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Sample records for premutational lesions induced

  1. No interaction between X-ray induced lesions in maternal and paternal chromosomes in inseminated eggs of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuergler, F.E.; Graf, U.; Jeanneret, P.

    1978-01-01

    X-ray induced premutational lesions persist in mature gametes of drosophila until fertilization. Repairable lesions in sperm and oocyte chromosomes are repaired exclusively by maternal repair systems in the inseminated egg. Interactions between irradiated genomes in inseminated eggs might result in additional lethality if breaks induced in separate nuclei, which would normally be repaired, could interact to form dicentric chromosomes. Adult drosophila flies were X-irradiated (up to 5 kR), individual females crossed to three or four males, and the dose-response curves for dominant lethals (embryonic lethality) compared. The results indicate thet the potentially lethal damage present in irradiated sperm chromosomes was expressed independently of whether or not the oocyte was also irradiated. There were no (or only very few) interactions between maternal and paternal chromosome complements, and the maternal repair systems acting on radiation-induced chromosome breaks in sperm were resistant to X-rays. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation-induced lesions of the aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doessing, M; Rasmussen, S [Medical Department C, Diakonissestiftelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fischer-Hansen, B; Walbom-Joergensen, S

    1977-04-09

    A description is given of pathological changes detected in the aortic arch of a 21-year-old man. The patient died from an acute myocardial infarction 16 months after a dose of 3696 rads to a mantle field for Hodgkin's disease confined to the midcervical lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Histological examination of the exposed part of the aortic arch showed the wall to be focally thickened owing to a pronounced fibrosis of the luminal third of the wall. The elastic lamellae in this area were reduced in number, broken up, and haphazardly arranged. The intima appeared normal. There was no leucocytic infiltration, no proliferation of vasa vasorum and no significant adventitial fibrosis. It is suggested that these noncharacteristic changes may have been early radiation-induced lesions which later might induce fibrotic scarring with perhaps clinically evident disease.

  3. Phenobarbital use and neurological problems in FMR1 premutation carriers.

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    Saldarriaga, Wilmar; Lein, Pamela; González Teshima, Laura Yuriko; Isaza, Carolina; Rosa, Lina; Polyak, Andrew; Hagerman, Randi; Girirajan, Santhosh; Silva, Marisol; Tassone, Flora

    2016-03-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene located at Xq27.3. Patients with the premutation in FMR1 present specific clinical problems associated with the number of CGG repeats (55-200 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers have elevated FMR1 mRNA expression levels, which have been associated with neurotoxicity potentially causing neurodevelopmental problems or neurological problems associated with aging. However, cognitive impairments or neurological problems may also be related to increased vulnerability of premutation carriers to neurotoxicants, including phenobarbital. Here we present a study of three sisters with the premutation who were exposed differentially to phenobarbital therapy throughout their lives, allowing us to compare the neurological effects of this drug in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers Show Age- and Genetically-Modulated Cognitive Impairments

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    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Wong, Ling M.; McLennan, Yingratana; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Harvey, Danielle; Rivera, Susan M.; Simon, Tony J.

    2011-01-01

    The high frequency of the fragile X premutation in the general population and its emerging neurocognitive implications highlight the need to investigate the effects of the premutation on lifespan cognitive development. Until recently, cognitive function in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) was presumed to be unaffected by the mutation. Here…

  5. Fragile X premutation carriers: A systematic review of neuroimaging findings.

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    Brown, Stephanie S G; Stanfield, Andrew C

    2015-05-15

    Expansion of the CGG repeat region of the FMR1 gene from less than 45 repeats to between 55 and 200 repeats is known as the fragile X premutation. Carriers of the fragile X premutation may develop a neurodegenerative disease called fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Recent evidence suggests that premutation carriers experience other psychiatric difficulties throughout their lifespan. Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO were searched for all appropriate English language studies published between January 1990 and December 2013. 419 potentially relevant articles were identified and screened. 19 articles were included in the analysis. We discuss key structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings such as the MCP sign and white matter atrophy. Additionally, we discuss how functional MRI results have progressed our knowledge of how FXTAS may manifest, including reduced brain activation during social and memory tasks in multiple regions. This systematic review may have been limited by the search for articles on just 3 scientific databases. Differing techniques and methods of analyses between research groups and primary research articles may have caused differences in results between studies. Current MRI studies into the fragile X premutation have been important in the diagnosis of FXTAS and identifying potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Associations with blood based measures have also demonstrated that neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative aspects of the fragile X premutation could be functionally and pathologically separate. Larger longitudinal studies will be required to investigate these conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced intestinal lesions. Prognosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haecke, P.; Vitaux, J.; Michot, F.; Hay, J.-M.; Flamant, Y.; Maillard, J.-N.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients with intestinal lesions consecutive to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus were operated upon between 1973 and 1979. The small bowel was involved in 9 patients and the colon and rectum in 4 patients. Urinary tract lesions were associated in 3 patients of each group. Intestinal necrosis, progression of the lesions and extensive pelvic fibrosis were the only criteria of poor prognosis. Twenty-two operations were performed: 4 for urinary tract lesions and 18 for intestinal lesions. Five patients died during the immediate post-operative period and five died within 2 to 30 months after surgery, including 4 whose carcinoma recurred. The operative technique should be selected according to the extent and severity of radiation-induced damage, as determined by pre-operative examination and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity once opened. Limited lesions of the small bowel can be treated by resection, but intestinal bypass with latero-lateral anastomosis seems to be preferable in cases with extensive lesions. Patients with colorectal lesions should have defunctioning colostomy prior to any other procedure dictated by the state of affairs. Multiple anastomosis, extensive resections and excessive dissections should be avoided [fr

  7. Photothermal lesions in soft tissue induced by optical fiber microheaters.

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    Pimentel-Domínguez, Reinher; Moreno-Álvarez, Paola; Hautefeuille, Mathieu; Chavarría, Anahí; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Photothermal therapy has shown to be a promising technique for local treatment of tumors. However, the main challenge for this technique is the availability of localized heat sources to minimize thermal damage in the surrounding healthy tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber microheaters for inducing thermal lesions in soft tissue. The proposed devices incorporate carbon nanotubes or gold nanolayers on the tips of optical fibers for enhanced photothermal effects and heating of ex vivo biological tissues. We report preliminary results of small size photothermal lesions induced on mice liver tissues. The morphology of the resulting lesions shows that optical fiber microheaters may render useful for delivering highly localized heat for photothermal therapy.

  8. Radiation-induced vascular lesions of the skin: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flucke, U.E.; Requena, L.; Mentzel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced cutaneous vascular neoplasms occur infrequently and comprise benign, so-called atypical vascular lesions (AVL) and angiosarcomas (AS), often being high-grade malignant tumors. Both arise most frequently within previously irradiated skin in breast-conserving-treated mammary cancer

  9. Inducible DNA-repair systems in yeast: competition for lesions.

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    Mitchel, R E; Morrison, D P

    1987-03-01

    DNA lesions may be recognized and repaired by more than one DNA-repair process. If two repair systems with different error frequencies have overlapping lesion specificity and one or both is inducible, the resulting variable competition for the lesions can change the biological consequences of these lesions. This concept was demonstrated by observing mutation in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to combinations of mutagens under conditions which influenced the induction of error-free recombinational repair or error-prone repair. Total mutation frequency was reduced in a manner proportional to the dose of 60Co-gamma- or 254 nm UV radiation delivered prior to or subsequent to an MNNG exposure. Suppression was greater per unit radiation dose in cells gamma-irradiated in O2 as compared to N2. A rad3 (excision-repair) mutant gave results similar to wild-type but mutation in a rad52 (rec-) mutant exposed to MNNG was not suppressed by radiation. Protein-synthesis inhibition with heat shock or cycloheximide indicated that it was the mutation due to MNNG and not that due to radiation which had changed. These results indicate that MNNG lesions are recognized by both the recombinational repair system and the inducible error-prone system, but that gamma-radiation induction of error-free recombinational repair resulted in increased competition for the lesions, thereby reducing mutation. Similarly, gamma-radiation exposure resulted in a radiation dose-dependent reduction in mutation due to MNU, EMS, ENU and 8-MOP + UVA, but no reduction in mutation due to MMS. These results suggest that the number of mutational MMS lesions recognizable by the recombinational repair system must be very small relative to those produced by the other agents. MNNG induction of the inducible error-prone systems however, did not alter mutation frequencies due to ENU or MMS exposure but, in contrast to radiation, increased the mutagenic effectiveness of EMS. These experiments demonstrate

  10. Long term verbal memory recall deficits in fragile X premutation females.

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    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim; Fielding, Joanne

    2017-10-01

    Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also report verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts. Here we employed the CVLT to assess verbal learning and memory function in 19 female premutation carriers, contrasting performance with 19 age- and IQ-matched controls. Group comparisons revealed similar performance during the learning and short delay recall phases of the CVLT. However, after a long delay period, female premutation carriers remembered fewer words for both free and cued recall trials, but not during recognition trials. These findings are consistent with reports for male premutation carriers, and suggest that aspects of long term memory may be adversely affect in a subgroup of premutation carriers with signs of executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dopamine transporter imaging study in parkinsonism occurring in fragile X premutation carriers.

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    Ceravolo, R; Antonini, A; Volterrani, D; Rossi, C; Goldwurm, S; Di Maria, E; Kiferle, L; Bonuccelli, U; Murri, L

    2005-12-27

    The authors studied four patients with parkinsonism carrying the fragile X premutation using SPECT with ([23)I]FP-CIT. They found evidence of preserved presynaptic nigrostriatal function, suggesting that parkinsonism in the X fragile premutation might be related to postsynaptic dopaminergic changes or different neurotransmitter alterations.

  12. Selective Spatial Processing Deficits in an At-Risk Subgroup of the Fragile X Premutation

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    Hocking, Darren R.; Kogan, Cary S.; Cornish, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    Until a decade ago, it was assumed that males with the fragile X premutation were unaffected by any cognitive phenotype. Here we examined the extent to which CGG repeat toxicity extends to visuospatial functioning in male fragile X premutation carriers who are asymptomatic for a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated…

  13. A Correlative Study of Smokeless Tobacco induced Lesion and Smoke-induced Leukoplakia in Various Aspects

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    Parita K Chitroda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various oral mucosal lesions are attributed to tobacco use. The presence of these conditions vanes with particular type of tobacco used (smoking or smokeless and the form in which it is used, such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars and chewing moist snuff. The frequency and duration of use as well as the ways in which the tobacco product is used also contributes to the clinical presentation and seventy of the lesion. The present study is mainly focused on the correlation between the smokeless tobacco-induced lesion and smoke-induced leukoplakia on various aspects with an objective to determine smokeless tobacco as a possible cause for leukoplakia.

  14. Expanded clinical phenotype of women with the FMR1 premutation.

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    Coffey, Sarah M; Cook, Kylee; Tartaglia, Nicole; Tassone, Flora; Nguyen, Danh V; Pan, Ruiqin; Bronsky, Hannah E; Yuhas, Jennifer; Borodyanskaya, Mariya; Grigsby, Jim; Doerflinger, Melanie; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J

    2008-04-15

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is generally considered to be uncommon in older female carriers of premutation alleles (55-200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene; however, neither prevalence, nor the nature of the clinical phenotype, has been well characterized in female carriers. In this study, we evaluated 146 female carriers (mean, 42.3 years; range, 20-75 years) with and without core features of FXTAS (tremor; gait ataxia), and 69 age-matched controls (mean, 45.8 years; range, 21-78 years). Compared with controls, carriers with definite or probable FXTAS had greater medical co-morbidity, with increased prevalence of thyroid disease (P = 0.0096), hypertension (P = 0.0020), seizures (P = 0.0077), peripheral neuropathy (P = 0.0040), and fibromyalgia (P = 0.0097), in addition to the typical symptoms of FXTAS-tremor (P < 0.0001) and ataxia (P < 0.0001). The non-FXTAS premutation group had more complaints of chronic muscle pain (P = 0.0097), persistent paraesthesias in extremities (P < 0.0001), and history of tremor (P < 0.0123) than controls. The spectrum of clinical involvement in female carriers with FXTAS is quite broad, encompassing a number of medical co-morbidities as well as the core movement disorder. The remarkable degree of thyroid dysfunction (17% in the non-FXTAS group and 50% in the FXTAS group) warrants consideration of thyroid function studies in all female premutation carriers, particularly those with core features of FXTAS. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Ultrastructural apoptotic lesions induced in rat thymocytes after borax ingestion.

