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Sample records for prenatal class attendance

  1. Adjustment to new parenthood: attenders versus nonattenders at prenatal education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M R

    1995-03-01

    This longitudinal descriptive study compared the adjustment to new parenthood in two groups of first-time mothers and fathers. Participants included 106 married couples, 58 (55%) who attended prenatal childbirth education classes and 48 (45%) who did not. The study variables included prenatal, intrapartal, and new parent experiences. All mothers and fathers completed questionnaires during the last trimester of pregnancy and one month after delivery of a healthy newborn. Fathers were present during labor and birth regardless of prenatal class attendance. The groups differed in maternal age and in maternal and paternal education levels, but did not differ in measures of prenatal attachment, paternal childbirth involvement, childbirth satisfaction, parenting sense of competence, and ease of transition to parenthood. The results suggest the need for further study of the influence of prenatal classes on becoming a new parent, and of the effects of the father's presence during childbirth on birth and new parent experiences.

  2. Class Attendance in Undergraduate Classes: Why and When Do Students Miss Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blerkom, Malcolm L.

    The first part of this study examined class attendance of 959 students in 17 sections of undergraduate psychology classes. It was found that class attendance decreased from the beginning to the end of the semester. An investigation of 117 of the students found that attendance displayed moderate correlations with course grades. Students missed…

  3. Class attendance and academic performance of second year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Class attendance and academic performance of second year university students in an ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... This study investigated the impact of classroom attendance on academic ...

  4. class attendance and academic performance of second year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    impact of classroom attendance on academic performance of university students in an Organic .... either very good or very poor class attendance and those students in the lowest quintile of ... Some were done on secondary school ... What is the average of attendance of the year-two university science students in Organic.

  5. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  6. Does sex (female versus male) influence the impact of class attendance on examination performance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald N. Cortright; Heidi L. Lujan; Julie H. Cox; Stephen E. DiCarlo

    2011-01-01

    The “conventional wisdom” is that grades are related to class attendance, i.e., students who attend classes more frequently obtain better grades and class attendance dramatically contributes to enhanced learning...

  7. Professor's Role in Motivating Students to Attend Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Burgess, David N.

    2005-01-01

    It is important for college teachers to motivate their students because student motivation correlates with a student's academic achievement. This study was concerned with exploring what intrinsically motivates college students to continue attending class; what brings them to class because of a desire to be there, not because of external factors…

  8. Physical activity and associated factors among students attending evening classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luis Ceschini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the physical activity level and associated factors among students attending evening classes in public and private schools in a region of the city of São Paulo. The sample was composed of 1,844 adolescents of both sexes aged 15-20 years. Three public and private schools in the city of São Paulo were visited. Daily physical activity level was assessed through International Physical Activity Questionnaire that classifies physical activity level. Physical activity level was divided into insufficiently active (when subject reported less than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week and physically active (when subject reported more than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week. Information related to risk behavior such as smoking and alcohol consumption was collected. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with three levels of data input and p<.05 as significance level. The prevalence of physically active adolescents was 36.1%. Most active subjects were: A younger boys with low socioeconomic levels; B adolescents from private schools; C adolescents that do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages; D those who do not attend formal exercise program; E those who go to school to perform physical activities on weekends. Adolescents attending evening classes tended to be insufficiently active. We believe that school structure, working hours, and distance from home and workplace to school and risk factor should explain these data. Intervention programs could significantly contribute to increase the physical activity level among adolescents.

  9. Does sponsorship improve outcomes above Alcoholics Anonymous attendance? A latent class growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee; Bond, Jason; Delucchi, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    To construct Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance, sponsorship and abstinence latent class trajectories to test the added benefit of having a sponsor above the benefits of attendance in predicting abstinence over time. Prospective with 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-year follow-ups. Alcoholic-dependent individuals from two probability samples, one from representative public and private treatment programs and another from the general population (n = 495). Individuals in the low attendance class (four classes identified) were less likely than those in the high, descending and medium attendance classes to be in high (versus low) abstinence class (three classes identified). No differences were found between the other attendance classes as related to abstinence class membership. Overall, being in the high sponsor class (three classes identified) predicted better abstinence outcomes than being in either of two other classes (descending and low), independent of attendance class effects. Although declining sponsor involvement was associated with greater likelihood of high abstinence than low sponsor involvement, being in the descending sponsor class also increased the odds of being in the descending abstinence class. Any pattern of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, even if it declines or is never high for a particular 12-month period, is better than little or no attendance in terms of abstinence. Greater initial attendance carries added value. There is a benefit for maintaining a sponsor over time above that found for attendance. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. The Role of Attendance in Lecture Classes: You Can Lead a Horse to Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    A review of prior research on the role of attendance policies in large lecture classes (including psychology) is presented. This research showed that although students often did not attend class, various policies were effective in getting students to the classroom. Moreover, some research showed that an attendance policy did not lower instructor…

  11. The Role of Attendance in Lecture Classes: You Can Lead a Horse to Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    A review of prior research on the role of attendance policies in large lecture classes (including psychology) is presented. This research showed that although students often did not attend class, various policies were effective in getting students to the classroom. Moreover, some research showed that an attendance policy did not lower instructor…

  12. Class Attendance, Course Performance, and Course Evaluation: A Case Study of an Introducctory Plant Science Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael A. Fidanza

    2006-01-01

    Class lecture attendance by students in an introductory undergraduate plant science course had not been consistent, and the impact of attendance on student grades and their perception of the course...

  13. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  14. Class Attendance and Exam Performance: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2008-01-01

    The determination of college students' academic performance is an important issue in higher education. Whether students' attendance at lectures affects students' exam performance has received considerable attention. The authors conduct a randomized experiment to study the average attendance effect for students who choose to attend lectures, which…

  15. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  16. Keep Students Coming by Keeping Them Interested: Motivators for Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of attendance motivators administered to 220 undergraduates enrolled in an introductory-level survey course at a large Midwestern university in fall 2002 and spring 2003 revealed, intuitively yet contrary to many earlier studies, that the most common situation in which students are motivated to attend class is if they consider the…

  17. Research on Promote the Attendance of Senior Students in English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文君

    2014-01-01

    In traditional English class of China, the relationship between teacher and students is one-way communication. As a result, positive attendance in senior English class is not common. It is important to develop students' automatic learning and coop⁃eration learning abilities. However, the particularities of senior students in psychology and the background of college entrance ex⁃amination block the way of traditional teaching reform. From these aspects, this thesis comes up with corresponding advices to promote the attendance of senior English class.

  18. Using a “Microbe Minute” to Improve Class Attendance and Increase Course Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between lecture attendance and exam performance (2). Teaching an introductory microbiology class in a large lecture format to 200–375 students at 8:00 a.m. has unique challenges. In particular, due to the early morning lecture, students tend to arrive late and some cease attending after the first few weeks of class, since lecture PowerPoint slides are provided on the class website. Additionally, student interest in the subject may be low sinc...

  19. Effects of Text Messaged Self-Monitoring on Class Attendance and Punctuality of At-Risk College Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Lott, Valorie; Mills, Jessica; Bicard, Sara; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text messaging class arrival to an academic counselor on the attendance and punctuality of 4 college student athletes. Each participant had a history of class tardiness and was considered to be at risk for academic failure. Class attendance and punctuality improved for all participants. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Effects of text messaged self-monitoring on class attendance and punctuality of at-risk college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F; Lott, Valorie; Mills, Jessica; Bicard, Sara; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text messaging class arrival to an academic counselor on the attendance and punctuality of 4 college student athletes. Each participant had a history of class tardiness and was considered to be at risk for academic failure. Class attendance and punctuality improved for all participants.

  1. Using a “Microbe Minute” to Improve Class Attendance and Increase Course Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Feldman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between lecture attendance and exam performance (2. Teaching an introductory microbiology class in a large lecture format to 200–375 students at 8:00 a.m. has unique challenges. In particular, due to the early morning lecture, students tend to arrive late and some cease attending after the first few weeks of class, since lecture PowerPoint slides are provided on the class website. Additionally, student interest in the subject may be low since it is a required course. Many introductory level textbooks focus on large concepts but minimize discussion of interesting microorganisms, particularly pathogens. To address these issues, a “Microbe Minute” was added to the start of the class period (1. The “Microbe Minute” consists of four PowerPoint slides focusing on an interesting microorganism. The class starts exactly at 8:00 a.m. and copies of the slides are not provided to the students. Spending the first five minutes of an undergraduate introductory microbiology class discussing an interesting microbe can improve class attendance, foster discussion, and increase course interest, which ultimately benefits both the students and the instructor. The “Microbe Minute” can be implemented in any undergraduate or graduate-level microbiology or biology course from the introductory to the advanced level. It is particularly useful in a large lecture format but can also be used for a small classroom.

  2. Economic inequalities in maternal health care: prenatal care and skilled birth attendance in India, 1992-2006.

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    Praveen Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of maternal health care is limited in India despite several programmatic efforts for its improvement since the late 1980's. The use of maternal health care is typically patterned on socioeconomic and cultural contours. However, there is no clear perspective about how socioeconomic differences over time have contributed towards the use of maternal health care in India. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS conducted during 1992-2006, we analyse the trends and patterns in utilization of prenatal care (PNC in first trimester with four or more antenatal care visits and skilled birth attendance (SBA among poor and nonpoor mothers, disaggregated by area of residence in India and three contrasting provinces, namely, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. In addition, we investigate the relative contribution of public and private health facilities in meeting the demand for SBA, especially among poor mothers. We also examine the role of salient socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors in influencing aforementioned outcomes. Bivariate analyses, concentration curve and concentration index, logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models are used to understand the trends, patterns and predictors of the two outcome variables. Results indicate sluggish progress in utilization of PNC and SBA in India and selected provinces during 1992-2006. Enormous inequalities in utilization of PNC and SBA were observed largely to the disadvantage of the poor. Multivariate analysis suggests growing inequalities in utilization of the two outcomes across different economic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PNC and SBA remains disproportionately lower among poor mothers in India irrespective of area of residence and province. Despite several governmental efforts to increase access and coverage of delivery services to poor, it is clear that the poor (a do not use SBA and (b

  3. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; Pwomen studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL PERFORMANCE AND THE NUMBER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES ATTENDED BY KOREAN ADOLESCENT STUDENTS

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    Sang-Yeob Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased physical activity (PA is the relationship with improved cognitive and memory functions of the brain. The physical education (PE classes held in school comprise a type of PA. However, there is no epidemiological evidence showing a relationship between school performance and the number of PE classes attended per week in adolescent students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the number of PE classes attended per week is related with school performance in Korean adolescent students. In 2009, 75,066 adolescent students from middle school first grade to high school third grade participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V project. The relationship between school performance and the number of PE classes attended per week was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariate variables such as gender, age, body mass index, parents' education level, family's economic status, vigorous and moderate PA, and muscle strengthening exercises. The odds ratio (OR for attending 3 PE classes per week was positively correlated with improved school performance and that attending <3 PE classes per week was negatively correlated with school performance in Korean adolescent students

  5. [The influence of attending theory classes and other factors on the academic performance of undergraduate surgery students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Serrano, J; Martínez León, J; Aliaga Estelles, J

    1990-10-01

    The authors have studied the influence of the academic history, class attendance, and use of commission notes on the student's academic performance, evaluated by the final marks, on a population of 335 sixth year students taking a surgical pathology course at the School of Medicine. The results show that previous marks correlate with the final surgery mark, that class attendance does not determine significant differences in the student's performance, and that the use of commission notes is widely spread conditioning a mediocre undergraduate [correction of pregraduate] theoretical education [correction of formation].

  6. Investigating attribute non-attendance and its consequences in choice experiments with latent class models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylene

    2013-05-01

    A growing literature, mainly from transport and environment economics, has started to explore whether respondents violate some of the axioms about individuals' preferences in Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) and use simple strategies to make their choices. One of these strategies, termed attribute non-attendance (ANA), consists in ignoring one or more attributes. Using data from a DCE administered to healthcare providers in Ghana to evaluate their potential resistance to changes in clinical guidelines, this study illustrates how latent class models can be used in a step-wise approach to account for all possible ANA strategies used by respondents and explore the consequences of such behaviours. Results show that less than 3% of respondents considered all attributes when choosing between the two hypothetical scenarios proposed, with a majority looking at only one or two attributes. Accounting for ANA strategies improved the goodness-of-fit of the model and affected the magnitude of some of the coefficient and willingness-to-pay estimates. However, there was no difference in the predicted probabilities of the model taking into account ANA and the standard approach. Although the latter result is reassuring about the ability of DCEs to produce unbiased policy guidance, it should be confirmed by other studies.

  7. Food and physical activity behaviours of adults attending a prediabetes education class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorian M; Johnson, Steven T; Vallance, Jeff K; Stadnyk, Janet; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine food and physical activity behaviours of adults with prediabetes. For this cross-sectional study, adults (aged >17 years) with prediabetes (n=1228) who attended a prediabetes education class were recruited. Participants self-administered an assessment of food and physical activity behaviours using the Food Behaviour Checklist and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Linear regression models were performed to identify significant relationships between food, physical activity, age, body mass index and food access variables. Participants were 35.8% men with a mean age of 57.7 years (SD 11.6) and 64.2% women with a mean age of 55.2 years (13.9). Neither group was consuming adequate fruits and vegetables (17.1% for men and 29.2% for women eating 5 or more servings a day) or meeting physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes (29.5% for men and 26.2% for women). Approximately 29.0% of the entire sample "always" consumed milk or soy products. Men reported higher saturated fat intakes than women. For the entire sample, 83.4% rated their diet quality as needing improvement, and most consumed sweetened beverages (71.1% of men and 50.9% of women). Many participants (88.5%) used nutrition facts panels to choose foods. Food behaviour subscales and physical activity were significantly associated with each other and with age, body mass index and food access (pfood and physical activity behaviours. Evaluation of lifestyle behaviours using simple tools like the Food Behaviour Checklist and Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire can be helpful for program design, evaluation and delivery. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relation between the class attendance and the performance at final examinations of students, in Nursing department, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriou, G; L. Vastardis; A. Kalogianni; Vassilopoulos, G.; M. Polikandrioti; Ch. Marvaki; Theodore Kapadohos

    2007-01-01

    Class attendance of a didactic lecture consists one of the most important factors, which has impact on students" performance at university. The attendance of the lecture, mainly at the education of professionals of health, is a matter of great importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of class attendance upon the final examination result of students in Nursing HTEI of Athens. Method and material: Τhe sample of the study consisted of 204 student nurses who were enroll...

  9. The Cost of Cutting Class: Attendance as a Predictor of Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    A study of three hundred undergraduates enrolled in a general education course at a large midwestern state university revealed, as expected, a strong negative correlation between absences and final grades. Although the complex equation for academic success involves many more variables than attendance alone, some of which are also considered in…

  10. How undergraduate medical students reflect on instructional practices and class attendance: a case study from the Shifa College of Medicine, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess student perceptions of a variety of instructional practices and attitudes toward class attendance. Data were obtained and analyzed by administering a questionnaire to students of the Shifa College of Medicine, Pakistan in 2011 and 2012. The subjects positively assessed most instructional practices, and in particular felt that teaching sessions conducted in small groups were more valuable than formal lectures in large groups. Students did not like having to give presentations, quizzes, panel discussions, and journal club. A positive correlation was found between the perceived importance of attendance and levels of academic motivation. Of the students surveyed, 11.8% were against mandatory attendance, saying that it reduced motivation and that attendance should be optional. In conclusion, the students had a positive perception of a range of instructional practices, and felt especially positively about practices that involve student activity in small groups. Programmatic improvement in instructional practices might increase class attendance.

  11. How undergraduate medical students reflect on instructional practices and class attendance: a case study from the Shifa College of Medicine, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Talat; Shaheen, Abida; Azam, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess student perceptions of a variety of instructional practices and attitudes toward class attendance. Data were obtained and analyzed by administering a questionnaire to students of the Shifa College of Medicine, Pakistan in 2011 and 2012. The subjects positively assessed most instructional practices, and in particular felt that teaching sessions conducted in small groups were more valuable than formal lectures in large groups. Students did not like having to give presentations, quizzes, panel discussions, and journal club. A positive correlation was found between the perceived importance of attendance and levels of academic motivation. Of the students surveyed, 11.8% were against mandatory attendance, saying that it reduced motivation and that attendance should be optional. In conclusion, the students had a positive perception of a range of instructional practices, and felt especially positively about practices that involve student activity in small groups. Programmatic improvement in instructional practices might increase class attendance.

  12. Increased DNA methylation of scavenger receptor class B type I contributes to inhibitory effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol uptake and steroidogenesis in fetal adrenals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong-Mei; He, Zheng; Ma, Liang-Peng; Wang, Lin-Long [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie, E-mail: pingjie@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Diseases, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol in the fetal adrenal are crucial for fetal development. We have observed the inhibited fetal adrenal corticosterone synthesis and increased intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rate in rats under prenatal caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal caffeine ingestion on cholesterol supply in fetal adrenal steroidogenesis in rats and explore the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 60 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD17. Histological changes of fetal adrenals and increased IUGR rates were observed in the caffeine group. There were significantly decreased steroid hormone contents and cholesterol supply in caffeine-treated fetal adrenals. Data from the gene expression array suggested that prenatal caffeine ingestion caused increased expression of genes related to DNA methylation and decreased expression of genes related to cholesterol uptake. The following conjoint analysis of DNA methylation array with these differentially expressed genes suggested that scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in caffeine-induced cholesterol supply deficiency. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection certified the inhibitory effects of caffeine on both mRNA expression and protein expression of SR-BI in the fetal adrenal. And the increased DNA methylation frequency in the proximal promoter of SR-BI was confirmed by bisulfite-sequencing PCR. In conclusion, prenatal caffeine ingestion can induce DNA hypermethylation of the SR-BI promoter in the rat fetal adrenal. These effects may lead to decreased SR-BI expression and cholesterol uptake, which inhibits steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal. - Highlights: • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits steroid hormone production in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits cholesterol uptake in the fetal adrenal. • Prenatal caffeine

  13. The Subjective Well-Being of Israeli Adolescents Attending Specialized School Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…

  14. Class Attendance and Students' Evaluations of Teaching: Do No-Shows Bias Course Ratings and Rankings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbring, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many university departments use students' evaluations of teaching (SET) to compare and rank courses. However, absenteeism from class is often nonrandom and, therefore, SET for different courses might not be comparable. Objective: The present study aims to answer two questions. Are SET positively biased due to absenteeism? Do…

  15. A Study of the Relationship between Attendance and Grades of Three Business Law Classes at Broome Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, William S.

    In an effort to encourage the growth and maturity of its students, Broome Community College in New York abolished its attendance policy. For the past 7 years, both attendance rates and grade point averages (GPA's) of students at the college had been dropping. In 1990, a study was conducted at BCC to determine if there was a measurable relationship…

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF PRE-ECLAMPSIA IN WOMEN PREGNANT FOR THE FIRST TIME ATTENDING PRENATAL CARE CONSULTATION AT A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2013-05-01

    Objetivos. Conocer el  perfil de las gestantes primigestas atendidas en el pre-natal; identificar la incidencia de pre-eclampsia en gestantes primigestas atendidas en consultas del pre-natal y discutir la contribución del enfermero obstetra en la detección precoz de interconsultas durante el embarazo. Método: Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, retrospectivo, realizado en uno de los Hospitales Universitarios de Rio de Janeiro. Las historias clínicas de primigestas atendidas desde 2008 a 2009 fueron analizados con apoyo de la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Fueron 264 (56,3% internaciones de primigestas, fueron parte del conjunto de muestra 105 historias clínicas.  En este grupo investigado, 43(40,9% gestantes no presentaron edema; 2 (1,9% tuvieron proteinuria e 29 (27,6 % no tuvieron anormalidades en los controles de presión arterial. Conclusión: En la muestra no hubo registro de pre-eclampsia, además 41 (38,9% mujeres presentaron alteraciones de presión arterial compatibles con  Enfermedad Hipertensiva Específica de la Gestación (EHEG. El enfermero tiene un papel importante en el equipo multi-profesional para la detección precoz de complicaciones en la gestación contribuyendo para la reducción de la incidencia de morbimortalidad.

  17. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  18. A STUDY OF THE MATURE WOMEN STUDENTS ATTENDING DAY CLASSES AT RIVERSIDE CITY COLLEGE DURING THE SPRING SEMESTER, 1964.

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    SENSOR, PHYLLIS

    THIS STUDY DEFINED A MATURE WOMAN AS BEING 25 YEARS OLD OR OLDER OR MARRIED. DATA WERE COLLECTED ON 225 MATURE WOMEN ATTENDING RIVERSIDE CITY COLLEGE DURING THE 1964 SPRING SEMESTER, INCLUDING DATE OF BIRTH, MARITAL STATUS, ACADEMIC SUCCESS, TEST SCORES, GRADE POINT AVERAGE, UNITS OF STUDY, MAJOR, AND SCHOOLS OF TRANSFER. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT…

  19. Assessment of urinary infection management during prenatal care in pregnant women attending public health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children.

  20. Newspaper Scramble; Attending to Learning Styles in Academic Tasks; Integrating Vocabulary and Poetry; Developing Automatization with In-Class Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Christine Wright; Turton, Dawn; Paulus, Trena M.; Brantner-Artenie, Donette; Norstrom, Bjorn; Crawford, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides four techniques for teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. These include a newspaper scramble, a focus on learning styles, learning vocabulary through poetry, and an in-class survey. (Author/VWL)

  1. The place of prenatal clases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, M W

    1978-11-01

    The past 20 years has shown an exponential rise in both obstetrical intervention and family centred maternity care. Prenatal classes, although not as yet fully integrated into prenatal care, fill a vital role in teaching couples the information, skills, and attitudes required to participate actively in their reproductive care, and to recognize both their rights and their responsibilities.

  2. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  4. Are community midwives addressing the inequities in access to skilled birth attendance in Punjab, Pakistan? Gender, class and social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; O'Brien, Beverley; Bhatti, Afshan; Jhangri, Gian S

    2012-09-19

    Pakistan is one of the six countries estimated to contribute to over half of all maternal deaths worldwide. To address its high maternal mortality rate, in particular the inequities in access to maternal health care services, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community-based midwives (CMW). A key expectation is that the CMWs will improve access to skilled antenatal and intra-partum care for the poor and disadvantaged women. A critical gap in our knowledge is whether this cadre of workers, operating in the private health care context, will meet the expectation to provide care to the poorest and most marginalized women. There is an inherent paradox between the notions of fee-for-service and increasing access to health care for the poorest who, by definition, are unable to pay. Data will be collected in three interlinked modules. Module 1 will consist of a population-based survey in the catchment areas of the CMW's in districts Jhelum and Layyah in Punjab. Proportions of socially excluded women who are served by CMWs and their satisfaction levels with their maternity care provider will be assessed. Module 2 will explore, using an institutional ethnographic approach, the challenges (organizational, social, financial) that CMWs face in providing care to the poor and socially marginalized women. Module 3 will identify the social, financial, geographical and other barriers to uncover the hidden forces and power relations that shape the choices and opportunities of poor and marginalized women in accessing CMW services. An extensive knowledge dissemination plan will facilitate uptake of research findings to inform positive developments in maternal health policy, service design and care delivery in Pakistan. The findings of this study will enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women's marginalization from health care systems, including community midwifery care. One key outcome will be an increased sensitization

  5. Are community midwives addressing the inequities in access to skilled birth attendance in Punjab, Pakistan? Gender, class and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan is one of the six countries estimated to contribute to over half of all maternal deaths worldwide. To address its high maternal mortality rate, in particular the inequities in access to maternal health care services, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community-based midwives (CMW. A key expectation is that the CMWs will improve access to skilled antenatal and intra-partum care for the poor and disadvantaged women. A critical gap in our knowledge is whether this cadre of workers, operating in the private health care context, will meet the expectation to provide care to the poorest and most marginalized women. There is an inherent paradox between the notions of fee-for-service and increasing access to health care for the poorest who, by definition, are unable to pay. Methods/Design Data will be collected in three interlinked modules. Module 1 will consist of a population-based survey in the catchment areas of the CMW’s in districts Jhelum and Layyah in Punjab. Proportions of socially excluded women who are served by CMWs and their satisfaction levels with their maternity care provider will be assessed. Module 2 will explore, using an institutional ethnographic approach, the challenges (organizational, social, financial that CMWs face in providing care to the poor and socially marginalized women. Module 3 will identify the social, financial, geographical and other barriers to uncover the hidden forces and power relations that shape the choices and opportunities of poor and marginalized women in accessing CMW services. An extensive knowledge dissemination plan will facilitate uptake of research findings to inform positive developments in maternal health policy, service design and care delivery in Pakistan. Discussion The findings of this study will enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems, including

  6. Influencing factors on lecture attendance at a tertiary institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tendency towards decreasing class attendance by students is a concern for ... Various factors contribute to the motivation of students, which in turn directly or ... lecture attendance, lecture/r quality as well as reasons for attending classes.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  8. Design of class attendance system based on ZigBee and GPRS%基于ZigBee和GPRS的班级考勤系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军; 马俊; 周亚强

    2015-01-01

    针对人工完成的班级考勤任务存在劳动量大、效率低、实时性差和管理粗放等问题 ,设计了一种基于ZigBee和GPRS网络的班级考勤系统 ,由RFID读写器和ZigBee通信模块组成的终端节点对以nRF24LE1为核心的电子标签进行读写 ,电子标签信息由ZigBee-GPRS网关传输至GPRS网络 ,再经Internet网络上传至监控中心 ,实现班级考勤任务的远程监测和管理.介绍了系统的总体结构 ,给出了WSN网络各功能节点的软硬件设计及上位机软件设计.系统测试表明 ,该系统能够对电子标签进行远程识别 ,且电子标签信号发射距离为15~65 m ,满足系统设计要求 ,具有良好的应用前景.%Traditional class attendance task is completed manually ,which appears many problems such as large amount of tasks ,low efficiency ,poor real-time performance ,system is designed based on ZigBee and GPRS network .The terminal nodes composed of RFID reading-w riting device and ZigBee communication module can control reading and w riting of electronic tag whose core is nRF24LE1 .Information of electronic tag is transferred from ZigBee-GPRS gateway to GPRS network ,and then is uploaded to the monitoring center according to the Internet network to come true remote monitoring and management of the class attendance task .The overall structure of system is introduced ,and the WSN's software and hardware design of each function nodes and the upper machine are given in this paper .The test of system shows that it can identify the information of electronic tag remotely ,and signal launch distance of electronic tag is about from 15 to 65 meters ,which is met requirement of system showing a good application prospect .

  9. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  10. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  11. Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Persona

    2004-10-01

    ; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior.This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  12. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  13. Prenatal Yoga: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... promote your baby's health? Before you start prenatal yoga, understand the range of possible benefits, as well as what a typical class entails ... centering and focused breathing. Research suggests that prenatal yoga is safe ... many benefits for pregnant women and their babies. Research suggests ...

  14. The Impact of Music Education on Academic Achievement, Attendance Rate, and Student Conduct on the 2006 Senior Class in One Southeast Virginia Public School Division

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, George Darryl

    2007-01-01

    For several decades music educators have proposed that the study of music has a significant impact on student academic achievement, attendance rates, and student conduct. In an era of higher student and teacher accountability, increasing budget cuts, the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and stringent state standards of learning, a number of educators have argued that education in music can boost test scores, attendance, attitudes toward school, reduce discipline referrals, and increa...

  15. The Impact of Music Education on Academic Achievement, Attendance Rate, and Student Conduct on the 2006 Senior Class in One Southeast Virginia Public School Division

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, George Darryl

    2007-01-01

    For several decades music educators have proposed that the study of music has a significant impact on student academic achievement, attendance rates, and student conduct. In an era of higher student and teacher accountability, increasing budget cuts, the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and stringent state standards of learning, a number of educators have argued that education in music can boost test scores, attendance, attitudes toward school, reduce discipline referrals, and increa...

  16. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  17. Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and ... (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, ... extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal ...

  18. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  19. Attendance and Attainment in a Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75%…

  20. Attendance and attainment in a Calculus course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Bernard; van den Bogaard, Maartje

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the relationship between attendance and attainment in a standard calculus course is investigated. Calculus could in principle be studied without attending lectures due to the wealth of material available (in hardcopy and online). However, in this study we will show that the pass rate of students attending classes regularly (>75% of the classes) is much higher than the pass rate of students attending fewer classes. We use a logistic model to investigate whether this correlation is significant. We will argue why we believe that this correlation between attendance and attainment is causal, i.e. why it is necessary for most students to attend classes in order to (improve their chances to) pass the exam.

  1. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  2. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Deborah A; Vekved, Monica; Dolan, Siobhan M; Siever, Jodi; Horn, Sarah; Tough, Suzanne C

    2012-03-21

    Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health outcomes.

  3. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeil Deborah A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1 "getting more in one place at one time"; (2 "feeling supported"; (3 "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4 "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5 "connecting"; and (6 "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women

  4. 基于RFID的越南高校课堂考勤信息管理系统开发%Development of RFID-based Class Attendance Information Management System for Universities of Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PHAM Tuan Dat(范俊达); 许维胜; 徐志宇

    2013-01-01

    现阶段,越南高校课堂考勤大都沿用传统的人工点名方式,效率低下且影响正常教学。为此本文应用射频识别(RFID)技术,开发课堂考勤信息的计算机管理系统。采用校园一卡通和TSW-F3RF型感应卡读写器作为身份标识和考勤设备;设计考勤信息数据库的局部、全局ER模型,并用Microsoft Access实现;用Visual Basic编制用户界面。可实现考勤信息记录、学生请假、教师审核等多项功能。原型系统的实验测试结果验证了其有效性。该成果将有助于提高越南高校行政办公效率,推进校园信息化进程。%The traditional roll-call is still widely used for the class attendance management in universities of Vietnam. The method is not only of low efifciency but also occupies the time for class teaching. This paper utilizes the radio frequency identiifcation (RFID) technology and develops a computer system for managing the class attendance information. The campus IC card and TSW-F3RF card reader are selected as the identity punch and equipment, respectively. Both local and global ER models of the attendance information database are established, and then implemented by using Microsoft Access. The user interface is coded within Visual Basic language. The system has various functions such as attendance information record, absense application of students, and approal from the teacher, etc. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the prototype. The developed system could greatly improve the administrative efifciency and promote the campus informatization in Vietnam.

