002-0.5 mg/kg) with residues detected in more than 75% of the samples. Maternal dietary exposure was very low (0.001 mg/kg bw/day) and was considerably lower than the predicted National Estimated Daily Intake of glyphosate (0.02 mg/kg bw/day). The estimated exposure based on measured glyphosate in composite food samples corresponded to 0.4% of the acceptable daily intake for glyphosate, and the predicted concentration from dietary information was 4% which is comparable to the National Estimated Daily Intake of 5.5% of the Acceptable Daily Intake of glyphosate. Prenatal exposures were estimated to be significantly lower. While residues of glyphosate are present in food, this study demonstrates that exposure concentrations are low and confirms the current models used to estimate glyphosate exposure.

  12. Frontal-subcortical protein expression following prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, with targeted western blot analyses for confirmation, we investigated the impact of MIA on the prefrontal and striatal proteome from an established MIA mouse model generated in C57B6 mice, by administering the viral analogue PolyI:C or saline vehicle (control intravenously on gestation day (GD 9. In striatum, 11 proteins were up-regulated and 4 proteins were down-regulated in the PolyI:C mice, while 10 proteins were up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in prefrontal cortex (PFC. These were proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, oxidation and auto-immune targets, including dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4A-II, creatine kinase (CK-B, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B, WD repeat-containing protein and NADH dehydrogenase in the striatum; and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein, 14-3-3 protein, alpha-enolase, olfactory maker protein and heat shock proteins (HSP 60, and 90-beta in the PFC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data fits with emerging evidence for disruption of critical converging intracellular pathways involving MAPK pathways in neurodevelopmental conditions and it shows considerable overlap with protein pathways identified by genetic modeling and clinical post-mortem studies. This has implications for understanding causality and may offer potential biomarkers and novel treatment targets for neurodevelopmental conditions.

  13. Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Maternal Plasma for the Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kamhieh-Milz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Most developmental processes are under the control of small regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs. We hypothesize that different fetal developmental processes might be reflected by extracellular miRNAs in maternal plasma and may be utilized as biomarkers for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies. In this proof-of-concept study, we report on the identification of extracellular miRNAs in maternal plasma of Down syndrome (DS pregnancies. Methods. Using high-throughput quantitative PCR (HT-qPCR, 1043 miRNAs were investigated in maternal plasma via comparison of seven DS pregnancies with age and fetal sex matched controls. Results. Six hundred and ninety-five miRNAs were identified. Thirty-six significantly differentially expressed mature miRNAs were identified as potential biomarkers. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these miRNAs resulted in the clear discrimination of DS from euploid pregnancies. Gene targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in signaling pathways such as mucin type-O-glycans, ECM-receptor interactions, TGF-beta, and endocytosis, which have been previously associated with DS. Conclusions. miRNAs are promising and stable biomarkers for a broad range of diseases and may allow a reliable, cost-efficient diagnostic tool for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of DS.

  14. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Hinde, Katie; Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, ...

  15. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H.; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due t

  16. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H.; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due t

  17. Identification of Prenatal Amphetamines Exposure by Maternal Interview and Meconium Toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Teresa R.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia M.; Della Grotta, Sheri A.; Strauss, Arthur; Haning, William F.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    The Infant Development Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study is investigating the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure on infant and child development; potential concurrent exposure to cannabis and tobacco also are evaluated. Maternal self-reported drug use and/or meconium toxicology results defined drug exposure status. It is unclear how the frequency, duration and magnitude of maternal MAMP exposure affect qualitative and quantitative meconium results. Materials and Methods Interviews regarding maternal drug use were collected shortly after birth; meconium specimens were screened for amphetamines, cannabis and cotinine by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Results The majority of MAMP- and cannabis-exposed infants were identified by maternal interview alone. Meconium tests were more likely to be positive if the mother reported MAMP and cannabis use, particularly in the third trimester. Less than half of immunoassay-positive amphetamines (31.0%) and cannabis (17.9%) meconium results were confirmed by GCMS. Tobacco exposure was equally detected by immunoassay cotinine screen and maternal report. Meconium concentrations did not correlate with maternal self-report status or trimester of use, frequency or route of MAMP use. Discussion Maternal self-report was more sensitive than meconium testing for identifying MAMP and cannabis-exposed neonates; however, the timing of drug exposure may influence meconium toxicology results. Most women ceased MAMP and cannabis use before the third trimester. In the first trimester, meconium has not yet formed, and based on our recent results for opiates and cocaine, drug use in the second trimester appears to be poorly reflected in meconium. Conclusion Low confirmation rates in meconium reinforce the need for confirmatory testing following positive screening results and additional research to identify alternative biomarkers. PMID:19935364

  18. Identification of prenatal amphetamines exposure by maternal interview and meconium toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Teresa R; LaGasse, Linda L; Smith, Lynne M; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia M; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Strauss, Arthur; Haning, William F; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2009-12-01

    The Infant Development Environment and Lifestyle study is investigating the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MAMP) exposure on infant and child development; potential concurrent exposure to cannabis and tobacco also are evaluated. Maternal self-reported drug use and/or meconium toxicology results defined drug exposure status. It is unclear how the frequency, duration, and magnitude of maternal MAMP exposure affect qualitative and quantitative meconium results. Interviews regarding maternal drug use were collected shortly after birth; meconium specimens were screened for amphetamines, cannabis, and cotinine by immunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The majority of MAMP- and cannabis-exposed infants were identified by maternal interview alone. Meconium tests were more likely to be positive if the mother reported MAMP and cannabis use, particularly in the third trimester. Less than half of immunoassay-positive amphetamines (31.0%) and cannabis (17.9%) meconium results were confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Tobacco exposure was equally detected by immunoassay cotinine screening and maternal report. Meconium concentrations did not correlate with maternal self-report status or trimester of use or frequency or route of MAMP use. Maternal self-report was more sensitive than meconium testing for identifying MAMP and cannabis-exposed neonates; however, the timing of drug exposure may influence meconium toxicology results. Most women stopped MAMP and cannabis use before the third trimester. In the first trimester, meconium has not yet formed, and based on our recent results for opiates and cocaine, drug use in the second trimester appears to be poorly reflected in meconium. Low confirmation rates in meconium reinforce the need for confirmatory testing following positive screening results and additional research to identify alternative biomarkers.

  19. Learning deficits and suppression of the cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring are attenuated by maternal chewing during prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mika; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Tamura, Yasuo; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2014-02-07

    Prenatal stress in dams induces learning deficits and suppresses neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of offspring via increasing corticosterone levels in the dam. Chewing under stressful conditions prevents stress-induced behavioral impairments and morphologic changes. Here, we examined whether chewing during prenatal stress prevents the stress-induced learning deficits and the suppression of cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress beginning on day 12 of pregnancy and continuing until delivery. Half of the dams were given a wooden stick to chew on during restraint. The pups were raised to adulthood, and learning ability and cell proliferation in the hippocampal DG were assessed. In dams, chewing during prenatal stress attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. In the adult offspring, prenatal stress impaired learning and decreased cell proliferation in the DG, whereas maternal chewing during prenatal stress significantly attenuated the prenatal stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in the DG in their offspring. These findings suggest that maternal chewing during prenatal stress is an effective stress-coping method for the dam to prevent learning deficits and suppression of cell proliferation in offspring.

  20. Maternal PUFA status but not prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with children's language functions at age five years in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Zareba, Grazyna; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Lynch, Miranda; Wallace, Julie M W; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Janciuras, Joanne; Wong, Rosa; Clarkson, Thomas W; Myers, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    Evidence from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study suggests that maternal nutritional status can modulate the relationship between prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and developmental outcomes in children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal PUFA status was a confounding factor in any possible associations between prenatal MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes at 5 y of age in the Republic of Seychelles. Maternal status of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA were measured in serum collected at 28 wk gestation and delivery. Prenatal MeHg exposure was determined in maternal hair collected at delivery. At 5 y of age, the children completed a comprehensive range of sensitive developmental assessments. Complete data from 225 mothers and their children were available for analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed Preschool Language Scale scores of the children improved with increasing maternal serum DHA [22:6(n-3)] concentrations and decreased with increasing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] concentrations, albeit verbal intelligence improved with increasing (n-6) PUFA concentrations in maternal serum. There were no adverse associations between MeHg exposure and developmental outcomes. These findings suggest that higher fish consumption, resulting in higher maternal (n-3) PUFA status, during pregnancy is associated with beneficial developmental effects rather than detrimental effects resulting from the higher concomitant exposures of the fetus to MeHg. The association of maternal (n-3) PUFA status with improved child language development may partially explain the authors' previous finding of improving language scores, as prenatal MeHg exposure increased in an earlier mother-child cohort in the Seychelles where maternal PUFA status was not measured.

  1. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  2. Impact on spina bifida screening of shifting prenatal Down syndrome maternal serum screening from the second trimester to the first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Dreux, Sophie; Stirnemann, Julien J; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Segonne, Alexandra; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Ville, Yves; Muller, Francoise

    2017-07-01

    Shifting screening for trisomy 21 to the first trimester has resulted in the loss of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for spina bifida. The aim of this study was to study the impact on open spina bifida prenatal screening. We reviewed prenatally diagnosed cases of spina bifida over three years: 2009 (only second-trimester screening, MSM2T), 2010 (transient period) and 2011 (majority first-trimester screening, MSM1T). Cases were assigned to three groups based on maternal serum markers (MSM2T, MSM1T and 'not performed'). Gestational age at diagnosis of spina bifida was compared between these three groups and between the years 2009 and 2011. Median gestational ages at diagnosis of the 742 spina bifida cases between the three groups were 22 weeks [18(+6) -23], 22(+1)  weeks [21(+3) -23] and 21(+4)  weeks [14(+1) -23], respectively (P Spina bifida diagnosis at 14-20 weeks declined from 38.8% in 2009 to 13.3% in 2011 (P spina bifida and resulted in a decrease of 25% of cases of spina bifida detected before 20 weeks. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharajiya, Nilesh; Zwiefelhofer, Tricia; Guan, Xiaojun; Angkachatchai, Vach; Saldivar, Juan-Sebastian

    2015-01-20

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) represents an outstanding example of how novel scientific discoveries can be quickly and successfully developed into hugely impactful clinical diagnostic tests. Since the introduction of NIPT to detect trisomy 21 in late 2011, the technology has rapidly advanced to analyze other autosomal and sex chromosome aneuploidies, and now includes the detection of subchromosomal deletion and duplication events. Here we provide a brief overview of how noninvasive prenatal testing using next-generation sequencing is performed.

  4. Impact of prenatal education on maternal utilization of analgesic interventions at future infant vaccinations: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Smart, Sarah; Sheedy, Matthuschka; Yoon, Eugene W; Vyas, Charmy; Parikh, Chaitya; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2014-07-01

    Analgesic interventions are not routinely used during vaccine injections in infants. Parents report a desire to mitigate injection pain, but lack the knowledge about how to do so. The objective of this cluster-randomized trial was to evaluate the effect of a parent-directed prenatal education teaching module about vaccination pain management on analgesic utilization at future infant vaccinations. Expectant mothers enrolled in prenatal classes at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto were randomized to a 20-30minute interactive presentation about vaccination pain management (experimental group) or general vaccination information (control group). Both presentations included a PowerPoint (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and video presentation, take-home pamphlet, and "Question and Answer" period. The primary outcome was self-reported utilization of breastfeeding, sugar water, or topical anaesthetics at routine 2-month infant vaccinations. Between October 2012 and July 2013, 197 expectant mothers from 28 prenatal classes participated; follow-up was obtained in 174 (88%). Maternal characteristics did not differ (P>0.05) between groups. Utilization of one or more prespecified pain interventions occurred in 34% of participants in the experimental group, compared to 17% in the control group (P=0.01). Inclusion of a pain management module in prenatal classes led to increased utilization of evidence-based pain management interventions by parents at the 2-month infant vaccination appointment. Educating parents offers a novel and effective way of improving the quality of pain care delivered to infants during vaccination. Additional research is needed to determine if utilization can be bolstered further using techniques such as postnatal hospital reinforcement, reminder cards, and clinician education.

  5. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing using massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA: from molecular karyotyping to fetal whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Y M Dennis

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in 1997 has stimulated a rapid development of non-invasive prenatal testing. The recent advent of massively parallel sequencing has allowed the analysis of circulating cell-free fetal DNA to be performed with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 are now robustly detectable in maternal plasma and such analyses have been available clinically since 2011. Fetal genome-wide molecular karyotyping and whole-genome sequencing have now been demonstrated in a number of proof-of-concept studies. Genome-wide and targeted sequencing of maternal plasma has been shown to allow the non-invasive prenatal testing of β-thalassaemia and can potentially be generalized to other monogenic diseases. It is thus expected that plasma DNA-based non-invasive prenatal testing will play an increasingly important role in future obstetric care. It is thus timely and important that the ethical, social and legal issues of non-invasive prenatal testing be discussed actively by all parties involved in prenatal care.

  7. Cortisol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  8. Non-western women in maternity care in the Netherlands: Exploring 'inadequate' use of prenatal care and the experiences of care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Non-western women in the Netherlands are more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care than native Dutch women. Furthermore, non-western women are diverse in origin which implies diversity in their needs and expectations for maternity care. This thesis examines the factors and reasons

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  11. Haplotype-based approach for noninvasive prenatal tests of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yan; Li, Xuchao; Ge, Hui-Juan

    2015-01-01

    single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes to the direct sequencing results of fetal genomic DNA. Prenatal diagnosis was confirmed with amniocentesis, and those results were interpreted in a blinded fashion.Results:The results showed an average accuracy of 99.98% for the total inferred maternal SNPs...

  12. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  13. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  14. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Liu

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.

  15. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; ROSS, RANDAL G .; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair corti...

  16. A nationwide study on the risk of autism after prenatal stress exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    children were in the unexposed group. All children were followed up from birth until their death, migration, onset of autism, or the end of 2006. Information on autism was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios in the exposed group...... ratios were comparable between the 5 prenatal exposure periods under study (7-12 months before pregnancy, 0-6 months before pregnancy, first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first population-based cohort study to examine the effect of prenatal stress on autism...

  17. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  18. Adverse Effects of Heavy Prenatal Maternal Smoking on Attentional Control in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; Thompson, Nancy; Scahill, Lawrence; King, Robert A.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Schultz, Robert T.; Leckman, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to heavy maternal cigarette smoking in pregnancy and severe maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy appear to be important risk factors for the development of ADHD. This study aimed to determine whether these perinatal risk factors were associated with neuropsychological deficits commonly seen in ADHD. Method: We examined…

  19. Effects of prenatal maternal injections of phenobarbital on brain neurotransmitters and behavior of young C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, L D; Thomas, T N; Simpson, L W; Zemp, J W

    1981-01-01

    Offspring of C57BL/6J mice injected daily with phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg) for the last 6 or 7 days of pregnancy were compared with offspring of saline control mice on behavioral and neurochemical measures of brain function at 21 days of age. Activity in an open field arena was elevated in male offspring and reactivity to presentation of a tone-light stimulus was increased for female offspring of drug treated dams. Brain concentration of dopamine and norepinephrine was reduced and the uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid into synaptosomal preparations of brain tissue was greater for treated offspring. Both the behavioral and neurochemical indices indicate that the brain is altered by maternal prenatal injections of phenobarbital but the relationship between these changes remains speculative.

  20. Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal nutrient reduction on expression of genes regulating cortisol metabolism in fetal baboon adipose and liver tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Li, Cun; Myatt, Leslie; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Kang

    2013-04-01

    Maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) during fetal development may predispose offspring to chronic disease later in life. Increased regeneration of active glucocorticoids by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic tissues is fundamental to the developmental programming of metabolic syndrome, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) generates NADPH, the cofactor for 11β-HSD1 reductase activity. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulate 11β-HSD1 expression. We hypothesize that MNR increases expression of fetal C/EBPs, GR, and H6PD, thereby increasing expression of 11β-HSD1 and reductase activity in fetal liver and adipose tissues. Pregnant MNR baboons ate 70% of what controls ate from 0.16 to 0.9 gestation (term, 184 days). Cortisol levels in maternal and fetal circulations increased in MNR pregnancies at 0.9 gestation. MNR increased expression of 11β-HSD1; H6PD; C/EBPα, -β, -γ; and GR in female but not male perirenal adipose tissue and in male but not female liver at 0.9 gestation. Local cortisol level and its targets PEPCK1 and PPARγ increased correspondingly in adipose and liver tissues. C/EBPα and GR were found to be bound to the 11β-HSD1 promoter. In conclusion, sex- and tissue-specific increases of 11β-HSD1, H6PD, GR, and C/EBPs may contribute to sexual dimorphism in the programming of exaggerated cortisol regeneration in liver and adipose tissues and offsprings' susceptibility to metabolic syndrome.

  1. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS: Questionnai...... in screening and with intentions about selective termination, women's perceptions of lives of the disabled should receive more attention in future studies.......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  2. Prenatal Enrichment And Recovery From Perinatal Cortical Damage: Effects Of Maternal Complex Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin eGibb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birth is a particularly vulnerable time for acquiring brain injury. Unfortunately, very few treatments are available for those affected. Here we explore the effectiveness of prenatal intervention in an animal model of early brain damage. We used a complex housing paradigm as a form of prenatal enrichment. Six nulliparous dams and one male rat were placed in complex housing (condomom group for 12 hours per day until the dams' delivered their pups. At parturition the dams were left in their home (standard cages with their pups. Four dams were housed in standard cages (cagemom group throughout pregnancy and with their pups until weaning. At postnatal day 3 (P3 infants of both groups received frontal cortex removals or sham surgery. Behavioural testing began on P60 and included the Morris water task and a skilled reaching task. Brains were processed for Golgi analyses. Complex housing of the mother had a significant effect on the behaviour of their pups. Control animals from the condomom group outperformed those of the cagemom group in the water task. Condomom animals with lesions performed better than their cagemom cohorts in both the water task and in skilled reaching. Condomom animals showed an increase in cortical thickness at anterior planes and thalamic area at both anterior and posterior regions. Golgi analyses revealed an increase in spine density. These results suggest that prenatal enrichment alters brain organization in manner that is prophylactic for perinatal brain injury. This result could have significant implications for the prenatal management of infants expected to be at risk for difficult birth.