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    Sylvain, I C; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Several chemical compounds induce apoptotic lesions in the thymus. Male Wistar rats received 2000 ppm of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in their food for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 2, 5, 9, 12, 19, 21, 26 and 28 days after the beginning of treatment. Thymus samples of all rats were taken. A Philips EM 300 electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural morphology. Serious nuclear and cytoplasmic lesions were observed. Moreover, numerous macrophages containing apoptotic cells were present in the thymus. The alterations were observed from the 2nd to the 28th day. The extent of damage was much more important in the rats sacrificed 21, 26 and 28 days after borax ingestion.

  16. Ethanol induces rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.B.

    1987-03-09

    Mice with unilateal striatal lesions created by 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA) injection were screened for rotational (circling) behavior in response to injection of amphetamine and apomorphine. Those that rotated ipsilaterally in response to amphetamine and contralaterally in response to apomorphine were subsequently challenged with 1 to 3 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol. Surprisingly, ethanol induced dose related contralateral (apomorphine-like) rotation which, despite gross intoxication, was quite marked in most animals. No significant correlation was found between the number of turns made following ethanol and made after apomorphine or amphetamine. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  18. Modification of radiation-induced DNA lesions by oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Jenkins, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of DNA strand break production by radiation under aerated and hypoxic conditions was determined in CHO cells using the technique of alkaline elution. The resulting oxygen enhancement ratio was surprisingly high, 7.8. When the pH of the elution was increased from 12.1, the normally used pH, to 12.8, a substantial increase in the strand breaks produced in the hypoxic cells was observed, resulting in an OER of 4.8. This difference in susceptibility of DNA strand break detection as a function of pH suggested a difference in the type of lesions produced in DNA when irradiated under aerated and hypoxic conditions. Further experiments to examine the DNA-protein crosslinks produced by radiation suggested that the apparent lower level of strand breaks in hypoxic cells may be due to a higher level of DNA-protein crosslinks produced under hypoxic conditions. Thus, oxygen may not only act by modifying the quantity of radiation-induced DNA lesions but may also cause qualitative changes. If the different types of DNA lesions have different contributions to lethality, the OER for cell survival may represent a complex composite of these changes at the molecular level

  19. Selective rescue of heightened anxiety but not gait ataxia in a premutation 90CGG mouse model of Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

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    Castro, Hoanna; Kul, Emre; Buijsen, Ronald A M; Severijnen, Lies-Anne W F M; Willemsen, Rob; Hukema, Renate K; Stork, Oliver; Santos, Mónica

    2017-06-01

    A CGG-repeat expansion in the premutation range in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) has been identified as the genetic cause of Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with action tremor, gait ataxia and cognitive impairments. In this study, we used a bigenic mouse model, in which expression of a 90CGG premutation tract is activated in neural cells upon doxycycline administration-P90CGG mouse model. We, here, demonstrate the behavioural manifestation of clinically relevant features of FXTAS patients and premutation carrier individuals in this inducible mouse model. P90CGG mice display heightened anxiety, deficits in motor coordination and impaired gait and represent the first FXTAS model that exhibits an ataxia phenotype as observed in patients. The behavioural phenotype is accompanied by the formation of ubiquitin/FMRpolyglycine-positive intranuclear inclusions, as another hallmark of FXTAS, in the cerebellum, hippocampus and amygdala. Strikingly, upon cessation of transgene induction the anxiety phenotype of mice recovers along with a reduction of intranuclear inclusions in dentate gyrus and amygdala. In contrast, motor function deteriorates further and no reduction in intranuclear inclusions can be observed in the cerebellum. Our data thus demonstrate that expression of a 90CGG premutation expansion outside of the FMR1 context is sufficient to evoke an FXTAS-like behavioural phenotype. Brain region-specific neuropathology and (partial) behavioural reversibility make the inducible P90CGG a valuable mouse model for testing pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic intervention methods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 241Am induced thyroid lesions in the beagle: interim observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Zizumbo, I.; Angus, W.; Jones, A.; Elliot, D.

    1976-01-01

    Injected doses of 2.88, 0.91 or 0.296 μCi 241 Am/kg in young adult beagles produced morphological changes in the thyroid gland and produce lower concentrations of thyroxin in the sera. Interstitial fibrosis without functional impairment was induced by the 0.099 μCi 241 Am/kg dose level. Clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism were not observed, even in those dogs with the most extreme thyroid lesions. The changes were characterized by a decrease in thyroid weight, interfollicular fibrosis, loss of colloid, loss of follicular epithelium, and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the residual epithelium. Thus far, thyroid tumors have not been observed, however, a significant percentage of the animals in the lower dose levels are still living

  1. A Case of Lung Lesions Induced by a soccer Ball

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    Masaaki Takemoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old youth soccer forward received a direct hit from a kicked soccer ball on the anterior right chest when the goal keeper kicked the ball from a distance of 1 meter. Immediately following the hit, the subject experienced dypnea, chest pain and had a cough, with several milliliters of hemoptysis. His symptoms subsided after 20 minutes of rest. However, he still felt mild discomfort and was taken to our department for evaluation. On examination, all vital signs were normal. A computed tomography scan of the chest was obtained, and revealed a small area of opacification in the right lung field suggesting a pulmonary contusion or traumatic lung edema. Ten days after the initial injury, he was cleared for full participation. We herein reported the first case of a lung lesion induced by a soccer ball. Conservative treatment resulted in a favorable outcome.

  2. Social anxiety and autism spectrum traits among adult FMR1 premutation carriers.

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    López-Mourelo, O; Mur, E; Madrigal, I; Alvarez-Mora, M I; Gómez-Ansón, B; Pagonabarraga, J; Rodriguez-Revenga, L; Milà, M

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral symptoms and traits have been proposed as early markers in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate social anxiety and autism in FMR1 premutation carriers using the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires. Fifty-nine premutation carriers were compared with 50 controls. The SPIN test showed statistically significant differences between female but not male carriers. The AQ questionnaire found statistically significant differences between premutation carriers and controls in the total AQ as well as in the social skills and attention switching subdomains. A gender effect was only observed for the social skills subdomain. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a moderately positive correlation with the total AQ scores as well as the social skills and communication subdomains. Our results show that fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) patients have higher AQ scores. Moreover, this is the first study to find statistically significant differences between FXTAS and no-FXTAS premutation carriers in the communication and the imagination subdomains, suggesting that FXTAS patients present a broader autistic phenotype than premutation carriers without FXTAS. Based on our results, a wide range of behavioral/psychiatric traits should be included within the broader phenotypic presentation of individuals with the FMR1 premutation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of cavitation on lesion formation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Pengfei; Jie Yu; Yang Xin; Tu Juan; Guo Xiasheng; Zhang Dong; Huang Pintong

    2017-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has shown a great promise in noninvasive cancer therapy. The impact of acoustic cavitation on the lesion formation induced by HIFU is investigated both experimentally and theoretically in transparent protein-containing gel and ex vivo liver tissue samples. A numerical model that accounts for nonlinear acoustic propagation and heat transfer is used to simulate the lesion formation induced by the thermal effect. The results showed that lesions could be induced in the samples exposed to HIFU with various acoustic pressures and pulse lengths. The measured areas of lesions formed in the lateral direction were comparable to the simulated results, while much larger discrepancy was observed between the experimental and simulated data for the areas of longitudinal lesion cross-section. Meanwhile, a series of stripe-wiped-off B-mode pictures were obtained by using a special imaging processing method so that HIFU-induced cavitation bubble activities could be monitored in real-time and quantitatively analyzed as the functions of acoustic pressure and pulse length. The results indicated that, unlike the lateral area of HIFU-induced lesion that was less affected by the cavitation activity, the longitudinal cross-section of HIFU-induced lesion was significantly influenced by the generation of cavitation bubbles through the temperature elevation resulting from HIFU exposures. Therefore, considering the clinical safety in HIFU treatments, more attention should be paid on the lesion formation in the longitudinal direction to avoid uncontrollable variation resulting from HIFU-induced cavitation activity. (paper)

  4. Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency.

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    Hoyos, Luis R; Thakur, Mili

    2017-03-01

    Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI.

  5. Fragile X syndrome: a pilot proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in premutation carriers

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hallahan, Brian P

    2012-08-30

    AbstractPurposeThere is increasing evidence that neurodevelopmental differences in people with Fragile X syndrome (FraX) may be explained by differences in glutamatergic metabolism. Premutation carriers of FraX were originally considered to be unaffected although several recent reports demonstrate neuroanatomical, cognitive, and emotional differences from controls. However there are few studies on brain metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX.MethodsWe used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare neuronal integrity of a number of brain metabolites including N-Acetyl Aspartate, Creatine + Phosphocreatinine, Choline, myoInositol, and Glutamate containing substances (Glx) in 17 male premutation carriers of FraX and 16 male healthy control individuals.ResultsThere was no significant between-group difference in the concentration of any measured brain metabolites. However there was a differential increase in N-acetyl aspartate with aging in premutation FraX individuals compared to controls.ConclusionsThis is the first 1 H-MRS study to examine premutation FraX individuals. Although we demonstrated no difference in the concentration of any of the metabolites examined between the groups, this may be due to the large age ranges included in the two samples. The differential increase in NAA levels with aging may reflect an abnormal synaptic pruning process.

  6. The effect of pre-mutation of X chromosome CGG trinucleotide repeats on brain anatomy.

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    Moore, Caroline J; Daly, Eileen M; Tassone, Flora; Tysoe, Carolyn; Schmitz, Nicole; Ng, Virginia; Chitnis, Xavier; McGuire, Philip; Suckling, John; Davies, Kay E; Hagerman, Randi J; Hagerman, Paul J; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2004-12-01

    Expanded trinucleotide repeats are associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including fragile X syndrome (FraX) which is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. It is currently thought that FraX results from having >200 CGG trinucleotide repeats, with consequent methylation of the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1) and loss of FMR1 protein (FMRP). Pre-mutation carriers of FraX (with 55-200 CGG trinucleotide repeats) were originally considered unaffected, although recent studies challenge this view. However, there are few studies on the effect of pre-mutation trinucleotide repeat expansion on the male human brain using quantitative MRI. Also the results of prior investigations may be confounded because people were selected on the basis of clinical and neurological features, and not genetic phenotype. We compared the brain anatomy of 20 adult male pre-mutation members of known FraX families with 20 healthy male controls. The two groups did not differ significantly in age, intelligence quotient (IQ) or handedness. We also investigated whether any observed effects were associated with: (i) ageing; (ii) expansion of pre-mutation CGG trinucleotide repeats; (iii) reduction in the percentage of lymphocytes staining with anti-FMRP antibodies [%FMRP(+) lymphocytes]; and (iv) elevation of FMR1 mRNA levels. Male pre-mutation carriers of FraX, compared with matched controls, had significantly less voxel density in several brain regions, including the cerebellum, amygdalo-hippocampal complex and thalamus. Within pre-mutation carriers of FraX, ageing, increases in the number of CGG trinucleotide repeats and decreases in %FMRP(+) lymphocytes were associated with decreasing voxel density of regions previously identified as decreased relative to controls. Regional grey and white matter density is significantly affected in male pre-mutation carriers of FraX recruited on the basis of genetic, not clinical, phenotype. The association of voxel density

  7. Partridge embryo pathology in relation to gentamicin-induced lesions

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    Hadi Tavakkoli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the macroscopic and microscopic lesions of various dosages of gentamicin in the partridge embryo. Methods: Fertile chukar partridge eggs were allocated into four groups. Group 1: salineinjected group whose individuals were administered by sterile physiological saline solution of 0.2 mL/egg inserted into yolk sac. Groups 2, 3 and 4 whose individuals were similarly administered by gentamicin sulfate at a dosage of 80 mg/kg egg-weight once, twice and three times, respectively. Results: Results showed that the embryos were congested and stunted in the gentamicininjected groups. Defects in feet, wings and feather development were accompanied by microscopic lesions in brain, meninges, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. Histopathological lesions were noticed as edema, undeveloped tissues, necrosis and degeneration in the affected organs. Conclusions: Based on acquired results, it is concluded that gentamicin at above-described dosages causes toxicopathological effects to the partridge embryo in a dose dependent manner.