  5. 如何提高大学生上数学课的积极性%On How to Improve The Enthusiasm of College Students to Attend Mathematics Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段芳

    2013-01-01

    上课积极性对于大学生学好科学文化知识非常重要,将会影响到大学生的学习效率、学习态度以及性格培养等诸多方面。文章针对大学生上数学课的现状,围绕着学习目标、专业兴趣、教师的教学方法及教学环境展开分析,提出了几点提高大学生上数学课积极性的建议。%Enthusiasm in classroom is very important for college students to master scientific and cul-tural knowledge,since it affects many aspects such as learning efficiency,learning attitude and character cultivation of the college students.According to the present situation of college students attending Mathe-matics classes,their learning goals,specialization interest as well as teaching method and teaching environ-ment of the teachers were analyzed in this study.Some suggestions on how to improve the enthusiasm of college students to attend Mathematics classes were given.

  6. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  7. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  8. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  9. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  10. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Prenatal ultrasound - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100197.htm Prenatal ultrasound - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prenatal Testing Ultrasound A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  13. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  14. [Inadequacy of the content of prenatal care and associated factors in a cohort in the northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudard, Marivanda Julia Furtado; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Souza; Alves, Maria Tereza Seabra Soares de Brito E; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Martins, Marília da Glória; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Nathasje, Ian Favero

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the content of prenatal care in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, and the factors associated with its inadequacy. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from the birth cohort of São Luís in 2010. The content of prenatal care was defined as inadequate when it did not meet the criteria of the Program for Humanization of Prenatal and Delivery Care, which establishes early initiation of prenatal care, minimum number of medical consultations, basic laboratory tests, tetanus vaccination and obstetric procedures. Poisson regression was used to observe associations of the variables with the outcome. The inadequacy rate was high (60.2%). The variables associated with inadequacy were: class C socioeconomic status (PR = 1.39; CI = 1.26-1.55); class D/E socioeconomic status (PR = 1.60; CI = 1.43-1.79); unqualified/unemployed mother (PR = 1.24; CI = 1.11-1.37); 5-8 years of schooling (PR = 1.12; CI = 1.06-1.19); 0-4 years of schooling (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.01-1.26); not being religious (PR = 1.10; CI = 1.04-1.17); alcohol use during pregnancy (PR = 1.13; CI = 1.06-1.20), and being attended by the public service (PR = 1.75; CI = 1.54-2.00). The results showed inadequacy and inequality of prenatal care, revealing that women of lower socioeconomic status received lower quality care.

  15. A Case Against Mandatory Lecture Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Richard M.; Flournoy, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Students' lecture attendance, course grades, class rank at the end of the first year of medical school, and scores on the NBME Part I examinations were correlated. The data suggest that a significant number of students who did not attend lectures did well academically. (MLW)

  16. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Luiz; Almeida Maria; Lima Danilo DF; Bettiol Heloísa; Guimarães Alzira Maria DN; Ribeiro Eleonora RO; Silva Antônio; Gurgel Ricardo Q.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance ...

  17. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  18. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Anthony Peters

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  19. The relationship between social capital, social support and the adequate use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Lamarca, Gabriela de Almeida; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social capital and social support and the adequate use of prenatal care. A follow-up study involving 1,485 pregnant women was conducted in two cities in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, social support and social capital data were collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The post-partum period included information on levels of prenatal care utilization, social networks, parity, obstetric and gestational risk and prenatal care attendance. Hierarchized multinomial logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis. Prenatal care use above adequate levels was associated with high social capital at the city level (aggregated social capital), socioeconomic status and working during pregnancy. Lower non-aggregated contextual and compositional social capital, gestational risk and pattern of prenatal care were associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Contextual social capital and social support were found to be social determinants for the appropriate use of prenatal care.

  20. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-07-22

    The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  1. Diagnóstico Prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Diagnóstico Prenatal/ propósitos del diagnóstico prenatal/ Tamizaje a partir del Control Prenatal/ Pacientes de bajo riesgo/ Tamizaje bioquímico/ Pacientes de alto riesgo/ Pruebas invasivas y no invasivas

  2. Modified breastfeeding attrition prediction tool: prenatal and postpartum tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marilyn L; Dick, Margaret J; Lewallen, Lynne P; Jeffrey, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In earlier studies, the Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool (BAPT) demonstrated predictive validity in the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a modified version of the BAPT when given in the last trimester (BAPT1) and following delivery (BAPT2) in predicting breastfeeding attrition among 117 women who planned to breastfeed for at least 8 weeks. Subjects completed the BAPT during a prenatal breastfeeding class and again at delivery, and they received a phone call at 8 weeks to determine breastfeeding status. In this study, neither of the two administrations of the BAPT was predictive of breastfeeding status at 8 weeks. Findings here may differ because subjects in the current study were all committed enough to attend breastfeeding class and, thus, varied less on commitment than women in earlier studies. Significant associations were found with level of education and having a close relative who breastfed. To assist the perinatal educator in identifying women most at risk for early cessation of breastfeeding, the use of three questions regarding level of education, family support, and breastfeeding preparation is suggested.

  3. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Luiz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.

  4. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Moth Moth Myint Thein; Chaw Myat Nweand Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance ...

  5. Inadequate syphilis screening among women with prenatal care in a community with a high syphilis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Bloom, Sharon A; Zhang, Guoyan; Kim, Sunny; Nobles, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the extent to which pregnant women in a community with a high syphilis incidence were screened for syphilis according to standard recommendations of twice during prenatal care and at labor and delivery. Labor and delivery records from 4 hospitals in Miami-Dade County, Florida, were abstracted to obtain maternal and prenatal care characteristics and syphilis screening practices. Of the 1991 women, records indicated that 1655 (83%) were screened at least once during prenatal care, 220 (11%) were screened twice during prenatal care before delivery, and 184 (9%) were screened twice during prenatal care and at delivery. Attending a private clinic, having more than adequate prenatal care and having private insurance were associated with not being screened at least twice before delivery. Few women were screened according to standard recommendations, and provider or institutional-related factors affected adequacy of screening.

  6. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    OpenAIRE

    David O Allen; Webber, Don J

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  7. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  8. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  9. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) . FAQ164 “Prenatal Genetic ... should be followed by a diagnostic test with amniocentesis or CVS. The cell-free DNA screening test ...

  10. "Yoga Was My Saving Grace": The Experience of Women Who Practice Prenatal Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20% of women in the United States practice prenatal yoga, but there is a paucity of information about the experience of these women. This study examines women's experiences participating in community-based prenatal yoga. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design used focus groups with a convenience sample of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 14) who engaged in prenatal yoga within the previous 6 months. Content analysis was employed to identify key themes and subthemes. Three themes arose: (a) stress and depressive symptoms commonly instigate women's interest in prenatal yoga, (b) prenatal yoga is perceived to be psychologically and physically beneficial, and (c) prenatal yoga is perceived as more beneficial than other group classes. Pregnant women with stress and depressive symptoms may be drawn to prenatal yoga for the psychological and physical benefits. It is imperative that health care providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies with this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. [Normative prenatal evaluation at a philanthropic maternity hospital in São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Claudia Regina Hostim; Bonadio, Isabel Cristina; Tsunechiro, Maria Alice

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study counted with the participation of 301 pregnant women seen in 2009 at a philanthropic maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo (a prenatal support program named Pré-Natal do Amparo Maternal - PN-AM). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prenatal care according to the initial gestational age, the number of appointments that were held, the continuity of the assistance, and relate the appropriateness with the socio-demographic, obstetric and local variables of the initial prenatal care. The analysis criteria used was initiating prenatal care before 120 days of gestation and attending at least six appointments. The relationship between the variables was analyzed using the Chi-Square Test. Results showed that 41.5% of the pregnant women initiated prenatal care at another health care service and transferred spontaneously to the PN-AM; 74.1% initiated the prenatal care early and 80.4% attended at least six appointments; 63.1% met both criteria simultaneously. Appropriate prenatal care showed a statistically significant difference for mother's age, steady partner, employment, place of residence, having a companion during the appointment and place where prenatal care was initiated.

  12. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-07-18

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Factors influencing pharmacy students' attendance decisions in large lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Helms, Kristen L; McDonough, Sharon K; Breland, Michelle L

    2009-08-28

    To identify reasons for pharmacy student attendance and absenteeism in large lectures and to determine whether certain student characteristics affect student absenteeism. Pharmacy students' reasons to attend and not attend 3 large lecture courses were identified. Using a Web-based survey instrument, second-year pharmacy students were asked to rate to what degree various reasons affected their decision to attend or not attend classes for 3 courses. Bivariate analyses were used to assess the relationships between student characteristics and degree of absenteeism. Ninety-eight students (75%) completed the survey instrument. The degree of student absenteeism differed among the 3 courses. Most student demographic characteristics examined were not related to the degree of absenteeism. Different reasons to attend and not to attend class were identified for each of the 3 courses, suggesting that attendance decisions were complex. Respondents wanted to take their own notes and the instructor highlighted what was important to know were the top 2 common reasons for pharmacy students to attend classes. Better understanding of factors influencing student absenteeism may help pharmacy educators design effective interventions to facilitate student attendance.

  14. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  16. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  17. Infección prenatal

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Durán, Xavier

    1986-01-01

    Protocolos terapeuticos. Infección prenatal. Riesgo de infección prenatal. La infección prenatal requiere un alto índice de sospecha, ya que no siempre, los antecedentes se hallan presentes bien porque faltan o bien porque hayan pasado desapercibidos. Dentro del concepto de infección prenatal se encuentran las englobadas en el acrónimo Torches (toxoplasmosis, rubeola, citomegalovirosis, herpes o sífilis) )...

  18. Race, College Attendance and College Completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas J.

    This study examined the college attendance and degree completion rates of black and white students using census data and data from the class of 1980 of the High School and Beyond Study. Introductory information examines the racial gap in earnings. The following sections consider: differences in educational attainment in relation to wage…

  19. Does Attendance Enhance Political Science Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Gizachew

    2007-01-01

    This article tests a relationship between class attendance and final grades in several political science courses that I taught at the University of Georgia, University of Vermont, and University of Central Arkansas between the Fall 2000 and Spring 2006 semesters. The study employs ordinary least square estimators to test the foregoing hypothesis.…

  20. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  1. Point-Counterpoint: Should Attendance Be Required in Collegiate Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jo Ann M.; Lohrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines two divergent viewpoints about whether or not class attendance should be mandatory in higher education. The authors, both accounting professors at the same institution, delineate their respective viewpoints citing school policy, federal regulations and academic freedom as factors which motivate their attendance policy.

  2. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  3. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  4. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  5. Prenatal stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve

    2006-01-01

    Studies in many species, including humans, have demonstrated that stress during gestation can have long-term developmental, neuroendocrine, and behavioural effects on the offspring. Because pregnant sows can be subjected to regular stressful situations, it is relevant to study whether prenatal stres

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  7. Schools K-12 - MDC_ElementaryAttendanceBoundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Public Schools attendance zones for Elementary schools (PK-5) and K-8 Centers (PK-8) schools. K-8 Centers are elementary...

  8. Inadequate utilization of prenatal care in two Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, L C; Figueiredo, F P; Silva, A A M; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Caldas, A J M; Mochel, E G; Ribeiro, V S

    2007-09-01

    Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6%) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9%). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0% of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3% of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.

  9. The Active Duty Primigravada’s Perception of Prenatal Care in the Military Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Concern, (2) Need for Information, (2A) Importance of Prenatal Classes, (2B) Greater Education and Support for Breastfeeding , (3) Preparation for...not previously experienced. The nine months of pregnancy allow the first time mother to adapt to the maternal role. This means a transition between two...Concern/Caring Theme Category 2: Need for Information Theme Cluster 2A: Prenatal Classes Theme Cluster 2B: Breastfeeding Theme Category 3: Preparation

  10. School Counselors Improving Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, LaWanda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of interventions used to address attendance issues at a middle school located in the Southern United States. School-wide interventions were implemented to address absenteeism of all students and individual interventions were implemented to address absenteeism with targeted students. An explanation of each…

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  13. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attendance and achievement in medicine: investigating the impact of attendance policies on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Bs; Hande, S; Komattil, R

    2013-04-01

    The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students' performance. To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS course were included in the study. Student marks and attendance, from the database were obtained from three random batches, each, from two clusters A and B respectively. Those who had a mandatory attendance requirement of 75% belonged to A (n = 243), and those who had a mandatory attendance percentage of 90% belonged to B (n = 360). Statistical analyses performed included, Pearson 2 tailed correlation to correlate class attendance with student performance; Cluster analysis to classify group average in a similarity matrix; t-test to determine significance of difference in percentage of students who attained 100% when the college changed mandatory attendance from 75% to 90%; Mann-Whitney test to find out if there was a better performance in university exam when attendance policy changed. There was a significant correlation between attendance and the students who passed in the University exam. The number of students in the pass category was maximum (>90%) compared to students in distinction and failed categories. Percentage of students with 100% attendance rose from 4% (n = 10) to 11% (n = 40) when the mandatory attendance was increased from 75% to 90%. Attendance policy correlated with better academic performance. Reducing absenteeism, probably contributed to the improved academic performance of the students. But the link between attendance and best and worst performances could not be predicted because of small numbers in every batch.

  15. Congenital dacryocystocele: prenatal MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Zeynep [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Uludag University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey); Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Rubio, Eva I.; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Linam, Leann E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yazici, Bulent [Uludag University, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Congenital dacryocystocele can be diagnosed prenatally by imaging. Prenatal MRI is increasingly utilized for fetal diagnosis. To present the radiological and clinical features of seven fetuses with congenital dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI. The institutional database of 1,028 consecutive prenatal MR examinations performed during a period of 4 years was reviewed retrospectively. The cases of congenital dacryocystocele were identified by reading the report of each MRI study. The incidence of dacryocystocele diagnosed with prenatal MRI was 0.7% (n=7/1,028). The dacryocystocele was bilateral in three fetuses. Mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 31 weeks. The indication for prenatal MRI was the presence or the suspicion of central nervous system abnormality in six fetuses and diaphragmatic hernia in one. Dacryocystocele was associated with an intranasal cyst in six of ten eyes. Prenatal sonography revealed dacryocystocele in only two of seven fetuses. Of eight eyes with postnatal follow-up, four did not have any lacrimal symptoms. Prenatal MRI can delineate congenital dacryocystocele more clearly and in a more detailed fashion than ultrasonography. Presence of dacryocystocele was symptomatic in only 50% of our patients, supporting that prenatal diagnosis of dacryocystocele might follow a benign course. (orig.)

  16. Inadequate prenatal care and risk of preterm delivery among adolescents: a retrospective study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Katherine E; Paul, Kathleen J; Mitchell, Caroline M; Hitti, Jane E

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether inadequate prenatal care is associated with increased risk of preterm birth among adolescents. We selected a random sample of women under age 20 years with singleton pregnancies delivering in Washington State between 1995 and 2006. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between prenatal care adequacy (percent of expected visits attended, adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. Of 30,000 subjects, 27,107 (90%) had complete data. Women without prenatal care had more than 7-fold higher risk of preterm birth (n = 84 [24.1%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.4), compared with those attending 75-100% of recommended visits (n = 346 [3.9%]). Women with less than 25%, 25-49%, or 50-74% of expected prenatal visits were at significantly increased risk of preterm birth; risk decreased linearly as prenatal care increased (n = 60 [9.5%], 132 (5.9%], 288 [5%]; and aOR, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively). Inadequate prenatal care is strongly associated with preterm birth among adolescents. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Attendance Management System Using Mobil e Phone

    OpenAIRE

    増田, 進也; 小高, 知宏; 黒岩, 丈介; 白井, 治彦

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we show the construction method for class support system using mobile phone. In this system, we use the Bluetooth function of the mobile phone owned by the students. The Bluetooth device has a unique address called Bluetooth Device address. Therefore, we can use that address as a student identifier. In the educational support system, we create a system focused on attendance management. This system identifies students using Bluetooth and displays the student's information on Web...

  18. [LECTURE ATTENDANCE BY MEDICAL STUDENTS - IS IT A COMPELLING ISSUE?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luder, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Lecture attendance by medical students may be affected by various factors. Evidence for compulsory attendance and its effects is scant. To examine the effect of the introduction of a compulsory attendance regulation on students' grades and behaviour. Lecture attendance by students was evaluated and monitored, and the marks gained by attenders and non-attenders compared. The setting was a new medical faculty with a 4-year graduate entry program. The participants were medical students in the 1st year of a 4-year graduate entry program. In the first year, 5 courses were offered in which attendance was not compulsory, followed by 2 courses in which it was made compulsory. Attendance rose markedly in the 2 compulsory courses. No clear effect on attainment was seen even among students with high absentee rates. Discussion and summary: In this preliminary study, compulsory attendance improved attendance rates but the range and mean marks of absentee students was similar to the class as a whole. Some students may learn as well or better outside the classroom than in it, although this places an extra burden of responsibility on staff. More research is needed on this important topic.

  19. Favouring New Indigenous Leadership: Indigenous Students Attending Higher Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    The opportunities to attend higher education in Mexico have traditionally been offered to the middle class population since around 30% of students who finish high school are able to attend higher education. The main reason for this low attendance is the poverty in which much of the population lives and the lack of higher education institutions in…

  20. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  1. [Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-08-01

    To assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care. Cross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02). The indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09), non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51); unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17) and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03). Prenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  2. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    vapors; light ballast; cabin furnishings; stowage bins/hat racks ; trash containers; clothing; APU; jetway; ramp fires 10.2.2 Identify class of fire...are closed 1.7.14 Ensure proper precautions for passenger seats and stowage on combi (sic) aircraft 1.7.15 Check that class B cargo compartments...are clear for crew fire fighting 1.7.16 Check stowage areas for unapproved items and proper restraints 1.7.17 Identify seats with removable aisle

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shih-Shan; Goldberg, Ethan; Zarnow, Deborah; Johnson, Mark P; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G

    2014-01-01

    In recent literature, there have been case reports of prenatal diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly, an extremely rare entity characterized by enlargement of all or portions of 1 cerebral hemisphere and intractable seizures. A unique case is presented of hemimegalencephaly of a fetus diagnosed in utero. A 27-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks' gestation for fetal magnetic resonance imaging after an abnormal fetal ultrasound. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging showed hemimegalencephaly of the left cerebral hemisphere with abnormal gyration. The patient was born via cesarean section at 39 weeks' gestation. He had continuous infantile spasms and partial-onset seizures starting on day 1 of life, and electroencephalography showed burst suppression. The patient's seizures were initially managed with antiepileptics, prednisolone, and a ketogenic diet; however, he was hospitalized multiple times because of status epilepticus. At 6 months of age, he underwent a successful anatomic left hemispherectomy. In utero diagnosis of complex developmental brain anomalies allows a multidisciplinary approach to provide optimal prenatal patient treatment and parental counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Desigualdades socioeconómicas relacionadas con el cuidado y el control del embarazo Socioeconomic inequalities in the provision and uptake of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Cano-Serral

    2006-02-01

    1994 and 2003. Methods: Cross-sectional study of women in Barcelona who delivered a child without birth defects. Information was obtained from hospital medical records and a personal interview with women included in the Barcelona Birth Defects Registry, containing a random sample of 2% of all pregnant women in the city (n = 2299. Dependent variables: number of obstetric visits, the trimester of the first visit, the number of obstetric ultrasound scans, the fifth-month diagnostic ultrasound scan, invasive procedures, prenatal folic acid intake, pregnancy planning, smoking and smoking cessation. The independent variables were maternal age and social class. Logistic regression models were filted for each dependent variable. Results: In social classes with manual occupations, there was a higher proportion of pregnant women who attended less than six obstetric visits and who attended the first obstetric visit after the first trimester. Moreover, these women were less likely to have undergone an invasive procedure, to have taken folic acid supplements, to have planned the pregnancy, to be non-smokers and to stop smoking. In the more privileged classes, there was a higher proportion of women who attended more than 12 obstetric visits and who underwent more than three ultrasound scans. Conclusions: Socioeconomic inequalities were found in the provision and uptake of prenatal care in Barcelona. Uptake was greater in the more advantaged social classes but excessive medicalization was found in all classes. Rationalizing the use of healthcare resources and reducing excessive medicalization would reduce inequalities in prenatal care in Barcelona.

  5. [Prenatal care and birth weight: an analysis in the context of family health basic units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Rocha, Ana Carolina Dantas; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2013-08-01

    To characterize prenatal care and to evaluate the association of its adequacy with maternal, socioeconomic and environmental sanitation characteristics, as well as the influence of these factors on the birth weight of the children. The eligible population for the study consisted of all women who had children during 2009 and lived in the city of Queimadas at the time of data collection. Information was collected with a questionnaire applied to the mothers in Family Health Basic Units or in their residence. The prenatal care adequacy index (outcome variable) was defined as adequate when the mother attended six or more prenatal visits and began monitoring during the first trimester of pregnancy (inadequate prenatal care and a multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the effect of adequacy of prenatal care and maternal, socioeconomic and environmental sanitation variables on birth weight. The statistical program used was Rv2.10.0, with the level of significance set at p prenatal care. After adjustment for other predictors, maternal age of 19 years or less remained as an explanatory variable of inadequate prenatal care (OR 4.27, 95%CI 1.10 - 15.89). Even after controlling for variables, child's birth weight was negatively associated with water supply from a well/spring and burnt/buried garbage, accounting for weight reductions of the order of 563.8, 262.0 and 951.9 g, respectively. Adequate prenatal care can alleviate the influence of socioeconomic disparities related to health care. Even in this situation, teenage mothers are more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care and low birth weight is favored by improper sanitation conditions (such as water supply and garbage disposal).

  6. Traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedam, E

    1985-09-01

    In many countries 60-80% of deliveries are assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Over the last several decades efforts have been made to regulate, upgrade through training or replace the TBA. The strength of the TBA stems from the fact that she is part of the cultural and social life of the community in which she lives. Her weakness lies in the traditional practices which may have dangers for her clients. With suitable training and supervision these dangers can be minimized and her potential used to improve the health of mothers and babies. Increasingly countries are recognizing that the TBA will represent a major resource where women do not have access to services for either cultural or geographic barriers. The effective use of this resource will require an understanding and appreciation of the TBA's role and contribution by all health authorities, flexibility in the development of training programs and the co-operation of the TBAs themselves.

  7. Inadequate prenatal care utilization and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Ariane Cristina Ferreira; da Silva, Raimundo Antonio; Coimbra, Liberata Campos; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura

    2014-08-10

    Over the last decades there has been a reduction of social inequalities in Brazil, as well as a strong expansion of health services, including prenatal care. The objective of the present study was to estimate the rate of inadequate prenatal care utilization and its associated factors in São Luís, Brazil, in 2010 and to determine whether there was a reduction of inequity in prenatal care use by comparing the present data to those obtained from a previous cohort started in 1997/98. Data from the BRISA (Brazilian birth cohort studies of Ribeirão Preto and São Luís) population-based cohort, which started in 2010 (5067 women), were used. The outcome variable was the inadequate utilization of prenatal care, classified according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The explanatory variables were organized into three hierarchical levels based on the Andersen's behavioral model of the use of health services: predisposing, enabling and need factors. Only 2.0% of the women did not attend at least one prenatal care visit. The rate of inadequate prenatal care utilization was 36.7%. Despite an improved adequacy of prenatal care use from 47.3% in 1997/98 to 58.2% in 2010, social inequality persisted: both low maternal schooling (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.23-3.47 for 0 to 4 years of study) and low family income, less than 0.5 monthly minimum wage per capita (PR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.22-1. 54), continued to be associated with higher rates of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Racial disparity regarding adequate utilization of prenatal services was detected, with black (PR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.04-1.36) and mulatto (PR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.26) women showing higher rates of inadequate use. On the other hand, women covered by the FHP - Family Health Program (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.98) showed a lower rate of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Despite strong expansion of health services and expressive improvements in

  8. Promoting Prenatal Exercise From a Sociocultural and Life-Course Perspective: An "Embodied" Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Shannon; Maier, Julie; Esmonde, Katelyn; Davis, Cherise

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal exercise is a health behavior that is receiving growing attention amid concern that women in Western societies are gaining excess weight during pregnancy and contributing to future obesity in both the mother and child. In this article, we draw on insights from the fields of social epidemiology and social theory of the body to examine existing prenatal exercise interventions and to propose a multidimensional framework intended to guide future theorizing and intervention design. A scoping review of existing prenatal exercise programs and interventions focused on controlling gestational weight gain was conducted. Articles published prior to January 2017 were obtained from PubMed and CINAHL, and relevant articles were identified (n = 62) using specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Identified articles were further analyzed to classify the level(s) of the socioecological model targeted in the intervention or program. The majority of existing interventions target intrapersonal factors during pregnancy and do not attend to the role that cumulative exposure of social and structural disadvantage over the lifetime-not just during the prenatal period-plays in shaping health outcomes. In response, a multidimensional framework is proposed that includes key concepts that facilitate a life-course perspective, as well as attention to the integration of biological and social factors as they relate to health and health-related behaviors. Efforts to promote prenatal exercise and to improve maternal and infant health should attend to how systemic inequality impacts women's health.

  9. [Examination of effects of alfacalcidol vitamin D supplement and renal function on improvement in the physical fitness of pre-frail elderly persons attending a nursing care prevention class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Junko; Tomura, Shigeo; Fukasaku, Takako; Kim, Mi-Ji; Okura, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Yanagi, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic condition of pre-frail elderly people is decreased mobility, which is associated with vitamin D levels and renal function. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical fitness improvement and vitamin D levels, vitamin D supplements, and renal function in pre-frail elderly people. We conducted a longitudinal study in 2 towns from June 2006 to December 2009. Subjects consisted of 177 community-dwelling pre-frail elderly people aged 65 years and over (mean±standard deviation [SD]: 76.4±5.5 yrs) who attended a nursing care prevention program for 3 months. An interview was conducted based on a questionnaire. Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D), creatinine, and calcium were measured. eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was calculated using a new formula. Alfacalcidol 1 µg/day was administered to subjects for 3 months, and we assumed that the elderly who took vitamin D (VD) of more than 80% of the recommended daily allowance to be the VD group. Walking ability, balance, and muscle strength physical fitness tests were performed. The prevalence of eGFR <60.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was about 24.3%, and that of 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L was 86.4%. Pre-eGFR level and vitamin D supplementation with FR, pre-eGFR and pre 25(OH)D ≥45 nmol/L were associated with improvement in the timed up and go (TUG) test, pre-25(OH)D level (<50 nmol/L, ≥50 nmol/L) was associated with the tandem stance test, pre 25(OH)D level (<67.5 nmol/L, ≥67.5 nmol/L) was associated with the alternate step and 5 chair sit-to-stands tests, and post 1,25(OH)(2)D (<44 pg/ml, ≥44 pg/ml) was associated with the tandem walk tests. These results suggest that the assessment of renal function and maintenance of appropriate vitamin D levels are important for the independent living of pre-frail elderly people. Ideally, a 25(OH)D level greater than 67.5 nmol/L is preferable.

  10. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  11. Attendance and Achievement in Medicine: Investigating the Impact of Attendance Policies on Academic Performance of Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam, BS; Hande, S; Komattil, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students’ performance. Aims: To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. Subjects and Methods: This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS cour...

  12. Prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, and postpartum birth control plans among pregnant women with opiate addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Fagan, Blake; Ramage, Melinda; Galvin, Shelley

    2014-11-01

    To describe how effectively we provided adequate prenatal care and postpartum contraception to prevent repeat, unintended pregnancies to women using opiates or medication maintenance therapy (MMT) during pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 94 women using opiates or MMT during 96 pregnancies while receiving prenatal care in the regional high-risk maternity care clinic between July 2010 and June 2012. We examined prenatal care usage, birth outcomes, and postpartum contraception using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, and binary logistic regression modeling. Patients were predominately white (93.6%), multiparous (75.5%), and in their 20s; 71 (74%) used MMT and 25 (26%) used prescribed or illicit opiates. Fewer than half (44% [46.2%]) received any documented prenatal counseling about postpartum contraception. Sixteen (17%) babies were premature. Sixty-four (66.7%) infants were diagnosed as having neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Only 42 (43.8%) women attended their postpartum visits. Overall, 60 (62.5%) women received postpartum contraception. The only significant predictors of postpartum contraception use were preterm birth and postpartum appointment attendance. Alternative strategies for providing postpartum care should be explored because women using opiates or MMT during pregnancy are significantly more likely to use postpartum contraception if they attend their postpartum appointments.

  13. Regional differences and factors associated with the number of prenatal visits in Brazil: analysis of the Information System on Live Births in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Juliana Cristine Dos; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with seven or more prenatal visits, in Brazil, in 2013. Cross-sectional study from the database of Information System on Live Births. The association of explanatory variables was tested with prenatal visits by means of the analysis of single and multiple multinomial regressions. The spatial distribution of prenatal visits according to the Brazilian municipalities was also analyzed. It was found that 2.7% of pregnant women attended no prenatal visit and 63.1% attended 7 or more. The chance to attend 7 or more prenatal visits was higher among pregnant women aged 40 years or more, with 12 years or more of schooling, living with a roommate, living in the South and Southeast regions, who had a triplet or more pregnancy, with gestational age of 42 weeks or more, and who had children with normal birth weight. Significant regional disparities were identified in the prevalence of women with seven or more prenatal visits. Although Brazil has a Unified Health System that provides universal prenatal care, the use of this service is uneven according to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics.

  14. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  15. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  16. Prenatal Tests for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PRENATAL TESTS FOR DOWN SYNDROME What Is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a common birth defect that includes mental retardation and— often— heart problems. Children with Down syndrome have round faces and almond-shaped eyes that ...

  17. CBP Time and Attendance Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The TAMS, supports time and attendance (payroll), overtime cap monitoring, overtime scheduling functions, budget reporting, staffing level reporting, and a variety...

  18. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  19. Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Cristina Melo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care.METHODCross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02.RESULTSThe indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09, non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51; unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17 and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03.CONCLUSIONPrenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality.

  20. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  1. REFRAMING NON-ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS: CASE STUDY OF A MALAYSIA PRIVATE UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Sing Ong Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of attendance on student achievement. An analysis of students taking Statistics course in the third semester of 2015 was carried out to investigate the relationship between class attendance and their final exam grades. Students’ achievements were affected by absenteeism from class. The study showed that students who missed classes regularly performed poorly in their final exam. There is a strong correlation between absenteeism rate and failure rate. Studen...

  2. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  3. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  4. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  5. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

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    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  6. Group prenatal care for women with gestational diabetes (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Sara E; Hill, Pamela K; Webster, Kelsey W; Heinrichs, Gretchen A; Hoffman, M Camille

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine if group prenatal care affects the progression to A2 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when compared with conventional care for women with GDM. Prospective observational cohort of women diagnosed with GDM who attended group visits compared with a historical control group of women who received conventional obstetrical care in the year prior but would have met inclusion criteria for group care. The primary outcome was progression to A2 GDM. Secondary outcomes included antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum maternal outcomes and neonatal outcomes. A total of 165 subjects were included: 62 in group care and 103 in conventional care. Compared with patients with conventional care, group subjects were more likely to attend a postpartum visit (92% versus 66%; p = 0.002) and were almost 4 times more likely to receive recommended diabetes screening postpartum (OR 3.9, CI 1.8-8.6). Group subjects were much less likely to progress to A2 GDM (OR 0.15, CI 0.07-0.30). There were no differences in neonatal outcomes. Group prenatal care for women with diabetes is associated with decreased progression to A2 GDM and improved postpartum follow-up for appropriate diabetes screening without significantly affecting obstetrical or neonatal outcomes.