  3. Determination of maternal-fetal biomarkers of prenatal exposure to ethanol: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, X; Friguls, B; Ortigosa, S; Papaseit, E; Martínez, S E; Manich, A; Garcia-Algar, O; Pacifici, R; Vall, O; Pichini, S

    2012-10-01

    The deleterious effects exerted by prenatal ethanol exposure include physical, mental, behavioural and/or learning disabilities that are included in the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Objective assessment of exposure to ethanol at both prenatal and postnatal stages is essential for early prevention and intervention. Since pregnant women tend to underreport alcohol drinking by questionnaires, a number of biological markers have been proposed and evaluated for their capability to highlight gestational drinking behaviour. These biomarkers include classical biomarkers (albeit indirect) of alcohol-induced pathology (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) acetaldehyde-derived conjugates, and finally derivatives of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphaditylethanol (PEth)). Since ethanol itself and acetaldehyde are only measured few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices such as blood, urine and sweat, they are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. In the past few years, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and in some case wide time-window of detection in non-conventional matrices from the pregnant mother (oral fluid and hair) and fetus-newborn (neonatal hair, meconium, placenta and umbilical cord). This article reviews bioanalytical procedures for the determination of these markers of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and related prenatal exposure. In addition, clinical toxicological applications of these procedures are presented and discussed.

  4. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  5. Individual and combined effects of maternal anemia and prenatal infection on risk for schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Philip R; Meyer, Urs; Mortensen, Preben B

    2016-04-01

    Maternal iron deficiency and infection during pregnancy have individually been associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in the offspring, but possible interactions between the two remain unidentified thus far. Therefore, we determined the individual and combined effects of maternal infection during pregnancy and prepartum anemia on schizophrenia risk in the offspring. We conducted a population-based study with individual record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Hospital Register, and the Central Danish Psychiatric Register. In a cohort of Danish singleton births 1,403,183 born between 1977 and 2002, 6729 developed schizophrenia between 1987 and 2012. Cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received a diagnosis of anemia at any time during the pregnancy. Maternal infection was defined based on infections requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Maternal anemia and infection were both associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in unadjusted analyses (1.45-fold increase for anemia, 95% CI: 1.14-1.82; 1.32-fold increase for infection, 95% CI: 1.17-1.48). The effect of maternal infection remained significant (1.16-fold increase, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31) after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Combined exposure to anemia and an infection increased the effect size to a 2.49-fold increased schizophrenia risk (95% CI: 1.29-4.27). The interaction analysis, however, failed to provide evidence for multiplicative interactions between the two factors. Our findings indicate that maternal anemia and infection have additive but not interactive effects, and therefore, they may represent two independent risk factors of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic inequalities in maternal health care: prenatal care and skilled birth attendance in India, 1992-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS conducted during 1992-2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992-2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a do not use SBA and (b

  7. Maternal Prenatal Mental Health and Placental 11β-HSD2 Gene Expression: Initial Findings from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina Seth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High intrauterine cortisol exposure can inhibit fetal growth and have programming effects for the child’s subsequent stress reactivity. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2 limits the amount of maternal cortisol transferred to the fetus. However, the relationship between maternal psychopathology and 11β-HSD2 remains poorly defined. This study examined the effect of maternal depressive disorder, antidepressant use and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy on placental 11β-HSD2 gene (HSD11B2 expression. Drawing on data from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study, placental HSD11B2 expression was compared among 33 pregnant women, who were selected based on membership of three groups; depressed (untreated, taking antidepressants and controls. Furthermore, associations between placental HSD11B2 and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS during 12–18 and 28–34 weeks gestation were examined. Findings revealed negative correlations between HSD11B2 and both the EPDS and STAI (r = −0.11 to −0.28, with associations being particularly prominent during late gestation. Depressed and antidepressant exposed groups also displayed markedly lower placental HSD11B2 expression levels than controls. These findings suggest that maternal depression and anxiety may impact on fetal programming by down-regulating HSD11B2, and antidepressant treatment alone is unlikely to protect against this effect.

  8. [Prenatal diagnosis with fetal cells in maternal blood: report of experiences in Basal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzgreve, W; Troeger, C; Schatt, S; Vial, Y; Louwen, F; Gloning, K; Hahn, S

    1998-10-24

    Currently prenatal diagnosis relies on invasive procedures such as chorion villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis (AC). Many parents are reluctant to expose themselves and their child to the small, but significant risk posed by these procedures to mother and child. There is, hence, a great need for a risk-free non-invasive alternative. To achieve this goal most research has been focussed on enriching fetal cells from the blood of pregnant women. The erythroblast has emerged as the target cell of choice, since it is abundant in the early fetus, rare in normal adult blood, and since it has a very short half life, there is no risk of obtaining cells from previous pregnancies. Most enrichment protocols rely either on magnetic- or fluorescent activated cell sorting (MACS and FACS) using fetal specific antibodies. These enriched cells can be examined by FISH (fluorescence in-situ hybridisation) for the presence of the most common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies (13, 18, 21, X and Y) or by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on singly manipulated cells for genetic disorders. The efficacy in detecting fetal aneuploidies is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical trial under the auspices of the NIH-NICHD, the so-called NIFTY Trial, in which our group is a participant. By modifying our enrichment protocols we have recently been able to obtain detection sensitivities of almost 80%, thereby renewing our optimism that this methodology provides a solid basis for an effective non-invasive prenatal diagnostic test.

  9. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  10. Studies on Wild House Mice. VII. Prenatal Maternal Environment and Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; van der Vlugt, J; van Oortmerssen, G.A; Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the maternal environment on intermale aggression was studied by means of embryo transfer of genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive wild house mice (LAL), and their reciprocal F1's, to standard (NMRI) females. No effect was found on the attack latency scores (ALS), i.e.

  11. Studies on wild house mice .7. Prenatal maternal environment and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; vanderVlugt, JJ; vanOortmerssen, GA; Koolhaas, JM; vanderHoeven, F; deBoer, P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the maternal environment on intermale aggression was studied by means of embryo transfer of genetically selected aggressive (SAL) and nonaggressive wild house mice (LAL), and their reciprocal F-1's, to standard (NMRI) females. No effect was found on the attack latency scores (ALS), i.e

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 on fetal cells obtained from maternal blood after minor enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-Van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; Beverstock, GC; Van Ommen, GJB; Tanke, HJ; Kanhai, HHH

    1998-01-01

    In a pilot study to establish fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) detection in maternal blood, trisomy 13 was diagnosed by FISH analysis at 11 weeks' gestation. The NRBCs were detected after a single-step ficoll density gradient enrichment. In blood samples taken both before and after CVS, 52 and

  13. Evaluation of prenatal RHD typing strategies on cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.H.M. Grootkerk-Tax; A.A. Soussan; M. de Haas; P.A. Maaskant-van Wijk; C.E. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma led to the development of assays to predict the fetal D status with RHD-specific sequences. Few assays are designed in such a way that the fetus can be typed in RHD psi mothers and that RHD psi fetuses are correctly typed. Owing to

  14. Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan Ting; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide has become a public health issue. While many factors are involved in the development of obesity, stress during pregnancy has been linked to adiposity. However, research involving stressors that are independent of pregnant women's socioeconomic and psychological characteristics is rare. The present study made use of a natural disaster (1998 Quebec ice storm) to determine which aspect of the women's disaster experience (objective hardship, subjective stress, and/or cognitive appraisal) were associated with body mass index levels and/or waist to height ratio across childhood and adolescence. Measure of objective hardship, subjective stress, and cognitive appraisal were obtained following the 1998 Quebec ice storm. We measured height, weight, and waist circumference in children at ages 5½, 8½, 11½, 13½, and 15½. Our results show that higher prenatal maternal stress was associated with higher body mass index levels and central adiposity in children of ages 5½, 8½, 13½, and 15½. The effects of prenatal maternal stress on anthropometric measurements tend to increase as the children grew older. The findings of this study highlight the long-lasting effect of prenatal stress on body composition, and are compatible with the current theory of fetal programming. Hopefully, our increased knowledge of the effects of prenatal stress on the fetus will lead to improved awareness and the creation of early intervention programs, ultimately improving women's and children's health in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001).

  16. [Value of detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-juan; Gao, Zhi-ying; Lu, Yan-ping; Li, Ya-li; You, Yan-qin; Zhang, Li-wen; Wang, Long-xia; Xu, Hong

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the value of detection of fetal cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. The plasma from 3200 gravidas (singleton with 20.3 ± 3.8 gestational weeks) was collected from April 1(st) 2011 to May 30(th) 2012. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) To tally 1720 cases were included in the high-risk serological screening group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got high-risk results in serological screening; (2) To tally 1310 cases were included in the advanced age group, in which women's age was more than 35 years; (3) To tally 170 cases were included in the supplementary group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got low-risk results in serological screening, or women who didn't take serological screening tests. All the 3030 gravidas in group 1 and 2 didn't take invasive prenatal diagnosis because of fear of abortion or short of prenatal diagnosis. Cff-DNA were detected by next generation sequencing in Shenzhen BGI Genomics Center for clinical laboratory. Amniocentesis and karyotype analysis were provided to the positive cases and women with negative results were followed-up by telephone. (1) The 3200 cases took cff-DNA detection, and 31 cases got positive results, including 27 cases of trisomy 21 and 4 cases of trisomy 18. Sixteen cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the high-risk serological screening group. 7 cases of trisomy 21 and 2 cases of trisomy 18 were in the advanced age group. Four cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the supplementary group. (2) And the 84% (26/31) cff-DNA detecting positive cases received amniocentesis. In the 27 trisomy 21 positive cases, 23 received amniocentesis and got karyotype of 47XN, +21, with the diagnostic accordance rate of 100%. In the 4 cases who didn't take karyotype analysis, fetal anomaly (ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia and choroid plexus cyst) was found in 1 case before 20

  17. Prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood and the MTHFR C677T variant affect SLC6A4 methylation in infants at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Devlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal depression may "program" childhood behavior via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation. Methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme in the generation of methyl groups for DNA methylation. The common MTHFR C677T variant is associated with depression in men and non-pregnant women, and with global changes in DNA methylation. This study investigated the effect of maternal MTHFR C677T genotype on antenatal maternal mood, and their impact on the gene-specific methylation in pregnant women and their newborn infants. The methylation status of SLC6A4, which encodes the transmembrane serotonin transporter, and BDNF, which encodes brain derived neurotrophic factor, were assessed because of their potential role in behaviour. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Depressed mood was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D in women (n = 82, all taking folate during the 2(nd and 3(rd trimesters of pregnancy. The methylation status of SLC6A4 and BDNF were assessed in 3rd trimester maternal peripheral leukocytes and in umbilical cord leukocytes collected from their infants at birth. Women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had greater 2(nd trimester depressed mood (p<0.05. Increased 2(nd trimester maternal depressed mood (EPDS scores was associated with decreased maternal and infant SLC6A4 promoter methylation (p<0.05, but had no effect on BDNF promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the MTHFR C677T variant is associated with greater depressed mood during pregnancy. We further showed that prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood affects gene-specific DNA methylation patterns. These findings support the concept that alterations in epigenetic processes may contribute to developmental programming of behaviour by maternal depression.

  18. Changes in ovine maternal temperature, and serum cortisol and interleukin-6 concentrations after challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaroff, L; Boermans, H; Karrow, N A

    2006-08-01

    Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during late pregnancy and lactation. This attenuation, however, has not been well characterized in ruminant animals and may be relevant to their susceptibility to inflammatory diseases during these periods. Thus, the intent of this study was to characterize responsiveness of the ovine HPAA to inflammatory challenge during pregnancy and lactation. Ewes from early (33 d), middle (55 d), and late (138 d) pregnancy, as well as early lactation (10 d), were challenged i.v. with a bolus dose of 400 ng of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg of BW or saline. A corresponding group of nonpregnant ewes was also challenged with LPS to serve as positive control animals for each pregnancy and lactation study. Responsiveness of the HPAA was assessed by measuring the 4-h change in serum cortisol concentration after LPS challenge. The cortisol increase after LPS challenge was elevated (P HPAA responsiveness during pregnancy or lactation were attributed to changes in proinflammatory signaling to the HPAA. Interestingly, enhanced cortisol responsiveness during late pregnancy was correlated with increased (P HPAA responsiveness during this period. Serum IL-6 concentrations during early and midpregnancy did not increase in response to LPS challenge, indicating that HPAA activation during periods of pregnancy may be independent of IL-6 production.

  19. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years....... Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither...... hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure...

  20. A prospective study of prenatal mercury exposure from maternal dental amalgams and autism severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2009-01-01

    Dental amalgams containing 50% mercury (Hg) have been used in dentistry for the last 150 years, and Hg exposure during key developmental periods was associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study examined increased Hg exposure from maternal dental amalgams during pregnancy among 100 qualifying participants born between 1990-1999 and diagnosed with DSM-IV autism (severe) or ASD (mild). Logistic regression analysis (age, gender, race, and region of residency adjusted) by quintile of maternal dental amalgams during pregnancy revealed the ratio of autism:ASD (severe:mild) were about 1 (no effect) for or =6 amalgams. Subjects with > or =6 amalgams were 3.2-fold significantly more likely to be diagnosed with autism (severe) in comparison to ASD (mild) than subjects with < or =5 amalgams. Dental amalgam policies should consider Hg exposure in women before and during the child-bearing age and the possibility of subsequent fetal exposure and adverse outcomes.

  1. Non-invasive prenatal testing of trisomy 18 by an epigenetic marker in first trimester maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Eun Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantification of cell-free fetal DNA by methylation-based DNA discrimination has been used in non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. The maspin (Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin, member 5; SERPINB5 gene, located on chromosome 18q21.33, is hypomethylated in the placenta and completely methylated in maternal blood cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of non-invasive detection of fetal trisomy 18 using the unmethylated-maspin (U-maspin gene as a cell-free fetal DNA marker and the methylated-maspin (M-maspin gene as a cell-free total DNA marker in the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted using maternal plasma collected from 66 pregnant women, 11 carrying fetuses with trisomy 18 and 55 carrying normal fetuses. Median U-maspin concentrations were significantly elevated in women with trisomy 18 fetuses compared with controls (27.2 vs. 6.7 copies/mL; P<0.001. Median M-maspin concentrations were also significantly higher in women with trisomy 18 fetuses than in controls (96.9 vs. 19.5 copies/mL, P<0.001. The specificities of U-maspin and M-maspin concentrations for non-invasive fetal trisomy 18 detection were 96.4% and 74.5%, respectively, with a sensitivity of 90.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that U-maspin and M-maspin concentrations may be useful as potential biomarkers for non-invasive detection of fetal trisomy 18 in the first trimester of pregnancy, irrespective of the sex and genetic variations of the fetus.

  2. Maternal bereavement in the antenatal period and oral cleft in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, K G; Liang, H; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal bereavement (emotional stress) due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period associated with the risk of oral cleft in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests prenatal maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft in the of......STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal bereavement (emotional stress) due to loss of a close relative in the antenatal period associated with the risk of oral cleft in the offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study suggests prenatal maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft...... still had a relatively small number of cases, which results in limited power to detect small differences. We did not have actual measurements of the maternal cortisol concentration, but we believe that bereavement due to death of a close relative produces a strong stress reaction in most people. Also we...

  3. Attitudes of women of advanced maternal age undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis and the impact of genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Pompilii, Eva; D'Anna, Federica; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Nardi, Elena; Seri, Marco; Rizzo, Nicola; Pilu, Gianluigi; Turchetti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Despite the increasing availability and effectiveness of non-invasive screening for foetal aneuploidies, most women of advanced maternal age (AMA) still opt for invasive tests. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed on women of AMA undergoing prenatal invasive procedures, in order to explore their motivations and the outcome of preliminary genetic counselling according to the approach (individual or group) adopted. Of 687 eligible women, 221 (32.2%) participated: 117 had received individual counselling, while 104 had attended group sessions. The two groups did not differ by socio-demographic features. The commonest reported reason to undergo invasive tests was AMA itself (67.4%), while only 10.4% of women mentioned the opportunity of making informed choices. The majority perceived as clear and helpful the information received at counselling, and only 12.7% had doubts left that, however, often concerned non-pertinent issues. The impact of counselling on risk perception and decisions was limited: a minority stated their perceived risk of foetal abnormalities had either increased (6.8%) or reduced (3.6%), and only one eventually declined invasive test. The 52.6% of women expressed a preference toward individual counselling, which also had a stronger impact on perceived risk reduction (P=0.003). Nevertheless, group counselling had a more favourable impact on both clarity of understanding and helpfulness (P=0.0497 and P=0.035, respectively). The idea that AMA represents an absolute indication for invasive tests appears deeply rooted; promotion of non-invasive techniques may require extensive educational efforts targeted to both the general population and health professionals.

  4. Cell-free fetal DNA and intact fetal cells in maternal blood circulation: implications for first and second trimester non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Farideh Z; Sinacori, Mina K; Dang, Dianne D; Marquez-Do, Deborah; Horne, Cassandra; Lewis, Dorothy E; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Both intact fetal cells as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation and can be recovered for non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Although methods for enrichment and isolation of rare intact fetal cells have been challenging, diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy including trisomy 21 in first- and second-trimester pregnancies has been achieved with a 50-75% detection rate. Similarly, cell-free fetal DNA can be reliably recovered from maternal plasma and assessed by quantitative PCR to detect fetal trisomy 21 and paternally derived single gene mutations. Real-time PCR assays are robust in detecting low-level fetal DNA concentrations, with sensitivity of approximately 95-100% and specificity near 100%. Comparing intact fetal cell versus cell-free fetal DNA methods for non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal aneuploidy reveals that the latter is at least four times more sensitive. These preliminary results do not support a relationship between frequency of intact fetal cells and concentration of cell-free fetal DNA. The above results imply that the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may not be dependent on circulating intact fetal cells but rather be a product of growth and cellular turnover during embryonic or fetal development.

  5. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Timing matters : Long term effects of adversities from prenatal period up to adolescence on adolescents' cortisol stress response. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Nienke M.; Riese, Harriette; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bakker, Martin P.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Altered cortisol response is a vulnerability marker for a variety of stress-related diseases and psychiatric disorders. Childhood adversity has been shown to modify this response, but evidence is inconsistent. Effects may differ depending on the timing of exposure, or due to the interplay

  7. Baixo peso ao nascer e condições maternas no pré-natal Bajo peso al nacer y condiciones maternas en el período prenatal Low birth weight and maternal conditions in pre-natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Tamami Minagawa

    2006-12-01

    ón en la adolescencia y también priorizando la atención de las mujeres sin compañero.This study was carried in the area covered by the Hospital Universitário of the University of São Paulo in order to verify the relationship between birth weight and maternal work and prenatal, nutritional (height, initial and final weight and weight gain during gestation and socioeconomic-demographic (age, marital status, level of education, family income conditions. It was based on a sample of 101 children. The occurrence of low birth weight (LBW (5.1% did not show association with maternal work nor with prenatal. On the other hand, LBW showed significant association with the following maternal variables: weight gain during the pregnancy under 7 kilograms, mother's age under 20 years old and marital status (single mothers. Despite the low occurrence of LBW, the results point out to the importance of taking measures to reduce LBW, in particular through the control of prenatal weight gain and prenatal among adolescents. Moreover, a policy of educating women, and in particular single women, about pregnancy, childbirth and nutrition seem an obvious necessity.