  8. Localized lesions induced by 137Cs during the Goiania accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Valverde, N.J.; Farina, R.; Curado, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    A description is given of initial symptoms and clinical observations regarding acute localized radiation lesions in 28 persons exposed to 137Cs during the Goiania radiological accident. Specialized procedures to estimate the extent and gravity of the lesions and establish a therapeutic strategy, as well as to anticipate the prognosis in each case, are briefly discussed. Measures taken for reduction of pain and inflammation are noted, and an explanation is given for difficulties encountered due to adverse working conditions and the serious clinical manifestations presented by various patients concomitantly with their lesions. Also noted is the difficulty in obtaining credible information regarding exposure, such as source-to-object distance, duration of exposure, and source activity, which precluded dosimetry studies in most cases

  9. Radiation-induced liver lesions in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-01-01

    The risk for liver disease from internally deposited beta-emitting radionuclides is unknown because there are no human populations exposed to hepatotropic beta-emitting radionuclides available for study. In this report, we discuss the hepatic lesion in dogs exposed to a beta-emitting radionuclide, 144 CeCl 3 , and held for their life spans

  10. Lesion bacterial communities in American lobsters with diet-induced shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Metzler, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Leberg, Paul; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2012-04-26

    In southern New England, USA, shell disease affects the profitability of the American lobster Homarus americanus fishery. In laboratory trials using juvenile lobsters, exclusive feeding of herring Clupea harengus induces shell disease typified initially by small melanized spots that progress into distinct lesions. Amongst a cohabitated, but segregated, cohort of 11 juvenile lobsters fed exclusively herring, bacterial communities colonizing spots and lesions were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified using 1 group-specific and 2 universal primer sets. The Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in both spots and lesions and included members of the orders Flavobacteriales (Bacteriodetes), Rhodobacterales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), Xanthomonadales (Gammaproteobacteria) and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial communities in spot lesions displayed more diversity than communities with larger (older) lesions, indicating that the lesion communities stabilize over time. At least 8 bacterial types persisted as lesions developed from spots. Aquimarina 'homaria', a species commonly cultured from lesions present on wild lobsters with epizootic shell disease, was found ubiquitously in spots and lesions, as was the 'Candidatus Kopriimonas aquarianus', implicating putative roles of these species in diet-induced shell disease of captive lobsters.

  11. Age-related functional brain changes in FMR1 premutation carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S.G. Brown

    2018-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time functional imaging-based evidence for early movement-related neurodegeneration in Fragile X premutation carriers. These changes pre-exist the diagnosis of FXTAS and are greatest in older carriers suggesting that they may be indicative of FXTAS vulnerability.

  12. PSP-CBS with Dopamine Deficiency in a Female with a FMR1 Premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paucar, Martin; Beniaminov, Stanislav; Paslawski, Wojciech; Svenningsson, Per

    2016-10-01

    Premutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female FMR1 premutation carriers rarely develop motor features. Dual pathology is an emerging phenomenon among FMR1 premutation carriers. Here, we describe a family affected by FMR1-related disorders in which the female index case has developed a rapidly progressive and disabling syndrome of atypical parkinsonism. This syndrome consists of early onset postural instability, echolalia, dystonia, and varying types of apraxia like early onset orobuccal apraxia and oculomotor apraxia. She has also developed supranuclear gaze palsy, increased latency of saccade initiation, and slow saccades. These features are compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) variant. Imaging displays a marked reduction of presynaptic dopaminergic uptake and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed reduced dopamine metabolism; however, the patient is unresponsive to levodopa. Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI. Her father was affected by a typical FXTAS presentation but also displayed dopamine deficiency along with the hummingbird sign. The mechanisms by which FMR1 premutations predispose to atypical parkinsonism and dopamine deficiency await further elucidation.

  13. Premutation female carriers of fragile X syndrome: a pilot study on brain anatomy and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D G; Mentis, M J; Pietrini, P; Grady, C L; Moore, C J; Horwitz, B; Hinton, V; Dobkin, C S; Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1999-10-01

    It was thought that premutation carriers of fragile X syndrome (FraX) have no neurobiological abnormalities, but there have been no quantitative studies of brain morphometry and metabolism. Thus the authors investigated brain structure and metabolism in premutation carriers of FraX. Eight normal IQ, healthy female permutation FraX carriers aged 39 +/- 9 years (mean +/- SD) and 32 age-sex-handedness-matched controls (39 +/- 10 years) were studied; in vivo brain morphometry was measured using volumetric magnetic resonances imaging, and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were measured using positron emission tomography and (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Compared with controls, FraX premutation carriers had a significant (1) decrease in volume of whole brain, and caudate and thalamic nuclei bilaterally; (2) increase in volume of hippocampus and peripheral CSF bilaterally, and third ventricle; (3) relative hypometabolism of right parietal, temporal, and occipital association areas; (4) bilateral relative hypermetabolism of hippocampus; (5) relative hypermetabolism of left cerebellum; and (6) difference in right-left asymmetry of the Wernicke and Broca language areas. Premutation carriers of FraX, as defined by analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, have abnormalities in brain anatomy and metabolism. The biological basis for this is unknown, but most likely it includes tissue heterogeneity for mutation status. The findings may be of relevance to people counseling families with FraX and to understanding other neuropsychiatric disorders which are associated with expansion of triplet repeats and genetic anticipation.

  14. Visual Pathway Deficit in Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers: A Potential Endophenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Szabolcs; Benedek, Gyorgy

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicated impaired magnocellular (M) and relatively spared parvocellular (P) visual pathway functioning in patients with fragile X syndrome. In this study, we assessed M and P pathways in 22 female fragile X premutation carriers with normal intelligence and in 20 healthy non-carrier controls. Testing procedure included visual…

  15. Abnormal trajectories in cerebellum and brainstem volumes in carriers of the fragile X premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Yi; Hessl, David; Hagerman, Randi J; Simon, Tony J; Tassone, Flora; Ferrer, Emilio; Rivera, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting male premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the FMR1 gene after age 50. The aim of this study was to examine whether cerebellar and brainstem changes emerge during development or aging in late life. We retrospectively analyzed magnetic resonance imaging scans from 322 males (age 8-81 years). Volume changes in the cerebellum and brainstem were contrasted with those in the ventricles and whole brain. Compared to the controls, premutation carriers without FXTAS showed significantly accelerated volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain, flatter inverted U-shaped trajectory of the brainstem, and larger ventricles. Compared to both older controls and premutation carriers without FXTAS, carriers with FXTAS exhibited significant volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain and accelerated volume decrease in the brainstem. We therefore conclude that cerebellar and brainstem volumes were likely affected during both development and progression of neurodegeneration in premutation carriers, suggesting that interventions may need to start early in adulthood to be most effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lesion-induced pseudo-dominance at functional magnetic resonance imaging: implications for preoperative assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, John L; Hacein-Bey, Lotfi; Mathews, Vincent P; Mueller, Wade M; DeYoe, Edgar A; Prost, Robert W; Meyer, Glenn A; Krouwer, Hendrikus G; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2004-09-01

    To illustrate how lesion-induced neurovascular uncoupling at functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can mimic hemispheric dominance opposite the side of a lesion preoperatively. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative fMRI mapping data from 50 patients with focal brain abnormalities to establish patterns of hemispheric dominance of language, speech, visual, or motor system functions. Abnormalities included gliomas (31 patients), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) (11 patients), other congenital lesions (4 patients), encephalomalacia (3 patients), and tumefactive encephalitis (1 patient). A laterality ratio of fMRI hemispheric dominance was compared with actual hemispheric dominance as verified by electrocortical stimulation, Wada testing, postoperative and posttreatment deficits, and/or lesion-induced deficits. fMRI activation maps were generated with cross-correlation (P frontal gyrus gliomas and in one patient with focal tumefactive meningoencephalitis, fMRI incorrectly suggested strong right hemispheric speech dominance. In two patients with lateral precentral gyrus region gliomas and one patient with a left central sulcus AVM, the fMRI pattern incorrectly suggested primary corticobulbar motor dominance contralateral to the side of the lesion. In a patient with a right superior frontal gyrus AVM, fMRI revealed pronounced left dominant supplementary motor area activity in response to a bilateral complex motor task, but right superior frontal gyrus perilesional hemorrhage and edema subsequently caused left upper-extremity plegia. Pathophysiological factors that might have caused neurovascular uncoupling and facilitated pseudo-dominance at fMRI in these patients included direct tumor infiltration, neovascularity, cerebrovascular inflammation, and AVM-induced hemodynamic effects. Sixteen patients had proven (1 patient), probable (2 patients), or possible (13 patients) but unproven lesion-induced homotopic cortical reorganization. Lesion-induced neurovascular

  17. Lead and radiation induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice and their inhibition by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajawat, Sunita; Goyal, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to access the protective role of vitamin E against hepato-toxicity induced by lead and radiation. The present study demonstrates that the application of vitamin E prior to lead and gamma radiation exposure is quite potential to provide protection against hepatic lesions induced by such teratogens

  18. Transplantation of hamster lung lesions induced by 239PuO2 or benz(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    None(0%) of 1000 recipients of lung lesions for 239 PuO 2 -exposed hamsters that were transplanted into other hamsters' cheek pouches, developed tumors, whereas 90% of transplants from benz(a)pyrene-induced lung lesions were malignant

  19. Detection and repair of a UV-induced photosensitive lesion in the DNA of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.; Regan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation with UV light results in damage to the DNA of human cells. The most numerous lesions are pyrimidine dimers; however, other lesions are known to occur and may contribute to the overall deleterious effect of UV irradiation. The authors have observed evidence of a UV-induced lesion other than pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of human cells by measuring DNA strand breaks induced by irradiating with 313-nm light following UV (254-nm) irradiation. The data suggest that, in normal cells, the lesion responsible for this effect is rapidly repaired or altered; whereas, in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells it seems to remain unchanged. Some change apparently occurs in the DNA of xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells which results in an increase in photolability. These data indicate a deficiency in DNA repair of xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells as well as in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. (Auth.)

  20. X-irradiation-induced nuclear lesions in cultured mammaliam cells: an ultrastructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, S.S.; Walters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Electron-dense chromatin aggregates, hereafter referred to as lesions, have been characterized morphologically within interphase nuclei of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) after a single acute exposure to 400, 800, 1200, or 2000 rad of x irradiation. At all doses studied, lesions were observed only after termination of radiation-induced division delay. Cell profiles were scored by electron microscopy for the presence or absence of nuclear lesions at various times after irradiation. The mitotic fraction from each irradiated population was also scored for each sample by light and electron microscopy. From these data and from simultaneous cell-density counts for each sample, it is apparent that postirradiation cell division is a prerequisite to formation of interphase nuclear lesions. Irradiated cell populations blocked in mitosis by Colcemid beyond the normal period of postirradiation division-delay failed to display nuclear lesions until after Colcemid was removed and cell division was completed. Enzyme digestions of isolated nuclei from irradiated cells with DNase I, RNase A, and Pronase suggest that the nuclear lesions are comprised primarily of chromatin. Nucleolar lesions, as well as various aberrant morphological forms of nucleoli, were also observed in cell populations after the onset of postirradiation cell division during the first 72 hr following exposure to irradiation. Delayed radiation-induced ultrastructural alterations of the nucleus included the formation of cytoplasmic invaginations into the nuclear space and inclusions of membranes within nuclei

  1. Premutation huntingtin allele adopts a non-B conformation and contains a hot spot for DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarem, Daniel A.; Delaney, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► First structural and thermodynamic analysis of premutation allele of HD. ► Premutation allele of HD adopts a stem-loop non-B conformation. ► Healthy and premutation length stem-loops are hyper-susceptible to oxidative damage. ► Stability of stem-loop structures increases linearly with repeat length. ► Thermodynamic stability, not the ability to adopt non-B conformation, distinguishes DNA prone to expansion from stable DNA. -- Abstract: The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) sequence has been linked to several neurological disorders, for example, Huntington’s disease (HD). In HD, healthy individuals have 5–35 CAG repeats. Those with 36–39 repeats have the premutation allele, which is known to be prone to expansion. In the disease state, greater than 40 repeats are present. Interestingly, the formation of non-B DNA conformations by the TNR sequence is proposed to contribute to the expansion. Here we provide the first structural and thermodynamic analysis of a premutation length TNR sequence. Using chemical probes of nucleobase accessibility, we found that similar to (CAG) 10 , the premutation length sequence (CAG) 36 forms a stem-loop hairpin and contains a hot spot for DNA damage. Additionally, calorimetric analysis of a series of (CAG) n sequences, that includes repeat tracts in both the healthy and premutation ranges, reveal that thermodynamic stability increases linearly with the number of repeats. Based on these data, we propose that while non-B conformations can be formed by TNR tracts found in both the healthy and premutation allele, only sequences containing at least 36 repeats have sufficient thermodynamic stability to contribute to expansion.