  7. Skipping Class in College and Exam Performance: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Carlos; Gil, Ricard; Marion, Justin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the effect of class attendance on exam performance by implementing a policy in three large economics classes that required students scoring below the median on the midterm exam to attend class. This policy generated a large discontinuity in the rate of post-midterm attendance at the median of the midterm score. We…

  8. Anguish, Yearning, and Identity: Toward a Better Understanding of the Pregnant Hispanic Woman's Prenatal Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran; Cronin, Sherill Nones; Boccella, Sarah Hess

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to seek a better understanding of needs and access issues among pregnant, low-income Hispanic women. Hispanic women who attended a community prenatal education program participated in follow-up focus groups to explore their experiences regarding prenatal education, pregnancy resources, access to, and satisfaction with, the care available to them. Focus groups were facilitated by a leader, bilingual in English and Spanish, with knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Sessions were audiotaped, then translated into English for transcription. Data were analyzed according to guidelines by Colaizzi and three themes emerged: pregnant Hispanic women experienced a sense of anguish (la angustia) from questions and unknowns rampant during pregnancy, leading to a yearning (el anhelo) to learn and understand more, but with a desire to do so without sacrificing native identity (la identidad). Implications of these themes for improving prenatal care for this population are explored.

  9. Mobile Attendance Checking System on Android Platform for Kazakhstani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparkhojayev, N.; Shakhov, E.; Mailybayev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century-the century of Information Technology, it is difficult to imagine life without any gadgets: phones, tablets, computers, laptops, and so on. Today, smartphones and tablets are becoming popular, and thus their operating systems become popular too. Android is designed for low-power devices that run on battery power at full capacity, using all of its services, such as cameras, lights, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi, etc. In Kazakhstani universities, the process of checking students’ attendance is one of the important issues, because final grade evaluation of students is based on their total number of appearances and their grades during the whole semester. This raises the question of having some tool to control students’ attendance. There are many possible ways of controlling attendance: there are many examples when universities prefer to control attendance by the use of paper sheet, and some universities prefer to use two-stage way of controlling attendance: firstly, teachers and professors use paper sheet for checking students’ attendance and after this, they fill out these information into a system manually. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like “presence” or “absence” if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Furthermore, some students may call his/her friend as “presence” nevertheless to the fact that this student is currently absent. After taking into consideration all these issues and the fact that many gadgets use Android platform, authors of the following research paper decided to create a mobile system that makes easier to check students’ attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Almaty Management University, Kazakhstan. The system is based on Android platform, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  10. Update on prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Carlough, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    Many elements of routine prenatal care are based on tradition and lack a firm evidence base; however, some elements are supported by more rigorous studies. Correct dating of the pregnancy is critical to prevent unnecessary inductions and to allow for accurate treatment of preterm labor. Physicians should recommend folic acid supplementation to all women as early as possible, preferably before conception, to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Administration of Rho(D) immune globulin markedly decreases the risk of alloimmunization in an RhD-negative woman carrying an RhD-positive fetus. Screening and treatment for iron deficiency anemia can reduce the risks of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, and perinatal depression. Testing for aneuploidy and neural tube defects should be offered to all pregnant women with a discussion of the risks and benefits. Specific genetic testing should be based on the family histories of the patient and her partner. Physicians should recommend that pregnant women receive a vaccination for influenza, be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and be tested for sexually transmitted infections. Testing for group B streptococcus should be performed between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. If test results are positive or the patient has a history of group B streptococcus bacteriuria during pregnancy, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered to reduce the risk of infection in the infant. Intramuscular or vaginal progesterone should be considered in women with a history of spontaneous preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or shortened cervical length (less than 2.5 cm). Screening for diabetes should be offered using a universal or a risk-based approach. Women at risk of preeclampsia should be offered low-dose aspirin prophylaxis, as well as calcium supplementation if dietary calcium intake is low. Induction of labor may be considered between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

  11. [Communication skills for prenatal counselling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, J; Tschudin, S; Holzgreve, W; Tercanli, S

    2007-04-18

    Prenatal counselling is characterized by specific characteristics: A):The communication is about the values of the pregnant woman and her relationship with the child to be. B) The communication deals with patient's images and emotions. C) It is a communication about risks, numbers and statistics. D) Physician and patient deal with important ethical issues. In this specific setting of prenatal diagnosis and care physicians should therefore learn to apply basic principles of patient-centred communication with elements of non directive counselling, patient education and shared decision making. These elements are integrated into a process which comprises the following "steps": 1. Clarification of the patient's objectives and the obstetrician's mandate. 2. The providing of individualized information and education about prenatal tests and investigations. 3. Shared decision making regarding tests and investigations 4. Eventually Breaking (bad, ambivalent) news. 5. Caring for patients with an affected child.

  12. Evaluation of prenatal corticosteroid use in spontaneous preterm labor in the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tabata Z; Passini, Renato; Tedesco, Ricardo P; Lajos, Giuliane J; Rehder, Patricia M; Nomura, Marcelo L; Costa, Maria L; Oliveira, Paulo F; Sousa, Maria H; Cecatti, Jose G

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate prenatal corticosteroid use in women experiencing spontaneous preterm labor and preterm delivery. The present cross-sectional multicenter study analyzed interview data from patients attending 20 hospitals in Brazil owing to preterm delivery between April 1, 2011 and July 30, 2012. Patients were stratified based on preterm delivery occurring before 34 weeks or at 34-36(+6)  weeks of pregnancy, and the frequency of prenatal corticosteroid use at admission was compared. Prenatal corticosteroid use, sociodemographic data, obstetric characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were examined. There were 1455 preterm deliveries included in the present study; 527 (36.2%) occurred before 34 weeks of pregnancy and prenatal corticosteroids were used in 285 (54.1%) of these pregnancies. Among neonates delivered at 32-33(+6)  weeks, prenatal corticosteroid use was associated with lower pneumonia (P=0.026) and mortality (P=0.029) rates. Among neonates delivered at 34-36(+6)  weeks, prenatal corticosteroid use was associated with longer neonatal hospital admission (PPreterm labor and late preterm delivery were associated with worse neonatal outcomes following prenatal corticosteroids. This could reflect a sub-optimal interval between administration and delivery. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

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    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  14. Impact of an intervention nutrition program during prenatal on the weight of newborns from teenage mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nutritional care for teenage mothers had been studied as a factor that influences the course of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, especially in birth weight. Objective: Evaluate the effect of a prenatal intervention nutrition program, with early start of the nutritional care and individualized attendance on teenage mother newborns' weight. Methods: Not randomized study of intervention performed with 746 teenage mothers (14 to 19 years old, subdivided in historic control group (GI; n = 542 and intervention group (GII; n = 204. The dependent variable was the low birth weight (LBW. The independent variables assessed were: sociodemographic (mother age, skin color, instruction level and sanitation conditions, anthropometric (mother's height, pre-gestational nutritional study and adequacy of gestational weight gain, obstetric (gestational age in first prenatal consultation, number of pregnancies, childbirths and abortions, interdelivery and inter-gestational intervals, prenatal attendance (number of prenatal and nutritional attendance consultations and conditions of the newborn (birth weight and duration of the pregnancy. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: The average of maternal age at delivery was 17,5 years old (standard deviation 1,59. The percentage of LBW considerably reduced from 11,3% in GI to 2,9% in GII (p < 0,001. We observed in the multivariate model that the teenage mothers who have not received the intervention presented 3,5 more prevalence (GI, RP adjusted 3,5; 95% CI 1,49-8,44 to give birth to a low weight newborn. Conclusion: The participation of the teenage mother in the prenatal nutrition care program proposed here contributed to the reduction of the low weight of newborns.

  15. Prenatal prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Jourdan E; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2017-03-15

    Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management. The objective of this review is to outline the imaging techniques that are widely used prenatally to assess pulmonary hypoplasia and to discuss the limitations of these methods.

  16. Prenatal care in a primary healthcare center for imprisoned pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Silva Fochi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This experience report aimed to describe the prenatal care undertaken in a primary care center in the non-metropolitan area of the State of São Paulo, offered to the female prison population. The data and related information refer to the period June 2010 – June 2012. The article describes the construction of the work process by the local team, the dynamics of providing the attendance, the human resources involved and the consultations undertaken. The prenatal care provided to the pregnant women made it possible to investigate the pluralized universe of imprisoned women and their needs resulting from the condition of being pregnant in the prison environment. Thus, decent attendance to the prison population’s health - a human and constitutional right - is considered important, so as to avoid physical, emotional and social problems, which in the pregnant woman may be passed on to her child.

  17. Women's opinions of legal requirements for drug testing in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Edmonds, Brownsyne; Mckenzie, Fatima; Austgen, MacKenzie B; Carroll, Aaron E; Meslin, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    To explore women's attitudes and perceptions regarding legal requirements for prenatal drug testing. Web-based survey of 500 US women (age 18-45) recruited from a market research survey panel. A 24-item questionnaire assessed their opinion of laws requiring doctors to routinely verbal screen and urine drug test patients during pregnancy; recommendations for consequences for positive drug tests during pregnancy; and opinion of laws requiring routine drug testing of newborns. Additional questions asked participants about the influence of such laws on their own care-seeking behaviors. Data were analyzed for associations between participant characteristics and survey responses using Pearson's chi-squared test. The majority of respondents (86%) stated they would support a law requiring verbal screening of all pregnant patients and 73% would support a law requiring universal urine drug testing in pregnancy. Fewer respondents were willing to support laws that required verbal screening or urine drug testing (68% and 61%, respectively) targeting only Medicaid recipients. Twenty-one percent of respondents indicated they would be offended if their doctors asked them about drug use and 14% indicated that mandatory drug testing would discourage prenatal care attendance. Women would be more supportive of policies requiring universal rather than targeted screening and testing for prenatal drug use. However, a noteworthy proportion of women would be discouraged from attending prenatal care - a reminder that drug testing policies may have detrimental effects on maternal child health.

  18. Determinants of prenatal care use: evidence from 32 low-income countries across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliani, Harminder; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Serieux, John

    2014-08-01

    While much has been written on the determinants of prenatal care attendance in low-income countries, comparatively little is known about the determinants of the frequency of prenatal visits in general and whether there are separate processes generating the decisions to use prenatal care and the frequency of use. Using the Demographic and Health Surveys data for 32 low-income countries (across Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America) and appropriate two-part and multilevel models, this article empirically assesses the influence of a wide array of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics on a woman's decision to use prenatal care and the frequency of that use, while controlling for unobserved community level factors. The results suggest that, though both the decision to use care and the number of prenatal visits are influenced by a range of observed individual-, household- and community-level characteristics, the influence of these determinants vary in magnitude for prenatal care attendance and the frequency of prenatal visits. Despite remarkable consistency among regions in the association of individual, household and community indicators with prenatal care utilization, the estimated coefficients of the risk factors vary greatly across the three world regions. The strong influence of household wealth, education and regional poverty on the use of prenatal care suggests that safe motherhood programmes should be linked with the objectives of social development programmes such as poverty reduction, enhancing the status of women and increasing primary and secondary school enrolment rate among girls. Finally, the finding that teenage mothers and unmarried women and those with unintended pregnancies are less likely to use prenatal care and have fewer visits suggests that safe mother programmes need to pay particular attention to the disadvantaged and vulnerable subgroups of population whose reproductive health issues are often fraught with

  19. [Prenatal diagnosis. I: Prenatal diagnosis program at the Medical Genetics Unit of the Universidad de Zulia, Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Carrasquero, M; Molero, A; Carrasquero, N; Paz, V; González, S; Pineda-Del Villar, L; Del Villar, A; Rojas-Atencio, A; Quintero, M; Fulcado, W; Mena, R; Morales-Machin, A

    1998-06-01

    The Prenatal Diagnosis Program of the Medical Genetic Unit of University of Zulia has the following objectives: Identification of Genetic Risk Factors (GRF) in those couples who attend to the Prenatal Genetic Clinic, application of different prenatal diagnostic procedures (PDP), and providing adequate genetic counseling. The goal of this paper is to show preliminary results obtained between January 1993 and December 1996. Three hundred and twenty one pregnant women were analyzed by determining the GRF and taking into account the genetic clinical history. The GRF analyzed were: Advanced maternal age (AMA), congenital malformation history (CMH), previous child with chromosomic anomalies (PCCA), defects of neural tube history (DNTH), congenital heart disease history (CHDH), any parent carrier of chromosomic anomaly (PCA), habitual abortion (HA), abnormal fetal echography (AFE), altered maternal serum levels of alpha-feto-protein (AMSAFP) and OTHERS: exposure to teratogenic agents, history of Mendelian diseases, maternal systemic diseases and anxiety in the mother or in her partner. The PDP was designed according to the GRF, which included fetal echography (FE), fetal echocardiography (FEc), amniocentesis (AMN), chordocentesis (CCT) and AMSAFP. Results showed that 58.4% of the expectant mothers asked for counseling during the 2nd trimester, 70% of the total showed only one GRF, and AMA was the most frequent GRF found (40.3%), followed by PCCA, AFE, CHDH, HA, DNTH, PCA, and OTHERS in that order. The specific PDP applied to the identified GRF allowed a health evaluation of the fetus. The GRF identification gave the opportunity of establishing a Prenatal Diagnostic Program producing a response to the couple's needs and showed the utility of an integral and multidisciplinary management directed to any expecting mother in order to identify any high GRF.

  20. Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    s health. Receiving incentives and getting help with transportation and child care would have facilitated women’s attendance at prenatal care visits. Conclusions Several psychosocial, attitudinal, economic and structural barriers increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care for women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Removing barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate and facilitate women to seek prenatal care despite the challenges of their personal circumstances may help improve use of prenatal care by inner-city women. PMID:25023478

  1. Barriers, motivators and facilitators related to prenatal care utilization among inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Moffatt, Michael; Elliott, Lawrence; Sword, Wendy; Helewa, Michael E; Morris, Heather; Gregory, Patricia; Tjaden, Lynda; Cook, Catherine

    2014-07-15

    help with transportation and child care would have facilitated women's attendance at prenatal care visits. Several psychosocial, attitudinal, economic and structural barriers increased the likelihood of inadequate prenatal care for women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Removing barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate and facilitate women to seek prenatal care despite the challenges of their personal circumstances may help improve use of prenatal care by inner-city women.

  2. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  3. Predictors of Non-Attendance to the Postpartum Follow-up Visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Annemieke; Levi, Erika E; Garrett, Joanne M

    2016-11-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure the incidence and identify predictors of postpartum visit non-attendance, using medical records of women who received prenatal care and went on to deliver live births at Montefiore Hospital in 2013. Methods Pearson's Chi square tests were used to assess the association between maternal demographics, insurance status, and delivery information with non-attendance of a postpartum visit. Logistic regression and modified Poisson regression models were then used to identify statistically significant predictors of postpartum visit non-attendance. Results We found that one-third of all women who attended a prenatal visit at Montefiore Hospital did not return for a postpartum visit. Variables significantly associated with non-attendance include having Medicaid or no insurance (RR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6), being Hispanic or Latino (RR 1.2, 95 % CI 1.1-1.3), having a vaginal delivery (RR 1.2, 95 % CI 1.1-1.4), and age <20 years (RR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.64-0.92). Conclusions for Practice We conclude that the risk of postpartum visit non-attendance disproportionately impacts socially and economically vulnerable patients who are: younger, part of a minority ethnic background, and depend on state funded health insurance. Our results highlight the disparity in access to postpartum care and the importance of identifying barriers to attendance as well as developing creative strategies of providing postpartum care outside of the traditional postpartum visit framework.

  4. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  7. Social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryjosy Marculino Guerreiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at capturing the social representations of postpartum women on prenatal care in primary health care. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, guided by the Theory of Social Representations, developed in nine Family Health Centers, in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, from May to July, 2012. 31 women on postpartum were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, fully transcribed and processed through ALCESTE software - 2010 version. The results observed in the lexical analysis of the interviews revealed the distribution of contents in four classes. Classes 4 and 1 dealing with prenatal care were explored in this study. Social representations of users about the prenatal are anchored in the protocol dimension and socio-educational dimension. The implantation and the maintenance of activities are necessary in order to share knowledge and interaction among the users

  8. Video Lecture Capture Technology Helps Students Study without Affecting Attendance in Large Microbiology Lecture Courses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer Lynn McLean; Erica L. Suchman

    2016-01-01

    .... Several studies have reported that students use lecture capture to enhance their learning and study for assessments, as well as to catch up on material they miss when they cannot attend class due...

  9. Flipping Quantitative Classes: A Triple Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, William; Wuensch, Karl L.

    2016-01-01

    In the "flipped" class, students use online materials to learn what is traditionally learned by attending lectures, and class time is used for interactive group learning. A required quantitative business class was taught as a flipped classroom in an attempt to improve student satisfaction in the course and reduce the "transactional…

  10. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  11. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  12. Access to and utilization of prenatal care services in the Unified Health System of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araujo; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Vettore, Marcelo Vianna

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care consists of practices considered to be effective for the reduction of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies have demonstrated inequities in pregnant women's access to prenatal care, with worse outcomes among those with lower socioeconomic status. The objective of this study is to evaluate access to and utilization of prenatal services in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Unified Health System) in the city of Rio de Janeiro and to verify its association with the characteristics of pregnant women and health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007-2008, using interviews and the analysis of prenatal care cards of 2.353 pregnant women attending low risk prenatal care services of the SUS. A descriptive analysis of the reasons mentioned by women for the late start of prenatal care and hierarchical logistic regression for the identification of the factors associated with prenatal care use were performed. The absence of a diagnosis of pregnancy and poor access to services were the reasons most often reported for the late start of prenatal care. Earlier access was found among white pregnant women, who had a higher level of education, were primiparous and lived with a partner. The late start of prenatal care was the factor most associated with the inadequate number of consultations, also observed in pregnant adolescents. Black women had a lower level of adequacy of tests performed as well as a lower overall adequacy of prenatal care, considering the Programa de Humanização do Pré-Natal e Nascimento (PHPN - Prenatal and Delivery Humanization Program) recommendations. Strategies for the identification of pregnant women at a higher reproductive risk, reduction in organizational barriers to services and increase in access to family planning and early diagnosis of pregnancy should be prioritized.

  13. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  14. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background......Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  15. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    , of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background......Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...

  16. More Middle-Class Families Choose Charters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The rise in middle-class students attending charter schools is largely masked by the overall growth of charter schools: over the last five years, the number of charter schools has grown nationally from 4,690 to just over 6,000. There are now 43 communities where at least 20 percent of the students attend charters, reports the National Alliance for…

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiro, Jose L; Scorletti, Federico; Sbragia, Lourenco

    2016-04-01

    Persistent cloaca malformation is the most severe type of anorectal and urogenital malformation. Decisions concerning the surgical treatment for this condition are taken during the first hours of life and may determine the quality of life of these patients. Thus, prenatal diagnosis becomes important for a prompt and efficient management of the fetus and newborn, and accurate counseling of the parents regarding its consequences and the future of the baby. Careful evaluation by ultrasonography, and further in-depth analysis with MRI, allow prenatal detection of characteristic findings, which can lead to diagnose or at least suspect this condition. We reviewed our experience and the literature in order to highlight the most important clues that can guide the physician in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal screening methods for aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidies are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is the most common indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis. Initially, screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high-risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. New research is now focusing on non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation. The advantage of this technique is the ability to reduce the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. However, this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and careful consideration is required before broad implementation

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  20. Join the Conversation: Are Students' Behaviors in College Classes Conditioned by Their Experiences in High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy; Jensen, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    Students in an introductory college biology course who believed that attending class had been important for their academic success in high school were 1) most likely to attend their college biology class, 2) most likely to earn high grades in their college biology class, 3) most likely to report that their high school classes had been challenging,…

  1. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are a rare central nervous system malformation, representing only 1% of all intracranial masses in newborns. Primary (congenital arachnoid cysts are benign accumulation of clear fluid between the dura and the brain substance throughout the cerebrospinal axis in relation to the arachnoid membrane and do not communicate with the subarachnoid space. Secondary (acquired arachnoid cysts result from hemorrhage, trauma, and infection and usually communicate with the subarachnoid space. The common locations of arachnoid cysts are the surface of the brain at the level of main brain fissures, such as sylvian, rolandic and interhemispheric fissures, sella turcica, the anterior cranial fossa, and the middle cranial fossa. Arachnoid cysts may be associated with ventriculomegaly and dysgenesis of corpus callosum. Prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have led to the increased diagnosis of fetal arachnoid cysts. This article provides a thorough review of fetal arachnoid cysts, including prenatal diagnosis, differential diagnosis and associated chromosomal abnormalities, as well as comprehensive illustrations of perinatal imaging findings of fetal arachnoid cysts. Prenatal diagnosis of intracranial hypoechoic lesions should include a differential diagnosis of arachnoid cysts and prompt genetic investigations.

  3. Exploring medical student decisions regarding attending live lectures and using recorded lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anmol; Saks, Norma Susswein

    2013-09-01

    Student decisions about lecture attendance are based on anticipated effect on learning. Factors involved in decision-making, the use of recorded lectures and their effect on lecture attendance, all warrant investigation. This study was designed to identify factors in student decisions to attend live lectures, ways in which students use recorded lectures, and if their use affects live lecture attendance. A total of 213 first (M1) and second year (M2) medical students completed a survey about lecture attendance, and rated factors related to decisions to attend live lectures and to utilize recorded lectures. Responses were analyzed overall and by class year and gender. M1 attended a higher percentage of live lectures than M2, while both classes used the same percentage of recorded lectures. Females attended more live lectures, and used a smaller percentage of recorded lectures. The lecturer was a key in attendance decisions. Also considered were the subject and availability of other learning materials. Students use recorded lectures as replacement for live lectures and as supplement to them. Lectures, both live and recorded, are important for student learning. Decisions about lecture placement in the curriculum need to be based on course content and lecturer quality.

  4. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups.

  5. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses.

  6. "Racializing" Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  7. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  8. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  9. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U;

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  10. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  11. Prenatal exclusion of the HHH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R G; Green, A; Hall, S; McKeown, C

    1995-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of the hyperornithinaemia, hyperammonaemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome is described by the analysis of ornithine incorporation in second-trimester cultured amniotic fluid cells. An unaffected fetus was predicted and confirmed in the newborn child. This is the third reported prenatal diagnosis for this disorder and the second predicting an unaffected fetus.

  12. Pai syndrome: challenging prenatal diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouet, Marie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Belloy, Frederique [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Radiology, Caen (France); Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Pathology, Caen (France); Leporrier, Nathalie [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Caen, Department of Genetics, Caen (France); Benoist, Guillaume [University of Lower Normandie, Caen (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Pole Femmes-Enfants, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Caen (France)

    2014-09-15

    Pai syndrome is a rare disorder that includes midline cleft lip, pericallosal lipoma and cutaneous polyp of the face. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis using sonography and MRI. We emphasize the importance of facial examination with prenatal association of midline cleft lip and pericallosal lipoma in making the diagnosis of Pai syndrome. (orig.)

  13. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Dermal Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Sakr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background - Congenital dermal sinus (CDS is an uncommon form of spinal dysraphism. Although postdelivery identification in the neonate is aided by several associated physical examination findings, establishing this diagnosis prenatally has proven to be elusive. Case Report - We present a case of CDS where the prenatal findings at 20 weeks gestation led to the diagnosis, which was confirmed postnatally. The associated protrusion of fibrotic membranes through the sinus tract helped in the identification of this lesion prenatally, but created confusion with a more common type of lesion, an open neural tube defect. This is the first case report in the literature describing prenatal diagnosis of fetal CDS. Conclusion - Prenatal diagnosis with postnatal confirmation of CDS leads to early intervention, better long-term outcomes, and lesser complications.

  14. Neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2010-07-01

    Until now, studies on the reproductive safety of psychotropics have typically assessed the risk of congenital malformations and perinatal complications associated with in utero exposure to such medications. However, little is known of their inherent potential neurobehavioral teratogenicity. The objective is to analyze available data from studies investigating developmental outcome of children exposed prenatally to psychotropics. A computerized Medline/PubMed/TOXNET/ENBASE search (1960-2010) was conducted using the following keywords: pregnancy, child/infant development/neurodevelopment, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics. A separate search was also run to complete the safety profile of single specific medications. Resultant articles were cross-referenced for other relevant articles not identified in the initial search. A noncomputerized review of pertinent journals and textbooks was also performed. All studies published in English and reporting primary data on the developmental outcome of infants exposed in utero to psychotropics and born without malformations were collected. As regards antiepileptic drugs, only studies that provided data on specific medications approved for psychiatric practice use (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and valproate) were considered. Data were extracted from 41 articles (38 identified electronically and 3 nonelectronically), which met the inclusion criteria. Despite reviewed studies showing relevant methodological limitations, concordant, albeit preliminary, information seems to exclude that prenatal exposure to both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants may interfere with the infants' psychological and cognitive development. Conversely, information on valproate strongly discourages its use in pregnant women. Moreover, although data on carbamazepine remain controversial, information on whole classes of drugs and single medications is either absent (second

  15. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  16. Pregnant Women's Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Receipt of Screening and Brief Advice by Prenatal Care Providers in Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T.; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Gonzalez, Maria G. Bittar; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A.; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011–2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it. PMID:25427876

  17. PORTUGUESE STUDENTS IN LONDON SCHOOLS: Patterns of participation in community language classes and patterns of educational achievement

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the academic achievement of Portuguese students in the London borough of Lambeth according to their attendance or non-attendance at Portuguese classes. The following questions are addressed: 1- Why do parents make the commitment of taking their children to Portuguese classes? 2- What differences can we find, in terms of academic results, between Portuguese students attending mother tongue classes and those not attending? 3- What factors can be identifie...

  18. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis of WAGR Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilm’s tumour, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500,000 to 1 million. It is a contiguous gene syndrome due to deletion at chromosome 11p13 in a region containing WT1 and PAX6 genes. Children with WAGR syndrome mostly present in the newborn/infancy period with sporadic aniridia. The genotypic defects in WAGR syndrome have been well established. However, antenatal ultrasonographic presentation of this syndrome has never been reported. Prenatal diagnosis of this condition is possible in some cases with careful ultrasound examination of classical and nonclassical manifestations of this syndrome. The key point for this rare diagnosis was the decision to perform chromosomal microarray analysis after antenatal diagnosis of absent corpus callosum and absent cavum septum pellucidum, as this finding mandates search for potentially associated genetic disorders. We report a case of WAGR syndrome diagnosed prenatally at 29-week gestation. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound as well as fetal MRI scan and microarray analysis. The ultrasonographic findings included borderline ventriculomegaly, absent corpus callosum, and absent cavum septum pellucidum. Cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid confirmed WAGR syndrome. Parental karyotype was normal, with no evidence of copy number change, deletion, or rearrangement of this region of chromosome 11.

  1. Hemimegalencephaly: prenatal diagnosis and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa María; García-Díaz, Lutgardo; Márquez, Javier; Fajardo, Manuel; Rivas, Eloy; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a developmental abnormality of the central nervous system (CNS) which may present as either a syndromic or isolated case. Here, we present two cases of early prenatal diagnosis of HME. Prenatal CNS ultrasound and MRI in the first case revealed ventricular asymmetry, midline shift with displacement of the occipital lobe across the midline, large dilatation mainly at the posterior horn of the left lateral ventricle, and a head circumference in the 90th percentile without involvement of the brain stem and cerebellum, as well as abdominal lymphangioma. Right hemispherectomy was performed at 3 months of age due to intractable seizures. The pathological specimen showed findings characteristic of HME, including a disorganized cytoarchitecture with lack of neuronal lamination, focal areas of polymicrogyria, and neuronal heterotopias with dysplastic cells. In the second case, 2D and 3D neurosonography demonstrated similar findings (asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres, midline shift, and dilation of the posterior horn of the left lateral cerebral ventricle). Posterior fossa structures were unremarkable. HME was diagnosed and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy findings confirmed the diagnosis of HME.

  2. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Swaziland's Traditional Birth Attendants Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, M M; Mngadi, T P

    2005-12-01

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms registered in Swaziland. The total number of sampled respondents in the 25 Chiefdoms was 721. From the survey, it is estimated that there were probably 3000 TBAs in the country, and in the majority of cases such TBAs would be a 51-year old woman who herself had delivered six children and had worked as a TBA for at least 10 years. Between 9,000 and 12,000 deliveries are estimated to take place out of health facilities. Of these many, nearly 43.5% are assisted by "TBAs"; 16.3% of woman interviewed deliver relative/family member and 15.1% are assisted by friends/neighbours, etc. Some of TBAs carry out procedures which are considered to be potentially harmful. Nearly 30% of TBAs have administered herbs; 45% attend to abnormal deliveries (breech and multiple pregnancies); 26.7% re-use their cord cutting tools and in the case of haemorrhage 23.4% do manual procedures within reproductive tract of delivering women.