  8. Prenatal care according to the NOM-007 norm, which relates to maternal morbidity in a health center in San Luis Potosí (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila P. Acosta R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mother and child mortality reflects the level of social and economic development of a country; therefore, reproductive health is a sanitary priority. Mortality prevention depends directly on the coverage and quality of health services. Objective: to assess the compliance of prenatal care with the NOM 007 norm and its correlation with maternal morbidity in a health center located in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Methodology: a descriptive, correlational, and quantitative study in which the units of analysis were the medical records of 571 pregnant women cared for during 2008. In order to prove the hypothesis, Pearson’s r was used. The p value was ≤ 0.05. Results: ages ranged from 13 to 43 years. Additionally, 37.1% of the patients were teenagers and 44.3 % began receiving attention during the second trimester of their pregnancy; 38.2 % attended at least five medical appointments, and 46.4 % had morbidity. For the latter group, urinary infection was the most common condition (224 cases. Prenatal attention was adequate in 2.6 % of the cases according to the actions performed. Health promotion actions were the least frequent. Conclusion: the level of compliance with the NOM 007 norm for prenatal care was considered inadequate in 97.4 % of the cases and was consistent with maternal morbidity (87.5-100 %. This could be related to more frequent appointments for some women and with late treatment, which resulted in less time to perform said actions. Contrary to expectations, greater compliance meant higher maternal morbidity (r = 0.318, p < 0.000.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic trisomy 16 associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Shih, Jin-Chung; Chern, Schu-Rern; Lee, Chen-Chi; Wang, Wayseen

    2004-01-01

    To present the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings of prenatally diagnosed mosaic trisomy 16. A 30-year-old gravida 2, para 1 woman was referred for amniocentesis because of a positive maternal serum screen result with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfreebeta-hCG). Cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid at 21 weeks' gestation revealed mosaicism for trisomy 16, 47,XX,+16[3]/46,XX[15]. Ultrasonography demonstrated right diaphragmatic hernia and agenesis of left umbilical artery. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The karyotype of the cord blood was 46,XX. Cytogenetic analyses of the multiple sampled tissue specimens showed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 in the placenta and 47,XX,+16/46,XX with various levels of trisomy 16 in the umbilical cord and skin. Molecular studies showed that the trisomy 16 in the placenta was likely to have resulted from a maternal meiosis II nondisjunction error. Partial dosage increase of an extra maternal allele was noted in the skin and umbilical cord. Fetuses with mosaic trisomy 16 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and elevated MSAFP and MShCG. Fetal blood sampling is of a limited value in confirming mosaic trisomy 16 ascertained through amniocentesis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Uptake, outcomes, and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing for Down’s syndrome into NHS maternity care: prospective cohort study in eight diverse maternity units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Hill, Melissa; Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Lewis, Celine; Mason, Sarah; McKay, Fiona; Jenkins, Lucy; Howarth, Abigail; Cameron, Louise; McEwan, Alec; Fisher, Jane; Kroese, Mark; Morris, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the benefits and costs of implementing non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down’s syndrome into the NHS maternity care pathway. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight maternity units across the United Kingdom between 1 November 2013 and 28 February 2015. Participants All pregnant women with a current Down’s syndrome risk on screening of at least 1/1000. Main outcome measures Outcomes were uptake of NIPT, number of cases of Down’s syndrome detected, invasive tests performed, and miscarriages avoided. Pregnancy outcomes and costs associated with implementation of NIPT, compared with current screening, were determined using study data on NIPT uptake and invasive testing in combination with national datasets. Results NIPT was prospectively offered to 3175 pregnant women. In 934 women with a Down’s syndrome risk greater than 1/150, 695 (74.4%) chose NIPT, 166 (17.8%) chose invasive testing, and 73 (7.8%) declined further testing. Of 2241 women with risks between 1/151 and 1/1000, 1799 (80.3%) chose NIPT. Of 71 pregnancies with a confirmed diagnosis of Down’s syndrome, 13/42 (31%) with the diagnosis after NIPT and 2/29 (7%) after direct invasive testing continued, resulting in 12 live births. In an annual screening population of 698 500, offering NIPT as a contingent test to women with a Down’s syndrome screening risk of at least 1/150 would increase detection by 195 (95% uncertainty interval −34 to 480) cases with 3368 (2279 to 4027) fewer invasive tests and 17 (7 to 30) fewer procedure related miscarriages, for a non-significant difference in total costs (£−46 000, £−1 802 000 to £2 661 000). The marginal cost of NIPT testing strategies versus current screening is very sensitive to NIPT costs; at a screening threshold of 1/150, NIPT would be cheaper than current screening if it cost less than £256. Lowering the risk threshold increases the number of Down’s syndrome cases detected and

  11. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: insights from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health.

  12. The association between perceived emotional support, maternal mood, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, and the ratio between the two compounds in response to acute stress in second trimester pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; La Marca, Roberto; Dainese, Sara M; Haller, Marina; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of social support on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy. Moreover, when investigating the HPA axis most studies do not consider the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), an enzyme within the salivary glands that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. This study explores the association between perceived emotional support and the maternal psychobiological stress response to a standardized naturalistic stressor by assessing maternal mood and the reactivity of salivary cortisol (SalF), salivary cortisone (SalE), and the SalE/(E+F) ratio as a marker of 11β-HSD2 activity. Repeated saliva samples and measures of maternal mood were obtained from 34 healthy second trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis which served as a psychological stressor. The pregnant women additionally responded to a questionnaire of perceived emotional support and provided sociodemographic (e.g., maternal educational degree) and pregnancy-specific data (e.g., planned versus unplanned pregnancy). Perceived emotional support neither showed a significant effect on mood nor on the SalF or SalE response to stress. However, a moderately strong positive association was found between perceived emotional support and SalE/(E+F) (r=.49). Additionally, the final regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between educational degree, planned/unplanned pregnancy and SalE/(E+F). Findings suggest a higher metabolization of cortisol to cortisone in pregnant women with higher emotional support. In contrast, higher maternal education and unplanned pregnancy appear to be associated with decreased salivary 11β-HSD2 activity. The current study emphasizes the importance of taking the activity of 11β-HSD2 into account when examining SalF. © 2013.

  13. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sara L; Geller, Pamela A; Epperson, C Neill

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women's health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins.

  14. Maternal late pregnancy anxiety and stress is associated with children's health: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, Marianne J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-07-09

    Maternal prenatal anxiety and stress (PNS) have been positively associated to physical health prob lems in offspring in the first year of life. Whether these associations are transient, persistent, or even progressive over time, is as yet unknown. The goal of this study is to investigate associations between late pregnancy PNS and child health from 18 months to age 6. Mothers were recruited in late pregnancy, and had uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without physical health problems. Around week 37 of pregnancy, mothers reported on their PNS by means of questionnaires, and provided saliva for determination of circadian cortisol concentrations. Children's illnesses in the preceding year were assessed using maternal reports at 30, 48, 60, and 72 months. Antibiotic use was obtained from medical records between one and six years. Multilevel models (N¼174) showed a positive relation between maternal prenatal general and pregnancy-specific anxiety during late pregnancy and offspring respiratory illnesses and symptoms. Interaction effects with time indicated that more PNS was related to more respiratory illnesses until toddlerhood, but not later in life. Furthermore, maternal prenatal cortisol concentrations were related to child digestive illnesses. A steeper maternal cortisol decline over the day was related to more child digestive illnesses, until around three years of age. Finally, children of mothers who suffered more from daily hassles during pregnancy received more antibiotics between one and six years of age. PNS was not related to general and skin illnesses. Summarizing, this study showed that late pregnancy anxiety and cortisol was associated with children's respiratory and digestive illnesses till the age of 3.0-3.5 years. Additionally, more daily hassles were related to more prescribed antibiotics between one and six years. These findings point in the direction of possible effects of PNS persisting beyond the first year of life and into toddlerhood, but

  15. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  16. Timing of prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A population study of 2.6 million pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of timing of prenatal stress exposure on offspring risk for shortened gestational age (GA), preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) using a population-based sample. Methods Swedish longitudinal population registries were linked to study all individuals born in Sweden 1973–2004. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was defined as death of the father of the child or first degree relative of the mother. Using linear and logistic regression, timing of stress exposure was examined across pregnancy, by month, and by novel periods created based on month of stress exposure findings. Results A total of 2,618,777 live-born, singleton infants without congenital anomalies were included; 32,286 exposed to prenatal maternal stress. Examining associations between stress exposure and outcome by the month revealed that risk increases mid-gestation, particularly following months 5 and 6. Combining months 1–4, 5 and 6, and 7–9 as potential periods of differing vulnerability, it was found that stress during period 2 (months 5 and 6) was associated with the greatest risk for shortened GA (−0.52 days, SE=0.15, p=0.0006), PTB (OR=1.24, 99% CI=1.08–1.42), LBW (OR=1.38, 99% CI=1.19–1.61), and SGA (OR=1.25, 99% CI=1.05–1.49). Conclusions Risk for shortened GA, PTB, LBW, and SGA are greater following stress exposure during the 5th and/or 6th month of pregnancy. It may be beneficial to refine future analyses to these months. Possible mechanisms include alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated stress-responsive molecular regulators. PMID:21321257

  17. Genetic counseling, prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome in the second trimester in women of advanced maternal age: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-wei; JIANG Yu-lin; ZHOU Xi-ya; LIU Jun-tao; YIN Jie; BIAN Xu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of autosomal trisomy in livebirths is strongly dependent on maternal age.Special consideration is given to the provision of prenatal screening and cytogenetic testing to women of advanced maternal age (AMA).The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of second trimester prenatal screening and amniocentesis for Down syndrome (DS) and compare the trends of choice of screening and amniocentesis among AMAwomen.Methods A total of 5404 AMA patients with natural singleton pregnancy were recruited for this prospective study from January 2008 to December 2010.The gestational weeks were from 15 weeks to 20+6 weeks.The patients referred were grouped into a screening group (2107 cases) and an amniocentesis group (3297 cases) by their own decision.The prevalence of DS was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Choice rates for each maternal age with trends were compared by regression analysis.Results There were 18 cases of fetal DS detected in the screening group with a prevalence of 8.54‰ (18/2107).Twentyfive cases of fetal DS were diagnosed in the amniocentesis group with a prevalence of 7.58‰ (25/3297).No statistical difference was observed in the prevalence of DS between the screening and amniocentesis group (P=0.928).The invasive testing rate for DS in the amniocentesis group was 5.54 times higher than that of the screening group (1/131.88 vs.1/23.78).With the increase of the maternal age,the choice of amniocentesis increased while the choice of the screening showed an opposite trend.The choice of the AMA women between the screening and amniocantesis was significantly age relevant (P=0.012).Conclusions The second trimester serum screening in combination with maternal age was more effective than maternal age alone to screen for DS.We suggest educating the patients by recommending AMA women be informed of both screening and amniocentesis options.

  18. Expectant Mothers Maximizing Opportunities: Maternal Characteristics Moderate Multifactorial Prenatal Stress in the Prediction of Birth Weight in a Sample of Children Adopted at Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Brotnow

    Full Text Available Mothers' stress in pregnancy is considered an environmental risk factor in child development. Multiple stressors may combine to increase risk, and maternal personal characteristics may offset the effects of stress. This study aimed to test the effect of 1 multifactorial prenatal stress, integrating objective "stressors" and subjective "distress" and 2 the moderating effects of maternal characteristics (perceived social support, self-esteem and specific personality traits on infant birthweight.Hierarchical regression modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data on 403 birth mothers and their newborns from an adoption study.Distress during pregnancy showed a statistically significant association with birthweight (R2 = 0.032, F(2, 398 = 6.782, p = .001. The hierarchical regression model revealed an almost two-fold increase in variance of birthweight predicted by stressors as compared with distress measures (R2Δ = 0.049, F(4, 394 = 5.339, p < .001. Further, maternal characteristics moderated this association (R2Δ = 0.031, F(4, 389 = 3.413, p = .009. Specifically, the expected benefit to birthweight as a function of higher SES was observed only for mothers with lower levels of harm-avoidance and higher levels of perceived social support. Importantly, the results were not better explained by prematurity, pregnancy complications, exposure to drugs, alcohol or environmental toxins.The findings support multidimensional theoretical models of prenatal stress. Although both objective stressors and subjectively measured distress predict birthweight, they should be considered distinct and cumulative components of stress. This study further highlights that jointly considering risk factors and protective factors in pregnancy improves the ability to predict birthweight.

  19. Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis DNA fetal libre en el plasma materno y diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo DNA livre fetal em plasma materno e diagnóstico pré-natal não invasivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Silveira Ramos

    2006-01-01

    The noninvasive nature of the detection of fetal DNA in the maternal circulation represents the greatest advantage over the conventional methods of prenatal diagnosis. The applications of this methodology involve the detection of the fetal sex, and diagnosis, intra-uterine treatment, and evaluation of the prognosis of many diseases. Fetal cells detected in the maternal circulation have also been shown to be implicated in autoimmune diseases and to represent a potential source of stem cells. O...

  20. Prenatal, but not early postnatal, exposure to a Western diet improves spatial memory of pigs later in life and is paired with changes in maternal prepartum blood lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Bartels, Andrea C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and perinatal high-fat diets are known to affect cognitive development. We examined the effects of late prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to a Western-type diet, high in both fat and refined sugar, on the cognition of pigs (Sus scrofa) in the absence of obesity. Thirty-six

  1. Maternal plasma levels of cell-free β-HCG mRNA as a prenatal diagnostic indicator of placenta accrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Li, J; Yan, P; Ye, Y H; Peng, W; Wang, S; Wang, X Tong

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers, including maternal serum creatinine kinase and α-fetoprotein, have been described as potential tools for the diagnosis of placental abnormalities. This study aimed to determine whether maternal plasma mRNA levels of the β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) could predict placenta accreta prenatally. Sixty-eight singleton pregnant women with prior cesarean deliveries (CDs) were classified into three groups: normal placentation (35 women, control group); placenta previa alone (21 women, placenta previa group); and both placenta previa and placenta accreta (12 women, placenta previa/accreta group). Maternal plasma concentrations of cell-free β-HCG mRNA were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM). Cell-free β-HCG mRNA concentrations (MoM, range) were significantly higher in women with placenta accreta (3.65, 2.78-7.19) than in women with placenta previa (0.94, 0.00-2.97) or normal placentation (1.00, 0.00-2.69) (Steel-Dwass test, P placenta previa/accreta group, the concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA was significantly higher among women who underwent CDs with hysterectomy (4.41, 3.49-7.19) than among women whose CDs did not result in hysterectomy (3.20, 2.78-3.70) (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.012). An increased level of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in the maternal plasma of women with placenta accreta may arise from direct uteroplacental transfer of cell-free placental mRNA molecules. The concentration of cell-free β-HCG mRNA in maternal plasma may be applicable to the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta, especially to identify women with placenta accreta likely to require hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal adversities during pregnancy and cord blood oxytocin receptor (OXTR) DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, Eva; Bolten, Margarete; Nast, Irina; Staehli, Simon; Meyer, Andrea H; Dempster, Emma; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal adversities and cortisol levels during pregnancy predict cord blood DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). We collected cord blood of 39 babies born to mothers participating in a cross-sectional study (N = 100) conducted in Basel, Switzerland (2007-10). Mothers completed the Inventory of Life Events (second trimester: T2), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, third trimester: T3), the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS-K, 1-3 weeks postpartum) and provided saliva samples (T2, T3) for maternal cortisol profiles, as computed by the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) or increase (AUCi) for the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and for diurnal cortisol profiles (DAY). OXTR DNA methylation was quantified using Sequenom EpiTYPER. The number of stressful life events (P = 0.032), EPDS score (P = 0.007) and cortisol AUCgs at T2 (CAR: P = 0.020; DAY: P = 0.024) were negatively associated with OXTR DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that distinct prenatal adversities predict decreased DNA methylation in a gene that is relevant for childbirth, maternal behavior and wellbeing of mother and offspring. If a reduced OXTR methylation increases OXTR expression, our findings could suggest an epigenetic adaptation to an adverse early environment.

  3. Maternal gestational cortisol and testosterone are associated with trade-offs in offspring sex and number in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calen P Ryan

    Full Text Available The adaptive manipulation of offspring sex and number has been of considerable interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The physiological mechanisms that translate maternal condition and environmental cues into adaptive responses in offspring sex and number, however, remain obscure. In mammals, research into the mechanisms responsible for adaptive sex allocation has focused on two major endocrine axes: the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis and glucocorticoids, and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG axis and sex steroids, particularly testosterone. While stress-induced activation of the HPA axis provides an intuitive model for sex ratio and litter size adjustment, plasma glucocorticoids exist in both bound and free fractions, and may be acting indirectly, for example by affecting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in female mammals, activation of the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of adrenal testosterone in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs. To begin to untangle these physiological mechanisms influencing offspring sex and number, we simultaneously examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, free and bound plasma cortisol, free testosterone, and plasma glucose concentration during both gestation and lactation in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii. We also collected data on offspring sex and litter size from focal females and from a larger study population. Consistent with previous work in this population, we found evidence for a trade-off between offspring sex and number, as well as positive and negative correlations between glucocorticoids and sex ratio and litter size, respectively, during gestation (but not lactation. We also observed a negative relationship between testosterone and litter size during gestation (but not lactation, but no effect of glucose on either sex ratio or litter size. Our findings highlight the importance of binding proteins, cross-talk between endocrine systems, and temporal windows

  4. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Sesarini; Pablo Argibay; Lucas Otaño

    2010-01-01

    Las técnicas actuales de diagnóstico prenatal de enfermedades génicas y cromosómicas incluyen procedimientos invasivos que conllevan un pequeño, pero significativo, riesgo. Por muchos años se ha estudiado la posibilidad de utilizar células fetales en circulación materna; sin embargo, ha fracasado su implementación clínica debido a su escasez y persistencia luego del parto. Desde hace más de una década se detectó ADN fetal libre en sangre de embarazadas. Este sería de origen placentario e inde...

  5. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.