  2. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238 Pu or 239 Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  3. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Lund, J.E.; Park, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium oxide were reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide was presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of plutonium particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance was discussed

  4. RECENT ADVANCES IN STRATEGIES FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS-INDUCED LESIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanodia, Shreya; Da Silva, Diane M.; Kast, W. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions are distinct in that they have targetable foreign antigens, the expression of which is necessary to maintain the cancerous phenotype. Hence, they pose as a very attractive target for “proof of concept” studies in the development of therapeutic vaccines. This review will focus on the most recent clinical trials for the immunotherapy of mucosal and cutaneous HPV-induced lesions as well as emerging therapeutic strategies that have been tested in pre-clinical models for HPV-induced lesions. Progress in peptide-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, viral/bacterial vector-based vaccines, immune response modifiers, photodynamic therapy and T cell receptor based therapy for HPV will be discussed. PMID:17973257

  5. Radiation induced testicular lesions and their modification by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, T.K.; Gajawat, S.; Singh, N.; Goyal, P.K.; Dev, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Man is subjected to radiation exposure from cosmic rays and radioactivity from soil; apart from these natural sources of radiation, diagnostic and therapeutic radiological procedures are the largest source of radiation dose to human beings. These radiations have been shown to cause lesions in various mammalian tissues and organs. Testis is one of the most radiosensitive organs because of its cell renewal system. A number of chemical compounds have been and are being tested for their radioprotective effects on different animals. The antioxidant nature of Vitamin E and its role in maintenance of member structure suggests the presumptive radioprotective nature of this vitamin as well as its possible role in repair of radiation damage. In spite of some controversial reports, the radioprotective effect of Vitamin E has been observed by some investigators. In the light of above, the present study has been undertaken to assess the presumptive prophylactic effects of Vitamin E on the testes of Swiss albino mice subjected to sub-lethal whole-body gamma radiations

  6. Appearance of radiation-induced lesions after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease of the mediastinum and lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zomer-Drozda, J [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced lesions of lung tissue adjacent to the mediastinum and covered by radiation was established on the basis of a retrospective analysis of radiograms of 245 patients treated at the Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in the years 1951-1968, who received radiotherapy to the mediastinal lymph nodes. The radiation-induced lesions were divided into 4 grades depending on their extent and intensity of pulmonary tissue damage. Criteria for classification of radiation-induced fibrosis into the above mentioned grades were established. The correlation between radiation-induced injury and the doses of X-rays applied to the mediastinal lymph nodes was analysed. The importance of radiation-induced changes in the mediastinum and lungs for the diagnosis of recurrences in the irradiated fields, in the marginal areas and granulomatous infiltrations in pulmonary tissue is discussed.

  7. Association of malignancy with rapid growth in early lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Epithelial lesions induced by irradiation of rat skin were studied to determine (a) the relationship of malignancy to dose, (b) the types of lesions and circumstances leading to overt malignancy, and (c) the growth rates of lesions progressing to malignancy versus those of lesions remaining benign. High doses of radiation were shown to be associated with the production of epidermal cancers, the maximum yield being obtained at 6,400 rads. Conversely, a peak yield of noncancerous lesions was obtained at 1,600 rads. This association between malignancy and high dose was consistent for cancers evolving from warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers. Although the proportion of warts among the induced lesions was much higher than that of the cysts or chronic ulcers (76, 14, and 10%, respectively), the likelihood of warts becoming cancerous was substantially lower (14, 23, and 21%). The combined data for all doses showed that the latency period of the epidermal cancers was significantly (P = 0.015) shorter than that of the benign tumors. Rapid growth rates were observed for warts, cysts, and chronic ulcers progressing to overt cancer, and these did not overlap at any point on the growth scale with rates for benign tumors. This finding suggested that the potential for malignant development had been established early in the carcinogenic process, very likely at induction

  8. Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus impair pilocarpine-induced salivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, A; De Luca, L A; Menani, J V

    2002-09-15

    In the present study we investigated the effects of electrolytic lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in the salivation induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the cholinergic agonist pilocarpine. Rats with sham or LH lesions and stainless steel cannulas implanted into the lateral ventricle (LV) were used. In rats anesthetized with urethane (1.25mg/kg of body weight) saliva was collected using pre-weighed cotton balls inserted in the animal mouth during a period of 7 min following i.c.v. or i.p. injection of pilocarpine. Injection of pilocarpine (1mg/kg of body weight) i.p. in sham-operated rats (6h, 2, 7, and 15 days after the surgery) induced salivation (497+/-24, 452+/-26, 476+/-30, and 560+/-75 mg/7 min, respectively). The effects of i.p. pilocarpine was reduced 6h, 2 and 7 days after LH lesions (162+/-37, 190+/-32, and 229+/-27 mg/7 min, respectively), not 15 days after LH lesions (416+/-89 mg/7 min). Injection of pilocarpine (120 micro g/micro l) i.c.v., in sham-operated rats (6h, 2, 7, and 15 days after the surgery) also produced salivation (473+/-20, 382+/-16, 396+/-14, and 427+/-47 mg/7 min, respectively). The salivation induced by i.c.v. pilocarpine was also reduced 6h, 2 and 7 days after LH lesions (243+/-19, 278+/-24, and 295+/-27 mg/7 min, respectively), not 15 days after LH lesions (385+/-48 mg/7 min). The present results show the participation of the LH in the salivation induced by central or peripheral injection of pilocarpine in rats, reinforcing the involvement of central mechanisms on pilocarpine-induced salivation.

  9. Health Profiles of Mosaic Versus Non-mosaic FMR1 Premutation Carrier Mothers of Children With Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha R. Mailick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The FMR1 premutation is of increasing interest to the FXS community, as questions about a primary premutation phenotype warrant research attention. 100 FMR1 premutation carrier mothers (mean age = 58; 67–138 CGG repeats of adults with fragile X syndrome were studied with respect to their physical and mental health, motor, and neurocognitive characteristics. We explored the correlates of CGG repeat mosaicism in women with expanded alleles. Mothers provided buccal swabs from which DNA was extracted and the FMR1 CGG genotyping was performed (Amplidex Kit, Asuragen. Mothers were categorized into three groups: Group 1: premutation non-mosaic (n = 45; Group 2: premutation mosaic (n = 41, and Group 3: premutation/full mutation mosaic (n = 14. Group 2 mothers had at least two populations of cells with different allele sizes in the premutation range besides their major expanded allele. Group 3 mothers had a very small population of cells in the full mutation range (>200 CGGs in addition to one or multiple populations of cells with different allele sizes in the premutation range. Machine learning (random forest was used to identify symptoms and conditions that correctly classified mothers with respect to mosaicism; follow-up comparisons were made to characterize the three groups. In categorizing mosaicism, the random forest yielded significantly better classification than random classification, with overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC of 0.737. Among the most important symptoms and conditions that contributed to the classification were anxiety, menopause symptoms, executive functioning limitations, and difficulty walking several blocks, with the women who had full mutation mosaicism (Group 3 unexpectedly having better health. Although only 14 premutation carrier mothers in the present sample also had a small population of full mutation cells, their profile of comparatively better health, mental health, and executive

  10. Capturing the fragile X premutation phenotypes: a collaborative effort across multiple cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Sherman, Stephanie; Grigsby, Jim; Kogan, Cary; Cornish, Kim

    2012-03-01

    To capture the neuropsychological profile among male carriers of the FMR1 premutation allele (55-200 CGG repeats) who do not meet diagnostic criteria for the late-onset fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, FXTAS. We have initiated a multicenter collaboration that includes 3 independent cohorts, totaling 100 carriers of the premutation and 216 noncarriers. The initial focus of this collaboration has been on executive function. Four executive function scores are shared among the 3 cohorts (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, and Wechsler backward digit span and letter-number sequencing) whereas additional executive function scores are available for specific cohorts (Behavior Dyscontrol Scale, Hayling Sentence Completion Test Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Raw scores were analyzed by using statistical models that adjust for cohort-specific effects as well as age and education. Carriers scored significantly lower compared to noncarriers on the Stroop Color-Word Test (p = .01), Hayling Sentence Completion Test Part B (p < .01), and Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (p = .03), with the Hayling displaying a significant age-related decline (p = .01), as assessed by an age and repeat length-group interaction. Follow-up analysis of the collective data did not identify any specific age groups or repeat length ranges (i.e., low premutation = 55-70 repeats, midpremutation = 71-100 repeats, high premutation = 101-199 repeats) that were associated with an increased risk of executive function deficits. Preliminary analyses do not indicate global executive function impairment among male carriers without FXTAS compared to noncarriers. However, impairment in inhibitory capacity may be present among a subset of carriers, though the risk factors for this group do not appear to be related to age or repeat length.

  11. Liv. 52 protection against radiation induced lesions in mammalian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, M.R.; Saini, N.

    1985-01-01

    Effect of Liv. 52 on mammalian liver was studied after whole-body exposure to 5.5 Gy of 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that the drug protected the organ against radiation-induced changes. The protective effect was manifested in the form of early recovery as indicated by the absence of pathological changes like cytoplasmic degranulation, loss of nulei from many cells and abnormal architecture at 10 days and restoration of normal structure by 4 weeks. Liv. 52 may neutralize the peroxides formed from water molecules after irradiation which are toxic and cause the damage to the organ. Thus it seems that the drug may act as detoxicating agent. (author)

  12. Increased sensitivity of DNA damage response-deficient cells to stimulated microgravity-induced DNA lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available Microgravity is a major stress factor that astronauts have to face in space. In the past, the effects of microgravity on genomic DNA damage were studied, and it seems that the effect on genomic DNA depends on cell types and the length of exposure time to microgravity or simulated microgravity (SMG. In this study we used mouse embryonic stem (MES and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells to assess the effects of SMG on DNA lesions. To acquire the insight into potential mechanisms by which cells resist and/or adapt to SMG, we also included Rad9-deleted MES and Mdc1-deleted MEF cells in addition to wild type cells in this study. We observed significant SMG-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in Rad9-/- MES and Mdc1-/- MEF cells but not in their corresponding wild type cells. A similar pattern of DNA single strand break or modifications was also observed in Rad9-/- MES. As the exposure to SMG was prolonged, Rad9-/- MES cells adapted to the SMG disturbance by reducing the induced DNA lesions. The induced DNA lesions in Rad9-/- MES were due to SMG-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS. Interestingly, Mdc1-/- MEF cells were only partially adapted to the SMG disturbance. That is, the induced DNA lesions were reduced over time, but did not return to the control level while ROS returned to a control level. In addition, ROS was only partially responsible for the induced DNA lesions in Mdc1-/- MEF cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SMG is a weak genomic DNA stress and can aggravate genomic instability in cells with DNA damage response (DDR defects.

  13. DNA lesions induced by replication stress trigger mitotic aberration and tetraploidy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Ichijima

    Full Text Available During tumorigenesis, cells acquire immortality in association with the development of genomic instability. However, it is still elusive how genomic instability spontaneously generates during the process of tumorigenesis. Here, we show that precancerous DNA lesions induced by oncogene acceleration, which induce situations identical to the initial stages of cancer development, trigger tetraploidy/aneuploidy generation in association with mitotic aberration. Although oncogene acceleration primarily induces DNA replication stress and the resulting lesions in the S phase, these lesions are carried over into the M phase and cause cytokinesis failure and genomic instability. Unlike directly induced DNA double-strand breaks, DNA replication stress-associated lesions are cryptogenic and pass through cell-cycle checkpoints due to limited and ineffective activation of checkpoint factors. Furthermore, since damaged M-phase cells still progress in mitotic steps, these cells result in chromosomal mis-segregation, cytokinesis failure and the resulting tetraploidy generation. Thus, our results reveal a process of genomic instability generation triggered by precancerous DNA replication stress.

  14. The spatial resolution of the porcine multifocal electroretinogram for detection of laser-induced retinal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Scherfig, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spatial resolution of a porcine multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) protocol by testing its ability to detect laser-induced retinal lesions. Furthermore, we wanted to describe time-dependent changes in implicit time and amplitude of the different mfERG peaks...

  15. Axonal lesion-induced microglial proliferation and microglial cluster formation in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing-Olesen, L; Ladeby, R; Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted

    2007-01-01

    Microglia are innate immune cells and form the first line of defense of the CNS. Proliferation is a key event in the activation of microglia in acute pathology, and has been extensively characterized in rats, but not in mice. In this study we investigated axonal-lesion-induced microglial prolifer...

  16. Are lesions induced by ionizing radiation direct blocks to DNA chain elongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation blocks DNA chain elongation in normal diploid fibroblasts but not in fibroblasts from patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, even though there are no differences in the damage induced between the two cell types. This difference suggests that radiation-induced lesions in DNA are not themselves blocks to chain elongation in ataxia cells and raises the possibility that in normal cells a mediator exists between DNA damage and chain termination

  17. Vinorelbine induced perforation of a metastatic gastric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, W J; O'Súilleabháin, C B; Brady, C; O'Reilly, S

    2017-08-01

    Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare and more frequently associated with lobular than ductal carcinoma (Borst and Ingold, Surg 114(4):637-641 [1]). The purpose of this article is to present a case based review of a unique gastrointestinal metastasis and literature review. A 46 year old lady with metastatic invasive ductal breast cancer was admitted to A&E with sudden onset of epigastric and left shoulder pain. She completed the first cycle of capecitabine/vinorelbine 1 week previously. Clinical examination revealed a tender epigastrium with rigidity in the upper abdomen. Free air under the diaphragm and a positive Rigler's sign was radiologically identified. A laparoscopy demonstrated a fibrinous exudate in the left upper quadrant consistent with a walled off lesser curvature gastric perforation. A subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) demonstrated a healed gastric ulcer of benign appearance; however the pathology confirmed metastatic breast carcinoma. Literature review confirmed no previously reported cases of vinorelbine induced gastric perforation. Four cases of metastatic breast cancer with gastric metastasis presenting with perforation were identified; three of these cases (Fra et al., Presse Med 25(26):1215 (1996) [2], Solis-Caxaj et al., Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28(1):91-92 (2004) [3], Ghosn et al., Bull Cancer 78(11):1071-1073 (1991) [4]), were in the French medical literature, including one male patient (Fra et al., Presse Med 25(26):1215 (1996) [2]) and at least one ductal breast carcinoma (Solis-Caxaj et al., Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28(1):91-92 (2004) [3]). The fourth case (van Geel et al., Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 144(37):1761-1763 (2000) [5]), was in the Dutch medical literature and a lobular breast carcinoma. This case represents a rare complication of breast cancer chemotherapy, the subsequent significant benefit the patient received from treatment is consistent with the chemosensitivity to therapy that also resulted

  18. Lesions induced in rodent pancreas by azaserine and other pancreatic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longnecker, D.S.