  4. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  5. In-Group and Role Identity Influences on the Initiation and Maintenance of Students' Voluntary Attendance at Peer Study Sessions for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; O'Connor, Erin L.; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. Aims: In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student…

  6. In-Group and Role Identity Influences on the Initiation and Maintenance of Students' Voluntary Attendance at Peer Study Sessions for Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; O'Connor, Erin L.; Hamilton, Kyra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although class attendance is linked to academic performance, questions remain about what determines students' decisions to attend or miss class. Aims: In addition to the constructs of a common decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour, the present study examined the influence of student role identity and university student…

  7. Perceptions of barriers, facilitators and motivators related to use of prenatal care: A qualitative descriptive study of inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Sword, Wendy; Elliott, Lawrence; Moffatt, Michael; Helewa, Michael E; Morris, Heather; Tjaden, Lynda; Gregory, Patricia; Cook, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of women living in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada, about barriers, facilitators, and motivators related to their use of prenatal care. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person with 26 pregnant or postpartum women living in inner-city neighborhoods with high rates of inadequate prenatal care. Interviews averaged 67 min in length. Recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was achieved. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes under four broad topics of interest (barriers, facilitators, motivators, and suggestions). Sword's socio-ecological model of health services use provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model conceptualizes service use as a product of two interacting systems: the personal and situational attributes of potential users and the characteristics of health services. Half of the women in our sample were single and half self-identified as Aboriginal. Participants discussed several personal and system-related barriers affecting use of prenatal care, such as problems with transportation and child care, lack of prenatal care providers, and inaccessible services. Facilitating factors included transportation assistance, convenient location of services, positive care provider qualities, and tangible rewards. Women were motivated to attend prenatal care to gain knowledge and skills and to have a healthy baby. Consistent with the theoretical framework, women's utilization of prenatal care was a product of two interacting systems, with several barriers related to personal and situational factors affecting women's lives, while other barriers were related to problems with service delivery and the broader healthcare system. Overcoming barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate women to seek prenatal care despite difficult living circumstances may help improve use of prenatal

  8. Perceptions of barriers, facilitators and motivators related to use of prenatal care: A qualitative descriptive study of inner-city women in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen I Heaman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the perceptions of women living in inner-city Winnipeg, Canada, about barriers, facilitators, and motivators related to their use of prenatal care. Methods: Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted in person with 26 pregnant or postpartum women living in inner-city neighborhoods with high rates of inadequate prenatal care. Interviews averaged 67 min in length. Recruitment of participants continued until data saturation was achieved. Inductive content analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes under four broad topics of interest (barriers, facilitators, motivators, and suggestions. Sword’s socio-ecological model of health services use provided the theoretical framework for the research. This model conceptualizes service use as a product of two interacting systems: the personal and situational attributes of potential users and the characteristics of health services. Results: Half of the women in our sample were single and half self-identified as Aboriginal. Participants discussed several personal and system-related barriers affecting use of prenatal care, such as problems with transportation and child care, lack of prenatal care providers, and inaccessible services. Facilitating factors included transportation assistance, convenient location of services, positive care provider qualities, and tangible rewards. Women were motivated to attend prenatal care to gain knowledge and skills and to have a healthy baby. Conclusion: Consistent with the theoretical framework, women’s utilization of prenatal care was a product of two interacting systems, with several barriers related to personal and situational factors affecting women’s lives, while other barriers were related to problems with service delivery and the broader healthcare system. Overcoming barriers to prenatal care and capitalizing on factors that motivate women to seek prenatal care

  9. Association Between Obesity During Pregnancy and the Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozzaro-Smith, Paula E; Bacak, Stephen; Conway, Ciara; Park, Jennifer; Glantz, J Christopher; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, more than a third of women are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30]. Although obese populations utilize health care at increased rates and have higher health care costs than non-obese patients, the adequacy of prenatal care in this population is not well established and assumed to be suboptimal. We therefore evaluated adequacy of prenatal care among obese women. We utilized an electronic database including 7094 deliveries with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 18.5 from January 2009 through December 2011. Subjects were categorized as normal weight 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 (class I-II-III). Adequacy of prenatal care (PNC) was evaluated using the Kotelchuck Index (KI), corrected for gestational age at delivery. Adequate care was defined as KI "adequate" or "adequate plus," and non-adequate as "intermediate" or "inadequate." Chi square and logistic regression were used for comparisons. When compared to non-obese women, obese women were more likely to have adequate PNC (74.1 vs. 68.7%; OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47). After adjusting for age, race, education, diabetes, hypertension, and practice type, obesity remained a significant predictor of adequate prenatal care (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.46). While age and hypertension were not significant independent predictors of adequate PNC, college education, Caucasian, diabetes, and resident or MFM care had positive associations. Maternal obesity is associated with increased adequacy of prenatal care. Although some comorbidities associated with obesity increase utilization of prenatal services, this did not explain the improvement in PNC adequacy associated with obesity. Overweight and obese women are at a higher risk of pregnancy complications with obesity contributing to increased morbidity and mortality of the mother. Several studies have evaluated barriers to routine health care services, with obese parturients perceiving their weight to be a barrier to obtaining appropriate

  10. An Analysis of Background Factors of School Non-Attendance in Junior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    神田,信彦; 大木, 桃代

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the background effect of school non-attendance in junior high school students. Two hundred ninety-eight junior high school students completed a questionaire. It was consist of perceived control scale for children and items about their feelings for parents, classmates, teachers, classes, and so on. The results were as follows:(1)Desire for school non-attendance was controlled with High perceived control, perceived affective support from families and friends, and a feeling o...

  11. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  12. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  13. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  15. Direct and Indirect Factors Influencing Selection of Birthing Attendants in Gunungsari, West Lombok (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Aryaniti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aims to determine the direct and indirect factors influencing the selection of birth attendants in Gunungsari subdistrict, West Lombok.Methods: This study was cross-sectional with a purposively selected sample of 27 mothers giving birth assisted by non-health professionals. Samples of those assisted by health professionals were taken by means of proportional systematic random sampling in Gunungsari and Penimbung health centers, respectively 29 of 916 and 14 of 437. Exogenous factors were maternal education levels, attendance to ANC classes, knowledge levels regarding to birthing attendants, maternal attitude, family support, and access to facilities. Birth attendant selection was the endogenousfactor. Data were collected by means of interviews. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential analysis with path analysis by linear regression.Results: The majority of respondents were 21-25 years old (87.4% , housewives (47.14% had educat ion under high school (65.72% and were married (88.57%. Family support had a direct influence in decision making with a coefficient of 0.534 and 35.54% influence overall. Attendance to ANC classes in addition to family support had anindirect influence with a coefficient of 0.520 and 34.78% influence overall. Family support had a direct influence and the factor of attendance to ANC classes and family support has an indirect effect with the overall effect of 70.32%.Conclusion: The presence of the husband/family was needed in ANC class, through an implementation of schedule agreement.Keywords: family support, ANC class, birth attendants, path analysis, West Lombok

  16. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  17. Prenatal genotyping of Gaucher disease in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somaya Elgawhary

    2013-07-24

    ]. ... and prenatal testing for people with family history of GD should be ... 130 children treated under the project and every year 12–15 new cases are ... or maternal trauma, infection, vaginal bleeding, feto-maternal hemorrhage ...

  18. 7-year trajectories of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and associations with treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon

    2009-12-01

    Although many members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) are introduced to AA during treatment, the relationship between treatment and AA attendance over time is unknown. This paper describes four latent classes of AA attendance among 586 dependent alcoholics interviewed by telephone 1, 3, 5 and 7 years after baseline, and models the relationship between treatment exposure and AA attendance in each class. There was a low AA group (averaging fewer than 5 meetings at most follow-ups), a medium AA group (about 50 meetings a year at each follow-up), a descending AA group (about 150 meetings year 1, then decreasing steeply), and a high AA group (about 200 meetings at 1 year, then decreasing gradually by year 7). Declines in meeting attendance were not always accompanied by decreases in abstinence. After accounting for the effect of time on AA attendance (i.e., the "ups-and-downs" that occur over time), treatment exposure was minimally related to AA attendance in all but the descending AA group, where it was negatively associated (p<0.001). Considering AA patterns over time highlights a different role for treatment in AA attendance than what is gleaned from analyses at single timepoints.

  19. DIAGNOSTICO PRENATAL DE SITUS INVERSUS TOTALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Paublo M,Mario; Bustos V.,Juan Carlos; Ramírez H,Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de diagnostico prenatal por ultrasonografía de Situs Inversus completo en la Unidad de ultrasonografía del Hospital San Juan de Dios con su confirmación post natal por radiología y ultrasonografía. Es de notar la baja incidencia de esta patología y la importancia del diagnostico prenatal por las posibles múltiples malformaciones asociadas.

  20. Prenatal anxiety and its influence on delivery outcome%孕妇产前焦虑状况及其对分娩结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昔红; 李乐之

    2011-01-01

    <0. 01). Multiple linear regression a-nalysis showed that those factors, such as the item 2 of pregnancy pressure, relationship with mother-in-law , number of abortions, prenatal health condition, times of attending classes for pregnant women, psychological preparation for childbirth, relationship with mother, relationship with husband , item 3 and item 1 of pregnancy pressure, were all related to prenatal anxiety. The anxiety level between the non-indicative cesarean section group and the normal labor group had statistical difference ( P <0.01). Intrapartum hemorrhage of cesarean section in the anxiety group had significant difference compared with the non-anxiety group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Some factors havecontributed to the anxiety level of the pregnant, such as psychological stress, relationship with mother-in-law , number of abortions, prenatal health conditions, times of attending classes for pregnant women, psychological preparation for childbirth, relationship with mother, and relationship with husband. Prenatal anxiety may lead to increased the rate of non-indicative cesarean section and in-trapartum hemorrhage during the cesarean section.

  1. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  2. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  3. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  4. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, L.Y.F. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    I read with great interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prenatal Diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and 45,X: Implications for Postnatal Outcome{close_quotes} by Koeberl et al. They reported their experience with 12 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism and made a clinical comparison between those 12 cases and their own 41 postnatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism. As expected, they found an overall milder phenotypic manifestation in the prenatal cases than in the postnatal ones. These authors report a lack of previous prognostic information on this type of prenatally diagnosis of mosaicism and offer their findings to fill this need. However, considerable information on this topic has been published. There have been >200 prenatally diagnosed cases of 45,X/46,XX. According to my data on 189 cases with a prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XX mosaicism (Hsu 1992), there are 114 cases with available information on phenotypic outcome. Of these, 12 (10.5%) were reported to have some features of Turner syndrome, 4 had other anomalies probably not related to Turner syndrome, and 2 resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate for an abnormal phenotype in this category was thus 16/114 (14.03%). However, we must realize that, even in patients with a nonmosaic 45,X complement, the major features of Turner syndrome, such as short stature and sexual infantilism, are manifested only later in childhood or in adolescence. 3 refs.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Special Education in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Liu, Jing; Das, Abhik; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on special education at age 7 with adjustment for covariates. METHODS As part of the prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (Maternal Lifestyle Study), school records were reviewed for 943 children at 7 years to determine involvement in special education outcomes: (1) individualized education plan; (2) special education conditions; (3) support services; (4) special education classes; and (5) speech and language services. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on these outcomes with environmental, maternal, and infant medical variables as covariates, as well as with and without low child IQ. RESULTS Complete data for each analysis model were available for 737 to 916 children. When controlling for covariates including low child IQ, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on individualized education plan. When low child IQ was not included in the model, prenatal cocaine exposure had a significant effect on support services. Male gender, low birth weight, white race, and low child IQ also predicted individualized education plan. Low birth weight and low child IQ were significant in all models. White race was also significant in speech and language services. Other covariate effects were model specific. When included in the models, low child IQ accounted for more of the variance and changed the significance of other covariates. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal cocaine exposure increased the likelihood of receiving an individualized education plan and support services, with adjustment for covariates. Low birth weight and low child IQ increased the likelihood of all outcomes. The finding that white children were more likely to get an individualized education plan and speech and language services could indicate a greater advantage in getting educational resources for this population. PMID

  7. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first birth and hope to have a vaginal delivery this time, there is a class for that, too. Choose ... t covered in your birthing class, it’s a good idea to take an individual class on it, especially if you are a first-time mother. The health benefits of breastfeeding your baby ...

  8. Kivalliq Inuit Centre boarding home and the provision of prenatal education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Karen M.; Giles, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut. PMID:27938641

  9. Do Students Go to Class? Should They?

    OpenAIRE

    David Romer

    1993-01-01

    Lectures and other class meetings are a primary means of instruction in almost all undergraduate courses. Yet almost everyone who has taught an undergraduate course has probably noticed that attendance at these meetings is far from perfect. There is surprisingly little systematic evidence, however, about attendance and its effects. There are three natural questions: What is the extent of absenteeism? How much, if at all, does absenteeism affect learning? Should anything be done about absentee...

  10. Nutritional guidance during prenatal care in public health services in Ribeirão Preto: discourse and care practice Orientación nutricional en el prenatal en servicio público de salud de la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto: el discurso y la práctica asistencial Orientação nutricional no pré-natal em serviços públicos de saúde no município de Ribeirão Preto: o discurso e a prática assistencial

    OpenAIRE

    Luzia Aparecida dos Santos; Fabiana Villela Mamede; Maria José Clapis; Juliana Villela Bueno Bernardi

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to verify if pregnant women attended in prenatal care services at Basic Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, received nutritional guidance and if this guidance was pertinent to their nutritional status. Ninety-one pregnant women participated. The pregnant women were classified according to their nutritional condition, using a weight, height and pregnancy stage table established by the Brazilian Health Ministry's technical prenatal care manual. We found pregnant women wi...

  11. The role of traditional birth attendants in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velimirovic, H; Velimirovic, B

    1978-01-01

    There is considerable interest at this time in the possible integration of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) within the health services of a country, particularly in the field of maternal and child health care and family planning. The objectives are better utilization of local human resources as fundamental to public health care, and actions have been taken to improve the utilization, training and supervision of TBAs in these broader fields. Generally, the traditional midwife advises on prenatal care, assists during delivery and gives postnatal care. Several Expert Committees of the World Health Organization (WHO) referred to maternity care in connection with the training of auxiliary health workers, including auxiliary midwives, as early as 1952 and 1955. In many countries this interest stimulated research in order to identify feasible models contributing to the extension of health care through the training of auxiliary and traditional midwives. A problem is the mode of the selection of TBAs as participants in training courses. Most programs provide for group training, but this is not feasible in rural and remote areas with low population density. The acceptance of TBAs is not universal in all developign countries; some governments totally reject the plan. In the absence of evaluation of trained TBAs, doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of the trained TBA. Their role may be limited, transitional at best.

  12. Working-Class Boys, Educational Success and the Misrecognition of Working-Class Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the theory of institutional habitus by exploring the differing ways in which the institutional habitus of two schools in Belfast, Northern Ireland mediates the local habitus of working-class boys. All of the boys in this qualitative case study live in the same disadvantaged working-class community but attend two…

  13. Problems attendance in physical education students of technical specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladymyr Petrenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine the relevant aspects of motivation attendance in physical education students of technical specialties and make adjustments to the process of improving the quality of teaching. Material and Methods: during the study used the following methods: general scientific – analysis, comparison, generalization; sociological, questionnaire, interview; Mathematics and statistics. The study involved students of ICT Zhytomyr State Technological University, only 238 people. Results: the tendency changes of success in physical education and physical training of students of ICT. Conclusions: pedagogical experiment confirmed the positive impact of physical education classes in which students choose their maintenance is carried out on a competitive basis in accordance with personal interests and needs.

  14. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(2.000: 137-141

  15. Prenatal Care Services in Aydin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal BESER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care in Aydin province. It was a cross-sectional study. 195 women (pregnant/women at postpartum period living in the Aydin province participated in the study. Cluster and simple random sampling method was used in the selection of women from 10 health centers (one rural-one urban health station each. Data obtained by face to face interview technique. Turkey Demografic Health Survey criteria were used for evaluation of the quantity of prenatal care as “sufficient” or “insufficient” and quality of prenatal care was scored as “1-2”(bad, “3-4”(moderate and “5-6”(good. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U and t tests were used for analysis. One fifth of each pregnant women who were in last trimester and 11.3% of women in postpartum period stated that they were not followed up by an health personnel during pregnancy. One third of pregnant women who were in last trimester and 58.5% of women in postpartum period said they weren’t visited by an health personnel in the first trimester. Besides, quality points of prenatal care were found low, both in pregnant women and women in post partum period. It was found that living in urban areas, high education level and presence of social security effected getting adequate prenatal care. The quality and quantity of prenatal care was found less than expected in Aydin province which is located in the western region of Turkey. It is necessary that, health personnel must be more sensitive to convey “adequate” prenatal care especially women who are living in rural areas, who have low educational level and who have no social security. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(2: 137-141

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia in Patients Attending Gynecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOMCS2

    for screening automatically qualified for inclusion in the study. Those for prenatal .... C. trachomatis .... Thylefers, B., Dawson, C.R. and Jones B.R.(1987): A sim- ple system for the assessment of trachoma and its complica- tions. ... control of trachoma. Rev. infect. ... Kuo, C.-C., S-P., Wang, B.B. Wentworth and J.T. Grayston.

  17. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  18. The prenatal roots of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ernest Teie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that pulse in music may be related to human pulse is ancient and has recently been promoted by researchers (Parncutt, 2006; Snowdon & Teie, 2010, there has been no ordered delineation of the characteristics of music that are based on the sounds of the womb. I describe features of music that are based on sounds that are present in the womb: tempo of pulse (pulse is understood as the regular, underlying beat that defines the meter, amplitude contour of pulse, meter, musical notes, melodic frequency range, continuity, syllabic contour, melodic rhythm, melodic accents, phrase length, and phrase contour. There are a number of features of prenatal development that allow for the formation of long-term memories of the sounds of the womb in the areas of the brain that are responsible for emotions. Taken together, these features and the similarities between the sounds of the womb and the elemental building blocks of music allow for a postulation that the fetal acoustic environment may provide the bases for the fundamental musical elements that are found in the music of all cultures. This hypothesis is supported by a one-to-one matching of the universal features of music with the sounds of the womb: 1 all of the regularly heard sounds that are present in the fetal environment are represented in the music of every culture, and 2 all of the features of music that are present in the music of all cultures can be traced to the fetal environment.

  19. Socio-demographic determinants and access to prenatal care in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2014-04-15

    Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations. This study addressed the question of whether socio-demographic determinants were significant in explaining differences in prenatal care in one administrative region of Italy, Umbria. Data were obtained from the administrative source of the regional Standard Certificate of Live Births between 2005 and 2010, and were merged with Census data to include a socio-economic deprivation index. Standard and multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the magnitude of various individual-level maternal characteristics and socio-demographic indicators, such as nationality, employment status, education with respect to late access to the first examination, and low number of medical visits. The study involved approximately 37,000 women. The heterogeneous effects of socio-demographic variables were documented on the prenatal care indicators analyzed. A multivariate model showed that women born outside Italy had a higher probability of making their first visit later than the 12th week of pregnancy and low numbers of prenatal medical visits; the estimated odds ratio for the analyzed indicators range from 2.25 to 3.05. Inadequate prenatal healthcare use was also observed in younger and pluriparous women and those with low education; in addition, having a job improved the use of services, possibly through transmission of information of negative consequences due to delayed or few prenatal visits. Interestingly, this study found a substantial reduction in the number of pregnant women who do not use prenatal healthcare services properly. The aim of this research is to provide more accurate knowledge about the inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in Italy. Results highlight the existence of differences in healthcare use during pregnancy, especially for

  20. Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

  1. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL METHAMPHETAMINE EXPOSURE ON BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE FINDINGS AT 7.5 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Sabrina D.; Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine child behavioral and cognitive outcomes after prenatal exposure to methamphetamine. Study design 412 mother-infant pairs (204 methamphetamine-exposed and 208 unexposed matched comparisons) were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. The 151 children exposed to methamphetamine and 147 comparisons who attended the 7.5 year visit were included. Exposure was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium toxicology. Maternal interviews assessed behavioral and cognitive outcomes using the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale – Revised: Short Form (CPRS-R:S). Results After adjusting for covariates, children exposed to methamphetamine had significantly higher cognitive problems subscale scores than comparisons and were 2.8 times more likely to have cognitive problems scores that were above average on the CPRS-R:S No association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and behavioral problems, measured by the oppositional, hyperactivity and ADHD Index subscales, were found. Conclusion Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased cognitive problems which may impact academic achievement and lead to increased negative behavioral outcomes. PMID:24630350

  2. Obstetrician and Gynecologist Utilization of the Noninvasive Prenatal Testing Expanded Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sarah; Hashmi, Syed; Turrentine, Mark A; Darilek, Sandra; Friel, Lara A; Czerwinski, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Objective Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) enables the detection of common fetal aneuploidies such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and sex chromosome abnormalities via analysis of cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal serum. In October 2013, the option to screen for additional trisomies and select microdeletion syndromes became clinically available. The complex testing methods, oftentimes unclear clinical utility of results, and lack of professional guidelines renders it challenging for clinicians to keep abreast of evolving prenatal screening options. We undertook a survey to assess physicians' awareness of, utilization of, and attitudes toward the expanded NIPT option. Study Design Obstetricians attending hospital service meetings in the Houston Texas Medical Center completed an anonymous survey regarding the utilization patterns of expanded NIPT. Results Overall, 85 obstetricians were surveyed. While all respondents indicated awareness of NIPT in its traditional form, 75% (64/85) were aware of the expanded testing option, and 14% (12/85) reported having ordered the expanded NIPT option. A total of 91% (77/85) expressed that practitioners need more information regarding the screening. Conclusion Based on these findings and the fluid landscape of prenatal screening, education, and reeducation of health care professionals is imperative to ensure responsible patient counseling, informed consent, and appropriate posttest management.

  3. Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the effects of prenatal health on educational attainment and on the reproduction of family background inequalities in education. Using Finnish birth cohort data, we analyze several maternal and fetal health variables, many of which have not been featured in the literature on long-term socioeconomic effects of health despite the effects of these variables on birth and short-term health outcomes. We find strong negative effects of mother's prenatal smoking on educational attainment, which are stronger if the mother smoked heavily but are not significant if she quit during the first trimester. Anemia during pregnancy is also associated with lower levels of attained education. Other indicators of prenatal health (pre-pregnancy obesity, mother's antenatal depressed mood, hypertension and preeclampsia, early prenatal care visits, premature birth, and small size for gestational age) do not predict educational attainment. Our measures explain little of the educational inequalities by parents' class or education. However, smoking explains 12%-and all health variables together, 19%-of the lower educational attainment of children born to unmarried mothers. Our findings point to the usefulness of proximate health measures in addition to general ones. They also point to the potentially important role played by early health in intergenerational processes.

  4. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  5. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  6. Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Wonder if you need to take prenatal vitamins? Which brand is best? Or what ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-vitamins/art- ...

  7. Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; hvidman, lone

    2006-01-01

    Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as w...

  8. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  9. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening.

  10. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  11. Should I Skip Class?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neal S. Eash; Paul Seger; Jason Windingstad; John Lamb

    2006-01-01

    Professors routinely struggle with student attendance in the classroom. Often students that struggle with the lecture material have the poorest attendance and those who excel generally have excellent attendance...

  12. The knowledge and attitudes of traditional birth attendants towards HIV/AIDS and their beliefs related to perinatal care: a study conducted in KwaZulu Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Mchunu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are still mainly being utilized in the rural areas even in the presence of the formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that the utilization of TBAs is beneficial in some other contexts with some support and supervision from the western health sector. In order to develop further training for TBAs the researchers deemed it necessary to assess their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS, prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care.

  13. Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, H

    1987-12-01

    Training of the traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Malaysia was preceded by a KAP study, and the results have been a tremendous improvement in maternal-child health care. Although Malaysia has an extensive health care system composed of government sponsored midwife clinics, health centers and sub-centers, regional hospitals, private general practitioners and estate clinics, which are utilized by 94% for prenatal care, 40% of women still called in TBAs for delivery. TBAs are popular because they provide a full range of traditional customs, are available locally, and well known to local women. 100 active TBAs in the Krian District, an area of 157,649 people in northwestern Malaysia, were surveyed. 89% had primary education; 76% were over 55 years of age; 82% had over 10 years of experience; 60% had received family planning training. They had favorable attitudes toward modern medicine, advised women to attend prenatal care, advised them on traditional diet, and performed such procedures as abdominal massage and heat fomentation. They tended to take all cases regardless of risk. The training consisted of practical demonstrations and flip charts for 6 consecutive saturdays conducted by public health nurses. TBAs were taken to meet staff and see hospital facilities and received a UN midwifery kit as an incentive. After training, hospital deliveries rose from 29.5% in 1976 to 35.9% in 1983; government midwives attended 40.2% compared to 23.3% of deliveries; deliveries conducted by TBAs fell from 47.2% to 19.4%; and more high risk cases were referred to hospitals. During the period maternal mortality declined from 1.46-1.98 in the 1970s to 0.84-1.09 in the 1980s.

  14. Frequent attenders in out-of-hours general practice care: attendance prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the use of out-of-hours service and analyse attendance prognosis for frequent attenders and other groups of attenders, and to present a concept describing frequent attendance over time. METHODS: All adult attenders in 1990 were included in a 4-year follow-up study...... or three contacts per year. The setting was out-of-hours general practice in Aarhus County, Denmark. Data were collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County. The county had approximately 600,000 inhabitants, of whom 465,000 were aged 18 years and over. The subjects were 101...

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT ha...

  16. Video recording to improve the quality of prenatal genetic counselling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelten, E.; Gitsels, J.; Pereboom, M.; Martin, L.; Hutton, E.; Dulmen, S. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Counselling on prenatal testing has become an increasing part of obstetric care in the Netherlands. The majority of Dutch women (>70%) are counselled by midwives on prenatal testing (Wiegers and Hingstman, 2008). Prenatal screening on congenital abnormalities is not routinely done and pr

  17. Prenatal Programming and Toxicity (PPTOX) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Miller, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis posits that early-life exposures, including prenatal, can influence disease outcomes throughout the entire lifespan of an organism. Over the past 30 years, scientific researchers have compiled robust epidemiological and mechanistic data showing the effects of early-life nutrition, chemical exposures, and stress on prenatal programing and toxicity. Using novel techniques in genomics and epigenetics, science is now establishing strong links between low-level early-life environmental exposures and the later development of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease, reproductive effects, immune system function and cancer. Now scientists must engage with communities, industry, policy makers, and clinicians to leverage our newfound understanding of prenatal programing and toxicity into better health outcomes across the lifespan.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerovac Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lissencephaly (“smooth brain” forms a major group of brain malformations due to abnormal neuronal migration. It can cause severe intellectual and motor disability and epilepsy in children. The prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is rare. Case report. We presented a case of the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly. A 30-year old pregnant woman was reffered to the hospital at the week 35 of gestation for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI after an ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. Fetal MRI of the brain showed “smooth”, agyrya cortex. The female infant was born at term with birth weight of 2,500 g and Apgar score 8, showing global developmental delay. Postnatal ultrasound and MRI confirmed classical lissencephaly. She is now 8 years old and has spastic quadriparesis, mental retardation and epilepsy. Conclusion. Confirmation of the ultrasound diagnosis with MRI is desirable for the prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly.

  19. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on the relation between parental social class and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Petersen, L.; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano;

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and maternal prenatal environmental factors as well as the post-natal rearing environment may contribute to the association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and later mortality. In order to disentangle these influences, we studied all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a c...... in a cohort of adoptees, in whom we estimated the effects of their biological and adoptive fathers' social classes as indicators of the genetic and/or prenatal environmental factors and the post-natal environment, respectively....

  1. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  2. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Wiegers, Therese A; Manniën, Judith; Francke, Anneke L; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2013-03-27

    Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women's Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen's healthcare utilization model. Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women's utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors.Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women's native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

  3. Fulfilling the potential of traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubagzhi, G S

    1988-01-01

    In the Gondar region of Ethiopia, a study was conducted which examined the role of traditional birth attendants in the health care of mother and child, as opposed to modern medical practitioners, and the effects of training on the success of these attendants. 855 women who gave birth in the year before training of the attendants and 861 women who gave birth in the year after training were compared. Differences seen after training included the amount of women receiving antenatal care (48.6% before; 61.2% after), the proportion of women immunized during pregnancy (29.1% before; 65.5% after), a reduction in unsafe practices, utilization of UNICEF kits to cut the umbilical cord after training, a decrease in the amount of newborns requiring resuscitation (11% before; 7% after), an increase in the knowledge of family planning (13.85 of women before training; 43.4% after), and a slight decrease in infant mortality (rate fell from 103 to 99.4/1000). Those practices remaining unchanged included place of delivery (71.1% at home; 28.9% in the hospital), infant feeding, and the performance of uvulectomies. The traditional birth attendants were trained to give the mother care before and after birth. Unless these attendants are compensated by the community in the future, it may be difficult for them to continue their services since their workload is very heavy. The trained attendants complained of basic equipment shortages which may be relieved by community cooperation with the Revolutionary Ethiopia Women's Association. Traditional attendants remain the preferred human resource for pregnant women in Ethiopia, so it is important for trainers to understand local practices before training. Trained attendants should be supervised by health care personnel and should be trained to recognize and refer high risk cases to doctors. The importance of training should be discussed with community leaders and compensation for the attendants should be provided.

  4. Prevention of homozygous beta thalassemia by premarital screening and prenatal diagnosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Parag M; Agarwal, Sarita; Arya, Vandana; Kumar, Ravindra; Gupta, U R; Agarwal, S S

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and acceptability of premarital screening for beta thalassemia/related hemoglobinopathies followed by prenatal diagnosis in India. Premarital testing for thalassemia carrier state was carried out in (1) extended family members (EFM) of diagnosed cases of thalassemia/hemoglobinopathies, (2) unmarried adult cases of anemia attending the hospitals' outpatient department (OPD) and (3) adult college students (CG). Hemoglobin, red cell indices were measured by a cell counter and hemoglobin fractionation was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In cases with HbA2>3.5%, or with variant hemoglobin, mutation screen was done by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). In high-risk prospective couples, premarital genetic counseling was done and prenatal diagnosis possibilities were explained. The yield of carriers from EFM, OPD and CG groups was 78.17% (308/394), 19.51% (263/1348) and 4.04% (38/939), respectively. The number of prospective high-risk couples detected were 154, 48 and 2 from EFM, OPD and CG, respectively. As much as 99% of prospective carrier couples married even after knowing their high-risk status and opted for prenatal diagnosis. The program averted the birth of 33 thalassemic children; 28 in EFM group (by screening of 394 individuals), 4 in the OPD group (by screening 1348 anemic patients), and 1 in CG group (by screening of 939 students). Premarital screening in extended family members, followed by prenatal diagnosis is acceptable and the most effective strategy for control of thalassemia in developing countries like India. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The human brain. Prenatal development and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Padilla, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    This book is unique among the current literature in that it systematically documents the prenatal structural development of the human brain. It is based on lifelong study using essentially a single staining procedure, the classic rapid Golgi procedure, which ensures an unusual and desirable uniformity in the observations. The book is amply illustrated with 81 large, high-quality color photomicrographs never previously reproduced. These photomicrographs, obtained at 6, 7, 11, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks of gestation, offer a fascinating insight into the sequential prenatal development of neurons, blood vessels, and glia in the human brain. (orig.)