  6. Prenatal care in combination with maternal educational level has a synergetic effect on the risk of neonatal low birth weight: new findings in a retrospective cohort study in Kunshan City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Dai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by

  7. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of Huntington disease: detection of the paternally inherited expanded CAG repeat in maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, J.M. van den; Bijlsma, E.K.; Feenstra, I.; Muntjewerff, N.; Mathijssen, I.B.; Bakker, E. de; Belzen, M.J. van; Boon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With a shift towards noninvasive testing, we have explored and validated the use of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for Huntington disease (HD). METHODS: Fifteen couples have been included, assessing a total of n = 20 pregnancies. Fetal paternally inherited CAG repeat length was det

  8. Discordant results between fetal karyotyping and non-invasive prenatal testing by maternal plasma sequencing in a case of uniparental disomy 21 due to trisomic rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Li, Fa Tao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Fu Man; Li, Dong Zhi; Lau, Tze Kin; Liao, Can

    2013-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) is an uncommon chromosome condition, but UPD involving chromosome 21 is rarely reported. We reported here a case who had first trimester screening test for Down syndrome, chorionic villus sampling for fetal karyotyping, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), as well as non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by maternal plasma sequencing. There were discordant results between fetal karyotyping and NIPT due to UPD 21combined with confined placental mosaicism of trisomy 21. This demonstrated that it is possible to detect placental mosaicism by NIPT, but further studies are required to confirm its sensitivity. Therefore, all positive NIPT results must be confirmed by conventional invasive test and karyotyping. QF-PCR has the additional benefit in diagnosing UPD.

  9. Does adopting a prenatal substance use protocol reduce racial disparities in CPS reporting related to maternal drug use? A California case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S C M; Zahnd, E; Sufrin, C; Armstrong, M A

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether adopting a standardized prenatal substance use protocol (protocol) in a hospital labor and delivery unit reduced racial disparities in reporting to child protective services (CPS) related to maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study used an interrupted time series design with a non-equivalent control. One hospital adopted a protocol and another hospital group serving a similar geographic population did not change protocols. Data on CPS reporting disparities from these hospitals over 3.5 years were analyzed using segmented regression. In the hospital that adopted the protocol, almost five times more black than white newborns were reported during the study period. Adopting the protocol was not associated with reduced disparities. Adopting a protocol cannot be assumed to reduce CPS reporting disparities. Efforts to encourage hospitals to adopt protocols as a strategy to reduce disparities may be misguided. Other strategies to reduce disparities are needed.

  10. Prenatal nicotine and maternal deprivation stress de-regulate the development of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus neurons in hippocampus of infant rats.

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    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC, postnatal maternal deprivation (MD or the combination of the two (NIC+MD to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14 pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG, decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment.

  11. A Method to Quantify Cell-Free Fetal DNA Fraction in Maternal Plasma Using Next Generation Sequencing: Its Application in Non-Invasive Prenatal Chromosomal Aneuploidy Detection.

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    Xu-Ping Xu

    Full Text Available The fraction of circulating cell-free fetal (cff DNA in maternal plasma is a critical parameter for aneuploidy screening with non-invasive prenatal testing, especially for those samples located in equivocal zones. We developed an approach to quantify cff DNA fractions directly with sequencing data, and increased cff DNAs by optimizing library construction procedure.Artificial DNA mixture samples (360, with known cff DNA fractions, were used to develop a method to determine cff DNA fraction through calculating the proportion of Y chromosomal unique reads, with sequencing data generated by Ion Proton. To validate our method, we investigated cff DNA fractions of 2,063 pregnant women with fetuses who were diagnosed as high risk of fetal defects. The z-score was calculated to determine aneuploidies for chromosomes 21, 18 and 13. The relationships between z-score and parameters of pregnancies were also analyzed. To improve cff DNA fractions in our samples, two groups were established as follows: in group A, the large-size DNA fragments were removed, and in group B these were retained, during library construction.A method to determine cff DNA fractions was successfully developed using 360 artificial mixture samples in which cff DNA fractions were known. A strong positive correlation was found between z-score and fetal DNA fraction in the artificial mixture samples of trisomy 21, 18 and 13, as well as in clinical maternal plasma samples. There was a positive correlation between gestational age and the cff DNA fraction in the clinical samples, but no correlation for maternal age. Moreover, increased fetal DNA fractions were found in group A compared to group B.A relatively accurate method was developed to determine the cff DNA fraction in maternal plasma. By optimizing, we can improve cff DNA fractions in sequencing samples, which may contribute to improvements in detection rate and reliability.

  12. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  13. Cortisol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism , in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... disease Cushing disease Cushing syndrome Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  14. Cortisol - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... Cushing syndrome Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  15. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  16. Prenatal immune challenge in rats: altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhees, Charles V; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues were unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction).

  17. Prenatal management and perinatal outcome in giant placental chorioangioma complicated with hydrops fetalis, fetal anemia and maternal mirror syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Díaz Lutgardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant placental chorioangiomas have been associated with a number of severe fetal complications and high perinatal mortality. Case presentation We report a case of giant chorioangioma with fetal hydrops, additionally complicated by severe anemia, mild cardiomegaly with hyperdinamic heart circulation and maternal mirror syndrome. Intrauterine blood transfusion and amniodrainage was performed at 29 weeks. Worsening of the fetal and maternal condition prompted us to proceed with delivery at 29 + 5 weeks. The newborn died 3 hours later due to pulmonary hypoplasia and hemodynamic failure. Maternal course was favourable, mirror syndrome resolved in the second day and the patient was discharged four days following delivery. Conclusions In the case described here, fetal condition got worse despite of the anemia correction and amniodrainage. Our outcome raises the issue whether additional intrauterine clinical intervention, as intersticial laser, should have been performed to stop further deterioration of the fetal condition when progressive severe hydrops develops.

  18. Characterization of fetal cells from the maternal circulation by microarray gene expression analysis - Could the extravillous trophoblasts be a target for future cell-based non-invasive prenatal diagnosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatt, Lotte; Brinch, Marie; Singh, Ripudaman

    2014-01-01

    stem cell microarray analysis. Results: 39 genes were identified as candidates for unique fetal cell markers. More than half of these are genes known to be expressed in the placenta, especially in extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). Immunohistochemical staining of placental tissue confirmed CD105......Introduction: Circulating fetal cells in maternal blood provide a tool for risk-free, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, fetal cells in the maternal circulation are scarce, and to effectively isolate enough of them for reliable diagnostics, it is crucial to know which fetal cell type......(s) should be targeted. Materials and Methods: Fetal cells were enriched from maternal blood by magnetic-activated cell sorting using the endothelial cell marker CD105 and identified by XY fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression pattern was compared between fetal cells and maternal blood cells using...

  19. Maternal corticosterone elevation during egg formation in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) influences offspring traits, partly via prenatal undernutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between maternal stress during pregnancy in humans and the subsequent physical and mental health disorders in their children has inspired a wide array of studies on animal models. Almost all of these studies have used mammalian species, but more recently oviparous species in which

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  1. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  2. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  3. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  4. The Status of Quality Control Investigation and Analysis for Maternal Serum Marker of Prenatal Screening Laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Falin; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    This national survey was initiated to investigate the current status of quality control practice of prenatal screening by statistical analysis of the previous half year data of prenatal screening in 2015. Data were sent to all Chinese prenatal screening centers via the National Quality Assessment Scheme. This covered the software used, the risk cutoffs, monthly sample throughput, monthly median MoM of AFP, HCG, β-HCG, free β-HCG and uE3, monthly screening positive rates for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and Open Neural Tube Defect (ONTD). Screening protocols were versatile, 73.5% (133/181) used the two-marker model, 24.3% (44/181) used the three-marker model, and 2.2% used the four-marker model. Regarding the software used, 350 laboratories never updated the screening parameters, 89 laboratories had updated their median or parameter by manufacturers, and 24 laboratories had updated the parameters by themselves. Cutoffs differ between laboratories. 59.9% (275/459) use 1/270 as their cutoffs for trisomy 21. 66.2% (296/447) use 1/350 as their cutoff for trisomy 18. 96.5% (361/374) use cutoffs between 2.0 - 2.5 MoM for ONTD. Regarding the results of the monthly median MoM, the percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.90 - 1.10 was 46.7% (155/332) for AFP, 20.0% (4/20) for hCG, 29.2% (28/96) for β-HCG, 15.7% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. The percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.95 - 1.05 was 14.2% (47/332) for AFP, 0% (0/20) for HCG, 4.3% (4/96) for β-HCG, 12.6% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. Regarding the screening positive rate, there was a difference in the trisomy 21 positive rate in the same laboratory within the six month. There were variations in the types of screening protocols, different kinds of soft platforms, randomness of choice or update of medians or other important parameters, and great difference in the

  5. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 by allelic ratio analysis using targeted massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J W Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma DNA obtained from a pregnant woman contains a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA. The fetal DNA proportion in maternal plasma is relatively consistent as determined using polymorphic genetic markers across different chromosomes in euploid pregnancies. For aneuploid pregnancies, the observed fetal DNA proportion measured using polymorphic genetic markers for the aneuploid chromosome would be perturbed. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of analyzing single nucleotide polymorphisms using targeted massively parallel sequencing to detect such perturbations in mothers carrying trisomy 21 fetuses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA was extracted from plasma samples collected from fourteen pregnant women carrying singleton fetuses. Hybridization-based targeted sequencing was used to enrich 2 906 single nucleotide polymorphism loci on chr7, chr13, chr18 and chr21. Plasma DNA libraries with and without target enrichment were analyzed by massively parallel sequencing. Genomic DNA samples of both the mother and fetus for each case were genotyped by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analysis. For the targeted regions, the mean sequencing depth of the enriched samples was 225-fold higher than that of the non-enriched samples. From the targeted sequencing data, the ratio between fetus-specific and shared alleles increased by approximately 2-fold on chr21 in the paternally-derived trisomy 21 case. In comparison, the ratio is decreased by approximately 11% on chr21 in the maternally-derived trisomy 21 cases but with much overlap with the ratio of the euploid cases. Computer simulation revealed the relationship between the fetal DNA proportion, the number of informative alleles and the depth of sequencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Targeted massively parallel sequencing of single nucleotide polymorphism loci in maternal plasma DNA is a potential approach for trisomy 21 detection. However, the method appears to be less

  6. Prenatal Exposure to a Maternal High-Fat Diet Affects Histone Modification of Cardiometabolic Genes in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya Upadhyaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0.1. In the HF-diet exposed offspring, 54% of the annotated genes showed the gene-activating mark trimethylated lysine 4. Many of these genes (1 are associated with the “metabolic process” in general and particularly with “positive regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis” (FDR = 0.03; (2 overlap with 455 quantitative trait loci for blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol (all, FDR < 0.1; and (3 are linked to cardiac disease susceptibility/progression, based on disease ontology analyses and scientific literature. These results indicate that maternal HF-diet changes the cardiac histone signature in offspring suggesting a fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of cardiac tissue in utero.

  7. Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet: The European Prospective Mother–Child Study (NewGeneris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; von Stedingk, Hans; Botsivali, Maria; Agramunt, Silvia; Alexander, Jan; Brunborg, Gunnar; Chatzi, Leda; Fleming, Sarah; Fthenou, Eleni; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Hardie, Laura J.; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Merlo, Domenico F.; Nielsen, Jeanette K.; Rydberg, Per; Segerbäck, Dan; Sunyer, Jordi; Wright, John; Törnqvist, Margareta; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. Objectives: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother–child study. Methods: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006–2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. Results: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was –132 g (95% CI: –207, –56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was –0.33 cm (95% CI: –0.61, –0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. Conclusions: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women. PMID:23092936

  8. Maternal Satisfaction about Prenatal and Postnatal Cares in Vaginal and Cesarean Section Delivery at Teaching and Non- teaching Hospitals of Tabriz/ Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Naghizadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main goal of care services is provide and promote mankind's health. Patient satisfaction is recognized as an important parameter for assessing the quality of patient care services. Spatially mothers' satisfaction from delivery is very important because it influence on family and society psychological health. The aim of this study was comparing maternal satisfaction about prenatal and postnatal cares in vaginal and cesarean section delivery at teaching and nonteaching hospitals of Tabriz/ Iran. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-comparative study. We selected 454 women who had been hospitalized for delivery in Alzahra, Talegani (teaching and 29Bahman (nonteaching Tabriz/Iran hospitals. For data collection, we used a questionnaire. Spss/ver13, Descriptive statistic, Independent t test, ANOVA and correlation tests were used for data analysis. Results: Findings indicated the highest level of satisfaction in both kind of hospitals was about physical and the lowest one was about informational aspect in women who had vaginal delivery, accordingly these rates about cesarean section was about physical and about informational and emotional aspects in labor. The analysis of data showed significant difference between mothers' satisfaction with all aspects of care in the teaching and non- teaching hospitals (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that the highest rank from mothers' satisfaction was in the physical and the lowest rank was in informational category. Mothers were satisfied from vaginal delivery in all aspects. Rate of satisfaction in nonteaching were more than teaching hospitals.

  9. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  10. Maternal prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Funda; Kumral, Abdullah; Ozbal, Seda; Dilek, Mustafa; Tugyan, Kazım; Duman, Nuray; Ozkan, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen negatively influences brain maturation and development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 FA) supplementation during pregnancy protects the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Thirty-six rat pups from six different dams were divided into six groups according to the diet modifications and hyperoxia exposure. The groups were: a control group (standard diet+room air), a hyperoxia group (standard diet+80% O₂ exposure), a hyperoxia+high-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a hyperoxia+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a room air+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented+group, and a room air+high dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group. The ω-3 FA's were supplemented as a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the second day of pregnancy until birth. Rat pups in the hyperoxic groups were exposed to 80% oxygen from birth until postnatal day 5 (P5). At P5, all animals were sacrificed. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated by cell count, TUNEL, and active Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination showed that maternally ω-3 FA deficient diet and postnatal hyperoxia exposure were associated with significantly lower neuronal counts and significantly higher apoptotic cell death in the selected brain regions. Ω-3 FA treatment significantly diminished apoptosis, in the selected brain regions, in a dose dependent manner. Our results suggest that the maternal ω-3 FA supply may protect the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Miranda L; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Duffy, Emeir M; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy as a case

  12. Varying coefficient function models to explore interactions between maternal nutritional status and prenatal methylmercury toxicity in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Miranda L., E-mail: Miranda_Lynch@urmc.rochester.edu [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Huang, Li-Shan [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Strain, J.J. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Myers, Gary J. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Bonham, Maxine P. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Shamlaye, Conrad F. [Ministry of Health, Republic of Seychelles (Seychelles); Stokes-Riner, Abbie [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Wallace, Julie M.W.; Duffy, Emeir M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Thomas W.; Davidson, Philip W. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Maternal consumption of fish during the gestational period exposes the fetus to both nutrients, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), believed to be beneficial for fetal brain development, as well as to the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg). We recently reported that nutrients present in fish may modify MeHg neurotoxicity. Understanding the apparent interaction of MeHg exposure and nutrients present in fish is complicated by the limitations of modeling methods. In this study we fit varying coefficient function models to data from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS) cohort to assess the association of dietary nutrients and children's development. This cohort of mother-child pairs in the Republic of Seychelles had fish consumption averaging 9 meals per week. Maternal nutritional status was assessed for five different nutritional components known to be present in fish (n-3 LCPUFA, n-6 LCPUFA, iron status, iodine status, and choline) and associated with children's neurological development. We also included prenatal MeHg exposure (measured in maternal hair). We examined two child neurodevelopmental outcomes (Bayley Scales Infant Development-II (BSID-II) Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)), each administered at 9 and at 30 months. The varying coefficient models allow the possible interactions between each nutritional component and MeHg to be modeled as a smoothly varying function of MeHg as an effect modifier. Iron, iodine, choline, and n-6 LCPUFA had little or no observable modulation at different MeHg exposures. In contrast the n-3 LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the BSID-II PDI that were reduced or absent at higher MeHg exposures. This study presents a useful modeling method that can be brought to bear on questions involving interactions between covariates, and illustrates the continuing importance of viewing fish consumption during pregnancy

  13. Impact of Prenatal Cognitive-Behavioral Stress Management Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Depression and Newborns’ Apgar Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Karamoozian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motherhood is a transformative and pleasing experience in a woman’s life. However, given the physical and psychological changes, it can induce a degree of stress and anxiety in mothers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM on maternal anxiety and depression during pregnancy and newborns’ Apgar scores. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed by applying a pretest-posttest control-group design. Overall, 30 primiparous mothers were selected among women referring to health clinics of Kerman, Iran, using convenience sampling. Subjects were randomly allocated to experimental and control groups. Data were collected, using Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Questionnaire. After completing the pretest, the experimental group was subjected to 12 sessions of CBSM training; posttest data were collected after the intervention. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed, using SPSS version 16. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The obtained results revealed a significant decrement in the average posttest scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group, compared to pretest scores and the control group. Moreover, differences in 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores between the two groups were statistically significant. These findings indicated the effectiveness of CBSM during pregnancy in reducing maternal anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Pregnant women can benefit from psychological interventions such as CBSM in medical and health care centers.