    1984-06-01

    Focal proliferative changes in the acinar cells of the pancreas of rats have been induced by several systemically administered carcinogens including azaserine, N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine, N-nitroso(2-hydroxypropyl) (2-oxopropyl)amine, and Ndelta-(N-methyl-N-nitrosocarbamoyl)-L-ornithine (MNCO). Foci, nodules, and adenomas induced by these carcinogens are usually made up of atypical-appearing acinar cells that maintain a high degree of differentiation, but a minority of these lesions exhibit anaplastic cellular changes that suggest the development of malignant potential. Such anaplasia may occupy the whole of smaller lesions or may occur as a secondary focal change within larger nodules or adenomas. Many foci and nodules per pancreas have been induced by single or multiple exposures to these known genotoxic carcinogens, but relatively few of them develop into carcinomas. Azaserine and MNCO have induced acinar cell carcinomas in rats. Those induced by azaserine have exhibited a broad spectrum of histologic variants, including ductlike, cystic and undifferentiated patterns. Higher doses of MNCO have induced a second pattern of change in the pancreatic lobules of rats, which includes cystic and tubular ductlike structures that have been called cystic and tubular ductal complexes. MNCO has also induced focal acinar cell lesions, cystic and tubular ductal complexes, and adenocarcinomas in the pancreas of Syrian golden hamsters. In this species, ductal complexes are much more numerous than are proliferative lesions of acinar cells, and the histologic appearance of the carcinomas is ductlike. Hyperplasia and atypical changes were also seen in the epithelium of the intralobular ducts of hamsters. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  19. In vitro enzymatic studies on the nature and repair of x-ray induced lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    Areas studied include: purification and properties of enzyme probes for x-ray induced DNA lesions using E. Coli x-ray endonuclease and S. cerevisiae endonuclease E; use of enzymes probes; and use of physical, chemical and enzymatic probes to quantify x-ray-induced lesions in viruses and cells

  20. Influence of caffeine on chromosome lesions induced by chemical mutagens and radiation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, B.

    1977-01-01

    The modifying influence of caffeine on γ-ray induced chromosome lesions was studied by chromosome aberration anaysis. Caffeine was applied as a pre- and post-treatment agent following seed (G 1 ) and root meristem (G 2 and S) irradiation of C.capillaris. The frequency of chromosome aberrations induced in G 1 was changed neither by post- nor by pre-treatment with caffeine. This fact proves the lack of caffeine modifying effect. Applied as a post-treatment agent caffeine enhances considerably the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced in root meristem cells. This is especially valid for G 2 irradiated cells, while in S cells no synergistic effect was established between induced chromosome lesions and caffeine. The enhancement of chromosome aberration frequency produced in G 2 shows a clearly manifested dependence on the time (moment) of caffeine application post irradiation. Most considerable enhancement was obtained following post-treatment with caffeine immediately after irradiation. In the following intervals - 15 and 30 min - it decreases progressively, while after 60, 180 and 300 min no enhancing effect is observed. The probable causes for the manifestation and the lack of synergistic effect between chromosome lesions induced in the various mitotic cycle phases and caffeine are discussed. (author)

  1. Functional remineralization of dentin lesions using polymer-induced liquid-precursor process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anora K Burwell

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that applying the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP system to artificial lesions would result in time-dependent functional remineralization of carious dentin lesions that restores the mechanical properties of demineralized dentin matrix. 140 µm deep artificial caries lesions were remineralized via the PILP process for 7-28 days at 37°C to determine temporal remineralization characteristics. Poly-L-aspartic acid (27 KDa was used as the polymeric process-directing agent and was added to the remineralization solution at a calcium-to-phosphate ratio of 2.14 (mol/mol. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated artificial lesions had a low reduced elastic modulus (E(R = 0.2 GPa region extending about 70 μm into the lesion, with a sloped region to about 140 μm where values reached normal dentin (18-20 GPa. After 7 days specimens recovered mechanical properties in the sloped region by 51% compared to the artificial lesion. Between 7-14 days, recovery of the outer portion of the lesion continued to a level of about 10 GPa with 74% improvement. 28 days of PILP mineralization resulted in 91% improvement of E(R compared to the artificial lesion. These differences were statistically significant as determined from change-point diagrams. Mineral profiles determined by micro x-ray computed tomography were shallower than those determined by nanoindentation, and showed similar changes over time, but full mineral recovery occurred after 14 days in both the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed similar morphologies that were distinct from normal dentin with a clear line of demarcation between the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction showed that the starting lesions contained some residual mineral in the outer portions, which exhibited poor crystallinity. During remineralization

  2. The influence of septal lesions on sodium and water retention induced by Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guimarães

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of studies on the effects of septal area lesions on neuroimmunomodulation and Walker 256 tumor development, it was observed that tumor-induced sodium and water retention was less marked in lesioned than in non-lesioned rats. In the present study possible mechanisms involved in this phenomenon were investigated. The experiments were performed in septal-lesioned (LW; N = 15 and sham-operated (SW; N = 7 8-week-old male Wistar rats, which received multifocal simultaneous subcutaneous (sc inoculations of Walker 256 tumor cells about 30 days after the stereotaxic surgery. Control groups (no tumor, sham-operated food-restricted (SFR, N = 7 and lesioned food-restricted (LFR, N = 10 were subjected to a feeding pattern similar to that observed in tumor-bearing animals. Multifocal inoculation of Walker 256 tumor rapidly induces anorexia, which is paradoxically accompanied by an increase in body weight, as a result of renal Na+ and fluid retention. These effects of the tumor were also seen in LW rats, although the rise in fractional sodium balance during the early clinical period was significantly smaller than in SW rats (day 4: SW = 47.6 ± 6.4% and LW = 13.8 ± 5.2%; day 5: SW = 57.5 ± 3.5% and LW = 25.7 ± 4.8%; day 6: SW = 54.4 ± 3.8% and LW = 32.1 ± 4.4%; P<0.05, suggesting a temporary reduction in tumor-induced sodium retention. In contrast, urine output was significantly reduced in SW rats and increased in LW rats (LW up to -0.85 and SW up to 4.5 ml/100 g body weight, with no change in osmolar excretion. These temporary changes in the tumor's effects on LW rats may reflect a "reversal" of the secondary central antidiuretic response induced by the tumor (from antidiuretic to diuretic.

  3. Experimental nickel-induced pulmonary lesions in nonhuman primates: Histologic and ultrastructural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haley, P.J.; Bice, D.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The histologic and ultrastructural alterations of lung were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys instilled with nickel subsulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ) at a final dose of 0.06 μmol/g lung with and without repeated intrapulmonary exposure to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). individual lung lobes were exposed to nickel alone, SRBC alone, or nickel and SRBC together. Lesions were found in nickel-exposed lobes only, regardless of exposure to SRBC. Lesions were more developed at 14 days than at 21 days after exposure to nickel, and were characterized by multifocal perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltrates along with microgranuloma formation, occasional fibrosis and moderate type II epithelial cell hyperplasia. Microgranulomas consisted of either central histiocytic cores surrounded by lymphocytic mantles or dense aggregates of epithelioid cells forming irregular interstitial nodules. Tracheobronchial lymph nodes had marked reactive hyperplasia of cortical and paracortical zones. Ultrastructural analysis of lung lesions revealed numerous well-differentiated lymphocytes intermixed with macrophages, in a background of mature collagen bundles. Cell associated particles were evaluated by energy dispersive microanalysis and found to consist of nickel and sulfur. These lesions appeared to be distinct from pneumoconiotic lesions induced by inert dusts and had histologic qualities compatible with immune-mediated phenomena. Because nickel compounds stimulate strong humoral and cellular immune responses in man, we conclude that pulmonary exposure of nonhuman primates to nickel compounds may provide information useful in delineating Immune mediated pulmonary disorders of man. (author)

  4. Gastroprotective effect of esculin on ethanol-induced gastric lesion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    The gastroprotective effect of esculin was investigated in a mouse model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. Administration of esculin at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion led to significant gastroprotection compared with untreated mice. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated by macroscopic and histopathological alterations, lesion index, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Pretreatment with esculin significantly reduced macroscopic and histopathological damage, gastric lesion index, and MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, esculin significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) levels, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein expression in gastric tissues after ethanol challenge. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines indicated that esculin pretreatment markedly suppressed the increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ethanol-treated mice. The results demonstrate a protective effect of esculin against gastric injury and suggest that the underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation, which subsequently reduces expression of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  5. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induced caspase-1 mediated pyroptotic cell death in macrophages: implication in lesion instability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophage death in advanced lesion has been confirmed to play an important role in plaque instability. However, the mechanism underlying lesion macrophage death still remains largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed that caspase-1 activated in advanced lesion and co-located with macrophages and TUNEL positive reaction. In in-vitro experiments showed that ox-LDL induced caspase-1 activation and this activation was required for ox-LDL induced macrophages lysis, IL-1β and IL-18 production as well as DNA fragmentation. Mechanism experiments showed that CD36 and NLRP3/caspase-1/pathway involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage pyroptosis. CONCLUSION: Our study here identified a novel cell death, pyroptosis in ox-LDL induced human macrophage, which may be implicated in lesion macrophages death and play an important role in lesion instability.

  6. Honey potentiates the gastric protection effects of sucralfate against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abu Taib Mohammad Mobarok; Al Swayeh, Othman Abdullah

    2003-09-01

    Natural honey is widely used all over the world as a complementary and alternative medicine in various disorders including gastrointestinal lesions. To evaluate the effects of combination of low dosage of honey (0.312 g/kg) and sucralfate (0.125 or 0.250 g /kg) on gastric protection and to determine any potentiating interactions between them against ammonia-induced gastric lesions in rats. Twenty-four hours fasted rats were given I ml of ammonium hydroxide 1 % intragastrically and they were killed one hour later under deep ether anesthesia. The gastric lesion index was calculated according to the method of Takaishi et al 1998. Non protein sulthydryls level was determined spectrophotometrically as described by Sedlak and Lindsay 1968. Administration of ammonium hydroxide produced red and black linear lesions and significant depletion of gastric nonprotein sulthydryls level. Oral administration of honey (0.312g/kg) or sucralfate (0.125 and 0.250 g/kg) 30 min before ammonium hydroxide reduced the severity of gastric mucosal lesions by 1 I or 18 and 42 % respectively, and has shown the changes in nonprotein sulfhydryls level induced by ammonium hydroxide. Furthermore, pretreatment with a combination of a low dose of honey (0.312 g /kg) and sucralfate (0.125 g or 0.250 g/kg) afforded significantly greater protection (58 and 77 %) than that obtained with either of them administered alone. The present results suggest potentiation of gastric protection effect of sucralfate by honey and this may have a clinical value in the treatment of peptic ulcer diseases in Helicobacter pylori positive patients.

  7. [Intelligence and creativity changes induced by pathological growth of space-occupying cerebral lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfil'ev, A M; Razumnikova, O M; Stupak, V V

    2013-01-01

    Creativity and intelligence changes depending on tumor localization in frontal or parietal cortex before surgical procedure in 24 patients in comparison with control group are studied. Brain damage-induced intelligence impairment and a decrease of fluency, flexibility of figural divergent thinking, and originality of verbal one without specificity of tumor localization were found. Intelligence decrease was more presented while performing of figural tasks and least of all in verbal ones. The left prefrontal brain damage induced a decrease of all components of intelligence and a trend to a decrease of verbal creativity and figural fluency. The right parietal brain lesion was more associated with a decline of divergent thinking originality.

  8. Modulation of mutagen-induced biological effects by inhibitors of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Mullenders, L.F.H.; Zwanenburg, T.S.B.