  6. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, R.V.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Dondorp, W.J.; Pajkrt, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Holtkamp, K.C.A.; Karsten, M.; Vlietstra, A.L.; Lachmeijer, A.M.A.; Henneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherla

  7. Effect of Peer Attendance on College Students' Learning Outcomes in a Microeconomics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The authors' main purpose in this article is to examine whether peer presence, measured by overall class attendance rate, has any significant effect on college students' academic performance. They use a rich dataset from an intermediate microeconomics course from the fall of 2008 to the spring of 2013 at a public university in Taiwan. The…

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  9. Effect of Peer Attendance on College Students' Learning Outcomes in a Microeconomics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The authors' main purpose in this article is to examine whether peer presence, measured by overall class attendance rate, has any significant effect on college students' academic performance. They use a rich dataset from an intermediate microeconomics course from the fall of 2008 to the spring of 2013 at a public university in Taiwan. The…

  10. Does Lecture Capturing Impact Student Performance and Attendance in an Introductory Accounting Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldamen, Husam; Al-Esmail, Rajab; Hollindale, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The study empirically examines the interplay between lecture capturing viewership, performance and attendance for students in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. The sample consists of 254 students enrolled in an introductory accounting class either in the Fall semester or in the Spring semester. We show a weak positive relationship between…

  11. Does Lecture Capturing Impact Student Performance and Attendance in an Introductory Accounting Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldamen, Husam; Al-Esmail, Rajab; Hollindale, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The study empirically examines the interplay between lecture capturing viewership, performance and attendance for students in the Middle Eastern country of Qatar. The sample consists of 254 students enrolled in an introductory accounting class either in the Fall semester or in the Spring semester. We show a weak positive relationship between…

  12. Commercial Note-Taking Services: Effects on Attendance and Performance. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Coppola, Brian

    This study investigated student use of commercial note-taking services as a predictor of class attendance and examined the effects of their use on academic performance in science courses. The study draws upon results of a survey distributed to 1,874 undergraduate students (response rate 58.2 percent) enrolled in two large-lecture chemistry courses…

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  14. The Effect of Appreciative Inquiry on Student Engagement and Attendance in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Frances Virginia Turner

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods research study investigated the effects of Appreciative Inquiry on student-course engagement and attendance in core academic classes at a community college in central Mississippi. In an increasingly competitive global economy, most individuals need education or technical skills beyond high school to secure employment offering…

  15. Prenatal contraceptive counseling and method provision after childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson AL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anita L Nelson Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA Abstract: Postpartum contraception is undergoing major changes, not only in timing, but also in content. Failure to provide immediate postpartum contraception contributes to the problems of unintended pregnancies and rapid repeat pregnancy because often the highest-risk women do not return for postpartum care. If they do attend that visit, they have often lost the insurance coverage that would enable them to use the most effective forms of birth control. Most of the issues surrounding early initiation of progestin-only methods and breastfeeding have been favorably resolved. In some cases, insurance coverage for delivery has been expanded to cover the costs of providing intrauterine devices and implants before the woman is discharged home. All of these new opportunities shift the burden of counseling about postpartum contraception onto the shoulders of the prenatal care provider. This article provides information about the advantages and disadvantages of providing immediate postpartum contraception with each of the eligible methods so clinicians can provide the needed counseling both during pregnancy and during hospitalization for delivery. It also provides guidance for initiation of bridging contraception, if needed, to initiate a method for a woman later in the postpartum period. Keywords: postpartum contraception, counseling, breastfeeding, implants, IUDs, hormonal methods

  16. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  17. Sale of Class Notes: A New Skirmish over an Old Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1992-01-01

    Many college students are paying others to attend lecture classes and take notes, a practice that angers many professors and caused one university to sue a note-taking company over copyrights. Although students and some faculty say the notes are helpful in large, impersonal classes, others say they encourage poor attendance. (MSE)

  18. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  19. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring...

  20. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among Children with. Disabilities in two ... with learning, speech, cognitive, hearing, seeing, mo- bility and emotional, are ..... http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory (Accessed March. 2007). 26.

  1. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  2. Primary healthcare worker knowledge related to prenatal and immediate newborn care: a cross sectional study in Masindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiasi, Richard Mangwi; Criel, Bart; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Nabiwemba, Elizabeth; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-02-11

    Global neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high. Health workers who attend to prenatal and postnatal mothers need to be knowledgeable in preventive and curative care for pregnant women and their newborn babies. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge related to prenatal and immediate newborn care among primary healthcare workers in Masindi, Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews comprised of 25 multiple-choice questions were administered to health workers who were deployed to offer prenatal and postnatal care in Masindi in November 2011. Questions were related to four domains of knowledge: prenatal care, immediate newborn care, management of neonatal infections and identifying and stabilizing Low-Birth Weight (LBW) babies. Corresponding composite variables were derived; level of knowledge among health workers dichotomized as 'adequate' or 'inadequate'. The chi-square statistic test was used to examine associations with independent variables including level of training (nursing assistant, general nurse or midwife), level of care (hospital/health centre level IV or health centre level III/II) and years of service (five years or less, six years or more). 183 health workers were interviewed: general nurses (39.3%), midwives (21.9%) and nursing assistants (38.8%). Respectively, 53.6%, 46.5%, 7.1% and 56.3% were considered to have adequate knowledge in prenatal care, newborn care, management of neonatal infections and identifying/stabilizing LBW babies. Being a general nurse was significantly associated with having adequate knowledge in identifying and stabilizing LBW babies (p care being hospital/health centre level IV was not significantly associated with having adequate knowledge in prenatal or newborn care with reference to health centres of level III/II. Knowledge regarding prenatal and newborn care among primary healthcare workers in Masindi was very low. The highest deficit of knowledge was in management of neonatal infections

  3. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-06-03

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  4. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insuli...

  5. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    and length, Caesarean (C)-section, week of delivery) and early postnatal factors (exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding, introduction of solid food). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to compare maternal reports on prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors between the first......To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudinal...... reports showed moderate correlation for the introduction of several types of food (cereals ICC=0.64, Pless than or equal to0.05; fruits ICC=0.70, Pless than or equal to0.05; meat ICC=0.83, Pless than or equal to0.05; vegetables ICC=0.75, Pless than or equal to0.05), and high correlation (ICC=0.88, Pless...

  6. Dancing beyond exercise: young people's experiences in dance classes

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, SM; Komesaroff, P; Fensham, R.

    2008-01-01

    Dance classes in urban settings may have a role in health-promotion programmes seeking to increase physical activity amongst young people. However, little is so far known about the motivations, experiences or health outcomes of those participating in dance classes. This qualitative study of young people attending recreational dance classes addressed motivations, the nature of the class experience, and implications for health and well-being. Data show that young dance participants' experiences...

  7. Revitalizing the Live Lecture Class With Instructor-Created Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Alpert

    2016-01-01

    Today, the lecture class as a format for higher education is under attack more than ever. This article addresses the research question of how lectures can be modernized and revitalized through new uses of digital technology—in particular, video. Critics of lecturing have for a long time observed that lecture classes can be weak on student engagement and motivation to attend class. This article introduces one way to help modernize and revitalize the live lecture class session, a new conceptual...

  8. Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sept 2013-31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT According to the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder

  9. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  10. Prenatal screening for congenital malformations: diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care of the pregnancy in terms of antenatal care, and referral for birth as ... photographed and only represent a proportion of all the malformed ... KEY WORDS: foetal malformafion, newborn deaths, prenatal care, pregnancy terminafion. Figure 1. Case 1 ... multiple methods, including ultrasound, are combined to make a ...

  11. Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, B.M.; Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical lateralization, as indicated by mixed-handedness, has been related to diverse psychopathologies. Maternal prenatal stress has recently been associated with mixed-handedness in the offspring. In the present study, this relationship was investigated further in a prospective, methodologically

  12. Follow-up studies in prenatal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Hélène Theodora Catharina

    2007-01-01

    With the availability of prenatal diagnostics in the last century, the fetus became a patient. Obstetricians looked togheter with neonatologist and pediatric surgeons, who in the past needed to treat sick neonates, for an earlier moment of treatment. An example of such a shift towards an earlier mom

  13. Noninvasive prenatal detection of genetic defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, Jessica Maria Elisabeth van den

    2016-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnostics is mainly based on obtaining fetal DNA through invasive procedures such as chorionic villi sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. These procedures are associated with a small, but significant risk of fetal loss. The discovery of the presence of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  15. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  16. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood con

  17. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  18. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  19. Prenatal Sonographic Findings of Polysplenic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    We report 6 cases of polysplenic syndrome diagnosed on prenatal sonography. The mean menstrual age at the time of presentation was 275 weeks (range 184 to 38 weeks). All cases were examined using level-II prenatal sonography. The sonographic findings of polysplenic syndrome were retrograde analyzed and compared to the autopsy or postnatal findings. Polysplenia was detected in 5 cases on the prenatal sonography. Associated cardiovascular anomalies were detected in all 6 cases, all of which had more than one anomaly, namely complete atrioventricular septal defect in two cases, double outlet right ventricle combined with rudimentary LV or mitral atresia in two cases and VSD and ASD in one case each. There were three cases of interrupted IVC with azygous continuation of the posterior thorax. Bradycardia was observed in 2 cases, one of which showed AV dissociation of rhythm. Visceral abnormalities were present in all cases and there were combined anomalies such as echogenic bowel, pelviectasia, horseshoe kidney, and posterior neck cystic hygroma and fetal hydrops. Four cases terminated pregnancy. The autopsy results of 2 cases were comparable to those of the prenatal sonography, however autopsies were not performed in 2 cases. One fetus near term was delivered and the baby subsequently underwent heart surgery and was still alive at the last follow-up. The remaining one case was lost to follow-up. If multiple fetal anomalies, including complex heart disease and polysplenia, are detected in the prenatal sonography, a diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome can be made. IVC interruption with azygous continuation can also be helpful in the diagnosis of polysplenic syndrome, and this can be observed by detecting the double vessel of the posterior thorax

  20. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  1. Socio-demographic inequalities across a range of health status indicators and health behaviours among pregnant women in prenatal primary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; te Velde, Saskia J; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2015-10-13

    Suboptimal maternal health conditions (such as obesity, underweight, depression and stress) and health behaviours (such as smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy nutrition) during pregnancy have been associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Our first aim was to give an overview of the self-reported health status and health behaviours of pregnant women under midwife-led primary care in the Netherlands. Our second aim was to identify potential differences in these health status indicators and behaviours according to educational level (as a proxy for socio-economic status) and ethnicity (as a proxy for immigration status). Our cross-sectional study (data obtained from the DELIVER multicentre prospective cohort study conducted from September 2009 to March 2011) was based on questionnaires about maternal health and prenatal care, which were completed by 6711 pregnant women. The relationships of education and ethnicity with 13 health status indicators and 10 health behaviours during pregnancy were examined using multilevel multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, parity, number of weeks pregnant and either education or ethnicity. Lower educated women were especially more likely to smoke (Odds Ratio (OR) 11.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6- 16.8); have passive smoking exposure (OR 6.9; 95% CI 4.4-11.0); have low health control beliefs (OR 10.4; 95% CI 8.5-12.8); not attend antenatal classes (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.8) and not take folic acid supplementation (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.7-4.4). They were also somewhat more likely to skip breakfast daily, be obese, underweight and depressed or anxious. Non-western women were especially more likely not to take folic acid supplementation (OR 4.5; 95% CI 3.5-5.7); have low health control beliefs (OR 4.1; 95% CI 3.1-5.2) and not to attend antenatal classes (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0-5.4). They were also somewhat more likely to have nausea, back pains and passive smoking exposure. Substantial socio-demographic inequalities

  2. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  3. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-09-01

    Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women's power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  4. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.

  6. Incentives for increasing prenatal care use by women in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sara R; Everetts, David; Haas, David M

    2015-12-15

    Prenatal care is recommended during pregnancy as a method to improve neonatal and maternal outcomes. Improving the use of prenatal care is important, particularly for women at moderate to high risk of adverse outcomes. Incentives are sometimes utilized to encourage women to attend prenatal care visits. To determine whether incentives are an effective tool to increase utilization of timely prenatal care among women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015) and the reference lists of all retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cluster-RCTs that utilized direct incentives to pregnant women explicitly linked to initiation and frequency of prenatal care were included. Incentives could include cash, vouchers, coupons or products not generally offered to women as a standard of prenatal care. Comparisons were to no incentives and to incentives not linked directly to utilization of care. We also planned to compare different types of interventions, i.e. monetary versus products or services. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and methodological quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We identified 11 studies (19 reports), six of which we excluded. Five studies, involving 11,935 pregnancies were included, but only 1893 pregnancies contributed data regarding our specified outcomes. Incentives in the studies included cash, gift card, baby carrier, baby blanket or taxicab voucher and were compared with no incentives. Meta-analysis was performed for only one outcome 'Return for postpartum care' and this outcome was not pre-specified in our protocol. Other analyses were restricted to data from single studies.Trials were at a moderate risk of bias overall. Randomization and allocation were adequate and risk of selection bias was low in three studies and unclear in two studies. None of the studies were blinded to the

  7. Life satisfaction, general well-being and costs of treatment for severe fear of childbirth in nulliparous women by psychoeducative group or conventional care attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Saisto, Terhi

    2015-05-01

    Fear of childbirth is a common reason for seeking cesarean section. It is important to consider outcomes and costs associated with alternative treatment and delivery mode. We compared well-being and costs of group psychoeducation and conventional care for fear of childbirth. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 371 nulliparous women scoring over the 95th centile in the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (W-DEQ) during the first trimester. Finland, data from obstetrical patient records and questionnaires. Randomization to group psychoeducation with relaxation (six sessions during pregnancy, one after childbirth, n = 131), or surveillance and referral on demand (n = 240). All costs in maternity care during pregnancy, delivery and postnatally according to Diagnoses Related Groups. Life satisfaction and general well-being 3 months after childbirth (by a Satisfaction with Life Scale and Well-being Visual Analogue Scale). The groups did not differ in total direct costs (€3786/woman in psychoeducative group and €3830/woman in control group), nor in life satisfaction or general well-being. Although only 76 (30%) of the women assigned to the surveillance were referred to special maternity care and 36 (15%) attended advanced prenatal classes, costs in the psychoeducation group did not exceed the costs of the controls, mostly because of the greater number of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (63% vs. 47%, p = 0.005). Through an association with safer childbirth and equal well-being after delivery, psychoeducative group treatment for nulliparous women with fear of childbirth can be a recommended choice for the same overall costs as conventional treatment. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Socioeconomic deprivation and accident and emergency attendances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scantlebury, Rachel; Rowlands, Gillian; Durbaba, Stevo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demand for England's accident and emergency (A&E) services is increasing and is particularly concentrated in areas of high deprivation. The extent to which primary care services, relative to population characteristics, can impact on A&E is not fully understood. AIM: To conduct...... a detailed analysis to identify population and primary care characteristics associated with A&E attendance rates, particularly those that may be amenable to change by primary care services. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study used a cross-sectional population-based design. The setting was general practices.......1, B = 547.3 [95% CI = 418.6 to 676.0]). The final model explained 34.4% of the variation in A&E attendance rates, mostly due to factors that could not be modified by primary care services. CONCLUSION: Demographic characteristics were the strongest predictors of A&E attendance rates. Primary care...

  9. Language, Social Class and Education: Listening to Adolescents' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Young people's perceptions may offer an insight into the complex associations between language, education and social class. However, little research has asked young people what they think of their own talking. Forty-two British adolescents aged between 14 and 15 years were interviewed: 21 attended a school in a working class area; 21 attended…

  10. SCO Management System Certification Research Class Opens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Management System Certification Research Class formally opened in Beijing on September 6, 2007. The research class was attended by government officials and experts in the fields of industry, commerce,environmental protection,statistics, standardization,metrology, detection and certification from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

  11. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  12. Teaching prenatal ultrasound to family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Lee T; Rodney, William MacMillan; Dees, Jason

    2004-02-01

    Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful diagnostic tool, but there has been little research on how to teach ultrasound to family physicians. The available evidence supports teaching through didactics followed by supervised scanning. Didactic topics include physics and machine usage, indications, fetal biometry, anatomic survey, practice management, ethical issues, and resources. Supervised scanning reinforces the didactic components of training. A "hand-on-hand" supervised scanning technique is recommended for the transmission of psychomotor skills in these sessions. Curricula for teaching ultrasound should include information on which residents will be taught prenatal ultrasound, who will teach them, how to create time for learning ultrasound skills, and how to test for competency. The literature suggests that competency can be achieved within 25-50 supervised scans. Measures of competency include examination and qualitative analysis of scanning. Competency-based testing needs further development because no uniform standards have been established.

  13. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  14. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored......, individual sessions and by way of written materials. None of the interventions leads to a raise in anxiety scores or influence up-take rates. Satisfaction with information provided is found unrelated to level of knowledge, but associated with having expectations for information met. Information does not seem...

  15. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  16. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  17. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  18. Chromosomal microarray versus karyotyping for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapner, Ronald J; Martin, Christa Lese; Levy, Brynn; Ballif, Blake C; Eng, Christine M; Zachary, Julia M; Savage, Melissa; Platt, Lawrence D; Saltzman, Daniel; Grobman, William A; Klugman, Susan; Scholl, Thomas; Simpson, Joe Leigh; McCall, Kimberly; Aggarwal, Vimla S; Bunke, Brian; Nahum, Odelia; Patel, Ankita; Lamb, Allen N; Thom, Elizabeth A; Beaudet, Arthur L; Ledbetter, David H; Shaffer, Lisa G; Jackson, Laird

    2012-12-06

    Chromosomal microarray analysis has emerged as a primary diagnostic tool for the evaluation of developmental delay and structural malformations in children. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy, efficacy, and incremental yield of chromosomal microarray analysis as compared with karyotyping for routine prenatal diagnosis. Samples from women undergoing prenatal diagnosis at 29 centers were sent to a central karyotyping laboratory. Each sample was split in two; standard karyotyping was performed on one portion and the other was sent to one of four laboratories for chromosomal microarray. We enrolled a total of 4406 women. Indications for prenatal diagnosis were advanced maternal age (46.6%), abnormal result on Down's syndrome screening (18.8%), structural anomalies on ultrasonography (25.2%), and other indications (9.4%). In 4340 (98.8%) of the fetal samples, microarray analysis was successful; 87.9% of samples could be used without tissue culture. Microarray analysis of the 4282 nonmosaic samples identified all the aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements identified on karyotyping but did not identify balanced translocations and fetal triploidy. In samples with a normal karyotype, microarray analysis revealed clinically relevant deletions or duplications in 6.0% with a structural anomaly and in 1.7% of those whose indications were advanced maternal age or positive screening results. In the context of prenatal diagnostic testing, chromosomal microarray analysis identified additional, clinically significant cytogenetic information as compared with karyotyping and was equally efficacious in identifying aneuploidies and unbalanced rearrangements but did not identify balanced translocations and triploidies. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01279733.).

  19. Prenatal exclusion of severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Levinsky, R J; Linch, D. C.; Beverly, C L; Rodeck, C.

    1982-01-01

    By analysing leucocyte subpopulations with monoclonal antisera, we have shown that the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency can be made soon after birth. The technique of staining has been adapted for small blood samples, and normal ranges of leucocyte subpopulations have been established for fetal blood taken from mid-trimester pregnancies. Using this information, we gave prenatal advice to an at risk family and predicted that the pregnancy would be normal; this was confirmed after ...

  20. Prenatal substance use in a Western urban community.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchi, K F; Varner, M W

    1994-01-01

    To assess the extent of prenatal substance use in a predominantly white population in an urban area of the western United States and to develop a risk profile for this population, a cross-sectional prevalence study was done. Prenatal clinics (10 public and 10 private) anonymously recorded demographic information about and collected aliquots of routinely obtained urine specimens from women during prenatal visits. Urine specimens were screened by enzyme immunoassay for amphetamines, marijuana, ...

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of cyclopia associated to trisomy 13.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Pachajoa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A cyclopia case with prenatal diagnosis by two dimensional and three dimensional ecography is presented, chordocentesis was realized, the chariotype in fetal blood with G banding presented trisomy 13. Phenotypic characteristics prenatally found where confirmed with the physical examination of the newborn. A revision to the literature about cyclops associated with trisomy 13 was made, and important aspects in prenatal diagnosis were highlighted.

  2. In-Class versus Online Video Lectures: Similar Learning Outcomes, but a Preference for In-Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings suggest some advantages to using an online format to deliver declarative knowledge and to using class time for active learning and discussion. During 4 weeks of an introductory psychology course, students were assigned on alternate weeks to attend one of two lecture formats: in-class lecture or online video lecture with an…

  3. The Epigenetic Effects of Prenatal Cadmium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Nadia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to the highly toxic and common pollutant cadmium has been associated with adverse effects on child health and development. However, the underlying biological mechanisms of cadmium toxicity remain partially unsolved. Epigenetic disruption due to early cadmium exposure has gained attention as a plausible mode of action, since epigenetic signatures respond to environmental stimuli and the fetus undergoes drastic epigenomic rearrangements during embryogenesis. In the current review, we provide a critical examination of the literature addressing prenatal cadmium exposure and epigenetic effects in human, animal, and in vitro studies. We conducted a PubMed search and obtained eight recent studies addressing this topic, focusing almost exclusively on DNA methylation. These studies provide evidence that cadmium alters epigenetic signatures in the DNA of the placenta and of the newborns, and some studies indicated marked sexual differences for cadmium-related DNA methylation changes. Associations between early cadmium exposure and DNA methylation might reflect interference with de novo DNA methyltransferases. More studies, especially those including environmentally relevant doses, are needed to confirm the toxicoepigenomic effects of prenatal cadmium exposure and how that relates to the observed health effects of cadmium in childhood and later life.

  4. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually.

  5. Nursing students' attendance at learning activities in relation to attainment and passing courses: A prospective quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejnö, Åsa; Nordin, Per; Forsgren, Susanne; Sundell, Yvonne; Rudolfsson, Gudrun

    2017-03-01

    Students' motivation and ways of engaging in their schoolwork are important for their performance, including passing exams. Attendance at learning activities has also been argued to be of major importance, although no causal relationship with passing exams has been established in nursing education. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of attendance at nonmandatory learning activities on attainment, in terms of passing or failing of exams, in nursing education courses including both mandatory and non-mandatory activities. A prospective quantitative design. The nursing education programme at a Swedish university. Nursing students (n=361) from two courses and four classes within the nursing programme. Attendance was registered at every non-mandatory teaching activity by asking the students to note their attendance on a list. Data such as sex, age, and whether the students had passed the exam were also collected for each course and each semester separately. Increased participation was associated with an increasing proportion of students passing the exam. The chance of passing the exam increased by 13% for every additional learning occasion attended. Logistic regression showed an OR of 5.4 for an attendance of 100%. An increase in attendance gave a higher proportion of exam passes. Encouraging students to attend non-mandatory learning activities could be of value, and potentially contribute to an increased graduation rate for nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  7. Design and Evaluation of an Application for Recording of Pharmacy Students’ Attendance via Smartphones and Personal Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghakouchakzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attendance management is one of the most important issues in the educational institutions. The traditional method for attendance recording is manually recording by professors in the school or university which is associated with several problems. We proposed the design and utilization of an electronic application for students’ attendance recording via smartphones and PCs.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional and Quasi-experimental study, which held in the department of clinical pharmacy in the school of pharmacy in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences. Group I was assigned to the manually recording of student attendance. Group II was assigned to the design and utilization of an electronic application for registration of attendance. Each of the professors records the students’ attendance in the class by smartphones. Finally, the satisfaction of the professors about the application was assessed with the 6-item questionnaire. Also, the efficacy of the application was evaluated through the comparison of the number of recorded attendance and the number of absent recorded in group I and II.Results: The results of satisfaction survey illustrated that all of the professors found the electronic recording of the attendance was the more useful than the traditional method and lead to the reducing the possibility of errors, the time spent, and the pleasure of students. Also, the comparison between the numbers of students’ recorded attendance and numbers of absence recorded were higher by utilization of the application more than by the traditional method.Conclusion: The students’ attendance recording application can improve performance compared to the manually attendance management system via decreasing the possibility errors and continuous assessing during a semester.

  8. [When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-04-01

    The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  10. NSFC Vice President Attended IIASA Council Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From November 6th to 10th,2011,at the invitation of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis(IIASA),Prof.Wang Jie,NSFC Vice President led a delegation to attend the IIASA Autumn Council Meeting.After the meeting,the delegation participated in the Mid-term Workshop of

  11. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  12. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  13. Time Slot Management in Attended Home Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); M. Fleischmann (Moritz); N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A.M. Campbell (Ann Melissa)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMany e-tailers providing attended home delivery, especially e-grocers, offer narrow delivery time slots to ensure satisfactory customer service. The choice of delivery time slots has to balance marketing and operational considerations, which results in a complex planning problem. We

  14. Time Slot Management in Attended Home Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A.M. Campbell (Ann Melissa); M. Fleischmann (Moritz); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany e-tailers providing attended home delivery, especially e-grocers, offer narrow delivery time slots to ensure satisfactory customer service. The choice of delivery time slots has to balance marketing and operational considerations, which results in a complex planning problem. We

  15. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Global Zero Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>CPAFFC President Chen Haosu led a delegation to attend the Global Zero Summit in Paris,France from February 2 to 4.The event aimed to promote a new phase in the"Global Zero"movement:working to reach a binding and verifiable agreement on elimination of all nuclear weapons worldwide.More than 200

  16. Prenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis: contemporary practices in light of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S

    2016-06-01

    The 20th century eugenics movement in the USA and contemporary practices involving prenatal screening (PNS), prenatal diagnosis (PND), abortion and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) share important morally relevant similarities. I summarise some features of the 20th century eugenics movement; describe the contemporary standard of care in the USA regarding PNS, PND, abortion and PGD; and demonstrate that the 'old eugenics' the contemporary standard of care share the underlying view that social resources should be invested to prevent the birth of people with certain characteristics. This comparison makes evident the difficulty of crafting moral arguments that treat some uses of PNS, PND, abortion and PGD as licit and others as illicit.

  17. Male Partners’ Involvement Towards Prenatal Screening And Diagnostic Testing For Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Kusumaningrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Now, male partners’ involvement in prenatal screening and diagnostic testing for Down syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized as well to ensure that parents are well informed of the risks and benefits of screening. The aim of study was to understand the degree of male partners’ involvement during pregnancy in Singapore population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of male partners’ attending prenatal counseling was performed. The instrument used to measure the level of involvement is a self-assessment questionnaire that identifies the role of male partners with a Likert scale. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data gained. Result: A total of 107 participants completed the questionnaire. Sixty-seven percent of male partners were found to have a highlevel of involvement while 32.7% was found to have a medium level of involvement. Most of them stated that women can pursue prenatal testing without their permission. Male partners found it more important for them to accompany their spouse to amniocentesis or CVS than to the Down syndrome screening test. When participants were asked about how much information about Down syndrome they sought prior to the appointment, how much discussion they had with their spouse about Down syndrome testing, and about whether they or their spouse should be the first person to receive test results, most stated that they were undecided. Conclusion: These results revealed that male partners were very well involved in the Down syndrome testing during pregnancy and future studies should assess possible underlying factors that influence male partners’ involvement.

  18. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  19. Diagnóstico prenatal de quiste de Cavum Velum Interpositum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Navarro Briceño

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior midline intracranial cysts may be found in three forms: cavum septum pellucidum, cavum vergae, and cavum velum interpositum. The cavum velum interpositum cyst represents a cerebrospinal fluid filled space formed by the corpus callosum and fornix above, the roof of the third ventricle and thalamus below and of the fornix on each side laterally. We report the case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman who attended to prenatal consult at 30 weeks. During ultrasound evaluation it was found a 25 milimeters of diameter, intracranial, interhemispheric and, anechoic cystic lesion inferior of corpus callosum, accompanied by a slight enlarged third ventricle without evidence of compressive hydrocephalus. Karyotype was normal. Diagnosis of cavum velum interpositum cyst was considered. A normal newborn was obtained after spontaneous vaginal birth. Magnetic resonance after birth confirmed diagnosis

  20. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. OBJECTIVES: In northern Ecuador, where floriculture...... is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children's neurobehavioral functions at 6-8 years of age. METHODS: We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information...... on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children's current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. RESULTS: Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed...

  1. Can Technology Improve Large Class Learning? The Case of an Upper-Division Business Core Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Larger classes are often associated with lower student achievement. The author tested the hypothesis that the introduction of personal response systems significantly improves scores in a 250-seat classroom, through the channels of improved attendance and engagement. She focused on how continuous participation with the technology could change…

  2. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  3. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  4. Transition to Skilled Birth Attendance: Is There a Future Role for Trained Traditional Birth Attendants?

    OpenAIRE

    Sibley, Lynn M.; Sipe, Theresa Ann

    2006-01-01

    A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, sma...

  5. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and offspring allergic sensitization and lung function at 20 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S; Strøm, M; Olsen, S F; Dahl, R; Hoffmann, H J; Granström, C; Rytter, D; Bech, B H; Linneberg, A; Maslova, E; Kiviranta, H; Rantakokko, P; Halldorsson, T I

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal exposures to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated with asthma medication use and self-reported symptoms, but associations with lung function and allergic sensitization have been minimally explored. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal exposures to POPs and allergic sensitization and lung function in 20-year-old offspring. In a Danish cohort of 965 pregnant women established in 1988-1989, six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were quantified in archived maternal serum drawn in gestational week 30 (n = 872). Among those with available maternal exposure information, at age 20, 421 offspring attended attended a clinical examination including measurements of allergic sensitization (serum-specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L) (n = 418) and lung function [forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] (n = 414). There were no associations between maternal concentrations of POPs and offspring allergic sensitization at 20 years of age. Maternal concentrations of POPs were, however, positively associated with offspring airway obstruction (FEV1 /FVC function (FEV1 % of predicted value sensitization at 20 years of age. The findings support that chronic obstructive lung diseases may have at least part of their origins in early life. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Impact of prenatal education on maternal utilization of analgesic interventions at future infant vaccinations: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Smart, Sarah; Sheedy, Matthuschka; Yoon, Eugene W; Vyas, Charmy; Parikh, Chaitya; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti

    2014-07-01

    Analgesic interventions are not routinely used during vaccine injections in infants. Parents report a desire to mitigate injection pain, but lack the knowledge about how to do so. The objective of this cluster-randomized trial was to evaluate the effect of a parent-directed prenatal education teaching module about vaccination pain management on analgesic utilization at future infant vaccinations. Expectant mothers enrolled in prenatal classes at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto were randomized to a 20-30minute interactive presentation about vaccination pain management (experimental group) or general vaccination information (control group). Both presentations included a PowerPoint (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and video presentation, take-home pamphlet, and "Question and Answer" period. The primary outcome was self-reported utilization of breastfeeding, sugar water, or topical anaesthetics at routine 2-month infant vaccinations. Between October 2012 and July 2013, 197 expectant mothers from 28 prenatal classes participated; follow-up was obtained in 174 (88%). Maternal characteristics did not differ (P>0.05) between groups. Utilization of one or more prespecified pain interventions occurred in 34% of participants in the experimental group, compared to 17% in the control group (P=0.01). Inclusion of a pain management module in prenatal classes led to increased utilization of evidence-based pain management interventions by parents at the 2-month infant vaccination appointment. Educating parents offers a novel and effective way of improving the quality of pain care delivered to infants during vaccination. Additional research is needed to determine if utilization can be bolstered further using techniques such as postnatal hospital reinforcement, reminder cards, and clinician education.