  14. Maternal anxiety in the pre- and postnatal period: a literature review Ansiedad maternal en el período prenatal y postnatal: revisión de la literatura Ansiedade materna nos períodos pré e pós-natal: revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Leonetti Correia

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to present a systematic review to analyze the empirical studies published between 1998 and 2003 about maternal anxiety in the prenatal and postnatal periods, focusing on pre-term and term births. Nineteen studies were found; six of which evaluated maternal anxiety in the prenatal period, 12 studies evaluated anxiety in mothers in the postnatal period and only one study evaluated maternal anxiety in both periods. The results showed that high levels of maternal anxiety in the prenatal phase were associated with obstetric problems, emotional damages to fetal development, behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence. The mothers presented higher anxiety levels when compared with the fathers. The co-occurrence of maternal anxiety and depression was found. The maternal anxiety assessment is relevant to identify both maternal mental health and child development at risk.La finalidad de esta revisión sistemática de la literatura fue analizar la producción científica entre 1998 y 2003 de estudios empíricos en la temática de ansiedad en las fases prenatal y postnatal, enfocando nacimientos del pre-termino o del término. Se obtuvieron 19 artículos, de los cuales 6 evaluaron la ansiedad maternal en el período prenatal, 12 estudios evaluaron la ansiedad en madres en el período postnatal y solamente un estudio evaluó la ansiedad maternal en ambos períodos. Los resultados demostraron que altos niveles de ansiedad maternal en la fase prenatal fueron asociados a complicaciones obstétricas, daños al desarrollo fetal, problemas emocionales y comportamentales en la infancia y la adolescencia. Las madres habían presentaron niveles mayores de ansiedad en comparación con los niveles presentados por los padres. Se verificó la co-ocurrencia entre los niveles de ansiedad maternal y la depresión. La evaluación de la ansiedad maternal es relevante para identificar riesgos en la salud mental maternal y en el desarrollo del ni

  15. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  16. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J K L; Rosales, C B; Center, K E; Nuñez, A; Gibson, S J; Christ, C; Ehiri, J E

    2016-04-05

    To assess the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. 7 electronic databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2014. Studies that investigated the effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes were included. Case-control studies, cross-sectional and cohort studies were included. Data synthesis was undertaken via systematic review and meta-analysis of available evidence. All review stages were conducted independently by 2 reviewers. Maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes up to 6 weeks postpartum after exposure to cannabis. Meta-analyses were conducted on variables that had 3 or more studies that measured an outcome in a consistent manner. Outcomes for which meta-analyses were conducted included: anaemia, birth weight, low birth weight, neonatal length, placement in the neonatal intensive care unit, gestational age, head circumference and preterm birth. 24 studies were included in the review. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrated that women who used cannabis during pregnancy had an increase in the odds of anaemia (pooled OR (pOR)=1.36: 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69) compared with women who did not use cannabis during pregnancy. Infants exposed to cannabis in utero had a decrease in birth weight (low birth weight pOR=1.77: 95% CI 1.04 to 3.01; pooled mean difference (pMD) for birth weight=109.42 g: 38.72 to 180.12) compared with infants whose mothers did not use cannabis during pregnancy. Infants exposed to cannabis in utero were also more likely to need placement in the neonatal intensive care unit compared with infants whose mothers did not use cannabis during pregnancy (pOR=2.02: 1.27 to 3.21). Use of cannabis during pregnancy may increase adverse outcomes for women and their neonates. As use of cannabis gains social acceptance, pregnant women and their medical providers could benefit from health education on potential adverse effects of use of cannabis during pregnancy. Published by the BMJ

  17. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 高龄孕妇产前筛查与诊断分析%Prenatal diagnostic testing among women referred for advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东明; 黄海锋; 陶春凤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence of aneuploidies of chromosomal in pregnant women with advanced maternal age (AMA) as indicator for invasive diagnostic testing.Methods:The results of prenatal diagnosis and clinical data were collected retrospectively,according to the indicator for invasive diagnostic testing.Results:Among the 8771 cases,188 cases (2.14%) of a fetal with aneuploidies of chromosomal were diagnosed,which are trisomy 21 (111 cases),trisomy 18 (27 cases),47,XXY (15 cases),45,X (13 cases),47,XXX (11 cases),trisomy 13 (10 cases),47,XYY (1 case).The detective rate of fetal with aneuploidies of chromosomal was higher in noninvasive prenatal testing (91.677%),followed by Abnormal serum screening and ultrasound findings group (7.01%),abnormal ultrasonic findings group (6.57%),Abnormal serum screening group (1.60%).Conclusion:The incidence of aneuploidies of chromosomal in pregnant women with AMA was high.The incidence was higher in pregnancy with multiple abnormal screening indexes.%目的 了解不同产前诊断指征高龄孕妇的胎儿染色体非整倍体检出情况.方法 回顾分析高龄孕妇产前诊断结果及其临床资料,分析不同指征孕妇胎儿非整倍体发生率.结果 8771例子高龄孕妇中,检出胎儿染色体非整倍体188例(2.14%),其中21三体最多为111例,依次为18三体27例,47,XXY 15例,45,X 13例,47,XXX 11例,13三体10例,47,XYY 1例.无创产前筛查阳性检出率最高为91.67%,其次为血清学筛查高风险+超声异常发现(7.10%)、超声异常发现(6.57%)和血清学筛查高风险(1.60%).结论 高龄妊娠胎儿染色体非整倍体发生率高于一般人群,妊娠合并多项筛查指标异常时,胎儿染色体非整倍体发生的风险增加.

  19. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis Procedures and Techniques to Obtain a Diagnostic Fetal Specimen or Tissue: Maternal and Fetal Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June; Brock, Jo-Ann; Chong, Karen; Johnson, Jo-Ann; MacDonald, William; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Vallee-Pouliot, Karine

    2015-07-01

    pathologie de possibles anomalies fœtales. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, PubMed et The Cochrane Library jusqu’en juin 2014 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (« prenatal diagnosis », « amniocentesis », « chorionic villi sampling », « cordocentesis ») et de mots clés (« prenatal screening », « prenatal genetic counselling », « post-procedural pregnancy loss rate ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs publiés en anglais entre janvier 1985 et juin 2014. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en juin 2014. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Avantages, désavantages et coûts : Consentement éclairé de la patiente, transfert des connaissances, évaluation du risque génétique prénatal, soulagement de l’anxiété, création d’anxiété, défense des droits, compréhension du dépistage fœtal, limites du dépistage fœtal, choix en matière de prise en charge de la grossesse, complication de la grossesse ou fausse couche, soins opportuns et améliorés pour l’accouchement d’un enfant présentant une morbidité reconnue. Recommandations 1. Les fournisseurs de soins de santé devraient

  1. Effects of prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure and maternal stress on postnatal morphological development of hippocampal neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa; Elibol, Birsen; Dursun, Ilknur; Yürüker, Sinan

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol is one of the most commonly used drugs of abuse negatively affecting human health and it is known as a potent teratogen responsible for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Searching for the potential morphological correlates of these effects, in this study, we compared the course of developmental changes in the morphology of principal hippocampal neurons in fetal-alcohol (A group), intubated control (IC group), and intact control male rats (C group) over a protracted period of the first two postnatal months. Ethanol was administered to the pregnant Wistar dams intragastrically, throughout gestation days (GD) 7-20, at a total dose of 6g/kg/day resulting in the mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 246.6±40.9mg/dl. Ten morphometric parameters of Golgi-stained hippocampal neurons (pyramidal and granule) from CA1, CA3, and DG areas were examined at critical postnatal days (PD): at birth (PD1), at the end of the brain growth spurt period (PD10), in juveniles (PD30), and in young adults (PD60). During postnatal development, the temporal pattern of morphometric changes was shown to be region-dependent with most significant alterations observed between PD1-30 in the CA region and between PD10-30 in the DG region. It was also parameter-dependent with the soma size (except for CA3 pyramids), number of primary dendrites, dendrite diameter, dendritic tortuosity and the branch angle demonstrating little changes, while the total dendritic field area, dendritic length, number of dendritic bifurcations, and spine density being highly increased in all hippocampal regions during the first postnatal month. Moderate ethanol intoxication and the maternal intubation stress during gestation, showed similar, transient effects on the neuron development manifested as a smaller soma size in granule cells, reduced dendritic parameters and lower spine density in pyramidal neurons

  2. Maternal Prenatal Nutrition and Birth Outcomes on Malnutrition among 7- to 10-Year-Old Children: A 10-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Pei, Leilei; Gao, Wenlong; Li, Chao; Yan, Hong

    2016-11-01

    To identify postnatal predictors of malnutrition among 7- to 10-year-old children and to assess the long-term effects of antenatal micronutrient supplementation on malnutrition. A follow-up study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 7- to 10-year-olds (1747 children) whose mothers participated in a cluster-randomized double-blind controlled trial from 2002 to 2006. The rate of malnourished 7- to 10-year-olds was 11.1%. A mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusted for the cluster-sampling design indicated that mothers with low prepregnant midupper arm circumference had boys with an increased risk of thinness (aOR  2.05, 95% CI  1.11, 3.79) and girls who were more likely to be underweight (aOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.05, 3.85). Antenatal micronutrient supplementation was not significantly associated with malnutrition. Low birth weight was significantly associated with increased odds of malnutrition among boys (aOR 4.34, 95% CI 1.82, 10.39) and girls (aOR  7.50, 95% CI 3.48, 16.13). Being small for gestational age significantly increased the odds of malnutrition among boys (aOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01, 3.04) and girls (aOR 4.20, 95% CI  2.39, 7.39). In addition, household wealth, parental height, being picky eater, and illness frequency also predicted malnutrition. Both maternal prenatal nutrition and adverse birth outcomes are strong predictors of malnutrition among early school-aged children. Currently, available evidence is insufficient to support long-term effects of antenatal micronutrient supplementation on children's nutrition. www.isrctn.com: ISRCTN08850194. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell-Free DNA Analysis of Targeted Genomic Regions in Maternal Plasma for Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Trisomy 21, Trisomy 18, Trisomy 13, and Fetal Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumbaris, George; Kypri, Elena; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Achilleos, Achilleas; Mina, Petros; Neofytou, Maria; Velissariou, Voula; Christopoulou, Georgia; Kallikas, Ioannis; González-Liñán, Alicia; Benusiene, Egle; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Marek, Pietryga; Santana, Alfredo; Nagy, Nikoletta; Széll, Márta; Laudanski, Piotr; Papageorgiou, Elisavet A; Ioannides, Marios; Patsalis, Philippos C

    2016-06-01

    There is great need for the development of highly accurate cost effective technologies that could facilitate the widespread adoption of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We developed an assay based on the targeted analysis of cell-free DNA for the detection of fetal aneuploidies of chromosomes 21, 18, and 13. This method enabled the capture and analysis of selected genomic regions of interest. An advanced fetal fraction estimation and aneuploidy determination algorithm was also developed. This assay allowed for accurate counting and assessment of chromosomal regions of interest. The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated in a blind study of 631 samples derived from pregnancies of at least 10 weeks of gestation that had also undergone invasive testing. Our blind study exhibited 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and correctly classified 52/52 (95% CI, 93.2%-100%) cases of trisomy 21, 16/16 (95% CI, 79.4%-100%) cases of trisomy 18, 5/5 (95% CI, 47.8%-100%) cases of trisomy 13, and 538/538 (95% CI, 99.3%-100%) normal cases. The test also correctly identified fetal sex in all cases (95% CI, 99.4%-100%). One sample failed prespecified assay quality control criteria, and 19 samples were nonreportable because of low fetal fraction. The extent to which free fetal DNA testing can be applied as a universal screening tool for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 depends mainly on assay accuracy and cost. Cell-free DNA analysis of targeted genomic regions in maternal plasma enables accurate and cost-effective noninvasive fetal aneuploidy detection, which is critical for widespread adoption of NIPT. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Protective effect of maternal prenatal melatonin administration on rat pups born to mothers submitted to constant light during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Cisternas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of adverse conditions such as constant light (LL on the circadian rhythm of malate (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and lactate (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27 dehydrogenase activities of the testes of male Wistar rats on postnatal day 28 (PN28, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test at PN60 and sexual behavior at PN120. The rats were assigned to mother groups on day 10 of pregnancy: control (12-h light/dark, LL (light from day 10 to 21 of pregnancy, and LL+Mel (LL and sc injection to the mothers of a daily dose of melatonin, 1 mg/kg body weight at circadian time 12, from day 17 to 21 of pregnancy. LL offspring did not show circadian rhythms of MDH (N = 62 and LDH (N = 63 activities (cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher. They presented a 44.7% decrease in open-arm entries and a 67.9% decrease in time (plus-maze test, N = 15, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, an increase in mounting (94.4%, intromission (94.5% and ejaculation (56.6% latencies (N = 12, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test and lower numbers of these events (61, 59 and 73%, respectively; P < 0.01, N = 12 compared to controls. The offspring of the LL+Mel group presented MDH and LDH circadian rhythms (P < 0.05, N = 50, cosinor and ANOVA-LSD Fisher, anxiety-like and sexual behaviors similar to control. These findings supported the importance of the melatonin signal and provide evidence for the protective effects of hormones on maternal programming during gestation. This protective action of melatonin is probably related to its entrainment capacity, favoring internal coupling of the fetal multioscillatory system.

  5. Maternal depression and offspring’s cortisol concentrations in a Brazilian sample = Depressão materna e concentração de cortisol de recém-nascidos em uma amostra brasileira = La depresión materna y la concentración de cortisol del recién nacido en una muestra brasilieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucci, Tania Kiehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a depressão pós-parto (DPP possa prejudicar diversos aspectos do desenvolvimento infantil, incluindo alterações das funções do eixo Hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal (HPA. A associação entre depressão materna e nível de cortisol salivar dos filhos foi investigada em três amostras brasileiras diferentes: ao nascimento (N=58, aos quatro (N=64 e 36 meses (N=81 após o parto. Mães preencheram a Escala de Depressão Pós-parto de Edinburgh aos 4 e 36 meses após o parto. Por meio da ANOVA resultados indicaram diferença marginal com tamanho de efeito moderado na concentração de cortisol com maiores concentrações em recém-nascidos cujas mães desenvolveram depressão pós-parto em comparação ao grupo controle. Contrariando nossa hipótese, esta diferença no nível de cortisol basal não foi encontrada aos quatro e aos 36 meses. Admitindo que os filhos de mães com sinais de DPP nascem com níveis basais de cortisol ligeiramente mais altos, esta diferença não foi verificada em momentos posteriores

  6. 产前筛查与诊断的质量控制与热点问题%Quality control and hot issues of maternal serum prenatal screening in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕时铭; 沈凤贤

    2013-01-01

    母血清学产前筛查的质量控制必须强调:孕周和体重等临床因素、测定结果的准确性、风险计算参数、产前筛查数据库等均会影响筛查质量,且产前筛查的结果只是一个风险提示,后续的诊断与随访是关键.现行的中孕期筛查存在检出效率低、假阳性率高等问题,建立适合我国国情的产前筛查和诊断质量管理体系有望提高筛查效率.此外,高龄孕妇及双胎妊娠筛查诊断问题,改进羊水细胞培养方法、提升染色体分析自动化水平,以及快速产前分子诊断技术的引入及定位等问题亟待我们解决.%It must be emphasized in the maternal serum prenatal screening that the quality is not only influenced by accuracy of biomarker assay,risk calculation parameters and biomarker database,but also influenced by clinical factors such as gestational weeks,weight and ect.The result of prenatal screening is just a risk evaluation,the subsequent diagnosis and the follow-up are more important.It is expected to improve screening efficiency by localization of prenatal screening database and making the quality management of the prenatal screening-diagnosis suitable for the national conditions.On the other hand,prenatal screening in the women of advanced maternal age and twin pregnancy,improve amniotic fluid cell culture method,chromosome analysis automation,the introduction and positioning of rapid prenatal molecular diagnosis techniques become the hot issues.

  7. The Dianosis Value of Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Combined with Prenatal Maternal Serum Markers Detecting in Trimester Pregnancy for the 21 - trisomy Syndrome%中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征的临床诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈大雁; 胡桂朗; 荆志敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, effectiveness and necessity of the prenatal ultrasound screenings,combined with the content inspection of the mothers' prenatal maternal serum markers:in trimester pregnancy Alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), free estriol ( uE3 ), total serum β human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG) in the 21 -trisomy syndrome. Method: We summarized the detection rate of the 21 -trisomy syndrome by prenatal ultrasound screening and the prenatal maternal serum markers. Result: The detection rate in terms of the positive signs of the prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with the prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21-trisomy syndrome diagnosis was 80%-90%. Conclusion:The prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21trisomy syndrome diagnosis is a non-invasive checking method, not only can reduce the abnormal or deformed children are born, can also reduce the invasive inspection; It has the davantage of clinically simple,application and testing of a wide range of safe and effective, cost-effective, with higher screening detection rate, and reduce the intrusion caused by the check normal fetal abortion rate.%目的:探讨中孕B超产前检查出现阳性征,及联合母体血清标记物指标:甲胎蛋白(AFP)、游离雌三醇(uE3)、血清总β绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)的含量检查对21-三体综合征的产前筛查和诊断的可行性、有效性和必要性.方法:回顾了中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征检出率.结果:中孕B超产前检查的阳性征,联合母体血清标记物检查指标对21三体综合征检出率高达80%-90%.结论:中孕超声检查,及联合母血清标记物进行唐氏综合征胎儿筛查是一种非侵入性的检查方法,不但可以减少异常或畸型儿童出生,提高人口素质,也可以减少侵入性的检查;且具有临床操作简便、应用范围和检验范围面广

  8. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood con

  9. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  10. Stress through the mind of the beholder: preliminary differences in child and maternal perceptions of child stress in relation to child cortisol and cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Maureen A; Gaffey, Allison E; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined associations among parent and child reports of youth's stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, and biological measures of stress activity (i.e. cortisol and cardiovascular activity). Examining these aspects of youth stress presents several challenges. Unlike adult studies of individual differences in which information regarding SLEs, perceptions of events, and biological activity are gathered from one individual, assessment of individual differences among children usually involves other informants (e.g. parent). However, parent and child reports of SLEs and the child's psychological response to such events are often discordant. Moreover, examinations of youth perception of stress are hampered by limitations of child cognitive processes, as well as parents' limited knowledge of their child's perception of stress. In a preliminary effort to unscramble the complex effects of youth SLEs and perceived stress in relation to biological response to acute stressors, this study examined 51 boys and girls aged 7-16, with no history of psychopathology or medical concerns. Contrary to hypotheses, findings revealed that compared to actual experiences of stress, perceived stress has greater associations with both cortisol and cardiovascular activity. That is, perceived stress is more biologically salient relative to actual stress. Results also suggest that informant differences may explain some previous inconsistent findings in studies of youth's stress reactivity. The current findings mirror the adult studies that show appraisal and perception of traumatic and stressful events may be more predictive of negative health and mental health outcomes than the severity of the events. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of youth's perceptions of stress on their biological stress reactions and later health outcomes such as clinical disorders.

  11. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  12. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  13. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. Objective: The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Methods: Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin neonatal ID (cord blood ferritin 118 μmol/mol). Results: A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. PMID:26063068

  14. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development. Previo

  15. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  16. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg or vehicle control from day 62 to day 102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01 and G6PC (P = 0.057 were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01 and testosterone (P<0.001 in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01 and AR (P<0.05 in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development.