    1986-01-01

    When lesions are induced in the DNA by mutagenic agents, they are subjected to cellular repair. Unrepaired and misrepaired lesions lead to biological effects, such as cell killing, point mutations and chromosomal alterations (aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges - SCEs). It is very difficult to directly correlate any particular type of lesion to a specific biological effect. However, in specific cases, this has been done. For example, short wave UV induced biological effects (cell killing, chromosomal alterations) result predominantly from induced cyclobutane dimers and by photoreactivation experiments, one can demonstrate that with the removal of dimers all types biological effects are diminished. In cases where many types of lesions are considered responsible for the observed biological effects other strategies have been employed to identify the possible lesion. The frequencies of induced chromosomal alterations and point mutations increase with the dose of the mutagen employed and an inhibition of DNA repair following treatment with the mutagen. Prevention of the cells from dividing following mutagen treatment allows them to repair premutational damage, thus reducing the biological effects induced. By comprehensive studies involving quantification of primary DNA lesions, their repair and biological effects will enable us to understand to some extent the complex processes involved in the manifestation of specific biological effects that follow the treatment of cells with mutagenic carcinogens

  9. DNA radio-induced tandem lesions: formation, introduction in oligonucleotides and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdat, Anne-Gaelle

    2000-01-01

    Cell killing induced by excited photosensitizers, ionizing radiation or radiomimetic drugs can not be only explained by the formation of single DNA lesions. Thus, multiply damaged sites, are likely to have harmful biological consequences. One example of tandem base damage induced by ".OH radical in X-irradiated aqueous solution of DNA oligomers is N-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-formyl-amine (dβF)/8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo). In order to investigate the biological significance of such a tandem lesion, both 8-oxodGuo and dβF were introduced in synthetic oligonucleotides at vicinal positions using the solid phase phosphoramidite method with the 'Pac phosphoramidite' chemistry. The purity of the synthetic DNA fragments and the integrity of modified nucleosides was confirmed using different complementary techniques: HPLC, PAGE, ESI MS, MALDI-TOF MS and capillary electrophoresis. Using the above synthetic substrates, investigations were carried out in order to determine the substrate specificity and the excision mechanism of three glycosylases involved in the base excision repair pathway: endonuclease III, Fpg and yOggl. Both tandem lesions were substrates for the BER enzymes. However, the tandem lesion are not completely excised by the repair enzymes. The rates of excision as inferred from the determination of the ratios of Vm/Km Michaelis kinetics constants were not found to be significantly affected by the presence of the tandem lesions. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used in order to gain insights into mechanistic aspects of oligonucleotide cleavage by the BER enzymes. During in vitro DNA synthesis by Taq DNA polymerase, Klenow fragment exo- and DNA polymerase β, tandem base damage were found to block the progression of the enzymes. Finally, the level of tandem base damage in the DNA exposed to γ-ray using the liquid chromatography coupled to electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was determined. Both dβF-8-oxodGuo and 8

  10. Methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates attenuate diclofenac- and ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Jovanović, Ivan; Ilić, Ivan R; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-11-19

    Two natural alkaloids, methyl (M) and isopropyl (I) N-methylanthranilates, with recently demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, were assayed for their possible overall effect on intact gastric mucosa and their protective properties towards the onset of gastric lesions induced by diclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID) or ethanol. The influence of I and M on gastric mucosa integrity was assessed by oral administration in doses of 200mg/kg. The gastroprotective action of I and M in doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg was analyzed in the diclofenac and ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in rats. After the treatment, the stomachs of the animals were analyzed (captured by a digital camera). Ulcer scoring, morphometric and histopathological analyses of the stomachs were done. The oral application of these compounds on their own, even in quite high doses (200mg/kg) did not induce gastric lesions. Both alkaloids exerted a very strong antiulcer activity, even in low doses (50mg/kg), by decreasing the number of lesions caused by the application of either diclofenac or ethanol, eliminating them completely or reducing them to a form of mucosal hyperemia. Their possible mechanism of action was discussed and due to their many positive properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities, as well as a cheap and simple synthetic route for their preparation, methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates, both alike, might represent a cost effective alternative sought for in the treatment of peptic ulcers and/or new safer NSAIDs for pain management. © 2013.

  11. Assessment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-induced Pneumonia using Different Lung Lesion Scoring Systems: a Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, B; Segalés, J; Fraile, L; Pérez de Rozas, A; Maiti, H; Coll, T; Sibila, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary aetiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) and one of the major contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Gross lung lesions in pigs affected by EP consist of cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC), usually distributed bilaterally in the apical, intermediate, accessory and cranial parts of the diaphragmatic lobes. Several lung scoring methods are currently in place for the evaluation of CVPC. The aims of this study were (1) to review the lung lesion scoring systems used to assess pneumonia associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection, and (2) to evaluate eight of these scoring systems by applying them to the lungs of 76 pigs with experimentally-induced M. hyopneumoniae pneumonia. A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was observed and the coefficients of determination in a regression analysis were very high between each pair-wise comparison, except for a unique scoring system based on image analysis. A formula of equivalence between lung scoring methods was developed in order to compare the results obtained with these methods. The present review provides a basis for comparison (even retrospectively) of lesions evaluated using different lung scoring systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrego, Diana; Múnera, Alejandro; Troncoso, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on post lesion functional recovery. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characterized with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery), and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial) neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the five week observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

  13. Is the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex important for motor recovery in rats with photochemically induced cortical lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kotaro; Yamauchi, Hideki; Tatsuno, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Keiji; Abo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the non-injured contralateral cortex is important for motor recovery after brain damage in the photochemically initiated thrombosis (PIT) model. We induced PIT in the sensorimotor cortex in rats and examined the recovery of motor function using the beam-walking test. In 24 rats, the right sensorimotor cortex was lesioned after 2 days of training for the beam-walking test (group 1). After 10 days, PIT was induced in the left sensorimotor cortex. Eight additional rats (group 2) received 2 days training in beam walking, then underwent the beam-walking test to evaluate function. After 10 days of testing, the left sensorimotor cortex was lesioned and recovery was monitored by the beam-walking test for 8 days. In group 1 animals, left hindlimb function caused by a right sensorimotor cortex lesion recovered within 10 days after the operation. Right hindlimb function caused by the left-side lesion recovered within 6 days. In group 2, right hindlimb function caused by induction of the left-side lesion after a total of 12 days of beam-walking training and testing recovered within 6 days as with the double PIT model. The training effect may be relevant to reorganization and neuromodulation. Motor recovery patterns did not indicate whether motor recovery was dependent on the ipsilateral cortex surrounding the lesion or the cortex of the contralateral side. The results emphasize the need for selection of appropriate programs tailored to the area of cortical damage in order to enhance motor functional recovery in this model. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  16. Distribution of ultraviolet-induced lesions in Simian Virus 40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourre, F.; Renault, G.; Sarasin, A.; Seawell, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    In order to analyze the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis in mammalian cells, we devised an analytical assay using Simian Virus 40 as biological probe. To study the possible correlations between the distribution of the lesions on the treated DNA and the distribution of mutations, we have located and quantified the lesions induced by ultraviolet light (254 nm) on a SV40 DNA fragment. At a fluence of 2,000J/m 2 , our results show that the formation frequency of thymine-thymine dimers (TT) is three to four times higher than the formation frequency of the other types of dimers (TC, CT, CC). On the other hand, the formation frequency of a dimer is influenced by the adjacent sequence. In particular, a pyrimidine in the 5' position of a thymine-thymine dimer enhances its formation frequency. At the dose used the formation frequency of the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts is twenty times less than the formation frequency of pyrimidine dimers. This paper shows the distribution of the major lesions induced by UV-light on a defined fragment of SV40 genome after UV irradiation. This work is necessary to get an insight in the molecular mechanisms of UV-mutagenesis

  17. UVA photoactivation of DNA containing halogenated thiopyrimidines induces cytotoxic DNA lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Reto; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Karran, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Photochemotherapy, the combination of a photosensitiser and ultraviolet (UV) or visible light, is an effective treatment for skin conditions including cancer. The high mutagenicity and non-selectivity of photochemotherapy regimes warrants the development of alternative approaches. We demonstrate that the thiopyrimidine nucleosides 5-bromo-4-thiodeoxyuridine (SBrdU) and 5-iodo-4-thiodeoxyuridine (SIdU) are incorporated into the DNA of cultured human and mouse cells where they synergistically sensitise killing by low doses of UVA radiation. The DNA halothiopyrimidine/UVA combinations induce DNA interstrand crosslinks, DNA-protein crosslinks, DNA strand breaks, nucleobase damage and lesions that resemble UV-induced pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts. These are potentially lethal DNA lesions and cells defective in their repair are hypersensitive to killing by SBrdU/UVA and SIdU/UVA. DNA SIdU and SBrdU generate lethal DNA photodamage by partially distinct mechanisms that reflect the different photolabilities of their C–I and C–Br bonds. Although singlet oxygen is involved in photolesion formation, DNA SBrdU and SIdU photoactivation does not detectably increase DNA 8-oxoguanine levels. The absence of significant collateral damage to normal guanine suggests that UVA activation of DNA SIdU or SBrdU might offer a strategy to target hyperproliferative skin conditions that avoids the extensive formation of a known mutagenic DNA lesion. PMID:25747491

  18. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Finkenstaedt, Felix W; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient's environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P spinal cord injury directly causes increased risk for bacterial infection in mice as well as in patients. Besides obvious motor and sensory paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS ('immune paralysis'), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in breast cancer patients during and 1 year after treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT...... with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil were followed before, during, 6 months and 1 year after CT and were compared to a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving adjuvant CT. RESULTS: During CT, oral mucosal lesions developed including erythema (n = 10, 22%) and ulceration...... (n = 7, 16%). Five patients (11%) were diagnosed with oral candidosis. Scores of dental bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation increased during CT and the oral microbial composition changed towards a more acidophilic flora. Taste disturbances were experienced by 84% (n = 38) of the patients...

  20. Evaluation of the chemical model of vestibular lesions induced by arsanilate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignaux, G.; Chabbert, C.; Gaboyard-Niay, S.; Travo, C.; Machado, M.L.; Denise, P.; Comoz, F.; Hitier, M.; Landemore, G.; Philoxène, B.; Besnard, S.

    2012-01-01

    Several animal models of vestibular deficits that mimic the human pathology phenotype have previously been developed to correlate the degree of vestibular injury to cognate vestibular deficits in a time-dependent manner. Sodium arsanilate is one of the most commonly used substances for chemical vestibular lesioning, but it is not well described in the literature. In the present study, we used histological and functional approaches to conduct a detailed exploration of the model of vestibular lesions induced by transtympanic injection of sodium arsanilate in rats. The arsanilate-induced damage was restricted to the vestibular sensory organs without affecting the external ear, the oropharynx, or Scarpa's ganglion. This finding strongly supports the absence of diffusion of arsanilate into the external ear or Eustachian tubes, or through the eighth cranial nerve sheath leading to the brainstem. One of the striking observations of the present study is the complete restructuring of the sensory epithelia into a non sensory epithelial monolayer observed at 3 months after arsanilate application. This atrophy resembles the monolayer epithelia observed postmortem in the vestibular epithelia of patients with a history of lesioned vestibular deficits such as labyrinthectomy, antibiotic treatment, vestibular neuritis, or Ménière's disease. In cases of Ménière's disease, aminoglycosides, and platinum-based chemotherapy, vestibular hair cells are destroyed, regardless of the physiopathological process, as reproduced with the arsanilate model of vestibular lesion. These observations, together with those presented in this study of arsanilate vestibular toxicity, suggest that this atrophy process relies on a common mechanism of degeneration of the sensory epithelia.

  1. Evaluation of the chemical model of vestibular lesions induced by arsanilate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaux, G. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Chabbert, C.; Gaboyard-Niay, S.; Travo, C. [INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34090,France (France); Machado, M.L. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Denise, P. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Comoz, F. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Hitier, M. [CHRU Caen, Service d' Otorhinolaryngologie, Caen, F-14000,France (France); Landemore, G. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Philoxène, B. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Besnard, S., E-mail: besnard-s@phycog.org [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France)

    2012-01-01

    Several animal models of vestibular deficits that mimic the human pathology phenotype have previously been developed to correlate the degree of vestibular injury to cognate vestibular deficits in a time-dependent manner. Sodium arsanilate is one of the most commonly used substances for chemical vestibular lesioning, but it is not well described in the literature. In the present study, we used histological and functional approaches to conduct a detailed exploration of the model of vestibular lesions induced by transtympanic injection of sodium arsanilate in rats. The arsanilate-induced damage was restricted to the vestibular sensory organs without affecting the external ear, the oropharynx, or Scarpa's ganglion. This finding strongly supports the absence of diffusion of arsanilate into the external ear or Eustachian tubes, or through the eighth cranial nerve sheath leading to the brainstem. One of the striking observations of the present study is the complete restructuring of the sensory epithelia into a non sensory epithelial monolayer observed at 3 months after arsanilate application. This atrophy resembles the monolayer epithelia observed postmortem in the vestibular epithelia of patients with a history of lesioned vestibular deficits such as labyrinthectomy, antibiotic treatment, vestibular neuritis, or Ménière's disease. In cases of Ménière's disease, aminoglycosides, and platinum-based chemotherapy, vestibular hair cells are destroyed, regardless of the physiopathological process, as reproduced with the arsanilate model of vestibular lesion. These observations, together with those presented in this study of arsanilate vestibular toxicity, suggest that this atrophy process relies on a common mechanism of degeneration of the sensory epithelia.