  7. Role of traditional birth attendants in maternal care services -- a rural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, N; Yunus, M; Hasan, S B; Zaheer, M

    1990-01-01

    In India various programs have been launched to provide primary health care to women and children, particularly in the rural areas. However, the impact of these programs has not been significant. Though there is a provision of a trained dai (traditional birth attendant) in every village in the national program, most of the deliveries in rural areas are still conducted at home by untrained dais. This study was undertaken to find out about the decision of pregnant women in rural areas as regards the place of delivery and the nature of assistance received at delivery. Four villages in the Jawan Block, District of Aligarh, were randomly selected. All the villages were covered by the Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS). A total of 212 pregnant women were registered and each of them was contacted to inquire about the type of assistance received at delivery. 96.7% of the women were Hindus; 93.0% were illiterate and 68.5% were poor; 33.5% were high caste, 30.2% were low caste, and 30.2% were scheduled caste. Out of 212 deliveries, 205 (96.6%) were conducted at home. Assistance received at delivery (N = 212) was as follows: untrained dais (traditional birth attendants) 190 (89.6%); trained dais 0 (0.0%); prenatal care assistants 11 (5.2%); doctors 9 (4.2%); and relatives 2 (1.0%). The utilization of existing prenatal care services was meager, as the majority of pregnant women were illiterate and poor. As many as 205 (96.6%) deliveries were done at home. The finding that 89.6% deliveries were conducted by untrained dais assumes considerable significance in light of the fact that these villages of Jawan Block were among one of the first 3 ICDS blocks in Uttar Pradesh. This shows that there is still a wide gap between provision and utilization of maternal care services. Since most of the deliveries are conducted at home by untrained traditional birth attendants, the people must be educated to utilize the services of trained personnel.

  8. A Students Attendance System Using QR Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Masalha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are becoming more preferred companions to users than desktops or notebooks. Knowing that smartphones are most popular with users at the age around 26, using smartphones to speed up the process of taking attendance by university instructors would save lecturing time and hence enhance the educational process. This paper proposes a system that is based on a QR code, which is being displayed for students during or at the beginning of each lecture. The students will need to scan the code in order to confirm their attendance. The paper explains the high level implementation details of the proposed system. It also discusses how the system verifies student identity to eliminate false registrations.

  9. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urodynamics in boys after prenatally diagnosed vesicoureteric reflux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, several theories have been presented regarding the pathogenesis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children without neurological disease or posterior urethral valves. Primary VUR is one of many fetal uropathies detectable by prenatal sonography. Thirteen boys with a prenatal...

  11. Prenatal tobacco exposure influences cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Elise A.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.; Keating, Paul; van den Berg, Paul P.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to determine the influence of prenatal tobacco exposure on regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that as a result of vasoconstriction caused by prenatal tobacco exposure r(c)SO(2) wou

  12. Prenatal toxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterial in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmanna, T.; Schneider, S.; Wolterbeek, A.; Sandt, H. van de; Landsiedel, R.; Ravenzwaay, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica is a nanostructured material, which is produced and used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. No regulatory prenatal toxicity studies with this substance were reported yet. Therefore, synthetic amorphous silica was tested for prenatal

  13. Prenatal Care: A Content-Based ESL Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Elissa Anne

    A content-based curriculum in English as a Second Language (ESL) focusing on prenatal self-care is presented. The course was designed as a solution to the problem of inadequate prenatal care for limited-English-proficient Mexican immigrant women. The first three sections offer background information on and discussion of (1) content-based ESL…

  14. Nonuse of Prenatal Care: Implications for Social Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie C.

    1994-01-01

    Interviewed 44 women who did not obtain prenatal care. Identified four categories of reasons for nonuse: women's lifestyles differed from mainstream; stressful events took priority over prenatal care; women attempted to receive care but were discouraged, turned away, or given poor information by service delivery system personnel; and women did not…

  15. Prenatal toxicity of synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterial in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmanna, T.; Schneider, S.; Wolterbeek, A.; Sandt, H. van de; Landsiedel, R.; Ravenzwaay, B. van

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica is a nanostructured material, which is produced and used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. No regulatory prenatal toxicity studies with this substance were reported yet. Therefore, synthetic amorphous silica was tested for prenatal toxi

  16. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  17. Prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Brandenburg (Helen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis several aspects of prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age were studied. The effects of the increasing number of elderly gravidas. the lowering of the maternal age at which prenatal diagnosis became accessible and the introduction of chorionic villus sampling,

  18. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p cortex (p subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  19. The Paradigm of Unity in Prenatal Education and Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornas-Biela Dorota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to the relation between parents and their prenatal child presents the child as a fetus, a mainly passive recipient of the mother’s vital biological resources. Contemporary prenatal psychology and pedagogy recognizes this relationship in a quite different perspective: the prenatal child is a member of the family and may be seen as an active member of the wider family as a community, extended to grandparents and other relatives. Between parents and their child in the womb exists a reciprocal relationship at a physiological (hormonal, psychological and spiritual level. The prenatal child communicates with the parents in different ways and reacts to their stimulation (acoustic, tactile, loco-motoric, chemo-receptive, thermo-receptive, and emotional. This dialogue of the parents and their prenatal child enriches each member of the family community. In this sense, the prenatal child is a gift and a challenge for the parents to develop their personality, social competences and spiritual life. The reflections presented in this paper fit the conception of the paradigm of unity applied into the area of prenatal education and prenatal pedagogy as a new pedagogical subdisciline.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  1. CPAFFC Delegation Attends Third OLAGI Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation led by Wang Hongqiang,deputy director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC and secretary general of the China-Latin America Friendship Association,attended the Third Meeting of OLAGI(Organiacion Latinoamericana de Gobiernos Intermedios) held in La Romana,the Dominican Republic from October 18 to 20,2006 upon OLAGI’s invitation.

  2. Quantitative Analyses of Observing and Attending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    We review recent experiments examining whether simple models of the allocation and persistence of operant behavior are applicable to attending. In one series of experiments, observing responses of pigeons were used as an analog of attending. Maintenance of observing is often attributed to the conditioned reinforcing effects of a food-correlated stimulus (i.e., S+), so these experiments also may inform our understanding of conditioned reinforcement. Rates and allocations of observing were governed by rates of food or S+ delivery in a manner consistent with the matching law. Resistance to change of observing was well described by behavioral momentum theory only when rates of primary reinforcement in the context were considered. Rate and value of S+ deliveries did not affect resistance to change. Thus, persistence of attending to stimuli appears to be governed by primary reinforcement rates in the training context rather than conditioned reinforcing effects of the stimuli. An additional implication of these findings is that conditioned “reinforcers” may affect response rates through some mechanism other than response-strengthening. In a second series of experiments, we examined the applicability of the matching law to the allocation of attending to the elements of compound stimuli in a divided-attention task. The generalized matching law described performance well, and sensitivity to relative reinforcement varied with sample duration. The bias and sensitivity terms of the generalized matching law may provide measures of stimulus-driven and goal-driven control of divided attention. Further application of theories of operant behavior to performance on attention tasks may provide insights into what is referred to variously as endogenous, top-down, or goal-directed control of attention. PMID:18304761

  3. Non-attendance at a difficult-asthma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Beverley; Mault, Susan

    Increasing demand for our weekly difficult-asthma clinic means routine appointments are at a premium. This led us to explore the reasons why patients failed to attend for appointments and whether contacting them by telephone within a week of their missed scheduled appointment increased attendance. Memory lapses were the most common reason for non-attendance. Telephoning non-attenders led to a two-fold increase in attendance at subsequent clinics. Non-attendance may be a reflection of poor concordance, which, in itself, may contribute to a patient's difficult asthma.

  4. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2015-08-31

    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal stressors in rodents: Effects on behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Weinstock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests. Deficits were reported in social interaction that is suggestive of pathology associated with schizophrenia, and in spatial learning and memory in adult rats in the Morris water maze test, but in most studies only males were tested. There were too few studies on the novel object recognition test at different inter-trial intervals to enable a conclusion about the effect of prenatal stress and whether any deficits are more prevalent in males. Among hippocampal glutamate receptors, NR2B was the only subtype consistently reduced in association with learning deficits. However, like in humans with schizophrenia and depression, prenatal stress lowered hippocampal levels of BDNF, which were closely correlated with decreases in hippocampal long-term potentiation. In mice, down-regulation of BDNF appeared to occur through the action of gene-methylating enzymes that are already increased above controls in prenatally-stressed neonates. In conclusion, the data obtained so far from experiments in rodents lend support to a physiological basis for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia and depression.

  6. Causes and outcome of prenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzadeh Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in the urinary tract on prenatal screening with ultrasonography (U/S. Hydronephrosis may be obstructive or non-obstructive; obstructive lesions are more harmful to the developing kidneys. The aim of the study was to evaluate the causes of renal pelvic dilatation and the outcome of postnatal treatment in infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally with U/S. We prospectively studied 67 (60 males newborns with hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally and confirmed postnatally with U/S from Sept. 2005 to Oct. 2007. The patients were allocated to three groups based on the mea-surement of the anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD in transverse plane: mild (6-9.9 mm, moderate (10-14.9 mm and severe (> 15 mm hydronephrosis. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was obtained in all of the patients to rule out vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. In cases with negative VUR, Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA scan with diuretic renography was performed to detect ureteropelvic joint obstruction (UPJO. Twenty two cases (32.8% had mild, 20 (29.9% had moderate, and 25 (37.3% had severe hydronephrosis. The causes of hydroneph-rosis were VUR (40.2%, UPJO (32.8%, posterior urethral valves (PUVs (13.4 %, and transient hydronephrosis (13.4 %. The lesion was obstructive in 37 (55.2% infants. Totally, 33 (49.2% patients with hydronephrosis (9 mild, 9 moderate, and 15 severe subsequently developed com-plications such as UTI and renal insufficiency, or required surgery. Associated abnormalities were observed in 15 (22.4% patients. We conclude that every newborn with any degree of hydro-nephrosis should be assessed postnatally for specific diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Prenatal Brain-Body Allometry in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Variation in relative brain size among adult mammals is produced by different patterns of brain and body growth across ontogeny. Fetal development plays a central role in generating this diversity, and aspects of prenatal physiology such as maternal relative metabolic rate, altriciality, and placental morphology have been proposed to explain allometric differences in neonates and adults. Primates are also uniquely encephalized across fetal development, but it remains unclear when this pattern emerges during development and whether it is common to all primate radiations. To reexamine these questions across a wider range of mammalian radiations, data on the primarily fetal rapid growth phase (RGP) of ontogenetic brain-body allometry was compiled for diverse primate (np = 12) and nonprimate (nnp = 16) mammalian species, and was complemented by later ontogenetic data in 16 additional species (np = 9; nnp = 7) as well as neonatal proportions in a much larger sample (np = 38; nnp = 83). Relative BMR, litter size, altriciality, and placental morphology fail to predict RGP slopes as would be expected if physiological and life history variables constrained fetal brain growth, but are associated with differences in birth timing along allometric trajectories. Prenatal encephalization is shared by all primate radiations, is unique to the primate Order, and is characterized by: (1) a robust change in early embryonic brain/body proportions, and (2) higher average RGP allometric slopes due to slower fetal body growth. While high slopes are observed in several nonprimate species, primates alone exhibit an intercept shift at 1 g body size. This suggests that primate prenatal encephalization is a consequence of early changes to embryonic neural and somatic tissue growth in primates that remain poorly understood.

  8. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  9. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy.

  10. Video Lecture Capture Technology Helps Students Study without Affecting Attendance in Large Microbiology Lecture Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lynn McLean

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recording lectures using video lecture capture software and making them available for students to watch anytime, from anywhere, has become a common practice in many universities across many disciplines. The software has become increasingly easy to use and is commonly provided and maintained by higher education institutions. Several studies have reported that students use lecture capture to enhance their learning and study for assessments, as well as to catch up on material they miss when they cannot attend class due to extenuating circumstances. Furthermore, students with disabilities and students from non-English Speaking Backgrounds (NESB may benefit from being able to watch the video lecture captures at their own pace. Yet, the effect of this technology on class attendance remains a controversial topic and largely unexplored in undergraduate microbiology education. Here, we show that when video lecture captures were available in our large enrollment general microbiology courses, attendance did not decrease. In fact, the majority of students reported that having the videos available did not encourage them to skip class, but rather they used them as a study tool. When we surveyed NESB students and nontraditional students about their attitudes toward this technology, they found it helpful for their learning and for keeping up with the material.

  11. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  12. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  13. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing.

  14. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. L. Sebastián Illanes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El estudio no invasivo del material genético fetal es hoy en día una realidad. Mediante el uso de tecnología de avanzada, se puede actualmente determinar el grupo Rh fetal, el sexo fetal y trastornos genéticos fetales. El NIPD (Non Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis ha generado revuelo en la comunidad científica debido a las grandes perspectivas que se abren desde el punto vista del manejo de las pacientes. En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo que ha tenido el NIPD y sus aplicaciones clínicas actuales.

  15. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  16. Mesenchymal hamartoma: prenatal diagnosis by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Leysia [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada); Howse, Erica; Ryan, Greg [University of Toronto, Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    The clinical presentation of thoracic mesenchymal hamartomas varies from an asymptomatic chest wall mass to severe respiratory distress resulting from compression of the airways and lungs. We present the findings on fetal US and MRI of a histologically confirmed case. Following surgical resection, pathological examination corresponded to the cross-sectional imaging features with haemorrhagic, cystic and calcified components. An awareness of the characteristic imaging findings will allow accurate diagnosis of this condition, even prenatally, and thus facilitate appropriate perinatal management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan;

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  18. Integrating a Nurse-Midwife-Led Oral Health Intervention Into CenteringPregnancy Prenatal Care: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally H; Gregorich, Steven E; Rising, Sharon S; Hutchison, Margaret; Chung, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    National and professional organizations recommend oral health promotion in prenatal care to improve women's oral health. However, few prenatal programs include education about oral health promotion. The objective of this study was to determine if women receiving a brief, low-cost, and sustainable educational intervention entitled CenteringPregnancy Oral Health Promotion had clinically improved oral health compared to women receiving standard CenteringPregnancy care. Women attending CenteringPregnancy, a group prenatal care model, at 4 health centers in the San Francisco Bay Area, participated in this nonrandomized controlled pilot study in 2010 to 2011. The intervention arm received the CenteringPregnancy Oral Health Promotion intervention consisting of two 15-minute skills-based educational modules addressing maternal and infant oral health, each module presented in a separate CenteringPregnancy prenatal care session. The present analysis focused on the maternal module that included facilitated discussions and skills-building activities including proper tooth brushing. The control arm received standard CenteringPregnancy prenatal care. Dental examinations and questionnaires were administered prior to and approximately 9 weeks postintervention. Primary outcomes included the Plaque Index, percent bleeding on probing, and percent of gingival pocket depths 4 mm or greater. Secondary outcomes were self-reported oral health knowledge, attitudes (importance and self-efficacy), and behaviors (tooth brushing and flossing). Regression models tested whether pre to post changes in outcomes differed between the intervention versus the control arms. One hundred and one women participated in the study; 49 were in the intervention arm, and 52 were in the control arm. The control and intervention arms did not vary significantly at baseline. Significant pre to post differences were noted between the arms with significant improvements in the intervention arm for the Plaque Index

  19. Prenatal Substance Exposure: Neurobiological Organization at One Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Lester, Barry M.; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge among 1-month old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Study design We measured heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) in 1,129, 1-month infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (i.e. alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). Results Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had the highest HRs and lowest levels of RSA during a sustained visual attention procedure compared with the other three groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the NNNS exam compared with the other three exposure groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal cocaine exposure only and infants with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Conclusions Problems with arousal regulation were identified among infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with both prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, which may place these infants at risk for developing problems associated with physiological and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. PMID:23743094

  20. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  1. Determinants of School Attendance among Children with Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of School Attendance among Children with Disability in Zimbabwe ... school attendance among children living with disabilities and their impact on ... towards the realisation of human rights among children living with disability.

  2. Knowledge and Practice of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: the study was a cross sectional survey undertaken using structured interviews with TBAs that was ... Key words: Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAS), Skilled Birth Attendants, ..... World Bank, Pathaman I et al eds., Investing in Maternal.

  3. Environmental noise and human prenatal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, L.M.

    1981-09-01

    To determine whether chronic exposure to relatively loud noise has demonstrable biological effects in humans, a study was conducted on the effect of mother's exposure to airport noise while pregnant, and of social and biological characteristics of the family upon birthweight and gestation length. The sample of births was drawn from a community located adjacent to an international airport in the U.S., where noise levels had been measured previously. Mother's noise exposure was based upon noise levels near her residence in the community while she was pregnant. Data from 115 births were used, these being from mothers whose noise exposure history was most complete throughout the pregnancy. Using multivariate analysis to correct for family characteristics, the partial correlation coefficient for noise exposure and gestation length was negative, large, and significant in girls (r . -0.49, p less than 0.001). In boys the partial correlation coefficient was also negative but was smaller and did not quite reach statistical significance. Partial correlations with birthweight were smaller in both boys and girls and not significant. These results agree best with previous studies that suggest that noise may reduce prenatal growth. The size of the observed effects may be related to a conservative research design biased towards underestimation, as well as to the real effects of noise upon human prenatal growth.

  4. Prenatal stress changes learning strategies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohbot, Veronique D; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-11-01

    It is well known that stressful experiences may shape hippocampus-dependent learning and memory processes. However, although most studies focused on the impact of stress at the time of learning or memory testing, very little is known about how stress during critical periods of brain development affects learning and memory later in life. In this study, we asked whether prenatal stress exposure may influence the engagement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent response learning strategies in later life. To this end, we tested healthy participants whose mothers had experienced major negative life events during their pregnancy in a virtual navigation task that can be solved by spatial and response strategies. We found that young adults with prenatal stress used rigid response learning strategies more often than flexible spatial learning strategies compared with participants whose mothers did not experience major negative life events during pregnancy. Individual differences in acute or chronic stress do not account for these findings. Our data suggest that the engagement of hippocampal and nonhippocampal learning strategies may be influenced by stress very early in life.

  5. NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  6. Prenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Acardiac Twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Song, Mi Jin [Cheil General Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    This study was performed to present the prenatal sonographic findings and the associated abnormalities of acardiac twins. Seven cases of acardiac twins were reviewed retrospectively. Prenatal ultrasonography was performed in all patients at a gestational age between 12 and 27 weeks (mean 17.6 weeks). Autopsy was performed in four cases. The sonographic and autopsy findings were reviewed to report the associated abnormalities of the acardiac and donor fetuses. The diagnosis of acardiac twins was made on the basis of ultrasonography (n=6) or autopsy (n=1). The associated abnormalities of the acardiac fetuses were single umbilical artery (SUA) (n=5), abdominal wall defect (n=4), club feet (n=4), scoliosis (n=1), cleft lip and palate (n=1), digital anomaly (n=1), and umbilical cord cyst (n=1). In four of the donor fetuses, sonographic abnormalities were found. Autopsy was performed in three of the four cases to reveal hydropic change (n=2), diaphragmatic hernia (n=1) and multiple structural abnormalities of interventricular septal defect, polydactyly, club feet and SUA (n=1). Intrauterine fetal death occurred in five donors and follow-up was lost in the remaining two. Meticulous sonography enables the diagnosis of acardiac twins at an early gestational age and can reveal the associated abnormalities of the donor fetus as well as the acardiac fetus

  7. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal care is associated with better pregnancy outcome and may be a patient safety issue. However, no studies have investigated the types and quality of prenatal care provided in northern Taiwan. This retrospective study assessed whether the hospital-based continuous prenatal care model at tertiary hospitals reduced the risk of perinatal morbidity and maternal complications in pre-eclampsia patients. Of 385 pre-eclampsia patients recruited from among 23,665 deliveries, 198 were classified as patients with little or no prenatal care who received traditional, individualized, and physician-based discontinuous prenatal care (community-based model), and 187 were classified as control patients who received tertiary hospital-based continuous prenatal care. The effects on perinatal outcome were significantly different between the two groups. The cases in the hospital-based care group were less likely to be associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, very low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. After adjustment of confounding factors, the factors associated with pregnant women who received little or no prenatal care by individualized physician groups were diastolic blood pressure ≥ 105 mmHg, serum aspartate transaminase level ≥ 150 IU/L, and low-birth-weight deliveries. This study also demonstrated the dose-response effect of inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive prenatal care status on fetal birth weight and gestational periods (weeks to delivery). The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  9. HT-ATTENDING: Critiquing the Pharmacologic Management of Essential Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Perry L.; Black, Henry R.

    1983-01-01

    HT-ATTENDING is a computer system being developed to critique a physician's approach to the pharmacologic management of essential hypertension. The concept of having a computer critique a physician's plan of management (Medical Plan-Analysis) has already been implemented in ATTENDING, a system whose domain is anesthesia management. HT-ATTENDING extends this approach to a new medical domain. HT-ATTENDING's goal is 1) to assist a physician in formulating his approach to the hypertensive patient...

  10. 14 CFR 135.107 - Flight attendant crewmember requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant crewmember requirement... Flight Operations § 135.107 Flight attendant crewmember requirement. No certificate holder may operate an... is a flight attendant crewmember on board the aircraft....

  11. Is Attending Lectures Still Relevant in Engineering Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Cronin, K.; Byrne, E.

    2011-01-01

    A case study was conducted on a group of undergraduate chemical engineering students to assess the relevance of attending lectures from a student perspective and to understand why these students attend and do not attend lectures with a view to developing approaches to teaching, which are of greater interest and benefit to student learning. The…

  12. Interpreting the Influence of Community College Attendance upon Baccalaureate Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2007-01-01

    National quantitative studies examining the impact of community college attendance upon educational attainment conclude that initial attendance at a community college (as opposed to a 4-year institution) reduces the likelihood of attaining a bachelor's degree. Yet these studies, which suggest that initial attendance at a community college is not a…

  13. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended...

  14. Suicidal ideation in UK HIV clinic attenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Lorraine; Lampe, Fiona; Fisher, Martin; Arthur, Gilly; Anderson, Jane; Zetler, Sarah; Johnson, Margaret; Edwards, Simon; Harding, Richard

    2008-08-20

    HIV has been associated with elevated suicidal ideation. Although new treatments have changed prognosis, they also bring new challenges. This study measured suicidal ideation in HIV clinic attenders in the United Kingdom (London/Southeast) and explored associated factors. All 1006 attenders at five HIV clinics were approached, of which 903 met inclusion criteria and 778 participated (86% response). Participants provided detailed information on suicidal ideation, demographics, treatment, adherence, symptoms (psychological and physical on Memorial Symptom Assessment Schedule), quality of life (EuroQol) information, HIV disclosure, clinical variables, sexual risk behaviour and treatment optimism. There was a 31% prevalence of suicidal ideation. Factors associated with suicidal ideation were being a heterosexual man, black ethnicity, unemployment, lack of disclosure of HIV status, having stopped antiretroviral treatment (compared to treatment or treatment naive), physical symptoms, psychological symptoms and poorer quality of life. There was no association with sexual risk behaviour. Sex/sexuality and ethnicity were independently associated with suicidal ideation: the odds of suicidal ideation increased almost two-fold for heterosexual men compared with gay men or women and for black respondents compared with White or Asian respondents. Lack of disclosure was independently associated with a two-fold increase in odds of suicidal ideation. Elevated physical and psychological symptoms were strong independent predictors of suicidal ideation. Independent predictors of suicidal ideation were very similar among the subgroup of 492 patients on antiretroviral treatment. Despite advances in treatment, suicidal ideation rates among HIV-positive clinic attenders are high. Emotional support and attention to mental health provision and social context are strongly endorsed.

  15. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming.

  16. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  17. Positively essential: traditional birth attendants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, Shirley

    2011-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.

  18. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K.; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30–90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells –c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess. PMID:27328820

  19. Prenatal programming: adverse cardiac programming by gestational testosterone excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Arpita K; Hoang, Vanessa; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Gilbreath, Ebony; Mietelka, Kristy A

    2016-06-22

    Adverse events during the prenatal and early postnatal period of life are associated with development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone (T) in sheep induces adverse reproductive and metabolic programming leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome, insulin resistance and hypertension in the female offspring. We hypothesized that prenatal T excess disrupts insulin signaling in the cardiac left ventricle leading to adverse cardiac programming. Left ventricular tissues were obtained from 2-year-old female sheep treated prenatally with T or oil (control) from days 30-90 of gestation. Molecular markers of insulin signaling and cardiac hypertrophy were analyzed. Prenatal T excess increased the gene expression of molecular markers involved in insulin signaling and those associated with cardiac hypertrophy and stress including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), nuclear factor of activated T cells -c3 (NFATc3), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) compared to controls. Furthermore, prenatal T excess increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and mTOR. Myocardial disarray (multifocal) and increase in cardiomyocyte diameter was evident on histological investigation in T-treated females. These findings support adverse left ventricular remodeling by prenatal T excess.

  20. Childhood maltreatment history, posttraumatic relational sequelae, and prenatal care utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sue Anne; Seng, Julia

    2013-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that childhood maltreatment history would be associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. A post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study of the effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on pregnancy outcomes. Recruitment took place via prenatal clinics from three academic health systems in southeast Michigan. This analysis included 467 diverse, nulliparous, English-speaking adult women expecting their first infants. Data were gathered from structured telephone interviews at two time points in pregnancy and from prenatal medical records. Contrary to our hypothesis, history of childhood maltreatment was associated with better likelihood of using adequate prenatal care. Risk for inadequate prenatal care occurred in association with the posttraumatic stress and interpersonal sensitivity that can result from maltreatment, with low alliance with the maternity care provider, and with public insurance coverage. Prior mental health treatment was associated with using adequate prenatal care. When childhood maltreatment survivors were resilient or had used mental health treatment, they were more likely to utilize adequate prenatal care. The maternity care relationship or service delivery model (e.g., no continuity of care) as well as structural factors may adversely affect utilization among PTSD-affected survivors. Since inadequate care was associated with adverse outcomes, further studies of these modifiable factors are warranted. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, M M; Willett, W C; Michels, K B

    2015-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to multivitamins may be associated with obesity in the offspring; however, data in humans are sparse. We therefore examined the association between prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity. We investigated the association between prenatal vitamin intake and obesity among 29,160 mother-daughter dyads in the Nurses' Health Study II. Mothers of participants provided information on prenatal vitamin use during pregnancy with the nurse daughter. Information on body fatness at ages 5 and 10, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, weight in 1989 and 2009, waist circumference, and height was obtained from the daughter. Polytomous logistic regression was used to predict BMI in early adulthood and adulthood, and body fatness in childhood. Linear regression was used to predict waist circumference in adulthood. In utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness, either in childhood or in adulthood. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being obese in adulthood of 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05, P-value = 0.68) compared with women whose mothers did not take prenatal vitamins. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted OR of having the largest body shape at age 5 of 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15, P-value = 0.78). In additional analyses, in utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was also unrelated to adult abdominal adiposity. Exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness either in childhood or in adulthood.

  3. Prenatal ultrasound and fetal MRI: The comparative value of each modality in prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugash, Denise [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: dpugash@cw.bc.ca; Brugger, Peter C. [Integrative Morphology Group, Centre of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bettelheim, Dieter [University Clinics of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [University Clinics of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Fetal MRI is used with increasing frequency as an adjunct to ultrasound (US) in prenatal diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the relative value of both prenatal US and MRI in evaluating fetal and extra-fetal structures for a variety of clinical indications. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality are addressed. In summary, MRI has advantages in demonstrating pathology of the brain, lungs, complex syndromes, and conditions associated with reduction of amniotic fluid. At present, US is the imaging method of choice during the first trimester, and in the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities, as well as for screening. In some conditions, such as late gestational age, increased maternal body mass index, skeletal dysplasia, and metabolic disease, neither imaging method may provide sufficient diagnostic information.

  4. Age at introduction of ultra-processed food among preschool children attending day-care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Silveira, Jonas Augusto C; Menezes, Rísia Cristina Egito de; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar

    To identify the age of introduction of ultra-processed food and its associated factors among preschool children. Cross-sectional study carried out from March to June 2014 with 359 preschool children aged 17 to 63 months attending day-care centers. Time until ultra-processed food introduction (outcome variable) was described by the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival functions of independent variables. Factors associated with ultra-processed food introduction were investigated using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. The results were shown as hazard ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The median time until ultra-processed food introduction was six months. Between the 3rd and 6th months, there is a significant increase in the probability of introducing ultra-processed food in the children's diet; and while the probability in the 3rd month varies from 0.15 to 0.25, at six months the variation ranges from 0.6 to 1.0. The final Cox proportional hazards model showed that unplanned pregnancy (1.32 [1.05-1.65]), absence of prenatal care (2.50 [1.02-6.16]), and income >2 minimum wages (1, 50 [1.09-2.06]) were independent risk factors for the introduction of ultra-processed food. Up to the 6th month of life, approximately 75% of preschool children had received one or more ultra-processed food in their diet. In addition, it was observed that the poorest families, as well as unfavorable prenatal factors, were associated with early introduction of ultra-processed food. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Yoga and massage therapy reduce prenatal depression and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Medina, Lissette; Delgado, Jeannette; Hernandez, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    Eighty-four prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to yoga, massage therapy or standard prenatal care control groups to determine the relative effects of yoga and massage therapy on prenatal depression and neonatal outcomes. Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales and a greater increase on a relationship scale. In addition, the yoga and massage therapy groups did not differ on neonatal outcomes including gestational age and birthweight, and those groups, in turn, had greater gestational age and birthweight than the control group.

  6. Genetic Considerations in the Prenatal Diagnosis of Overgrowth Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Large (>90%) for gestational age (LGA) fetuses are usually identified incidentally. Detection of the LGA fetus should first prompt the provider to rule out incorrect dates and maternal diabetes. Once this is done, consideration should be given to certain overgrowth syndromes, especially if anomalies are present. The overgrowth syndromes have significant clinical and molecular overlap, and are associated with developmental delay, tumors, and other anomalies. Although genetic causes of overgrowth are considered postnatally, they are infrequently diagnosed prenatally. Here, we review prenatal sonographic findings in fetal overgrowth syndromes, including Pallister-Killian, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Sotos, Perlman, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel. We also discuss prenatal diagnosis options and recurrence risks. PMID:19609940

  7. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  8. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall: prenatal sonographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Jeong ha; Kim, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Ji Young; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2013-06-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall is a rare, benign lesion that arises from one or more ribs, almost exclusively found in infants. Some cases that developed in the fetal period have been reported, but accurate diagnosis was usually possible only after birth, except in a few cases in which fetal magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were performed. We present a case of a congenital mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. Although the diagnosis was not confirmed until birth, the prenatal sonographic examination showed strongly suggestive findings. We review the published reports on this condition, and suggest the prenatal sonographic features. Prenatal sonography is valuable in the differential diagnosis of chest mass.