  17. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  18. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Predicts Methylation of Genes Regulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical System in Mothers and Newborns in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kamin, Hayley S.; Hughes, David A.; Rodney, Nicole C.; Bhatt, Samarth; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which…

  20. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  1. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  3. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  4. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  5. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Marialuigia; Sica, Carmine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Novelli, Antonio; Di Meglio, Letizia; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS) is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS), which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3) at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  6. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuigia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  7. Prenatal metformin exposure in a maternal high fat diet mouse model alters the transcriptome and modifies the metabolic responses of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriikka Salomäki

    Full Text Available AIMS: Despite the wide use of metformin in metabolically challenged pregnancies, the long-term effects on the metabolism of the offspring are not known. We studied the long-term effects of prenatal metformin exposure during metabolically challenged pregnancy in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female mice were on a high fat diet (HFD prior to and during the gestation. Metformin was administered during gestation from E0.5 to E17.5. Male and female offspring were weaned to a regular diet (RD and subjected to HFD at adulthood (10-11 weeks. Body weight and several metabolic parameters (e.g. body composition and glucose tolerance were measured during the study. Microarray and subsequent pathway analyses on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the male offspring were performed at postnatal day 4 in a separate experiment. RESULTS: Prenatal metformin exposure changed the offspring's response to HFD. Metformin exposed offspring gained less body weight and adipose tissue during the HFD phase. Additionally, prenatal metformin exposure prevented HFD-induced impairment in glucose tolerance. Microarray and annotation analyses revealed metformin-induced changes in several metabolic pathways from which electron transport chain (ETC was prominently affected both in the neonatal liver and adipose tissue. CONCLUSION: This study shows the beneficial effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the offspring's glucose tolerance and fat mass accumulation during HFD. The transcriptome data obtained at neonatal age indicates major effects on the genes involved in mitochondrial ATP production and adipocyte differentiation suggesting the mechanistic routes to improved metabolic phenotype at adulthood.

  8. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-11-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and (/sup 14/C)cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the /sup 3/H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the /sup 14/C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the /sup 3/H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6.

  9. Assessment of the Protective Role of Prenatal Zinc versus Insulin Supplementation on Fetal Cardiac Damage Induced by Maternal Diabetes in Rat Using Caspase-3 and KI67 Immunohistochemical Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Shams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal diabetes mellitus (DM affects early organogenesis. Metabolic disorders of DM are associated with a depleted zinc status. This study evaluated the effect of maternal DM on cardiac development of rat fetuses and protective roles of prenatal zinc versus insulin supplementation. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups ((I control, (II STZ-induced DM, (III STZ-induced DM treated with Zn, and (IV STZ induced DM treated with insulin, all sacrificed on GD 20. Fetal heart weight of diabetic rats showed significant decrease compared to controls (P<0.05. H&E stained section of controls had normal appearance of the myocardium, compared to diabetics that showed myocardial disarray with characteristic degenerative changes. Sections of zinc treated group showed restored architecture of normal myofibrils with minimal degenerative changes, while those of insulin treated group show partial restoration of the normal architecture of cardiomyocytes with focal improvement of cardiac tissue. Caspase-3 immunostained slides showed positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in diabetic group. But KI67 immunostained slides revealed negative nuclear immunoreaction in diabetics. We observed that gestational diabetes was associated with increased risk of fetal myocardial damage that might be caused by increased apoptotic level. Treating diabetic pregnant subjects with zinc and insulin was associated with improvement in myocardial integrity.

  10. Associations between bedtime and nighttime parenting and infant cortisol in the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M

    2016-12-01

    We examined how maternal care within the bedtime and nighttime contexts influences infant cortisol levels and patterning. Eighty-two mothers (Mage  = 29.4 years) and infants participated in a longitudinal study when infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. At each time point, bedtime and nighttime parenting were recorded and infant cortisol at bedtime and the following morning was analyzed. Multilevel model analyses showed that infants had lower cortisol levels when mothers were more emotionally available at bedtime, and infants whose mothers responded more often to their non-distressed cues had lower cortisol levels on average. Less co-sleeping and more maternal responses to infant distress were linked to healthier cortisol patterning. By shedding light on parenting qualities and behaviors that influence infant cortisol, these results indicate avenues for intervention and suggest the utility of studying parenting in infant sleep contexts.

  11. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  12. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and similar ferritin and folate concentrations in Bangladeshi

  13. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. Objective: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. Methods: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. Results: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Conclusion: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and

  14. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  15. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman

    2013-02-01

    Objectives: To use proteomics to identify and characterize proteins in maternal serum from patients at high-risk for fetal trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13 on the basis of ultrasound and maternal serum triple tests. Methods: We performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis on 23 trisomy cases and 85 normal cases during the early second trimester of pregnancy. Protein profiling along with conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/Tandem mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to characterize proteins associated with each trisomy condition and later validated using Western blot. Results: Protein profiling approach using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass (SELDI-TOF/MS) spectrometry resulted in the identification of 37 unique hydrophobic proteomic features for three trisomy conditions. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight/Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified proteins showed differential expression at the subunit level. Conclusions: Maternal serum protein profiling using proteomics may allow non-invasive diagnostic testing for the most common trisomies and may complement ultrasound-based methods to more accurately determine pregnancies with fetal aneuploidies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Beijers, R.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety

  17. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria; Pedersen, Marie; Besselink, Harrie; Mendez, Michelle A; Fleming, Sarah; Hardie, Laura J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Wright, John; Agramunt, Silvia; Sunyer, Jordi; Granum, Berit; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Brunborg, Gunnar; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Sarri, Katerina; Chatzi, Leda; Merlo, Domenico F; Kleinjans, Jos C; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-06-15

    Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

  18. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years.

  19. Estudo da morbidade e da mortalidade perinatal em maternidades: II - mortalidade perinatal segundo peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e hábito de fumar da mãe A study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in maternity hospitals: II - perinatal mortality according to birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and maternal smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a influência de variáveis como peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e tabagismo materno. Do estudo dos 12.999 nascimentos (vivos e mortos ocorridos em nove maternidades no período de um ano, verificou-se que a mortalidade perinatal é muito maior para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso (665,3 ‰ para peso até 1.500 g, diminuindo à medida que aumenta o peso ao nascer. Também nos casos de mães jovens (menores de 15 anos ou mães com idade superior a 35 anos esse coeficiente foi mais elevado (45,5 ‰ para mães com menos de 15 anos e 47,0 ‰ para mães entre 35 a 39 anos. A faixa imediatamente superior - 40 a 44 anos - apresentou a mais alta mortalidade perinatal: 61,3 ‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. O número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal tem importância para a diminuição da gestação de alto risco. Mães que fizeram 7 ou mais consultas no pré-natal tiveram a menor mortalidade no período (17,7‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. Já o hábito materno de fumar influencia a mortalidade quando a quantidade é de mais de 10 cigarros por dia. A mortalidade perinatal dos produtos de mães que fumavam menos de 10 cigarros por dia não diferiu das taxas de mortalidade para as mães não-fumantes.The influence of birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy are analysed. Of 12,999 births (live and stillbirths ocurring in nine maternity hospitals during one year, the greatest perinatal mortality rate (PM was that of low birth weight babies (665.3 ‰ for those weighing less than 1,500 g. The PM decreases with increasing weight. Young mothers (less than 15 years of age and women aged 35 or more also had higher Perinatal Mortality rates - 45.5 ‰ for the former and 47.0 ‰ for the latter. Prenatal care is important for the decrease of high risk in pregnancy. Mothers who had made 7 or more consultations during pregnancy had the lowest PM (17.7 ‰ live and stillbirths

  20. 8020例孕中期母血清产前筛查结果回顾性分析%Rusults retrospective analysis of maternal serum prenatal screening in the second trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江德洋; 韩保良; 李晓君

    2013-01-01

    目的 为了解六安市21-三体综合征(唐氏综合征)、18-三体综合征(爱德华氏综合征)及NTD(神经管畸形)的发病率,旨在促进六安市产前筛查工作的更好开展.方法 采用时间分辨荧光免疫分析法(DELFIA)对全市2008年1月至2012年4月在我院产前门诊8020例孕妇进行产前筛查.结果 8020例孕妇中21-三体综合征高风险213例,高风险率1/38、18-三体综合征高风险43例,高风险率1/187;NTD高风险64例,高风险率1/125,确诊NTD1例.结论 结果表明六安市对产前筛查预防工作有成效,进一步开展产前筛查工作;扩大筛查覆盖率,对实施出生缺陷干预工程,提高出生人口素质有重大意义.%Objective:To understand the prevalence rate of trisomy 21 syndrome (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 syndrome (Edward's syndrome) and NTD (Neural tube defects) in Lu'an city, aim to promote the prenatal screening. Methods; Carrying out prenatal screening or 8020 outpatient antenatal pregnant women in Jin'an District Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2008to April 2012 by time -resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA). Results; Cases with high risk of trisomy 21 syndrome, trisomy 18 syndrome, NTD64 is 213, 43 and 64, with the rate of 1/ 38, 1/ 187 and 1/ 125, 1 NTD case was confirmed. Conclusion; the results showed the effectiveness of the prenatal screening in Lu'an city on of. We should do further to expand screening coverage, which is benefit for the implementation of birth defect intervention project, and for improving the population quality.

  1. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 21 associated with maternal balanced translocation 46xx der 21 t(21q;22q with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 21 resulting from balanced translocation (21q;22q in a 36-year-old gravida 7, para 1 woman. The lady had only one living child and there was history of recurrent spontaneous first trimester abortions. Triple test was abnormal in the present conception. In addition, the woman had pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, a finding scarcely reported previously with carrier status in Indian literature. A few cytogeneticists consider this as a normal variant. However, many reports in the recent literature link pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 with infertility, recurrent abortions and a number of other abnormal conditions. A review of the relevant literature pertinent to the case is provided.

  3. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother–child study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Kogevinas, Manolis; Botsivali, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify....... A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed...... to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds....

  4. Prenatal programming in an obese swine model: sex-related effects of maternal energy restriction on morphology, metabolism and hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvilo, Cristina; González-Bulnes, Antonio; Benítez, Rita; Ayuso, Miriam; Barbero, Alicia; Pérez-Solana, Maria L; Barragán, Carmen; Astiz, Susana; Fernández, Almudena; López-Bote, Clemente

    2014-02-01

    Maternal energy restriction during pregnancy predisposes to metabolic alterations in the offspring. The present study was designed to evaluate phenotypic and metabolic consequences following maternal undernutrition in an obese pig model and to define the potential role of hypothalamic gene expression in programming effects. Iberian sows were fed a control or a 50 % restricted diet for the last two-thirds of gestation. Newborns were assessed for body and organ weights, hormonal and metabolic status, and hypothalamic expression of genes implicated in energy homeostasis, glucocorticoid function and methylation. Weight and adiposity were measured in adult littermates. Newborns of the restricted sows were lighter (P gene was down-regulated in the restricted animals (P gene expression at birth and higher growth and adiposity in adulthood suggest a female-specific programming effect for a positive energy balance, possibly due to overexposure to endogenous stress-induced glucocorticoids.

  5. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  6. A Low-Cost Efficient Multiplex P CR for Prenatal Sex Determination in Bovine Fetus U sing Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Davoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to establish a reliable non-invasive method for sex determinationin a bovine fetus in a routine setting, the possibility of identifying specific sequence in thefetal X and Y-chromosomes has been evaluated in maternal plasma using conventionalmultiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. The aim of this study was to providea rapid and reliable method for sexing bovine fetuses.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, peripheral blood samples were takenfrom 38 pregnant heifers with 8 to 38 weeks of gestation. DNA template was extractedby phenol-chloroform method from 350 μl maternal plasma. Two primer pairs for bovineamelogenin gene (bAML and BC1.2 were used to amplify fragments from X and Ychromosomes. A multiplex PCR reaction has been optimized for amplification of 467bp and 341 bp fragments from X and Y bAML gene and a 190 bp fragment from BC1.2related to Y chromosome.Results: The 467 bp fragment was observed in all 38 samples. Both 341 and 190 bp fragmentswere detected only in 24 plasma samples from male calves. The sensitivity andspecificity of test were 100% with no false negative or false positive results.Conclusion: The results showed that phenol-chloroform method is a simple and suitablemethod for isolation of fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The multiplex PCR method is anavailable non-invasive approach which is cost efficient and reliable for sexing bovine fetuses.

  7. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  8. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  9. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  10. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  11. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  12. Psychological Maternal Stress as a Possible Prenatal Risk factor for the development of Cognitive Problems: Neuropsychological characterization of a Colombian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Pinto-Dussán

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an adaptive response that may involve adverse changes in the medium and long term. Research showed that maternal stress during pregnancy may have variables effects on the offspring development. The objective of this study was to describe the cognitive characteristics of children from Bogota- Colombia, whose mothers during neuropsychological consultation, reported stress during pregnancy as the only risk factor. Cognitive profiles are described from neuropsychological assessments, highlighting significant scores in the subtest and global indices of the WISC IV scale. It was foundthat children whose mothers suffer stress during pregnancy have deficits in attention, executive functions and processing speed.

  13. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  14. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  15. Prenatal origin of obesity and their complications: Gestational diabetes, maternal overweight and the paradoxical effects of fetal growth restriction and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher

    2011-09-01

    Pregestational (PGDM) and gestational (GDM) diabetes may be associated with a variety of fetal effects including increased rate of spontaneous abortions, intrauterine fetal death, congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental problems and increased risk of perinatal complications. Additional problems of concern are fetal growth disturbances causing increased or decreased birth weight. Optimal control of maternal blood glucose is known to reduce these changes. Among the long lasting effects of these phenomena are a high rate of overweight and obesity at childhood and a high tendency to develop the "metabolic syndrome" characterized by hypertension, cardio-vascular complications and type 2 diabetes. Similarly, maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy or excessive weight gain are also associated with increased obesity and complications in the offspring. Although there are different causes for fetal growth restriction (FGR) or for fetal excessive growth (macrosomis), paradoxically both are associated with the "metabolic syndrome" and its long term consequences. The exact mechanism(s) underlying these long term effects on growth are not fully elucidated, but they involve insulin resistance, fetal hyperleptinemia, hypothalamic changes and most probably epigenetic changes. Preventive measures to avoid the metabolic syndrome and its complications seem to be a tight dietary control and physical activity in the children born to obese or diabetic mothers or who had antenatal growth disturbances for other known or unknown reasons.

  16. 应用母血浆中AIRE基因对唐氏综合征进行产前诊断%Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome by AIRE Gene in Maternal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方爱平; 陈德珩; 文景丽; 范海波; 王英兰; 张悦; 胡泓

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用母血浆中AIRE基因作为胎儿DNA遗传学标记,探讨无创性产前筛查唐氏综合征(Down syndrome,DS)的可行性.方法 提取随机选取的45名正常孕妇血浆中游离DNA,同时以15名非妊娠健康妇女血浆游离DNA作为对照,通过巢式甲基化特异性PCR检测游离DNA中AIRE基因的甲基化状态;提取15名产妇胎盘组织和母血单核细胞中的DNA,检测AIRE基因的甲基化状态;采集20例确诊为DS胎儿的高危孕妇外周血,以45名正常孕妇外周血作为对照,检测AIRE基因甲基化状态.结果 正常孕妇血浆中AIRE基因的甲基化率比非妊娠健康妇女高(P<0.01);所有产妇胎盘组织中均能检测到AIRE基因的甲基化,而在母血单核细胞中未检测到;在确诊为DS胎儿的高危孕妇外周血中,AIRE基因的甲基化率远远低于正常胎儿孕妇外周血(P<0.01).结论 应用巢式甲基化特异性PCR技术检测妊娠期母血浆中AIRE基因的甲基化状态对胎儿DS进行非创伤性产前诊断是可行的.%Objective To study the feasibility of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS) through the AIRE gene in maternal plasma as the fetal DNA genetic mark. Methods Free DNAs were extracted from the plasma of 45 pregnant women selected randomly and determined for methylation status of AIRE gene by Nested methylation-specific PCR(Nested-MSP), using those from 15 nonpregnant women as control. Free DNAs were extracted from the placenta and monocytes in blood of 15 lying-in women and determined for methylation status of AIRE gene. Peripheral blood samples of 10 high-risk pregnant women whose fetus were diagnosed as patients with DS and 45 normal pregnant women were collected and determined for methylation status of AIRE gene. Results The methylation rate of AIRE gene in the plasma of pregnant women was significantly higher than that of nonpregnant women (P < 0. 01). The methylation of AIRE gene was observed in all the placenta of

  17. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia by detection of the cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Mandana; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Gill, Pooria; Alipour, Abbass; Shiran, Mohammadreza; Jalalli, Hossein; Banihashemi, Ali; Fatahi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    The discovery of fetal DNA (f-DNA) opens the possibility of early non-invasive procedure for detection of paternally inherited mutation of beta-thalassemia. Since 2002, some studies have examined the sensitivity and specificity of this method for detection of paternally inherited mutation of thalassemia in pregnant women at risk of having affected babies. We conducted a systematic review of published articles that evaluated using this method for early detection of paternally inherited mutation in maternal plasma. A sensitive search of multiple databases was done in which nine studies met our inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity was 99 and 99 %, respectively. The current study found that detection of paternally inherited mutation of thalassemia using analysis of cell-free fetal DNA is highly accurate. This method could replace conventional and invasive methods.