  2. Identification of potentially cytotoxic lesions induced by UVA photoactivation of DNA 4-thiothymidine in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reelfs, Olivier; Macpherson, Peter; Ren, Xiaolin; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Karran, Peter; Young, Antony R.

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy—in which a photosensitizing drug is combined with ultraviolet or visible radiation—has proven therapeutic effectiveness. Existing approaches have drawbacks, however, and there is a clinical need to develop alternatives offering improved target cell selectivity. DNA substitution by 4-thiothymidine (S4TdR) sensitizes cells to killing by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Here, we demonstrate that UVA photoactivation of DNA S4TdR does not generate reactive oxygen or cause direct DNA breakage and is only minimally mutagenic. In an organotypic human skin model, UVA penetration is sufficiently robust to kill S4TdR-photosensitized epidermal cells. We have investigated the DNA lesions responsible for toxicity. Although thymidine is the predominant UVA photoproduct of S4TdR in dilute solution, more complex lesions are formed when S4TdR-containing oligonucleotides are irradiated. One of these, a thietane/S5-(6-4)T:T, is structurally related to the (6-4) pyrimidine:pyrimidone [(6-4) Py:Py] photoproducts induced by UVB/C radiation. These lesions are detectable in DNA from S4TdR/UVA-treated cells and are excised from DNA more efficiently by keratinocytes than by leukaemia cells. UVA irradiation also induces DNA interstrand crosslinking of S4TdR-containing duplex oligonucleotides. Cells defective in repairing (6-4) Py:Py DNA adducts or processing DNA crosslinks are extremely sensitive to S4TdR/UVA indicating that these lesions contribute significantly to S4TdR/UVA cytotoxicity. PMID:21890905

  3. Fragile X Premutation Carrier Epidemiology and Symptomatology in Israel-Results from a Tertiary Child Developmental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabis, Lidia V; Gruber, Noah; Berkenstadt, Michal; Shefer, Shahar; Attia, Odelia Leon; Mula, Dana; Cohen, Yoram; Elizur, Shai E

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most prevalent known genetically inherited cause for autism and intellectual disability. Premutation state can cause several clinical disorders as well. We aimed to perform a nesting approach to acquire data with regard to first degree relatives of index fragile X cases at the largest child development center in Israel in order to map characteristics of Israeli FXS permutation women carriers. Seventy-nine women were referred due to a related fragile X syndrome patient, mainly an offspring or sibling. General information regarding demographics, ethnicity, and associated medical conditions were collected using interviews and structured questionnaires. Thirteen (17 %) of the women who were referred as "carrier" were proven to be actually full mutation. The mean years of education were 14 (±1.51, range 12-17). Twenty-one women (27 %) originated from Tunisia (mainly from the island of Djerba). Ten women (13 %) reported delivery of their affected offspring beyond 41 gestational weeks. Twenty-two percent of women with premutation reported symptoms consistent with learning difficulties, mainly dyscalculia, and 14 % reported ADHD symptoms. Awareness about clinical disorders of the carriers was existent only in 25 % of the patients. Increased awareness and knowledge dissemination concerning premutation symptomatology and associated medical conditions are warranted. We suggest a national registry to be installed in different countries in order to identify fragile X premutation carriers at increased risk for various medical complications.

  4. Protective effects of cannabidiol on lesion-induced intervertebral disc degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João W Silveira

    Full Text Available Disc degeneration is a multifactorial process that involves hypoxia, inflammation, neoinnervation, accelerated catabolism, and reduction in water and glycosaminoglycan content. Cannabidiol is the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa with protective and anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible therapeutic effects of cannabidiol on intervertebral disc degeneration have not been investigated yet. The present study investigated the effects of cannabidiol intradiscal injection in the coccygeal intervertebral disc degeneration induced by the needle puncture model using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analyses. Disc injury was induced in the tail of male Wistar rats via a single needle puncture. The discs selected for injury were punctured percutaneously using a 21-gauge needle. MRI and histological evaluation were employed to assess the results. The effects of intradiscal injection of cannabidiol (30, 60 or 120 nmol injected immediately after lesion were analyzed acutely (2 days by MRI. The experimental group that received cannabidiol 120 nmol was resubmitted to MRI examination and then to histological analyses 15 days after lesion/cannabidiol injection. The needle puncture produced a significant disc injury detected both by MRI and histological analyses. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the effects of disc injury induced by the needle puncture. Considering that cannabidiol presents an extremely safe profile and is currently being used clinically, these results suggest that this compound could be useful in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.

  5. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  6. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  7. Effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule on Angioneurotic Lesions in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王军; 高丽君; 郭永成

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Tang Mai Kang Capsule (糖脉康胶囊) on blood sugar level, gangrene of the tail-tip, pain threshold and learning and memory abilities were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that Tang Mai Kang Capsule could significantly decrease blood sugar level and incidence rate of gangrene of the tail-tip, increase pain threshold, and strengthen learning and memory abilities, suggesting that Tang Mai Kang Capsule functions to decrease blood sugar level and improve the complicated angioneurotic lesions of diabetes.

  8. Protective effect of ginsenoside Re on acute gastric mucosal lesion induced by compound 48/80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of ginsenoside Re, isolated from ginseng berry, against acute gastric mucosal lesions was examined in rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of compound 48/80 (C48/80. Ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg was orally administered 0.5 h prior to C48/80 treatment. Ginsenoside Re dose-dependently prevented gastric mucosal lesion development 3 h after C48/80 treatment. Increases in the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO; an index of neutrophil infiltration and xanthine oxidase (XO and the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an index of lipid peroxidation and decreases in the contents of hexosamine (a marker of gastric mucus and adherent mucus, which occurred in gastric mucosal tissues after C48/80 treatment, were significantly attenuated by ginsenoside Re. The elevation of Bax expression and the decrease in Bcl2 expression after C48/80 treatment were also attenuated by ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated all these changes 3 h after C48/80 treatment. These results indicate that orally administered ginsenoside Re protects against C48/80-induced acute gastric mucosal lesions in rats, possibly through its stimulatory action on gastric mucus synthesis and secretion, its inhibitory action on neutrophil infiltration, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in the gastric mucosal tissue.

  9. Effect of probiotics on the development of dimethylhydrazine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the mice colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Liboredo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of probiotics on the development of chemically induced (1, 2-dimethylhydrazine colonic preneoplastic lesions, in mice. METHODS: The animals were divided into five groups. The control group was injected with carcinogen alone and the other groups also received probiotics (1- Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV-H2b20; 2- Bifidobacterium animalis var. lactis Bb12; 3- L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 plus B. animalis var. lactis Bb12; and 4- Saccharomyces boulardii administered orally in drinking water throughout fourteen weeks. RESULTS: Consumption of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria alone resulted in a significant reduction of the total number of aberrant crypt foci (55.7% and 45.1%, respectively. Significant reduction in the number of these small foci (3 aberrant crypts crypts had no significant reduction. CONCLUSION: L. delbrueckii UFV-H2b20 and B. animalis var. lactis Bb12 administered alone protect colonic preneoplastic lesions in mice, while the combined treatment of these bacteria and the administration of S.boulardii were not effective in reducing such colonic lesions.

  10. Lung Function Impairment in Relation to Asbestos-Induced Pleural Lesions with Reference to the Extent of the Lesions and the Initial Parenchymal Fibrosis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebedová, J.; Dlouhá, B.; Rychlá, L.; Neuwirth, J.; Brabec, Marek; Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2003), s. 388-395 ISSN 0355-3140 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : asbestos exposure * asbestos-induced pleural lesion * asbestosis * lung function impairmentp * arenchymal fibrosis * pleural change * pleural thickening * ventilation impairment Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.816, year: 2003 http://www.jstor.org/stable/40967314

  11. Effect of radiomodifying agents on the ratios of X-ray-induced lesions in cellular DNA: use in lethal lesion determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of three radiomodifying agents, cysteamine, hyperthermia, and hypoxia, on the induction of the major classes of X-ray-induced DNA lesions, was studied using mouse L cells and Chinese hamster V79 cells. The use of filter elution techniques allowed most of these studies to be conducted at X-ray doses within the survival-curve range. Cysteamine was found to protect against DNA single-strand breakage (ssb), DNA base damage, and DNA-protein crosslinkage. Hyperthermia had no effect on the level of DNA ssb or DNA base damage, but in L cells (but not in V79 cells) it increased the level of DNA-protein crosslinkage relative to DNA ssb. Hypoxia protected against DNA ssb, had no significant effect on the level of DNA base damage, and enhanced the level of DNA-protein crosslinkage relative to DNA ssb. These results support the previous suggestion that the X-ray-induced lethal lesion is DNA double-strand breakage. Implications of these findings for the mechanisms of formation of X-ray-induced DNA lesions are also discussed. (author)

  12. Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pereira Müzell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the bioactive properties of an aqueous extract of M. officinalis for its anti-inflammatory activity and its protection against hepatic and renal lesions induced by acetaminophen (APAP. Animals pre-treated with the crude extract in pleurisy induced by carrageenan showed a reduction in the amounts of exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Intragastric administration of the extract for seven days prior to the APAP-induced lesion showed no protective effect on the liver. The treatment with the extract induced an increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase, indicating a rise of toxicity. Contrarily, the same treatment reduced the APAP induced lesion in kidney, with respect to ν-glutamyltransferase. The results suggested that the extract was not hepatoprotective and could lead to an increase in the lesions induced by the APAP. On the other hand, the extract was nephroprotective against the lesions induced by the APAP and showed an anti-inflammatory effect on pleurisy carrageenan-induced.

  13. [Terbinafine : Drug-induced lupus erythematodes and triggering of psoriatic skin lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P

    2016-09-01

    Based on the technical information that oral terbinafine must be used with caution in patients with pre-existing psoriasis or lupus erythematosus, the literature was summarized. Terbinafine belongs to the drugs able to induce subcutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE)-with a relatively high risk. The clinical picture of terbinafine-induced SCLE may be highly variable and can also include erythema exsudativum multiforme-like or bullous lesions. Thus, differentiation of terbinafine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis may be difficult. Therefore, terbinafine should be prescribed with caution in patients who show light sensitivity, arthralgias, positive antinuclear antibodies or have a history of SLE or SCLE. Case reports include wide-spread, but mostly nonlife-threatening courses, which did not require systemic therapy with steroids or antimalarials in every case. Terbinafine is also able to induce or to aggravate psoriasis. The latency period seems to be rather short (Terbinafine therefore is not first choice if a systemic therapy with antimycotics is indicated in a patient with psoriasis or psoriatic diathesis. Azole derivatives according to the guidelines may be used as an alternative.