  9. Barriers to dental attendance in older patients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D

    2017-04-01

    Health professionals in Ireland are increasingly concerned about the quality of oral health in older patients. The aim of this study is to identify the obstacles that face this age-group when accessing dental care, so that we are in a better position to address them. A questionnaire was completed by 105 patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. Over 50 percent of respondents had not attended a dentist in over 36 months, for the reasons that \\'I have no problem or need for treatment’ (62%) and ‘I have no teeth, and therefore I have no need to go’ (54%). While it is common to assume that no teeth means no need to see a dentist, research shows that regular dental visits are vital for ensuring the early screening of oral cancer and other mucosal pathologies, and the optimisation of existing rosthesis\\/restorations. The chief recommendation of this paper is thus to provide better education and access to older people on the importance of visiting the dentist.

  10. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  11. Psychosocial predictors of first attendance for organised mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; de Koning, H J; Absetz, P

    1999-01-01

    of breast cancer risk as moderate were also predictive of attendance. Expectation of pain at mammography was predictive of non-attendance. CONCLUSION: Mammography screening organised as a public health service was well accepted. A recent mammogram, high reliance on self control of breast cancer......OBJECTIVE: To study psychosocial predictors of attendance at an organised breast cancer screening programme. SETTING: Finnish screening programme based on personal first round invitations in 1992-94, and with 90% attendance rate. METHODS: Attenders (n = 946) belonged to a 10% random sample (n...... Scale, Illness Attitude Scale, Health Locus of Control Scale, Anxiety Inventory, and Depression Inventory. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to predict attendance. RESULTS: Those most likely to attend were working, middle income, and averagely educated women, who had...

  12. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Liu

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.

  13. Epidemiological profile of pregnant women and prenatal care quality in a healthcare center in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Teixeira Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the profile and assess the quality of care received by pregnant women, who gave birth in 2008, attending the Panorama healthcare centre (HC in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state (RS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using pre-codified questionnaires applied at households and HCs investigating the mothers’ demographic reproductive characteristics and the healthcare received during antenatal period and delivery. Analysis consisted of frequency distribution of variables and their mean, median and standard deviations. Results: Amongst the 238 women interviewed, 20% were teenagers, 38% had at least nine years of schooling, three quarters were living with a partner and 40% had a paid job during gestational period; a quarter had family income of a minimum wage (average of US$ 350/month. Regarding their reproductive health, on average, menarche occurred at 13 years old, sexual intercourse started at 16 years old, 25% had already had an abortion and, by 19 years old, 60% had already given birth. Concerning prenatal care, 87% attended at least six medical appointments, three quarters started prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy and 85% received tetanus vaccine and iron supplementation during antenatal period. According to the Kessner Index modified by Takeda and Silveira, the antenatal care was considered adequate for 80% and 49% of all pregnant women, respectively. Conclusion: Panorama HC attends socioeconomic deprived pregnant women that started early antenatal care, performing a high amount of medical appointments, but, in general, the healthcare quality offered both during prenatal and delivery was unsatisfactory.

  14. Impact of Prenatal Stress on Neuroendocrine Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Viltart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since life emerged on the Earth, the development of efficient strategies to cope with sudden and/or permanent changes of the environment has been virtually the unique goal pursued by every organism in order to ensure its survival and thus perpetuate the species. In this view, evolution has selected tightly regulated processes aimed at maintaining stability among internal parameters despite external changes, a process termed homeostasis. Such an internal equilibrium relies quite heavily on three interrelated physiological systems: the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, which function as a permanently activated watching network, communicating by the mean of specialized molecules: neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones or neurohormones. Potential threats to homeostasis might occur as early as during in utero life, potentially leaving a lasting mark on the developing organism. Indeed, environmental factors exert early-life influences on the structural and functional development of individuals, giving rise to changes that can persist throughout life. This organizational phenomenon, encompassing prenatal environmental events, altered fetal growth, and development of long-term pathophysiology, has been named early-life programming. Over the past decade, increased scientific activities have been devoted to deciphering the obvious link between states of maternal stress and the behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactivity of the progeny. This growing interest has been driven by the discovery of a tight relationship between prenatal stress and development of short- and long-term health disorders. Among factors susceptible of contributing to such a deleterious programming, nutrients and hormones, especially steroid hormones, are considered as powerful mediators of the fetal organization since they readily cross the placental barrier. In particular, variations in circulating maternal glucocorticoids are known to impact this

  15. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Aarskog syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, W; Dezerega, V; Horvath, E; Aracena, M

    1999-10-01

    In 1970, Aarskog described a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by short stature in association with a variety of structural anomalies involving mainly the face, distal extremities, and external genitalia (faciodigitogenital syndrome). The major facial manifestations of this syndrome include hypertelorism, broad forehead, broad nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, widow's peak hair anomaly, and ocular and ear anomalies. Limb abnormalities consist of short broad hands, brachydactyly, interdigital webbing, hypoplasia of the middle phalanges, proximal interphalangeal joint laxity with concomitant flexion and restriction of movement of distal interphalangeal joints, and flat broad feet with bulbous toes. Genital anomalies are characteristics and include shawl scrotum, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernia. Most affected patients have normal intelligence, but some authors have noted mild neurodevelopmental delay in up to 30% of the cases. We describe a case of Aarskog syndrome diagnosed prenatally by sonography at 28 weeks' gestation in a high-risk pregnancy for this disorder.

  16. PRENATAL SEX DETERMINATION: Issues and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande JD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of knowledge and voluminous literature is available on sex discrimination in India over the last twenty years. Moreover, detailed statistics about sex ratio from various sources exist.Understanding the rationale behind prenatal sex determination is no doubt key to deciphering the dynamics of sex ratio in India. Present article is an attempt to review the main dimensions of the recentsex-ratio degradation in India: its origin, its mechanisms and social characteristics, its implications in the long run and its major causes. Analysis also points to the positive linkage between abnormal sex ratio and better socio-economic status and literacy. Child Sex ratio is not lowest in poor tribal districts or other backward areas, but in prosperous Western Maharashtra and other economically empowered districts. It is essential to raise awareness and seek attitudinal and behavior changes to tackle the problem.

  17. Short hard palate in prenatal trisomy 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, H; Hansen, Birgit; Reintoft, I;

    2005-01-01

    and palatine parts) in trisomy 21 fetuses, and to compare the results to normal standards. Design - Material from 31 human fetuses with genetically verified trisomy 21 was studied. The fetuses were derived from legally induced or spontaneous abortions. Palates were, after sectioning, radiographed in lateral...... of the palatal components in trisomy 21 was compared to normal standards. Results - For CRL 150 mm and CRL 170 mm it appears that all three palatal lengths, total length, maxillary length, and palatinal length are significantly shorter in fetuses with trisomy 21. Conclusion - The main conclusion of our study...... is that the total palatal length in prenatal trisomy 21 is shorter than normal and that this is due both to a shortness of the maxillary and the palatine components of the hard palate....

  18. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  19. The noneffects of contingent reinforcement for attending behavior on work accomplished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferritor, D E; Buckholdt, D; Hamblin, R L; Smith, L

    1972-01-01

    Past studies have shown that disruptive behavior can be eliminated and attending behavior accelerated in an academic setting. The relationship between these behaviors and academic performance is not well understood. The effects of behavioral and performance contingencies on classroom behavior and on academic performance were investigated. The subjects, third-grade students from an inner city elementary school, were exposed to a series of conditions including baseline, behavior contingencies, performance contingencies, and a mix of behavior and performance contingencies using a reversal design. The students worked 100 randomly selected mathematics problems for 20 minutes each day during each period. Behavioral contingencies improved attending and decreased disruptions but did not improve performance. Performance contingencies increased per cent correct problems but attending declined and disruptions increased. The combined contingencies increased both performance and attending. The experiment was replicated with another class of children varying the sequence of conditions and the amount of token reinforcement that could be earned. The findings emphasized the importance of designing specific contingencies for specific target behaviors. Behavioral contingencies did not have the positive effect on performance often implied, nor were performance contingencies alone able to maintain acceptable classroom behavior.

  20. Prenatal craniofacial development: new insights on normal and abnormal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M C; Bronsky, P T

    1995-01-01

    Technical advances are radically altering our concepts of normal prenatal craniofacial development. These include concepts of germ layer formation, the establishment of the initial head plan in the neural plate, and the manner in which head segmentation is controlled by regulatory (homeobox) gene activity in neuromeres and their derived neural crest cells. There is also a much better appreciation of ways in which new cell associations are established. For example, the associations are achieved by neural crest cells primarily through cell migration and subsequent cell interactions that regulate induction, growth, programmed cell death, etc. These interactions are mediated primarily by two groups of regulatory molecules: "growth factors" (e.g., FGF and TGF alpha) and the so-called steroid/thyroid/retinoic acid superfamily. Considerable advances have been made with respect to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in primary and secondary palate formation, such as growth, morphogenetic movements, and the fusion/merging phenomenon. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms involved in the final differentiation of skeletal tissues. Molecular genetics and animal models for human malformations are providing many insights into abnormal development. A mouse model for the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a mild form of holoprosencephaly, demonstrates a mid-line anterior neural plate deficiency which leads to olfactory placodes being positioned too close to the mid-line, and other secondary changes. Work on animal models for the retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) shows that there is major involvement of neural crest cells. There is also major crest cell involvement in similar syndromes, apparently including hemifacial microsomia. Later administration of retinoic acid prematurely and excessively kills ganglionic placodal cells and leads to a malformation complex virtually identical to the Treacher Collins syndrome. Most clefts of the lip and/or palate appear to have a

  1. Prenatal mercury exposure and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Mario; Ballester, Ferran; Enning, Ashley Michel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Valvi, Damaskini; Basterrechea, Mikel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús; Maruri, Maite; Tardon, Adonina; Riaño-Galán, Isolina; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina

    2016-11-01

    Results regarding the association between mercury exposure and anthropometry at birth, gestational length and placental weight are inconsistent, as is the role of seafood intake in these associations. We assessed whether prenatal mercury exposure is associated with anthropometry at birth, placental weight and gestational length in a population with a relatively high exposure to mercury from seafood consumption. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood from 1869 newborns with birth outcome measures, within the Spanish multicenter INMA cohort from 2004 to 2008. We adjusted cohort specific linear and Cox regression models to evaluate the association between T-Hg and birth anthropometry (weight, length, and head circumference), placental weight and gestational length. Non-spontaneous labor was taken to be censoring in the survival analysis. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Geometric mean T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. A doubling of T-Hg was associated with a 7.7g decrease in placental weight (95% CI: -13.6, -1.8) and marginally with head circumference (beta: -0.052cm, 95% CI: -0.109, 0.005). T-Hg was also inversely related to weight and length, although with weaker estimates. Mercury exposure was not associated with the length of gestation. The inverse relation between T-Hg and growth was enhanced when the intake of different seafood groups was adjusted for in the models. Prenatal mercury exposure may be associated with reduced placental and fetal growth. Confounding by fish intake should be considered when assessing these relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  3. Diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot Prenatal diagnosis of clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Javier Masquijo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El pie bot es una de las anomalías músculo- esqueléticas congénitas más frecuentes. La utilización de la ecografía para la detección prenatal del pie bot ha avanzado rápidamente en la última década, pero las publicaciones han presentado una gran variabilidad de opiniones en cuanto a la eficacia del método, la asociación con otras patologías y la necesidad de realizar amniocentesis para análisis del cariotipo. Objetivos. Analizar en qué porcentaje de pacientes se realizó diagnóstico prenatal del pie bot, evaluar la opinión de las madres al respecto y aclarar algunos conceptos revisando la bibliografía disponible a la fecha. Métodos. Se analizó retrospectivamente un grupo de 54 pacientes consecutivos con diagnóstico de pie bot tratados en el período enero 2008-junio 2010. Se documentaron el número de ecografías realizadas durante el embarazo, el tipo de ecografía realizada (2D, 3D o 4D y la semana de gestación al momento del diagnóstico. Las madres fueron encuestadas a fin de conocer su opinión con respecto al diagnóstico prenatal de esta deformidad. Resultados. Se realizaron 3,2 ecografías promedio durante el embarazo (r, 1-7. En el 25% (13/52 de los casos se realizó diagnóstico prenatal. El diagnóstico fue realizado en 7 casos con ecografía 2D, en 4 con 3D y en 2 con 4D, y en promedio se efectuó a la semana 22 (r, 20-28. En ningún paciente se llevó a cabo diagnóstico temprano, en 12 fue tardío y en 1 muy tardío. Conclusión. El diagnóstico prenatal permite a los padres de prepararse psicológicamente y asesorarse sobre la patología. En nuestra serie, el 90,4% se mostró a favor de conocer previamente el diagnóstico.Introduction. Clubfoot is one of the most frequent congenital musculoskeletal anomalies. The use of ultrasound for prenatal detection of clubfoot has advanced rapidly in the last decade, but publications report a great variability in opinions regarding the effectiveness of

  4. 基于数字图像处理的自动考勤系统%Automatic Attendance System Based on Digital Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴蛟; 吴晟; 刘安琪; 普丽; 南峰涛

    2015-01-01

    Student attendance in class management in colleges and universities are all through the teacher in class at-tendance record lectures ,real-time ,effectiveness is usually not guaranteed ,and the index of students attendance is not fair . Based on the design of a digital image based intelligent attendance ,to enhance the accuracy in attendance and attendance sys-tem is mainly aimed at the current university students’ online and students leave school attendance management and design of information system make full use of informatization ,automation ,the condition of can better regulate the school rules and save time ,so as to improve general attendance .Operation results show that by using the system can significantly reduce the waste of class time ,constraints of the students’ attendance .%目前高校学生上课考勤管理都是通过任课老师上课点名来记录学生上课情况,实时性、有效性通常得不到保障,而且同学出勤得不到公平的指标。基于此设计一套基于数字图像的智能考勤,用以提高考勤的准确率以及学生的出勤率,系统主要是针对目前高校学生在线请假以及学生上课出勤管理而设计充分利用信息化、自动化的条件,可以更好规范学校规章节省上课时间,从而提高出勤率。操作结果表明,通过使用系统可大幅度减少课堂时间的浪费,约束学生的出勤。

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetus with anencephaly and thumb agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Cataliotti, Antonella; Indaco, Lara; Pappalardo, Elisa; Barrano, Barbara; Ettore, Giuseppe; Bianca, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    Severe anomalies of the forebrain together with reduction limb anomalies are a rare congenital anomalies association. We report a prenatal diagnosis of acalvaria, anencephaly and thumb agenesis in a voluntary terminated fetus and discuss the role of genetic counseling.

  6. Sirenomelia: Case Report and Discussion of its Prenatal Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Diabetes mellitus, dysmorphic lower limb, prenatal diagnosis, sirenomelia ... get any routine investigation done. ... study. In view of a congenitally anomalous fetus, tocolysis was not given and ... associated genetic predisposition.

  7. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L

    2005-01-01

    gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...

  9. New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162970.html New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects ... HealthDay News) -- In a recommendation that reaffirms previous guidelines, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said that ...

  10. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

      Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered...... in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining...... a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers...

  11. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD......: Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  12. Fetal MRI in Prenatal Diagnosis of CNS Abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The value of fetal MRI (fMRI compared to ultrasound in the prenatal detection of CNS abnormalities and impact on counseling were determined in 25 pregnant women examined at University of Dusseldorf, Germany.

  13. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Scheinost

    2016-01-01

    Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  14. Follow-up of prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Lenz, K; Rabol, A

    1996-01-01

    Based on previous experience with prenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis, we found that the primary indications for surgical intervention should be symptoms or functional impairment of the hydronephrotic kidney. Nonoperative management of neonates without symptoms and with normal function...

  15. Prenatal emotion management improves obstetric outcomes: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Li, He-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Mao, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Wen-Ying; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Negative emotions can cause a number of prenatal problems and disturb obstetric outcomes. We determined the effectiveness of prenatal emotional management on obstetric outcomes in nulliparas. All participants completed the PHQ-9 at the baseline assessment. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the emotional management (EM) and usual care (UC) groups. The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks gestation and the participants were followed up to 42 days postpartum. Each subject in the EM group received an extra EM program while the participants in the UC groups received routine prenatal care and education only. The PHQ-9 and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) were used for assessment. The EM group had a lower PHQ-9 score at 36 weeks gestation, and 7 and 42 days after delivery (P Prenatal EM intervention could control anxiety and depressive feelings in nulliparas, and improve obstetric outcomes. It may serve as an innovative approach to reduce the cesarean section rate in China.

  16. Association between prenatal exposure to analgesics and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2004-01-01

    : Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to analgesics and the risk of schizophrenia. The effect of prenatal exposure was adjusted for parental history of schizophrenia, second-trimester viral......BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the central nervous system originating during foetal life may increase the risk of schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to analgesics may affect foetal neurodevelopment, leading to increased risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD...... infections, concomitant drug treatment during pregnancy, an index of pregnancy complications, parental social status and parental age. RESULTS: In a risk set of 7999 individuals, 116 cases of schizophrenia were found (1.5%). Prenatal exposure to analgesics in the second trimester was associated...

  17. To be or not to be: the importance of attendance in integrated physiology teaching using non-traditional approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Concepción

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing use of non-traditional methods like problem-based learning, team-working and several other active-learning techniques in Physiology teaching. While several studies have investigated the impact of class attendance on the academic performance in traditional teaching, there is limited information regarding whether the new modalities are especially sensible to this factor. Methods Here, we performed a comparative study between a control group receiving information through traditional methods and an experimental group submitted to new methodologies in Physiology teaching. Results We found that while mean examination scores were similar in the control and the experimental groups, a different picture emerge when data are organized according to four categorical attendance levels. In the experimental group, scores were not different between the 1st and the 2nd exams (P = 0.429 nor between the 2nd and the 3rd exams (P = 0.225 for students that never or poorly attend classes, in contrast to the control group (P Conclusion We suggest that class attendance is critical for learning using non-traditional methods.

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, L

    1988-03-01

    Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a very significant role in the lives of a multitude of people in the traditional settlements and societies. They are people of eminent dignity and personality because their valuable contribution to society is appreciated by all, and they are known as those who keep the secrets of their society. In this article some of the practices of the TBAs are described, including the use of herbs in pregnancy tests, determining whether a delivery will be difficult, and determining labor signs, as well as the traditional method of care for premature babies. No cash payment is made to TBAs for their services, but gifts of rum and kola nuts are offered.

  19. Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Allen, Rosemary A; Pammer, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates how auditory attention affects inattentional blindness (IB), a failure of conscious awareness in which an observer does not notice an unexpected event because their attention is engaged elsewhere. Previous research using the attentional blink paradigm has indicated that listening to music can reduce failures of conscious awareness. It was proposed that listening to music would decrease IB by reducing observers' frequency of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Observers completed an IB task that varied both visual and auditory demands. Listening to music was associated with significantly lower IB, but only when observers actively attended to the music. Follow-up experiments suggest this was due to the distracting qualities of the audio task. The results also suggest a complex relationship between IB and TUTs: during demanding tasks, as predicted, noticers of the unexpected stimulus reported fewer TUTs than non-noticers. During less demanding tasks, however, noticers reported more TUTs than non-noticers.

  20. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children's development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children's background...... as well as an instrumental variable approach based on wider geographic area aggregates to test whether those correlations reveal unbiased causal effects. The identification of truly effective quality characteristics of day-care centres enhances policymakers' resource allocation to make all children...

  1. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  2. Social inequalities in use of prenatal care in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Green, Chris G; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2007-10-01

    Analysis of regional variations in use of prenatal care to identify individual-level and neighbourhood-level determinants of inadequate prenatal care among women giving birth in the province of Manitoba. Data were obtained from Manitoba Health administrative databases and the 1996 Canadian Census. An index of prenatal care use was calculated for each singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 149,291). Births were geocoded into 498 geographic districts, and a spatial analysis was conducted, consisting of data visualization, spatial clustering, and data modelling using Poisson regression. We found wide variation in rates of inadequate prenatal care across geographic areas, ranging from 1.1% to 21.5%. Higher rates of inadequate care were found in the inner-city of Winnipeg and in northern Manitoba. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the highest rates of inadequate prenatal care were among women living in neighbourhoods with the lowest average family income, the highest proportion of the population who were unemployed, the highest rates of recent immigrants, the highest percentage of the population reporting Aboriginal status, the highest percentage of single parent families, the highest percentage of the population with fewer than nine years of education, and the highest rates of women who smoked during pregnancy. Social inequalities exist in the use of prenatal care among Manitoba women, despite there being a universally funded health care system. Regional disparities in rates of inadequate prenatal care emphasize the need for further research to determine specific risk factors for inadequate prenatal care in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, followed by provision of effective targeted services.

  3. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of Carpenter syndrome: looking beyond craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorine, Anna S; Weida, Jennifer; Hines, Karrie A; Robinson, Barrett; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Weaver, David D

    2014-03-01

    Carpenter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising craniosynostosis, polysyndactyly, and brachydactyly. It occurs in approximately 1 birth per million. We present a patient with Carpenter syndrome (confirmed by molecular diagnosis) who has several unique and previously unreported manifestations including a large ovarian cyst and heterotaxy with malrotation of stomach, intestine, and liver. These findings were first noted by prenatal ultrasound and may assist in prenatally diagnosing additional cases of Carpenter syndrome.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of common single gene disorders by DNA technology

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Using the new DNA technology, it is now possible to offer prenatal diagnosis or presymptomatic testing for many genetic diseases. For prenatal diagnosis, foetal tissue is obtained y chorionic villus sampling at 9 to 11 weeks gestation or amniocentesis at 18 weeks. The programme in Hong Kong, which started in 1982, is reviewed here and now included alpha and beta thalassaemia, haemophilia A and B, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington's diseases, and spinal muscular atrophy. DNA diagnosis ca...

  6. Congenital epulis: prenatal imaging with MRI and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sylvain; Patenaude, Yves G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, CHUS-Hopital Fleurimont, 3001 12 Ave Nord, J1H 5N4, Fleurimont, Quebec (Canada); Sinsky, Anna [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, UNC School of Medicine, 3322 Old Infirmary Building, NC 27599-7510, Chapel Hill (United States); Williams, Bruce [Department of Surgery, Montreal Children' s Hospital, Room C1139, 2300 Tupper Street, H3H 1P3, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Desilets, Valerie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Avenue West, H3A 1A1, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Congenital epulis is an uncommon benign tumor that originates from the alveolar ridge in newborns. It is also known as congenital gingival granular cell tumor. Although there have been around 200 reports of its postnatal diagnosis, this oral tumor has rarely been diagnosed prenatally. We present fetal MRI and Doppler prenatal imaging of an infant with two congenital epulides (simultaneous involvement of superior and inferior maxillas). (orig.)

  7. [Rare case of bilateral pulmonary agenesis and prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluppillai, C; Jossic, F; Quéré, M-P; Philippe, H-J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral pulmonary agenesis (BPA) is a rare congenital lung malformation. The prognosis is severe as it is incompatible with extra-uterine life. Although multiple prenatal imaging modalities are developed, the prenatal diagnosis of BPA remains problematic. We report a case of BPA observed in our unity and for which the diagnosis was not clearly identified during the evaluation. This report illustrates the need to consider all the imaging aspects and particularly during US examination suspecting BPA.

  8. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures: a developing countries' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With appropriate prenatal invasive test were able to prevent birth of affected fetus which is of huge importance considering the patients who give birth to abnormal babies only to see them suffering and frequently dying also. Prenatal invasive test were able to prevent this psychological, mental as well as physical trauma in these patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 41-47

  9. Prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early developmental seizures and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    In humans, corticosteroids are often administered prenatally to improve lung development in preterm neonates. Studies in exposed children as well as in children, whose mothers experienced significant stress during pregnancy indicate behavioral problems and possible increased occurrence of epileptic spasms. This study investigated whether prenatal corticosteroid exposure alters early postnatal seizure susceptibility and behaviors. On gestational day 15, pregnant rats were injected i.p. with hy...

  10. Nurse managed prenatal programs affect outcomes for corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P E; Bitowski, B E; Bell, P L

    1997-09-01

    Faced with higher medical costs and increased insurance premiums, corporations are focusing on health promotion and wellness. With increasing numbers of women in the workforce, corporations have identified the need for prenatal programs. By developing, initiating, and evaluating outcome-based prenatal programs nurses can target the health care needs of this select population. One such program documented several outcomes including improved employee health and an 86% reduction in maternal/newborn costs.

  11. Blood glucose rise following prenatal vitamins in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, S P; Jovanovic-Peterson, L; Peterson, C M

    1993-10-01

    Optimal outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly related to glucose control of the mother. If prenatal vitamins cause a large glycemic excursion, then the best prenatal vitamin would be one that produces the lowest blood glucose. Nine GDM women participated in two, 8-day test periods. Each subject ingested one of six prenatal vitamin-mineral preparations, a placebo, or a sucrose capsule, in random order. Blood glucose was determined by the One Touch System at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. The sucrose capsule contained 1 g sucrose (equivalent to highest glucose/carbohydrate content of any prenatal vitamin). The placebo contained 1 g table salt in the same color capsule. Relative glycemic index (RGI, defined as the area under glucose curve for the test substance divided by the area under glucose curve for 1 g sucrose) and maximum rise of blood glucose above time 0 were calculated for each preparation. RGI was significantly elevated for all vitamins: TRN 3.86, Natalins Rx 3.00, Filibon Forte 2.16, Prenatal Formula 2.10, Materna 1.66, Placebo 1.33, Stuartnatal 1 + 1 1.16. Two thousand mg vitamin C (n = 4) resulted in an RGI of 1.37. In conclusion, ingestion of prenatal vitamins produces a rise in blood glucose greater than that seen following ingestion of sucrose equal to the carbohydrate content of prenatal vitamins. The cause of the blood glucose rise is not known, but it would appear prudent to prescribe a prenatal vitamin with a low RGI.

  12. People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Seidman

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: People attending metropolitan pulmonary rehabilitation, maintenance exercise classes and support groups had substantial technology engagement, with high device access and use, and good self-rated technology competence. The majority of participants were willing to use telerehabilitation, especially if they were regular users of technology devices. [Seidman Z, McNamara R, Wootton S, Leung R, Spencer L, Dale M, Dennis S, McKeough Z (2017 People attending pulmonary rehabilitation demonstrate a substantial engagement with technology and willingness to use telerehabilitation: a survey. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 175–181

  13. Dacryocystocele on prenatal ultrasonography: diagnosis and postnatal outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Yu Jin; Song, Mi Jin; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kyung Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital and Women' s Healthcare Center, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To report the incidence of dacryocystoceles detected by prenatal ultrasonography (US) and their postnatal outcomes and to determine the factors associated with the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles at birth. We retrospectively reviewed the prenatal US database at our institution for the period between January 2012 and December 2013. The medical records of women who had fetuses diagnosed with dacryocystocel larger than 5 mm were reviewed for maternal age, gestational age (GA) at detection, size and side of the dacryocystoceles, delivery, and postnatal information, such as GA at delivery, delivery mode, and gender of the neonate. A total of 49 singletons were diagnosed with a dacryocystocele on prenatal US, yielding an overall incidence of 0.43%. The incidence of dacryocystoceles was the highest at the GA of 27 weeks and decreased toward term. Of the 49 fetuses including three of undeter mined gender, 25 (54%) were female. The mean GA at first detection was 31.2 weeks. The dacryocystocele was unilateral in 29 cases, with a mean maximum diameter of 7 mm. Spontaneous resolution at birth was documented in 35 out of 46 neonates (76%), including six with prenatal resolution. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that GA at delivery was a significant predictor of the postnatal persistence of dacryocystoceles (P=0.045). The overall incidence of prenatal dacryocystoceles was 0.43%; the incidence was higher in the early third trimester and decreased thereafter. Prenatal dacryocystoceles resolved in 76% of the patients at birth, and the GA at delivery was a significant predictor of postnatal persistence.

  14. A national perspective on prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Victoria; Alston, Charlotte L; Blakely, Emma L; Fratter, Carl; Feeney, Catherine L; Poulton, Joanna; Brown, Garry K; Turnbull, Doug M; Taylor, Robert W; McFarland, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial diseases affect >1 in 7500 live births and may be due to mutations in either mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or nuclear DNA (nDNA). Genetic counselling for families with mitochondrial diseases, especially those due to mtDNA mutations, provides unique and difficult challenges particularly in relation to disease transmission and prevention. We have experienced an increasing demand for prenatal diagnostic testing from families affected by mitochondrial disease since we first offered this service in 2007. We review the diagnostic records of the 62 prenatal samples (17 mtDNA and 45 nDNA) analysed since 2007, the reasons for testing, mutation investigated and the clinical outcome. Our findings indicate that prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease is reliable and informative for the nuclear and selected mtDNA mutations we have tested. Where available, the results of mtDNA heteroplasmy analyses from other family members are helpful in interpreting the prenatal mtDNA test result. This is particularly important when the mutation is rare or the mtDNA heteroplasmy is observed at intermediate levels. At least 11 cases of mitochondrial disease were prevented following prenatal testing, 3 of which were mtDNA disease. On the basis of our results, we believe that prenatal testing for mitochondrial disease is an important option for couples where appropriate genetic analyses and pre/post-test counselling can be provided.

  15. [Fetal ocular anomalies: the advantages of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond-Gignac, D; Copin, H; Elmaleh, M; Milazzo, S

    2010-05-01

    Congenital ocular malformations are uncommon and require prenatal diagnosis. Severe anomalies are more often detected by trained teams and minor anomalies are more difficult to identify and must be systematically sought, particularly when multiple malformations or a family and maternal history is known. The prenatal diagnosis-imaging tool most commonly used is ultrasound but it can be completed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which contributes crucial information. Fetal dysmorphism can occur in various types of dysfunction and prenatal diagnosis must recognize fetal ocular anomalies. After systematic morphologic ultrasound imaging, different abnormalities detected by MRI are studied. Classical parameters such as binocular and interorbital measurements are used to detect hypotelorism and hypertelorism. Prenatal ocular anomalies such as cataract microphthalmia, anophthalmia, and coloboma have been described. Fetal MRI added to prenatal sonography is essential in detecting cerebral and general anomalies and can give more information on the size and morphology of the eyeball. Fetal abnormality detection includes a detailed family and maternal history, an amniotic fluid sample for karyotype, and other analyses for a better understanding of the images. Each pregnancy must be discussed with all specialists for genetic counseling. With severe malformations, termination of pregnancy is proposed because of risk of blindness and associated cerebral or systemic anomalies. Early prenatal diagnosis of ocular malformations can also detect associated abnormalities, taking congenital cataracts that need surgical treatment into account as early as possible. Finally, various associated syndromes need a pediatric check-up that could lead to emergency treatment.