  18. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology. PMID:23338011

  19. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  20. 孕妇外周血中游离胎儿DNA检测在无创产前诊断中的临床应用%Clinical application of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis using cell free fetal DNA in maternal plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯巧芳; 吴东; 楚艳; 康冰; 廖世秀; 杨艳丽; 张朝阳; 张菊新; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using cell free fetal DNA(cff-DNA)in maternal blood.Methods From Sep.2010 to Mar.2012,103 pregnant women who came to Henan Province People's Hospital in the first trimestcr for prenatal diagnosis of scx-linked inherited diseases were included in the first trimester group.From Oct.2010 to Jan.2012,205 pregnant women undergoing amniotic fluid sampling for fetal karyotype analysis in the same hospital were included in the second trimester group.Real time quantitative PCR and fluorescent PCR were used to detect sex determining region of Y chromosome gene(SRY)and amelogenin gene(AML)on cff-DNA of the first trimester group.Moreover,12 Y chromosome STR loci analysis were performed for 33 male fetuses and their fathers.Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing(MPSS)was used for aneuploidy analysis in cff-DNA of the second trimester group.Results(1)In the first trimester group,there were 53 SRY positive and 50 SRY negative.Compared with the results of cff-DNA of chorionic villus samples,there was one SRY false positive and one false negative results,with a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 98%.For the AML gene test,there were two PCR products of male fetuses:102 bp fragment originating from X chromosome(AML X)and 108 bp fragment from Y chromosome(AML Y);but only AML X was found in products from female fetuses.In the first trimester group,102 bp and 108 bp fragments were detected in 52 cases,and only 102 bp fragment was found in the other cases.Compared to AML results from chorionic villus samples,there were 2 false negative results,with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100%.(2)For cff-DNA with plasma SRY over 30 copy/ml,Y STR loci were analyzed on cff-DNA of 33 fetuses and their fathers.The Y STR loci less then 200 bp were successfully detected,while Y STR loci with PCR products between 200-300 bp showed low signal or could not be amplicated;and no PCR products more than 300 bp

  1. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  2. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  3. Cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis DNA fetal libre en el plasma materno y diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo DNA livre fetal em plasma materno e diagnóstico pré-natal não invasivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Silveira Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The noninvasive nature of the detection of fetal DNA in the maternal circulation represents the greatest advantage over the conventional methods of prenatal diagnosis. The applications of this methodology involve the detection of the fetal sex, and diagnosis, intra-uterine treatment, and evaluation of the prognosis of many diseases. Fetal cells detected in the maternal circulation have also been shown to be implicated in autoimmune diseases and to represent a potential source of stem cells. On the other hand, with the introduction of a technology that detects the fetal sex as early as at 6-8 weeks of gestation, there is the possibility of early abortion based on sex selection for social purposes. This implies an ethical discussion about the question. The introduction of new noninvasive techniques of prenatal diagnosis and the knowledge of the Nursing Team regarding new methodologies can be of great benefit to the mother and her children, and can help the Genetic Counseling of the families.La naturaleza no invasiva de la investigación del DNA fetal en la circulación materna representa una ventaja importante con relación a los métodos convencionales de diagnóstico prenatal. El uso de esta metodología implica la determinación del sexo fetal y el diagnóstico, el tratamiento intra-útero y la evaluación del pronóstico en muchas enfermedades. Las células fetales detectadas en la circulación maternal también pueden ser implicadas en enfermedades autoinmunes y representar una fuente potencial de células madre. Por otra parte, con la introducción de una tecnología que detecte el sexo fetal entre 6-8 semanas de gestación, existe la posibilidad de aborto precoz basada en la selección del sexo para los propósitos sociales. Esto implica una discusión ética previa sobre este problema. La introducción de nuevas técnicas no invasivas de diagnóstico prenatal y el conocimiento del Equipo de Enfermería con respecto a las nuevas metodolog

  4. Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical lateralization, as indicated by mixed-handedness, has been related to diverse psychopathologies. Maternal prenatal stress has recently been associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In the present study, this relationship was investigated further in a prospective, methodologically

  5. 1560例孕中期妇女血清学产前筛查结果分析%Analysis on the maternal serum prenatal screening results of 1560 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂志华; 黄慈丹; 杨春; 朱晓妹; 周小婉; 王洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨孕中期妇女血清学产前筛查唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征、开放性神经管畸形筛查结果的特点,为临床服务提供参考数据.方法 采用时间分辨免疫荧光法检测孕中期妇女血清uE3、游离-hCG、AFP含量,结合孕妇年龄、体重等信息,通过Lifecycle3.2软件评估胎儿唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征、开放性神经管畸形高危与否.孕妇产后两个月内回访妊娠结局.结果 唐氏综合征高风险阳性率为5.32%,1例高风险阳性确诊唐氏综合征;18-三体综合征高风险阳性率为0.90%;开放性神经管畸形高风险阳性率为0.64%.唐氏综合征高风险阳性率海南省妇幼保健院与合作医院比较,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.72,P< 0.05),35岁及以上组孕妇高于35岁以下组,两者差异有显著统计学意义(x2=70.63,P<0.01),35岁以下组高风险阳性率也达3.71%.结论 多单位协作进行产前筛查时,应重视标本采集、运送等规范操作;每个年龄段的孕妇均应重视产前筛查.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of prenatal screening results for Down's syn drome (DS), Edward's syndrome (ES) and open neural tube defects (ONTD), and to provide reference for clin ical service. Methods Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used to detect the count of uE3, free-β-hCG, AFP in serum of pregnant women during the second trimester. The software Lifecycle3.2 was used to calculate the risk values of DS, ES, ONTD by importing the data of uE3, free-β-hCG, AFP, age, body weight, et al. The pregrant women were followed up 2 months after postpartum for pregnancy outcome. Results The positive rate of the high risk DS was 5.32%. One case of the high risk DS was diagnosed definitely. The positive rate of high risk ES was 0.90%, and the positive rate of high risk ONTD was 0.64%. The positive rates of high risk DS of Hainan Provincial Maternity and Child Health Hospital and cooperation hospitals were

  6. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  7. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Prenatal Detection of Cardiac Anomalies in Fetuses with Single Umbilical Artery: Diagnostic Accuracy Comparison of Maternal-Fetal-Medicine and Pediatric Cardiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Tasha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine agreement of cardiac anomalies between maternal fetal medicine (MFM physicians and pediatric cardiologists (PC in fetuses with single umbilical artery (SUA. Methods. A retrospective review of all fetuses with SUA between 1999 and 2008. Subjects were studied by MFM and PC, delivered at our institution, and had confirmation of SUA and cardiac anomaly by antenatal and neonatal PC follow-up. Subjects were divided into four groups: isolated SUA, SUA and isolated cardiac anomaly, SUA and multiple anomalies without heart anomalies, and SUA and multiple malformations including cardiac anomaly. Results. 39,942 cases were studied between 1999 and 2008. In 376 of 39,942 cases (0.94%, SUA was diagnosed. Only 182 (48.4% met inclusion criteria. Cardiac anomalies were found in 21% (38/182. Agreement between MFM physicians and PC in all groups combined was 94% (171/182 (95% CI [89.2, 96.8]. MFM physicians overdiagnosed cardiac anomalies in 4.4% (8/182. MFM physicians and PC failed to antenatally diagnose cardiac anomaly in the same two cases. Conclusions. Good agreement was noted between MFM physicians and PC in our institution. Studies performed antenatally by MFM physicians and PC are less likely to uncover the entire spectrum of cardiac abnormalities and thus neonatal follow-up is suggested.

  9. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  10. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  11. Response to LPS in female offspring from sows treated with cortisol during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Kranendonk, G.; Fillerup, M.; Hopster, H.; Boersma, W.; Hodgson, D.; Reenen, van K.; Taverne, M.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus¿pituitary¿adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress respon

  12. Indicadores Materno-infantis na adolescência e juventude: sociodemográfico, pré-natal, parto e nascidos-vivos Maternal-infantile indicators in adolescence and youth: socio-demographic, prenatal, delivery and newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição O. Costa

    2001-06-01

    de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: we carried out a cross-sectional, epidemiological study with a population of livebirths and adolescent mothers (aged 10-16 and 17-19 years and young adult mothers (aged 20-24 years. The information were obtained from the Livebirths Information System (SINASC-1998 for a total of 5,279 livebirths. Study variables were classified into socio-demographic factors (age, schooling of the mother, sex of the newborn and related to term, delivery, gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score. Data were processed using prevalence ratio and multivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to control confounding factors (prenatal and gestational age and to establish an association between maternal age and birth weight. RESULTS: in 1998, 21.6% of all livebirths in the city of Feira de Santana were from adolescent mothers; out of these mothers, 51.2% had not finished junior high or elementary school. Prevalence ratio and adjusted odds ratio for the 10-16 years of age group indicated increased prevalence of illiteracy, no prenatal examination, and low birth weight and a low prevalence of adequate weight of the newborn in comparison to other age groups studied. Logistic regression showed a positive association between maternal age and low birth weight. We also observed that the SINASC database lacked information in many different fields. CONCLUSIONS: our results indicated, for adolescent mothers, a high prevalence of livebirths and low schooling. Also, especially for the 10-16 years of age group, we observed increased risks for illiteracy, no prenatal examinations, low birth weight, and inadequate weight of the newborn in comparison to other age groups.

  13. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Prenatal stress and its effect on infant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    In this dissertation the effect of prenatal maternal stress on infant development and behavior is discussed. In a prospective longitudinal study of 170 nulliparous women, data was gatheren on the maternal stress level three times during pregnancy by means of questionnaires and endocrinologic

  15. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  16. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  19. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety...

  20. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.

  1. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  2. Paradoxical diurnal cortisol changes in neonates suggesting preservation of foetal adrenal rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Iwata, Sachiko; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Urata, Chihoko; Araki, Yuko; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2–3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30–40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables. Cortisol levels were lower during periods 15–28 days and >28 days than ≤5 days of life. Lower cortisol was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational age cortisol was associated with vaginal delivery and non-invasive ventilation support at saliva collection. PIH and non-invasive mechanical ventilation at saliva collection were associated with cortisol levels even after adjustment for postnatal age. Cortisol levels were higher in the evening than in the morning, which was unassociated with gestational and postnatal age. Higher cortisol levels in the evening suggest the preservation of a foetal-type diurnal rhythm. Cortisol levels are associated with intrinsic and extrinsic variables, such as PIH, delivery mode, gestational age, and respiratory conditions. PMID:27752095

  3. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  4. The effect of ropivacaine plus sufentanil on maternal and neonatal serum nitric oxide and cortisol in patient with controlled epidural analgesia during labor%0.1%罗哌卡因复合舒芬太尼用于无痛分娩对母婴一氧化氮及皮质醇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世辉; 黄希照; 胡祖荣; 贾杰; 黎昆伟; 邓恋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the analgesic efficacy and safety of ropivacaine ( 0. 1% ) plus sufentanil ( 0. 5 ug/mL ) for parturients with controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Methods One hundred healthy primiparas were randomized to two groups: PCEA group and control group. In the PCEA group, 15 mL loading dose and continuous background infusion by 5 mlVh of ropivacaine ( 0. 1% ) plus fentanyl ( 0. 05 μg/mL ), with controlled epidural analgesia were given to subjects. Maternal vital signs, visual analog scale ( VAS ) score, modified bromage scale ( MBS ) of motor block neonate and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. Serum nitric oxide and cortisol of mothers and neonates were assessed. Results There was no significant difference in maternal demographic data, duration of labor, mode of delivery, Apgar score, and maternal vital signs between the two groups. VAS score was significantly higher in control group than that in PCEA group ( 7. 92 ± 1. 46 vs 0. 73 ± 0. 64, P 0.05).P组镇痛前后与C组相应时点VAS评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).分娩情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组均未观察到不良反应或椎管内麻醉的并发症.P组分娩后NO无明显变化,皮质醇浓度降低(P<0.05); C组NO下降(P<0.05),皮质醇浓度升高(P<0.05).结论 用0.1%罗哌卡因复合舒芬太尼PCEA用于无痛分娩,安全有效,降低皮质醇浓度,延缓母婴NO水平降低.

  5. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  6. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  7. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  8. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue.

  9. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  10. 孕前或孕期感染人类免疫缺陷病毒后的母婴传播%Analysis on mother-to-child transmission after maternal acquired human immunodeficiency virus prenatally or before pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 桂希恩; 张元珍; 邓莉萍; 热孜艳·斯拉夫; 严智昭; 王胜勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of mother to child transmission of HIV after mothers acquired HIV prenatally or before pregnancy and the related factors. Methods Two hundred and seventy-seven mothers who acquired HIV prenatally or before pregnancy and their 322children from Yi-ning city of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region and some counties of central China were enrolled in this study from January 2000 to December 2009.Subtypes of HIV were determined by detection of Gag sequence,the rate of HIV transmission from mother to child was calculated and its related factors were analyzed by Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis. Results The HIV subtype of all mothers who were infected through blood (n=174) was B'.The major subtype of mothers who were infected via sexuality (n =58) was recombined subtype CRF01-BC (n=35) and CRF-AE (n=20),accounting for 60.3% and 34.5%,respectively,and only 3 mothers with B'subtype (5.2%).Twelve infants died before HIV detection,and 108 infants out of the rest 310infants were found to be HIV positive, giving the HIV mother-to-child transmission rate of 34.8% (95% CI:29.5%-40.1%).The infection rate of bottle feeding infants was lower than that of breastfeeding infants [12.5% (6/48) vs 38.9% (102/262),x2 =12.484,P=0.000].The infection rate of the infants whose mothers' HIV infection <7 years was lower than that of the infants whose mothers' HIV infection ≥7 years [28.8% (46/160) vs 54.2% (32/59),x2 =12.211,P=0.000].Multi-factor Logistic analysis showed that the duration of maternal HIV infection (OR =1.342,95% CI:1.189-1.515,P=0.000) and duration of breastfeeding (OR =1.137,95% CI:1.053-1.227,P=0.001) were risk factors of HIV vertical transmission. Conclusions The HIV subtypes might be associated with transmission route.Formula feeding could decrease the vertical transmission rate of HIV,while long duration of maternal HIV infection and breastfeeding might increase the vertical transmission rate

  11. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment is associated with diurnal cortisol regulation in term-born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, M N; Sandman, C A; Glynn, L M; Wing, D A; Davis, E P

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rapid developmental changes that occur during the fetal period, prenatal influences can affect the developing central nervous system with lifelong consequences for physical and mental health. Glucocorticoids are one of the proposed mechanisms by which fetal programing occurs. Glucocorticoids pass through the blood-brain barrier and target receptors throughout the central nervous system. Unlike endogenous glucocorticoids, synthetic glucocorticoids readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the developing fetus. The synthetic glucocorticoid, betamethasone, is routinely given prenatally to mothers at risk for preterm delivery. Over 25% of the fetuses exposed to betamethasone will be born at term. Few studies have examined the lasting consequences of antenatal treatment of betamethasone on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether antenatal exposure to betamethasone alters circadian cortisol regulation in children who were born full term. School-aged children prenatally treated with betamethasone and born at term (n=19, mean (SD)=8.1 (1.2) years old) were compared to children not treated with antenatal glucocorticoids (n=61, mean (SD)=8.2 (1.4) years old). To measure the circadian release of cortisol, saliva samples were collected at awakening; 30, 45, and 60min after awakening; and in the evening. Comparison children showed a typical diurnal cortisol pattern that peaked in the morning (the cortisol awakening response) and gradually decreased throughout the day. In contrast, children exposed to antenatal betamethasone lacked a cortisol awakening response and had a flatter diurnal slope (p'schildren born at term. Because disrupted circadian regulation of cortisol has been linked to mental and somatic health problems, future research is needed to determine whether children exposed to antenatal synthetic glucocorticoids are at risk for poor mental and physical health. Copyright

  12. Nurse managed prenatal programs affect outcomes for corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P E; Bitowski, B E; Bell, P L

    1997-09-01

    Faced with higher medical costs and increased insurance premiums, corporations are focusing on health promotion and wellness. With increasing numbers of women in the workforce, corporations have identified the need for prenatal programs. By developing, initiating, and evaluating outcome-based prenatal programs nurses can target the health care needs of this select population. One such program documented several outcomes including improved employee health and an 86% reduction in maternal/newborn costs.

  13. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  14. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  16. Intra-individual stability and developmental change in hair cortisol among postpartum mothers and infants: Implications for understanding chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy H; Snidman, Nancy; Leonard, Alexandra; Meyer, Jerrold; Tronick, Ed

    2016-05-01

    The study goal was to determine the intra-individual stability, developmental change, and maternal-reported correlates (socio-demographic, stress experiences, hair characteristics, and care) of hair cortisol in mothers and their infants. To assess cortisol deposition in hair during the periods of 6-to-9 months and 9-to-12 months of age, 3 cm segments of hair samples deemed to represent approximately 3 months of retrospective hair cortisol were sampled longitudinally at 9- and 12-months in 41 mothers and infants. Bivariate correlations and mean level comparisons of log-transformed hair cortisol levels at 9- (T1) and 12-months (T2) in mothers and infants were examined. Hair cortisol values were positively correlated from T1 to T2 for mothers (r = .41, p cortisol values did not significantly differ from T1 to T2 in infants but decreased for mothers (F(1,34) = 9.2, p cortisol was not associated with each other at either time point. Self-reported measures of stress, and hair characteristics and care were not associated with hair cortisol. This is the first study to obtain hair cortisol from more than one time point within the first year after birth in mothers and infants. The intra-individual stability of hair cortisol suggests that it may be a possible biomarker for detecting change in chronic stress experiences within the first year of life and in the postpartum period.

  17. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  18. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  19. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows t

  20. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows

  1. Genetic Considerations in the Prenatal Diagnosis of Overgrowth Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Large (>90%) for gestational age (LGA) fetuses are usually identified incidentally. Detection of the LGA fetus should first prompt the provider to rule out incorrect dates and maternal diabetes. Once this is done, consideration should be given to certain overgrowth syndromes, especially if anomalies are present. The overgrowth syndromes have significant clinical and molecular overlap, and are associated with developmental delay, tumors, and other anomalies. Although genetic causes of overgrowth are considered postnatally, they are infrequently diagnosed prenatally. Here, we review prenatal sonographic findings in fetal overgrowth syndromes, including Pallister-Killian, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Sotos, Perlman, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel. We also discuss prenatal diagnosis options and recurrence risks. PMID:19609940

  2. Childhood maltreatment history, posttraumatic relational sequelae, and prenatal care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or had used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  4. 产前产后护理对初产妇母乳分泌及喂养的临床影响观察%Observation of prenatal postpartum nursing on clinical effects of early maternal breast milk secretion and feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产前产后护理对初产妇母乳分泌及喂养的临床影响。方法选取在产前5~7天入院待产的初产妇68例作为研究对象,根据产妇的入院顺序分为观察组和对照组,各34例,对照组产妇给予常规护理服务,观察组给予优质护理干预。结果观察组产妇乳汁分泌的时间以及母乳喂养情况明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在对初产妇实施护理的过程中,产前、产后的优质护理的运用,可提高母乳喂养的成功率,具有显著的效果,值得临床推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of prenatal care on primipara postpartum breast milk secretion and feeding.Methods From 5 to 7 days of admission in prenatal primipara 68 cases as the research object, according to the order of admission were divided into observation group and control group, each group of 34 cases of pregnant women, the control group were given routine care, antenatal and postpartum, the patients in observation group were given prenatal, postpartum quality nursing intervention.Results The observation group maternal milk secretion time and breast feeding is signiifcantly better than the control group, with statistical signiifcance (P<0.05). Conclusion In the implementation of the nursing process of early maternal, prenatal, postnatal quality care use, can improve the success rate of breastfeeding, has a signiifcant effect, worthy of promotion.