  16. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V; Kleinveld, Johanna H; Dondorp, Wybo J; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L; Lachmeijer, Augusta M A; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-12-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherlands). Five focus groups with low-risk pregnant women (n=28), three focus groups with men (n=19) and 13 interviews with high- and low-risk pregnant women were conducted. Participants felt that current prenatal screening has great disadvantages such as uncertain results and risk of miscarriage from follow-up diagnostics. Characteristics of NIPT (accurate, safe and early testing) could therefore diminish these disadvantages of prenatal screening and help lower the barrier for participation. This suggests that NIPT might allow couples to decide about prenatal testing based mostly on their will to test or not, rather than largely based on fear of miscarriage risk or the uncertainty of results. The lower barrier for participation was also seen as a downside that could lead to uncritical use or pressure to test. Widening the scope of prenatal testing was seen as beneficial for severe disorders, although it was perceived difficult to determine where to draw the line. Participants argued that there should be a limit to the scope of NIPT, avoiding testing for minor abnormalities. The findings suggest that NIPT could enable more meaningful decision-making for prenatal screening. However, to ensure voluntary participation, especially when testing for multiple disorders, safeguards on the basis of informed decision-making will be of utmost importance.

  17. Teachers in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  18. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  19. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes

  20. The childbirth and breastfeeding experiences of primigravidas who attended childbirth education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana du Plessis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge brings with it power, confidence and courage. It is important to prepare for childbirth not only physically, but also emotionally and psychologically. Opsomming Kennis gaan gepaard met mag, selfvertroue en dapperheid. Dit is dus belangrik om nie net fisiek nie, maar ook emosioneel en sielkundig op die bevalling voor te berei. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. Who Attends Summer Credit Recovery Classes, and Who Benefits from Doing So?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Stachel, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This current paper uses data collected as part of an efficacy trial funded by a grant from the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) National Center for Education Research (NCER) (See Symposium Justification and Paper #1 for a more complete description of the focus of the broader study). Since participation in the study was voluntary, students…

  2. Evaluation of the empathic skills of nursing students with respect to the classes they are attending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursan Çınar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out, as a descriptive and comparative one, with the aim of evaluating the empathic skills of the students of the Nursing Department of Sakarya University School of Health Sciences. The universe of the study comprised 139 students . The sampling comprised 104 students who had been able to take part in the study. As the means of data collecting, a 22-question survey form and the ‘Empathic Skill Scale B-Form’ which Dökmen (1988 had put into application by testing the validity and reliability for our country. In the evaluation, percentage, Students ‘t’ Test, Mann-Whitney U Test were employed.The average of the empathic skill points of the students included in the study was found to be 139.45 ± 20.47. According to the results of our study, scores of empathic skill of Grade I students are higher comparing to Grade II and III students. This case may depend on the fact that the communication lessons are more intensive in this grade. Again, increasing of empathic skill points in Grade IV made us think that the application opportunities of psychiatric nursing lessons taken in this grade had been effective on the development of empathic skills of students.

  3. Reasons for disclosure of gender to pregnant women during prenatal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukar-ud-din S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Shukar-ud-din,1 Fareeha Ubaid,2 Erum Shahani,1 Farah Saleh21Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II, Dow University Hospital, Karachi; 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sindh Government Hospital, Korangi, Karachi, PakistanBackground: The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of women who want to know fetal gender on antenatal ultrasonography and the reasons behind this.Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out between March 10, 2012 and September 10, 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals (Dow University Hospital, Ojha Campus, and Lady Dufferin Hospital in Karachi. In total, 223 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and gave their consent were included in the study. Information was collected on a predesigned questionnaire.Results: Of the 223 pregnant women, 109 (49.1% were younger than 25 years. The majority (216, 96.9% were Muslim, 164 (73.4% were educated to different levels, 121 (54.3% spoke Urdu, and 66 (29.6% were primigravidas. Thirty-four (15.2% women had a preference for a male child, 24 (10.8% had a female preference, and 165 (74% had no preference. Seventy (31.4% women were interested to know the fetal gender. The association between education and gender preference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.004 and also that between age and gender preference (P = 0.05, but no relationship was found between gender preference and gender of previous babies (P = 0.317 for males and P = 0.451 for females. Association of ethnicity was also not statistically significant (P = 0.102.Conclusion: This study revealed that 31.4% of women were interested in disclosure of gender on prenatal ultrasonography and only15.2% women had a preference for a male child.Keywords: gender determination, prenatal ultrasonography, Pakistan

  4. Algorithm for Efficient Attendance management: Face Recognition based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Khan Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Students attendance in the classroom is very important task and if taken manually wastes a lot of time. There are many automatic methods available for this purpose i.e. biometric attendance. All these methods also waste time because students have to make a queue to touch their thumb on the scanning device. This work describes the efficient algorithm that automatically marks the attendance without human intervention. This attendance is recorded by using a camera attached in front of classroom that is continuously capturing images of students, detect the faces in images and compare the detected faces with the database and mark the attendance. The paper review the related work in the field of attendance system then describes the system architecture, software algorithm and results.

  5. Finding Connections: Using Accounting Concepts in a Career Planning Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, the most common challenge for students is the ability to find a connection between one subject that they have learned and another subject. Thus, students' learning becomes compartmentalized and piecemeal. For instance, accounting students may find attending a drawing class boring and a waste of time. Science students may…

  6. Student-Centered Teaching in Large Classes with Limited Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Susan; Tannenbaum, Elizabeth; Stantial, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The authors shares suggestions for instructors who teach large classes (from 50-80 students) with minimal resources. The challenges of managing the classroom, using pair and group work effectively, and working with limited resources are addressed. The authors suggests ways to take attendance quickly, to reduce written work to grade, to start and…

  7. Is attending lectures still relevant in engineering education?

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, John J.; Cronin, Kevin; Byrne, Edmond P.

    2011-01-01

    A case study was conducted on a group of undergraduate chemical engineering students to assess the relevance of attending lectures from a student perspective and to understand why these students attend and do not attend lectures with a view to developing approaches to teaching, which are of greater interest and benefit to student learning. The students were surveyed by means of a questionnaire-type survey, which collected both quantitative and qualitative data from them. The majority of stude...

  8. Prenatal chemical exposures and child language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwilewski, Kelsey L C; Schantz, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals, both manmade (insulating materials, flame retardants, pesticides) and naturally occurring (e.g., lead, mercury), may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. We focus primarily on a subset of more extensively studied chemicals-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and methyl mercury-for which a reasonable body of literature on neurodevelopmental outcomes is available. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence for other chemicals including polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) and organophosphate pesticides. Very few studies have used specific assessments of language development and function. Therefore, we included discussion of aspects of cognitive development such as overall intellectual functioning and verbal abilities that rely on language, as well as aspects of cognition such as verbal and auditory working memory that are critical underpinnings of language development. A high percentage of prospective birth cohort studies of PCBs, lead, and mercury have reported exposure-related reductions in overall IQ and/or verbal IQ that persist into middle or late childhood. Given these findings, it is important that clinicians and researchers in communication sciences and disorders are aware of the potential for environmental chemicals to impact language development. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence that prenatal and/or early postnatal exposure to certain chemicals may be associated with delays or impairments in language development. Readers will gain an understanding of the literature suggesting that early exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and mercury may be associated with decrements in cognitive domains that depend on language or are critical for language development. We also briefly summarize the smaller body of evidence regarding polybrominated diphenyl

  9. Prevalence of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Patients Attending University of Alberta Emergency Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhadra, Thamer; Preshing, William; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of dental trauma for patients attending the emergency dental clinic at the University of Alberta Hospital between 2006-2009. Patients' examination and treatment charts were reviewed. Total number of patients' charts was 1893.The prevalence of different types of trauma was 6.4 % of the total cases (117 patients). Trauma cases were identified according to Ellis classification and as modified by Holland et al., 1988. Logistic statistical model showed that 21.7% were Ellis class I trauma, 16.7% were Ellis class II trauma, and 6.7% were Ellis class III. In addition, 11.7 % presented with avulsion, 7.5 % presented with dentoalveolar fracture and 7.5% presented with sublaxation. Also, 17.55 % presented with tooth displacement within the alveolar bone, 3.3 % presented with crown fracture with no pulp involvement, 4.16 % presented with crown fracture with pulp involvement and 3.3 % presented with root fracture. In conclusion, the general prevalence of dentoalveolar trauma in patients attending the emergency clinic at the University of Alberta is less than other reported percentages in Canada or other countries.

  10. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; K. Santhanakrishnan; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e....

  11. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide......Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  12. Better utilization of traditional birth attendants (hilots) in the delivery of maternal-child health services in Philippine rural communities: a pilot project (1971-72).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mundo, F; Echevarra, R; Leuterio, L; Sarcia, S

    1972-12-01

    In the Philippines, where rapid population growth strains the health facilities, there were 8866 traditional birth attendants, hilots, in 1971. In 1970 a study of 142 hilots was conducted to train them in a 5-day course in pregnancy care and evaluate their effectiveness in Marinduque province, a rural, lower socioeconomic area. The age of the hilots ranged from 25-76; 78.2% women, 21.8% men. In the attendance of parturients hilots ranked first above midwives and nurses; 69.30% of deliveries were attended by hilots. 97.4% births occur in homes. 65.5% of the hilots were aware of the use of rural health physicians as backup help available to them. 3-4 children was the desired family size among hilots. The hilots were amenable and receptive to updating their training. The course in maternal child care with family planning was well received. The hilots were convinced of the need for early prenatal care. Since their training, the hilots have organized barrio meetings on family planning and offered to distribute pamphlets and handouts. The trained hilots send mothers they have favorably motivated to Family Planning Clinics. No tangible statistics regarding the effects on the community were available but traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in the delivery of health care services.

  13. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  14. 25 LIPID PROFILE OF ADULT NIGERIANS ATTENDING MEDICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-01

    Dec 1, 2010 ... *Department of Family Medicine, Baptist Medical Centre (now Bowen University. Teaching Hospital) ... Background: Economic development ... abdominal obesity among adults attending the ... prevalence of abdominal obesity.

  15. Perceptions about prenatal care: views of urban vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Barbara

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, infant mortality rates remain more than twice as high for African Americans as compared to other racial groups. Lack of adherence to prenatal care schedules in vulnerable, hard to reach, urban, poor women is associated with high infant mortality, particularly for women who abuse substances, are homeless, or live in communities having high poverty and high infant mortality. This issue is of concern to the women, their partners, and members of their communities. Because they are not part of the system, these womens' views are often not included in other studies. Methods This qualitative study used focus groups with four distinct categories of people, to collect observations about prenatal care from various perspectives. The 169 subjects included homeless women; women with current or history of substance abuse; significant others of homeless women; and residents of a community with high infant mortality and poverty indices, and low incidence of adequate prenatal care. A process of coding and recoding using Ethnograph and counting ensured reliability and validity of the process of theme identification. Results Barriers and motivators to prenatal care were identified in focus groups. Pervasive issues identified were drug lifestyle, negative attitudes of health care providers and staff, and non-inclusion of male partners in the prenatal experience. Conclusions Designing prenatal care relevant to vulnerable women in urban communities takes creativity, thoughtfulness, and sensitivity. System changes recommended include increased attention to substance abuse treatment/prenatal care interaction, focus on provider/staff attitudes, and commitment to inclusion of male partners.

  16. Quality of Prenatal Care Services in Karabuk Community Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of prenatal care services according to gestastional week in Karabuk Community Health Center (CHC. Methods: In this descriptive study 365 pregnant women was selected as sample among 753 pregnant women registered at Karabuk CHC in 18/01/2011. 93.0% of women in the selected sample has been visited in their homes and the face to face interviews were done. The questionnaire was prepared according to Prenatal Care Management Guidelines (PCMG of Ministry of Health. Findings The number of follow-ups was not complete in 23.7% of 15-24 month, 34.4% of 25-32 month, 52,1% of 33-42 month pregnant women. At least four follow-up visits were completed only in 66,7% of postpartum women. Timing of first visit was after 15th week in 15,6% of women. In follow up visits 62.5% of of women’s height were never measured, in 13,0% the women hearth sound of infants didn’t monitored at least once. Laboratory test numbers were under the level required by PCMG. The delivery conditions weren’t planned in 41,8% of last trimester and postpartum women and training about breastfeeding wasn’t given to 15,5 of the same group. Result In family medicine model in Karabuk CHC developments in number of prenatal follow-up visits were observed, but no substantial improvements were found in quality of prenatal visits. Regular in service trainings shoud be given to family doctors and midwives. The use of prenatal care guideline published by MoH should be increased. Keywords: Prenatal care, pregnancy, timing of first visit, qality of prenatal care [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 153-162

  17. Prenatal psychosocial risk assessment using event history calendars with Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle L; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Lori, Jody R; Martyn, Kristy K

    2012-01-01

    To explore the clinical acceptability and perceptions of use of a prenatal event history calendar (EHC) for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment in Black pregnant women. A qualitative descriptive study focused on interviews and prenatal EHCs completed by Black pregnant women. Inner city hospital prenatal care clinic in Southeastern Michigan. Thirty 18-35 year old pregnant Black women receiving prenatal care at the participating clinic. Women completed the prenatal EHCs and their perceptions of its use were obtained through face to face interviews. The constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) revealed themes from participants' descriptions about use of a prenatal EHC for prenatal psychosocial risk assessment. Three main themes emerged describing how the prenatal EHC enhanced communication. The prenatal EHC provided "an opening" for disclosure, "an understanding with you," and a way for providers to "know you, your life, and future plans." The participants' completed prenatal EHCs included information regarding their pre-pregnancies, trimester histories, and future plans. These completed prenatal EHCs showed patterns of change in life events and behaviors that included worries, stressors, and risk behaviors. The participants perceived the prenatal EHC as an easy to use tool that should be used to improve communication with health care providers. The prenatal EHC allows the patient and provider to "start on the same page" and provides an additional avenue for discussion of sensitive psychosocial issues with Black pregnant women. As a clinical tool, the prenatal EHC facilitated patient-provider communication for pregnant women often marked by health disparities. The prenatal EHC is a clinically acceptable tool to assess for psychosocial risk factors of Black women in a prenatal clinical setting. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Wekesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

  19. Perceptual organization at attended and unattended locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Shihui; Glyn; W.; Humphreys

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of attention on forming perceptual units by proximity grouping and by uniform connectedness (UC). In Experiment 1 a row of three global letters defined by either proximity or UC was presented at the center of the visual field. Participants were asked to identify the letter in the middle of stimulus arrays while ignoring the flankers. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between stimulus arrays and masks varied between 180 and 500 ms. We found that responses to targets defined by proximity grouping were slower than to those defined by UC at median SOAs but there were no differences at short or long SOAs. Incongruent flankers slowed responses to targets and this flanker compatibility effect was larger for UC than for proximity-defined flankers. Experiment 2 examined the effects of spatial precueing on discrimination responses to proximity- and UC-defined targets. The advantage for targets defined by UC over targets defined by proximity grouping was greater at uncued relative to cued locations. The results suggest that the advantage for UC over proximity grouping in forming perceptual units is contingent on the stimuli not being fully attended, and that paying attention to the stimuli differentially benefits proximity grouping.

  20. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Prenatal radiation exposure policy: A labor arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.J. (New York Power Authority, White Plains (USA))

    1990-07-01

    A policy on prenatal radiation exposure at two nuclear power plants was revised to give better assurance of compliance with NCRP recommendations on fetal radiation exposure. This action was taken after publication of NCRP 91 in June 1987 to provide better assurance that a total dose equivalent limit to an embryo-fetus be no greater than 0.5 mSv (0.05 rem) in any month and no more than 5 mSv (500 mrem) for a gestation period. For any female worker to receive radiation exposure greater than 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) in a month at these nuclear power plants, she was asked to initiate an administrative request for radiation exposure in excess of this limit. In this request, she was asked to acknowledge that she was aware of the guidance in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13. A worker who had the potential for radiation exposure in excess of 1.5 mSv (0.15 rem) refused to process this request and was consequently denied overtime work. She filed a grievance for denial of overtime, and this grievance was submitted for labor arbitration in June 1988. The arbitration decision and its basis and related NRC actions are discussed.

  2. Transcriptional landscape of the prenatal human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Ebbert, Amanda; Riley, Zackery L; Royall, Joshua J; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James M; Bennet, Crissa; Bertagnolli, Darren; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cuhaciyan, Christine; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Dolbeare, Tim A; Facer, Benjamin A C; Feng, David; Fliss, Tim P; Gee, Garrett; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Benjamin W; Gu, Guangyu; Howard, Robert E; Jochim, Jayson M; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Lemon, Tracy A; Lesnar, Phil; McMurray, Bergen; Mastan, Naveed; Mosqueda, Nerick; Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa; Ngo, Nhan-Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana E; Stevens, Allison; Pletikos, Mihovil; Reding, Melissa; Roll, Kate; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapouri, Sheila; Shapovalova, Nadiya V; Shen, Elaine H; Sjoquist, Nathan; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Smith, Michael; Sodt, Andy J; Williams, Derric; Zöllei, Lilla; Fischl, Bruce; Gerstein, Mark B; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glass, Ian A; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Huang, Hao; Jones, Allan R; Knowles, James A; Levitt, Pat; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Dang, Chinh; Bernard, Amy; Hohmann, John G; Lein, Ed S

    2014-04-10

    The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.

  3. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level.

  4. The effect of different information sources on the anxiety level of pregnant women who underwent invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Mehmet; Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna; Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Okuducu, Ümmühan; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to explore the effects of age, education, obstetric history and information sources on the (Beck) anxiety levels of pregnant women attending invasive prenatal testing. Questionnaire results from 152 pregnant women are utilized. Results are analyzed through an independent samples t-test and a two-step cluster analysis attempting to categorize patients in terms of the chosen variables. t-Tests reveal that age, education and bad obstetric history do not significantly affect anxiety levels. Descriptive statistics indicate that almost 60% of patients feel anxious mostly because of the fear of receiving bad news, followed by the fear of miscarriage, the fear of pain and the fear of hurting the baby. According to the cluster analysis, patients who use doctors or nurses as information sources have significantly lower anxiety levels, while those who do not receive information from any source have the second lowest level of anxiety. Patients who receive information from personal sources (i.e. friends and family) have the highest level of anxiety. Anxiety levels do not change according to test type. Doctors and nurses should allocate enough time for providing information about prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. This will reduce the anxiety level as well as the felt necessity to search for information from other sources, such as personal or popular which will further increase the level of anxiety.

  5. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders Among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan C.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n=476) with prenatal drug exposures documented by maternal interview, urine and meconium assays. Study participants included 400 African-American children from the birth cohort, 208 cocaine-exposed (CE) and 192 non-cocaine-exposed (NCE) who attended a 5-year follow-up assessment and whose caregiver completed the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Under a generalized linear model (logistic link), Fisher’s exact methods were used to estimate the CE-associated relative risk (RR) of these disorders. Results indicated a modest but statistically robust elevation of ADHD risk associated with increasing levels of PCE (pEstimated cumulative incidence proportions among CE children were 2.9% for ADHD (vs 3.1% NCE); 1.4% for SAD (vs 1.6% NCE); and 4.3% for ODD (vs 6.8% NCE). Findings offer suggestive evidence of increased risk of ADHD (but not ODD or SAD) in relation to an increasing gradient of PCE during gestation.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis and abortion for congenital abnormalities: is it ethical to provide one without the other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Angela; Newson, Ainsley; Luna, Florencia; Ashcroft, Richard

    2009-08-01

    This target article considers the ethical implications of providing prenatal diagnosis (PND) and antenatal screening services to detect fetal abnormalities in jurisdictions that prohibit abortion for these conditions. This unusual health policy context is common in the Latin American region. Congenital conditions are often untreated or under-treated in developing countries due to limited health resources, leading many women/couples to prefer termination of affected pregnancies. Three potential harms derive from the provision of PND in the absence of legal and safe abortion for these conditions: psychological distress, unjust distribution of burdens between socio-economic classes, and financial burdens for families and society. We present Iran as a comparative case study where recognition of these ethical issues has led to the liberalization of abortion laws for fetuses with thalassemia. We argue that physicians, geneticists and policymakers have an ethical and professional duty of care to advocate for change in order to ameliorate these harms.

  7. A prenatal case with discrepant findings between non-invasive prenatal testing and fetal genetic testings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiong; Sun, Baojuan; Huang, Xiaoli; Jing, Xin; Liu, Hailiang; Jiang, Fuman; Zhou, Jie; Lin, Mengmeng; Yue, Hongni; Hu, Ping; Ning, Ying

    2014-01-01

    At 17(+4) week, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results of a 24-years-old mother showed high risk of monosomy X (45, X). Abnormally shaped head and cardiac defects were observed in prenatal ultrasound scan at 19(+3) week. Amniocentesis conducted at 19(+3) week identified karyotype 47, XX, +18, which suggested that the NIPT failed to detect trisomy 18 (T18) in this case. With a further massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of maternal blood, fetal and placental tissues, we found a confined placental mosaicism (CPM) with non-mosaic T18 fetus and multiclonal placenta with high prevalence of 45, X and low level of T18 cells. FISH and SNP-array evidence from the placental tissue confirmed genetic discrepancy between the fetus and placenta. Because the primary source of the fetal cell-free DNA that NIPT assesses is mostly originated from trophoblast cells, the level of T18 placental mosaicism may cause false negative NIPT result in this rare case of double aneuploidy.

  8. Use of a portable system with ultrasound and blood tests to improve prenatal controls in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispín Milart, Patricia Hanna; Diaz Molina, César Augusto; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio; Martínez-Fernández, Andrés

    2016-09-13

    Maternal and neonatal mortality figures remain unacceptably high worldwide and new approaches are required to address this problem. This paper evaluates the impact on maternal and neonatal mortality of a pregnancy care package for rural areas of developing countries with portable ultrasound and blood/urine tests. An observational study was conducted, with intervention and control groups not randomly assigned. Rural areas of the districts of Senahu, Campur and Carcha, in Alta Verapaz Department (Guatemala). The control group is composed by 747 pregnant women attended by the community facilitator, which is the common practice in rural Guatemala. The intervention group is composed by 762 pregnant women attended under the innovative Healthy Pregnancy project. That project strengthens the local prenatal care program, providing local nurses training, portable ultrasound equipment and blood and urine tests. The information of each pregnancy is registered in a medical exchange tool, and is later reviewed by a gynecology specialist to ensure a correct diagnosis and improve nurses training. No maternal deaths were reported within the intervention group, versus five cases in the control group. Regarding neonatal deaths, official data revealed a 64 % reduction for neonatal mortality. A 37 % prevalence of anemia was detected. Non-urgent referral was recommended to 70 pregnancies, being fetal malpresentation the main reported cause. Impact data on maternal mortality (reduction to zero) and neonatal mortality (NMR was reduced to 36 %) are encouraging, although we are aware of the limitations of the study related to possible biasing and the small sample size. The major reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality provides promising prospects for these low-cost diagnostic procedures, which allow to provide high quality prenatal care in isolated rural communities of developing countries. This research was not registered because it is an observational study where the assignment of

  9. Hidronefrosis prenatal en doble sistema excretor Prenatal hydronephrosis in double excretory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandalio Durán Álvarez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción del ultrasonido materno-fetal en el seguimiento sistemático del embarazo normal se detectan anomalías congénitas en el 1 % de los fetos, el 20 % de las cuales corresponden al tracto urinario. Se realizó el estudio de recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis prenatal, cuyos ultrasonidos materno-fetales demostraron la presencia de un doble sistema excretor. Para este propósito todos los recién nacidos y lactantes con hidronefrosis detectada prenatalmente, y doble sistema excretor diagnosticado antes o después del nacimiento, fueron seguidos mediante ultrasonografía renal evolutiva, uretrocistografía miccional, gammagrafía estática o dinámica y, en algunos casos, mediante urograma excretor. Hallamos doble sistema excretor en 7 de los 182 pacientes (3,8 % con anormalidades del tracto urinario diagnosticadas antes del nacimiento. El diagnóstico fue prenatal solo en uno de los fetos (31 semanas de embarazo. La dilatación hidronefrótica fue ligera en dos fetos y grave en cinco. La hidronefrosis obedeció a diferentes causas. Se realizó nefrectomía polar superior en los casos de ectopia ureteral y de uréter superior obstruido, reimplantación en un ureterocele, y en otro se comprobó la ruptura espontánea mediante endoscopia. Los restantes pacientes se trataron sintomáticamente. La hidronefrosis detectada antes del nacimiento mediante ultrasonografía materno-fetal puede estar asociada a un doble sistema excretor. La dilatación hidronefrótica asociada a un doble sistema puede deberse a diferentes causas, y es necesario estudiar cuidadosa y sistemáticamente a estos niños y tratarlos adecuadamente, porque cada uno puede necesitar una conducta diferente.With the introduction of the maternofetal ultrasound in the systematic follow-up of normal pregnancy, congenital anomalies are detected in 1 % of the fetuses, 20 % of which correspond to the urinary tract. The newborns and infants with prenatal

  10. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in

  11. Risk factors for inadequate prenatal care use in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil...

  12. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?.......Does prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have long-term effects on female reproductive function?....

  13. Women's and healthcare professionals' preferences for prenatal testing: a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Groenewoud, H.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates pregnant women's and healthcare professionals' preferences regarding specific prenatal screening and diagnostic test characteristics. METHOD: A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess preferences for prenatal tests that differed in seven attributes: minimal

  14. Short Bi-Iliac Distance in Prenatal Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Ulla B.; Hansen, Birgit Fischer; Keeling, Jean W.;

    2002-01-01

    prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography......prenatal; Ullrich-Turner syndrome; pelvis; iliac bone; vertebral column; X chromosome; anthropometry; radiography...

  15. Prenatal hormones alter antioxidant enzymes and lung histology in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. IJsselstijn (Hanneke); B.A. Pacheco; A. Albert; W. Sluiter (Wim); P.K. Donahoe; J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.J. Schnitzer; D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal administration of dexamethasone (Dex) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) synergistically enhances lung maturity, but TRH suppresses the antioxidant enzyme activity. Prenatal hormonal therapy improves alveolar surfactant content and lung compliance in rat

  16. Statistical Methods for the Evaluation of Health Effects of Prenatal Mercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe;

    2002-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose......Environmental epidemiology; Structural equation; Exposure measurement error; multiple endpoints; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; Exposure standards; Benchmark dose...

  17. Pallister-Killian syndrome: difficulties of prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Bérénice; Girard-Lemaire, Françoise; Gasser, Bernard; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; De Geeter, Bernard; Spizzo, Michèle; Zeidan, Charles; Flori, Elisabeth

    2002-06-01

    The first prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) was reported by Gilgenkrantz et al. in1985. Since this report, about 60 prenatal cases have been reported but both sonographic and cytogenetic diagnoses remain difficult. Although ultrasound anomalies such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, polyhydramnios and rhizomelic micromelia in association with fetal overgrowth are very suggestive of the syndrome, they are inconstant and they may even be absent. The mosaic distribution of the supernumerary isochromosome 12p greatly increases these difficulties. No prenatal cytogenetic technique is sensitive enough to ensure prenatal diagnosis and false-negative results have been described on fetal blood, chorionic villi and amniocentesis. We report here two prenatal cases of PKS which illustrate the great variability of the fetal phenotype. In reviewing the 63 reported cases, we attempt to determine ultrasound indicators of the syndrome and to define a cytogenetic strategy. In cases where ultrasound indicators are present, our proposal is first to perform chorionic villus or placental sampling and then amniocentesis when the first cytogenetic result is normal. Fetal blood sampling is the least indicated method because of the low frequency of the isochromosome in lymphocytes. In this cytogenetic strategy, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and especially interphase FISH on non-cultured cells increases the probability or identifying the isochromosome. A misdiagnosis remains possible when ultrasound is not contributory; the identification of new discriminating ultrasound indicators would be very helpful in this context.

  18. Factors Influencing the Use of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.

  19. Determinants of inadequate prenatal care utilization by African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Allan A; Hatcher, Barbara J; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil; Milligan, Renee A; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret F; Richards, Leslie; Wingrove, Barbara K; Laryea, Haziel A

    2007-08-01

    A convenience sample of city-dwelling African American women (n=246) was interviewed during each woman's postpartum stay at one of five hospitals in Washington, D.C. to determine their perceptions of factors influencing their prenatal care utilization. The Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to classify prenatal care utilization as either adequate (Adequate Plus and Adequate groups combined) or inadequate (Intermediate and Inadequate groups combined). Of the 246 women studied, 40% (99) had adequate prenatal care utilization. Using Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the following risk groups for inadequate prenatal care utilization were identified: women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers and who were not participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) (percent adequate=8.8); women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers, were participants of the WIC program, and reported substance use (percent adequate=13.8); and women who reported psychosocial problems as barriers, were participants of the WIC program, denied substance use, and reported childcare problems as barriers (percent adequate=20.0).

  20. The results of cytogenetic analyses in prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Privrodski Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. G-banding and other classical cytogenetic methods are still in use, together with molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and SKY (Spectral Karyotyping. Material and methods. This retrospective study evaluated clinical data on individuaols seeking genetic counseling over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 at the Medical Genetic Center, Child and Youth Health Care Institute of Vojvodina in Novi Sad. The study included 37.191 genetic counselings, and 20.607 prenatal analyses (amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Results Over a 15-year period (1992 - 2007 17.937 amniotic fluid samples were analyzed and 274 abnormal karyotypes were found; out of 2.670 fetal blood samples, there were 78 abnormal karyotypes. During a 15-year period, prenatal diagnosis, using amniocentesis and/or cordocentesis, showed 352 fetuses with chromosomal aberrations. Discussion. On average, over the past 15-year period, 8% of pregnancies were controlled with invasive prenatal procedures. The percentage has changed; in fact, it is increasing from year to year. In 1992, only 0.82% (N=139/17000 of pregnant women in Vojvodina underwent invasive prenatal procedures, and in 2006 the rate increased to 15.65% (N=2660/17000. Conclusion. It is necessary to improve and promote the possibilities of genetic counseling and invasive prenatal diagnosis in order to prevent the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and other genetic diseases.