  5. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that mate

  6. Regulatory T cells and the immune pathogenesis of prenatal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Way, Sing Sing

    2013-12-01

    Pregnancy in placental mammals offers exceptional comprehensive benefits of in utero protection, nutrition, and metabolic waste elimination for the developing fetus. However, these benefits also require durable strategies to mitigate maternal rejection of fetal tissues expressing foreign paternal antigens. Since the initial postulate of expanded maternal immune tolerance by Sir Peter Medawar 60 years ago, an amazingly elaborate assortment of molecular and cellular modifications acting both locally at the maternal-placental interface and systemically have been shown to silence potentially detrimental maternal immune responses. In turn, simultaneously maintaining host defense against the infinite array of potential pathogens during pregnancy is equally important. Fortunately, resistance against most infections is preserved seamlessly throughout gestation. On the other hand, recent studies on pathogens with unique predisposition for prenatal infections have uncovered distinctive holes in host defense associated with the reproductive process. Using these infections to probe the response during pregnancy, the immune suppressive regulatory subset of maternal CD4 T cells has been increasingly shown to dictate the inter-workings between prenatal infection susceptibility and pathogenesis of ensuing pregnancy complications. Herein, the recent literature suggesting a necessity for maternal regulatory T cells (Tregs) in pregnancy-induced immunological shifts that sustain fetal tolerance is reviewed. Additional discussion is focused on how expansion of maternal Treg suppression may become exploited by pathogens that cause prenatal infections and the perilous potential of infection-induced immune activation that may mitigate fetal tolerance and inadvertently inject hostility into the protective in utero environment.

  7. The application of second trimester maternal serum in prenatal screening for Down 's syndrome%孕中期母血清标记物在唐氏综合征产前筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晓媛; 张颖; 崔岚; 辛力; 岳胜

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠中期血清标记物甲胎蛋白(AFP)和人绒毛膜促性腺激素游离β亚基(Free-β-HCG)在妊娠中期唐氏综合征产前筛查中的应用价值.方法:应用时间分辨免疫荧光法对天津市2009年1月~2010年1月75 876例孕15~20+6周妇女进行血清AFP和Free-β-HCG含量检测,结合年龄、孕周、单双胎、体质量、既往异常妊娠史、有无糖尿病、吸烟史等因素,通过Life Cycle 3.0版软件进行风险率评估,对高风险妊娠妇女进行遗传咨询,在知情同意的情况下进行羊膜腔穿刺及B超检查以确诊.结果:75 876例妊娠妇女中,筛出染色体异常高风险妊娠妇女4 241例,其中1 036例接受羊膜腔穿刺产前诊断,发现唐氏综合征(DS) 16例、18-三体综合征2例、其他胎儿染色体异常9例;27例中有18例<35岁;建立了该地区妊娠中期两项筛查指标的中位数值.DS胎儿母亲血中AFP水平较正常孕妇女降低,Free-β-HCG水平增加;18-三体胎儿的母亲血中AFP和Free-β-HCG水平均降低.结论:不能以年龄作为筛查DS的唯一指标,孕中期母体血清AFP、Free-β-HCG联合检测可能是预测胎儿染色体畸形的有效指标,经产前诊断及时采取措施,能降低出生缺陷,对优生工作具有重要意义.%Objective; To explore the application of second trimester maternal serum marker, alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free -β - human chorionic gonadotropin ( Free - β - HCG) , in prenatal screening for Downs syndrome ( DS) . Methods: From January, 2009 to January, 2010. 75 876 pregnant women at 15 through 20 +6 weeks of gestation were received in Tianjin, and alpha - fetoprotein and free -β - human chorionic gonadotropin of them were measured by time - resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Then the risk of DS was evaluated by use of statistical software life Cycle 3. 0 combined with age, gestational weeks, weight, always unusually gravid history, without diabetic, smoking history and other factors

  8. Prenatal ultrasonography and postnatal follow-up of a case of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fen Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Rare syndromes like MKS may need early comprehensive evaluations and consultations. Although prenatal diagnosis might be impossible for MKS, prenatal awareness by fetal ultrasound is very helpful to assist early management and maternal transfer. The final diagnosis and appropriate management of MKS requires the collaboration of obstetricians, geneticists, pediatricians, and ophthalmologists as soon as abnormal signs are detected in utero.

  9. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Luiz; Almeida Maria; Lima Danilo DF; Bettiol Heloísa; Guimarães Alzira Maria DN; Ribeiro Eleonora RO; Silva Antônio; Gurgel Ricardo Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance ...

  10. Implementation of whole genome massively parallel sequencing for noninvasive prenatal testing in laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thung, G.W.D.T.; Beulen, L.; Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Faas, B.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidies using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma has revolutionized the field of prenatal care and methods using massively parallel sequencing are now being implemented almost worldwide. Substantial progress has been made from initially testing

  11. Trends in the utilization of invasive prenatal diagnosis in The Netherlands during 2000-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Scheffer, Peter G.; Stoutenbeek, Philip; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Page-Christiaens, Lieve C. M. L.; Schuring-Blom, G. Heleen

    Objective To analyze trends in the number and type of invasive procedure, reasons for referral, maternal age and chromosomal abnormalities over a 10-year period and correlate the trends to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods Data from 10 706 invasive prenatal procedures

  12. Trends in the utilization of invasive prenatal diagnosis in The Netherlands during 2000-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, Klaske D.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Scheffer, Peter G.; Stoutenbeek, Philip; Schielen, Peter C. J. I.; Page-Christiaens, Lieve C. M. L.; Schuring-Blom, G. Heleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze trends in the number and type of invasive procedure, reasons for referral, maternal age and chromosomal abnormalities over a 10-year period and correlate the trends to changes in the national prenatal screening policy. Methods Data from 10 706 invasive prenatal procedures yieldi

  13. Avaliação da aplicação do protocolo de triagem pré-natal para toxoplasmose em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil: estudo transversal em puérperas de duas maternidades Evaluation of prenatal screening for toxoplasmosis in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a cross-sectional study of postpartum women in two maternity hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Viana Machado Carellos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal, em duas maternidades públicas de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com entrevista de 420 puérperas, de agosto de 2004 a maio de 2005, para avaliar a aplicação do protocolo de triagem pré-natal para toxoplasmose implantado, e as orientações oferecidas às gestantes suscetíveis. A cobertura do pré-natal foi de 98%, e da primeira triagem sorológica de 97%. O início do pré-natal e a realização da primeira sorologia ocorreram em média com 16 semanas. Foram identificadas 163 gestantes suscetíveis à toxoplasmose: 44% não repetiram a sorologia, e 42% alegaram não ter recebido orientações para prevenção da toxoplasmose. O início precoce do pré-natal e um maior número de consultas foram associados à repetição da sorologia e ao recebimento de orientações. As informações oferecidas foram: evitar contato com gatos (95%, não ingerir ou manipular carne crua (70% e lavar cuidadosamente as hortaliças (53%. Concluiu-se que a adesão inadequada ao protocolo de triagem pré-natal de toxoplasmose encontrada no estudo pode gerar gastos financeiros sem melhoria na qualidade do cuidado perinatal.This cross-sectional study of 420 women in two public maternity hospitals from August 2004 to May 2005 evaluated the application of a prenatal toxoplasmosis serological screening protocol in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and the information provided to susceptible pregnant women. Ninety-eight percent of women received prenatal care and 97% underwent the initial serological screening test, at an average of 16 weeks gestational age. The initial testing identified 163 women as susceptible to toxoplasmosis: 44% of these did not undergo repeat serological testing, and 42% of them did not remember having received information on the prevention of toxoplasmosis infection. Early prenatal care and a high number of prenatal visits were associated with repeat serological testing and orientation regarding

  14. Fatores associados à assistência pré-natal precária em uma amostra de puérperas adolescentes em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, 1999-2000 Factors associated with precarious prenatal care in a sample of post-partum adolescent mothers in maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se o perfil das gestantes com pré-natal precário, segundo variáveis sócio-demográficas, história reprodutiva da mãe, apoio familiar, satisfação com a gestação e comportamentos de risco durante a gravidez. Foram entrevistadas 1.967 adolescentes no pós-parto imediato de maternidades públicas, conveniadas com o SUS e particulares no Município do Rio de Janeiro. A variável dependente foi o número de consultas de pré-natal (0-3; 4-6; 7 e mais. A análise estatística testou a hipótese de homogeneidade de proporções mediante análises bi e multivariada, com o uso de regressão logística multinomial, cuja categoria de referência da variável-resposta foi a realização de > 7 consultas. Foram encontradas maiores proporções de 0-3 consultas nos grupos de mães com grau de escolaridade This study characterizes the women receiving precarious prenatal care according to socio-demographic variables, mother's reproductive history, family support, satisfaction with pregnancy, and risk behavior during pregnancy. A total of 1,967 adolescents were interviewed in the immediate post-partum in public and outsourced maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. The dependent variable was the number of prenatal appointments (0-3; 4-6; 7 or more. The statistical analysis aimed to test the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions, including bi- and multivariate analysis, using multinomial logistic regression, in which the reference category for the response variable was 7 or more prenatal visits. Higher (and statistically significant proportions of insufficient number of prenatal visits (0-3 were associated with: precarious sanitation conditions; not living with the child's father; attempted abortion; and smoking, drinking, and/or drug use during pregnancy. The results strongly indicate that mothers with worse living conditions and risk behavior during pregnancy were the same who lacked access to prenatal care.

  15. Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Rupprecht, Sven; Dreiling, Michelle; Bergmeier, Christoph; Witte, Otto W; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-02-22

    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). However, cortisol alone cannot fully explain all effects of maternal stress especially during early to mid pregnancy before maturation of the fetal HPAA has even begun and expression of fetal glucocorticoid receptors is limited. This review focuses on mediators of maternal fetal stress transfer that in addition to cortisol have been proposed as transmitters of maternal stress: catecholamines, cytokines, serotonin/tryptophan, reactive-oxygen-species and the maternal microbiota. We propose that the effects of psychosocial maternal stress on fetal development and health and disease in later life are not a consequence of a single pathway but are mediated by multiple stress-transfer mechanisms acting together in a synergistic manner.

  16. Maternal Health Care Services Access Index and Infant Survival in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    ... reduce in Nigeria. KEYWORDS: Infant mortality, Maternal health care, Pregnancy care, Delivery care, Nigeria ... not go for antenatal care, and as a result may not access other cares ...... Inadequate Use of Prenatal Services Among. Brazilian ...

  17. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Åsa; Hohmann, Cynthia; Orsini, Nicola;

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure....

  18. 以家庭为中心的产前教育对产妇分娩方式及母乳喂养的影响%Effect of the family-centered prenatal maternal health education on delivery methods and breast feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟嫦; 彭政

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of the family-centered prenatal maternal health education on delivery modes and breastfeeding.Methods Two hundred and thirty pregnant women who accepted prenatal maternal health education were divided into the observation group and the control group according to whether their families involved in the prenatal education.There were 108 cases in the observation group and 122 in the control group.The observation group was given prenatal health education involving the pregnant women and their caregivers or their husbands.The control group was given prenatal health education according to the previously-designed course without presence of their families.The two groups were compared in delivery mode,extent of pain during production and breast feeding.Results The rates of vaginal delivery and the breast feeding at discharge in the observation group were higher than the control group(P<0.05 for both).The rate of breast swelling in 72 hours was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.01). Conclusion Family-centered prenatal maternmal health education is good for the natural birth rate,improvement of breastfeeding rate and reduction the breast swelling.%  目的探讨以家庭为中心的产前教育对产妇分娩方式及母乳喂养的影响。方法将230例定期产前检查并接受产前健康教育的孕妇根据有无家属参与产前教育分为观察组108例与对照组122例。观察组产妇采用以家庭为中心的产前健康教育,即孕妇及其丈夫和(或)围产期主要照顾者共同参与计划的制订与实施,对照组产妇按事先设定的课程进行产前健康教育,家属未参与。比较两组产妇分娩方式、产程中疼痛程度及母乳喂养情况。结果观察组产妇阴道分娩率、出院时母乳喂养率明显高于对照组,72 h 奶胀发生率明显低于对照组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(均 P<0.05)。结论以家庭为中心的产前教

  19. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  20. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, manganese, iron, and copper in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: There was a positive correlation of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Mn in paired maternal/fetal samples in this series. Our findings have raised the possibility of reducing maternal Hg and Cu by way of prenatal vitamin supplementation.

  1. Influence of maternal weight on MoM and screening performance in second trimester prenatal triple marker screening%孕中期孕妇体重对血清指标 MoM 值和三联筛查结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 刘晓艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:验证复旦大学附属妇产科医院实验室对孕妇体重校正方法的有效性,并研究孕妇体重对孕中期三联筛查的影响。方法收集孕中期唐氏综合征筛查标本单妊娠28577例,采用化学发光免疫分析技术检测血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、人绒毛膜促性腺激素β亚基(β-hCG)、和游离雌三醇(uE3)的浓度,通过回归体重校正参数,得到体重校正的 MoM值,计算唐氏综合征、爱德华氏征和神经管缺陷风险。结果最合适本实验室的体重校正模型是倒数模型,使用该校正模型,比不校正体重多检出2例21三体的检出率,检出率从65%提高到76%。结论通过体重校正消除体重对血清标志物含量的影响,进一步提高21三体检出率。各个实验室需要根据当地人群建立自己的体重公式,可以更准确报告唐氏综合征、爱德华氏征和神经管缺陷的风险度。%Objective To verify the validity of maternal weight adjustment,and to study the influence of maternal weight adjustment on second trimester prenatal triple marker screening in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University.Methods A total of 28 577 second trimester pregnant women were enrolled,and their serum samples were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay for Down syndrome second trimester prenatal screening with triple markers,alpha fetoprotein (AFP),beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG)and unconjugated estriol (uE3).After regressing the maternal weight adjustment parameters,the MoMof maternal weight adjustment was obtained, and the risks of Down syndrome,Edward syndrome and open neural tube disease were calculated.Results Reciprocal-linear was the best fitting model.The reciprocal-linear model detected 2 cases of Down syndrome,thus the detection rate increased from 65% to 76%,comparing to that of no maternal weight adjustment.Conclusions Maternal weight adjustment can increase the

  2. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-07-22

    The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  3. Effects of early- and late-gestational maternal stress and synthetic glucocorticoid on development of the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Frauendorf, Vilmar; Rupprecht, Sven; Schiffner, Rene; Bischoff, Sabine J; Kiehntopf, Michael; Reinhold, Petra; Witte, Otto W; Schubert, Harald; Schwab, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PMS) programs dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) in postnatal life, though time periods vulnerable to PMS, are still unclear. We evaluated in pregnant sheep the effect of PMS during early gestation [30-100 days of gestation (dGA); term is 150 dGA] or late gestation (100-120 dGA) on development of fetal HPAA function. We compared the effects of endogenous cortisol with synthetic glucocorticoid (GC) exposure, as used clinically to enhance fetal lung maturation. Pregnant sheep were exposed to repeated isolation stress twice per week for 3 h in a separate box with no visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flock-mates either during early (n = 7) or late (n = 7) gestation. Additional groups received two courses of betamethasone (BM; n = 7; 2 × 110 μg kg(- 1) body weight, 24 h apart) during late gestation (106/107 and 112/113 dGA, n = 7) or acted as controls (n = 7). Fetal cortisol responses to hypotensive challenge, a physiological fetal stressor, were measured at 112 and 129 dGA, i.e. before and during maturation of the HPAA. Hypotension was induced by fetal infusion of sodium nitroprusside, a potent vasodilator. At 112 dGA, neither PMS nor BM altered fetal cortisol responses. PMS, during early or late gestation, and BM treatment increased fetal cortisol responses at 129 dGA with the greatest increase achieved in stressed early pregnant sheep. Thus, development of the HPAA is vulnerable to inappropriate levels of GCs during long periods of fetal life, whereas early gestation is most vulnerable to PMS.

  4. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed.

  5. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  6. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: 10-years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj Fredj, S; Ouali, F; Siala, H; Bibi, A; Othmani, R; Dakhlaoui, B; Zouari, F; Messaoud, T

    2015-06-01

    We present in this study our 10years experience in prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis performed in the Tunisian population. Based on family history, 40 Tunisian couples were selected for prenatal diagnosis. Fetal DNA was isolated from amniotic fluid collected by transabdominal amniocentesis or from chronic villi by transcervical chorionic villus sampling. The genetic analysis for cystic fibrosis mutations was performed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and denaturing high-pressure liquid phase chromatography. We performed microsatellites analysis by capillary electrophoresis in order to verify the absence of maternal cell contamination. Thirteen fetuses were affected, 21 were heterozygous carriers and 15 were healthy with two normal alleles of CFTR gene. Ten couples opted for therapeutic abortion. The microsatellites genotyping showed the absence of contamination of the fetal DNA by maternal DNA in 93.75%. Our diagnostic strategy provides rapid and reliable prenatal diagnosis at risk families of cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Congenital anomalies: Impact of prenatal diagnosis on mode of delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, M A

    2010-03-01

    An important aspect of prenatal diagnosis is the avoidance of emergency caesarean delivery (CD) where the abnormality is considered lethal and the infant will not survive. A consecutive cohort of 211,163 women delivered of infants weighing 500 grams or more in three tertiary referral centers from 01\\/95 to 12\\/04, was analyzed for perinatal death attributed to congenital malformations. In the group that died in the neonatal period, the emergency CD rate was significantly lower where anomaly was detected versus undetected (17.5% versus 31%). Further, in contrast to undiagnosed anomalies, the indication for emergency CD was more often maternal in the diagnosed group (42% versus 19%, p=0.019). When a diagnosis of lethal congenital anomaly has been made in the prenatal period, the reduction in the emergency CD rate by almost half in this study supports a pivotal role for prenatal diagnosis in optimizing maternal care.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  10. 有生产经历的助产士产前教育对孕产妇分娩方式的影响%The Impact by Prenatal Education of the Nurse Midwives with Production Experience to the Mode of Delivery of Maternal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简玲丽

    2014-01-01

    目的通过开展有生产经历的助产士对孕妇进行产前教育,观察并探讨对其分娩方式的影响。方法选择2012年1月~12月在我院建卡并分娩的孕妇用随机抽取100例,分为观察组和对照组,各50例。观察组接受有生产经历的助产士进行产前教育,对照组只进行常规产前检查,比较两组孕妇的分娩结果。结果接受有生产经历的助产士产前教育的观察组,剖宫产数低于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论孕妇在产前接受有生产经历的助产士对其进行产前教育,有利于降低剖宫产数量,提高患者满意度和产科质量。%Objective The nurse midwives with production experience evolved prenatal education for pregnant women, observe and analyze the impact of the mode of delivery of maternal. Methods Select 100 cases of pregnant women that were dealed cards and birthed in our department in January 2012~December 2012, and divided into the control group and the observation group, and every group had 50 cases. The observation group was accepted prenatal education of the nurse midwives with production experience. The the control group was used routine prenatal examination. Compare the partal outcomes of the pregnant women in two groups. Results The ef ective rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group, the dif erence of two groups had statistical significance ( <0.05). Conclusion The Pregnant women accepted the prenatal education of nurse midwives that had production experience before labor, which could reduce the number of uterine-incision delivery, and improve the degree of satisfaction of patient and the quality of gynecology and obstetrics.

  11. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.