  14. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  15. Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  16. Pre-existing Periapical Inflammatory Condition Exacerbates Tooth Extraction–induced BRONJ Lesions in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Alshaikh, Abdullah; Kim, Terresa; Kim, Sol; Dang, Michelle; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Kang, Mo; Park, No-Hee; Kim, Reuben H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical interventions such as tooth extraction increase a chance of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) in patients receiving bisphosphonates (BPs) for treatment of bone-related diseases. Tooth extraction is often performed to eliminate pre-existing pathological inflammatory conditions that make the tooth unsalvageable; however, the role of such conditions on bisphosphonate-related ONJ (BRONJ) development following tooth extraction is not clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of periapical periodontitis on tooth extraction-induced BRONJ development in mice. Methods Periapical periodontitis was induced by exposing the pulp of the maxillary first molar for 3 weeks in C57/BL6 mice that were intravenously administered with BP. The same tooth was extracted, and after 3 additional weeks, the mice were harvested for histological, histomorphometric, and histochemical staining analyses. Results Pulp exposure induced periapical radiolucency as demonstrated by increased inflammatory cells, TRAP+ osteoclasts, and bone resorption. When BP was administered, pulp exposure did not induce apical bone resorption despite the presence of inflammatory cells and TRAP+ osteoclasts. While tooth extraction alone induced BRONJ lesions, pulp exposure further increased tooth extraction-induced BRONJ development as demonstrated by the presence of more bone necrosis. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that pre-existing pathological inflammatory condition such as periapical periodontitis is a predisposing factor that may exacerbate BRONJ development following tooth extraction. Our study further provides a clinical implication whereby periapical periodontitis should be controlled before performing tooth extraction in BP-users in order to reduce the risk of developing BRONJ. PMID:27637460

  17. Neural control of locomotion and training-induced plasticity after spinal and cerebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knikou, Maria

    2010-10-01

    Standing and walking require a plethora of sensorimotor interactions that occur throughout the nervous system. Sensory afferent feedback plays a crucial role in the rhythmical muscle activation pattern, as it affects through spinal reflex circuits the spinal neuronal networks responsible for inducing and maintaining rhythmicity, drives short-term and long-term re-organization of the brain and spinal cord circuits, and contributes to recovery of walking after locomotor training. Therefore, spinal circuits integrating sensory signals are adjustable networks with learning capabilities. In this review, I will synthesize the mechanisms underlying phase-dependent modulation of spinal reflexes in healthy humans as well as those with spinal or cerebral lesions along with findings on afferent regulation of spinal reflexes and central pattern generator in reduced animal preparations. Recovery of walking after locomotor training has been documented in numerous studies but the re-organization of spinal interneuronal and cortical circuits need to be further explored at cellular and physiological levels. For maximizing sensorimotor recovery in people with spinal or cerebral lesions, a multidisciplinary approach (rehabilitation, pharmacology, and electrical stimulation) delivered during various sensorimotor constraints is needed. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation-induced osteochondroma-like lesion in young rat radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, E.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Serrada, A.; Tellez, M.; Paniagua, R.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effects of radiation on the perichondrial groove of Ranvier in osteochondroma development, the external surface of the distal growth plate of the radius in both forelimbs of 30 ten-day-old rats was exposed to a single low dose of radiation (150 r), which was focused on the perichondrial groove. This induced the formation of a chondrocyte nest at the proximal external edge of the growth plate (five to nine days after irradiation). With advancing longitudinal growth of the bone, the chondrocyte nest occupied a diaphyseal position. At nine to 11 days the chondrocyte nest underwent endochondral ossification. At 13-15 days, this osteochondroma-like lesion began to regress with the disappearance of the chondrocyte nest. After 19-21 days, only an irregularly thickened cortical bone remains at the osteochondroma site. Although the possible role of the growth plate subjacent to the irradiated perichondrial groove must be taken into account, the continuity between the perichondrial groove and the osteochondroma, which is separated from the growth plate by the periosteal ring (bone bark), suggests that the perichondrial groove was involved in osteochondroma-like lesion development

  19. Radiological protection optimization derived from radiation induced lesions in interventional cardiology finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Arranz, L.; Sastre, J.M.; Ferrer, N.

    1997-01-01

    Interventional Cardiology is one of the specialties in which patients are submitted to the greatest radiation doses with x ray systems used for diagnostic purposes and then, it is also a specialty of high occupational radiation risk. In the last years, several cases of radiation induced lesions produced on patients derived of new complex interventional procedures have been described. As consequence, different rules for avoiding this kind of incidents have been recommended by International Organisations and regulatory Bodies. Nevertheless it has been devoted relatively few attention to the evaluation of the occupational risks that inevitably are also high in these facilities. In this work, some cases of radioinduced skin lesions produced on patients submitted to cardiac ablation procedures are described. Radiological protection considerations of interest for the regulatory Bodies are made, that permit to minimize the probability of these incidents, in what to the X-rays equipment is referred as well as to the operation procedures and level of radiation protection training of the medical specialists. (author)

  20. Tumor-induced Osteomalacia in a 3-Year-Old With Unresectable Central Giant Cell Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, Stephanie S; Zambrano, Eduardo; Newman, Beverley; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Messner, Anna H; Bachrach, Laura K; Twist, Clare J

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare cause of hypophosphatemia involving overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23. TIO has been described largely in adults with small mesenchymal tumors. We report a case of TIO in a child who presented with knee pain and radiographic findings concerning for rickets, and was found to have maxillomandibular giant cell lesions. The patient was treated with oral phosphorus and calcitriol, surgical debulking, and intralesional corticosteroids, which resulted in tumor regression and normalization of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and phosphorus. This case illustrates the occurrence of this rare paraneoplastic syndrome in children and adds to our knowledge about clinical manifestations and pathologic findings associated with pediatric TIO.

  1. Repair of UVC induced DNA lesions in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdonas, E.; Zukas, K.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of UVC (254 nm) irradiation induced DNA single-strand breaks generated during the excision repair of UV induced DNA damage in erythrocytes from Carassius auratus gibelio were studied using alkaline comet assay. Nucleotide excision repair recognised DNA lesions such as UVC induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts and produced DNA single-stranded breaks that were easily detected by comet assay. After irradiation of erythrocytes with 58 j/m 2 UVC dose, there was an increase in comet tail moment (CTM) at 2 hours post-radiation, whereas at 4 hours post-radiation CTM decreased and did not differ significantly from the control level (P=0,127). When erythrocytes were exposed to 173 J/m 2 UVC dose, the excision repair delayed in the beginning (0 hours), reached maximum level at 2 hours post-radiation (CTM-54,8) and showed slightly decreased level at 4 hours post-radiation (CTM=18,5). (author)

  2. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS induces necrotizing enterocolitis-like lesions in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ginzel

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is an inflammatory bowel disease of preterm human newborns with yet unresolved etiology. An established neonatal murine model for NEC employs oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS combined with hypoxia/hypothermia. In adult mice, feeding dextran sodium sulfate (DSS represents a well-established model for experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Here we investigated the effect of DSS administration on the neonatal murine intestine in comparison with the established NEC model.3-day-old C57BL/6J mice were either fed formula containing DSS or LPS. LPS treated animals were additionally stressed by hypoxia/hypothermia twice daily. After 72 h, mice were euthanized, their intestinal tissue harvested and analyzed by histology, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. For comparison, adult C57BL/6J mice were fed with DSS for 8 days and examined likewise. Untreated, age matched animals served as controls.Adult mice treated with DSS exhibited colonic inflammation with significantly increased Cxcl2 mRNA expression. In contrast, tissue inflammation in neonatal mice treated with DSS or LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia was present in colon and small intestine as well. Comparative analysis of neonatal mice revealed a significantly increased lesion size and intestinal Cxcl2 mRNA expression after DSS exposure. Whereas LPS administration mainly induced local neutrophil recruitment, DSS treated animals displayed increased monocytes/macrophages infiltration.Our study demonstrates the potential of DSS to induce NEC-like lesions accompanied by a significant humoral and cellular immune response in the small and large intestine of neonatal mice. The new model therefore represents a good alternative to LPS plus hypoxia/hypothermia administration requiring no additional physical stress.

  3. [Secondary male hypogonadism induced by sellar space-occupying lesion: Clinical analysis of 22 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-Lei; Wang, Tao; Xu, Hao; Chen, Li-Ping; Rao, Ke; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Hui-Xing; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of secondary male hypogonadism induced by sellar space-occupying lesion, explore its pathogenesis, and improve its diagnosis and treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data about 22 cases of secondary male hypogonadism induced by sellar space-occupying lesion, reviewed related literature, and investigated the clinical manifestation, etiological factors, and treatment methods of the disease. Hypogonadism developed in 10 of the patients before surgery and radiotherapy (group A) and in the other 12 after it (group B). The patients received endocrine therapy with Andriol (n=7) or hCG (n=15). The average diameter of the sellar space-occupying lesions was significantly longer in group A than in B ([2.35±0.71] vs [1.83±0.36] cm, P<0.05) and the incidence rate of prolactinomas was markedly higher in the former than in the latter group (60% vs 0, P<0.01). The levels of lutein hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) were remarkably decreased in group B after surgery and radiotherapy (P<0.01). Compared with the parameters obtained before endocrine therapy, all the patients showed significant increases after intervention with Andriol or hCG in the T level ([0.78±0.40] vs [2.71±0.70] ng/ml with Andriol; [0.93±0.44] vs [3.07±0.67] ng/ml with hCG) and IIEF-5 score (5.00±2.61 vs 14.50±3.62 with Andriol; 5.36±1.82 vs 15.07±3.27 with hCG) (all P<0.01). The testis volume increased and pubic hair began to grow in those with hypoevolutism. The patients treated with hCG showed a significantly increased testis volume (P<0.01) and sperm was detected in 7 of them, whose baseline testis volume was markedly larger than those that failed to produce sperm ([11.5±2.3] vs [7.5±2.3] ml, P<0.01). Those treated with Andriol exhibited no significant difference in the testis volume before and after intervention and produced no sperm, either. Hypothyroidism might be attributed

  4. A Female Patient with FMR1 Premutation and Mosaic X Chromosome Aneuploidy and Two Sons with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, Ekaterina M; Tulupov, Andrey A; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Korostyshevskaya, Aleksandra M; Maksimova, Yuliya V; Shorina, Asia R; Savelov, Andrey A; Sergeeva, Irina G; Isanova, Evgeniya R; Grishchenko, Irina V; Yudkin, Dmitry V

    2017-03-01

    In this report, we describe a molecular cytogenetic study of a family burdened with intellectual disability (ID) and suicide. Our study revealed that the mother has a heterozygous premutation in the FMR1 gene and supernumerary X chromosomes as well as X-derived marker chromosomes. Both of her sons have ID and a normal chromosome number. One of the sons has fragile X syndrome, and the other has ID of an unclear nature.

  5. The effects of optimism, religion, and hope on mood and anxiety disorders in women with the FMR1 premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, E P; Tonnsen, B L; Bailey, D B; Roberts, J E

    2017-10-01

    The FMR1 premutation, caused by a CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion on the FMR1 gene, has been identified as a genetic risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders. Building on recent studies identifying increased risk for mood and affective disorders in this population, we examined effects of potential protective factors (optimism, religion, hope) on depression and anxiety diagnoses in a prospective, longitudinal cohort. Eighty-three women with the FMR1 premutation participated in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Disorders at two-time points, 3 years apart. Participants also completed measures of optimism, religion, personal faith, hope, and child and family characteristics. We used logistic regression to examine correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders at the initial assessment, as well as predictors of the diagnostic course over time. Lower optimism and higher religious participation relevant to fragile X syndrome at the initial assessment were associated with a lifetime history of MDD. Lower optimism also predicted the occurrence and reoccurrence of an anxiety disorder 3 years later. In women with the FMR1 premutation, elevated optimism may reduce the occurrence or severity of MDD and anxiety disorders. These findings underscore the importance of supporting mental health across the FMR1 spectrum of involvement. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Protective Effect of Repeatedly Preadministered Brazilian Propolis Ethanol Extract against Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg. The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. In addition, the repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WIRS. The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg in terms of the extent and manner of protection. From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  8. Association of matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1, -2 and -9 during periapical lesion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Natália Guimarães Kalatzis; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros; Silva, João Satana da; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Faria, Gisele

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its correlation with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-1, -2 and -9 during the development of periapical lesion in mice. Periapical lesions were induced in the lower first molars of mice and after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days the mandibles were removed. The periapical lesions were measured by micro-computed tomography. The expression of EMMPRIN, MMPs-1, -2, and -9 genes were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The location and expression of EMMPRIN and MMPs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. At 14 days, the periapical lesion area was higher than at 7 days. At 21 and 42 days no statistically significant bone loss was observed in comparison to 14 days. The control group showed discrete and occasional EMMPRIM, MMP-1, -2 and -9 immunostaining in the periodontal ligament fibroblasts. At 7, 14, 21 and 42 days intense immunoexpression was observed for EMMPRIN, MMPs-1, -2 and -9 in the region adjacent to the apical foramen. The EMMPRIN immunoexpression was higher at 7, 14, 21 and 42 days compared with the control. There was a positive correlation between gene expression of EMMPRIN and MMPs in the active phase of periapical lesion development. There is a high expression of EMMPRIM mainly by the inflammatory infiltrate in the region adjacent to the apical foramen during periapical lesion development. Furthermore, the positive correlation with MMP-1, -2, and -9 during the first days after periapical lesion induction indicates that EMMPRIM may be involved in the active phase of periapical lesions development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional Deficits Precede Structural Lesions in Mice With High-Fat Diet-Induced Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rithwick; Bligard, Gregory W; Zhang, Sheng; Yin, Li; Lukasiewicz, Peter; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity predisposes to human type 2 diabetes, the most common cause of diabetic retinopathy. To determine if high-fat diet-induced diabetes in mice can model retinal disease, we weaned mice to chow or a high-fat diet and tested the hypothesis that diet-induced metabolic disease promotes retinopathy. Compared with controls, mice fed a diet providing 42% of energy as fat developed obesity-related glucose intolerance by 6 months. There was no evidence of microvascular disease until 12 months, when trypsin digests and dye leakage assays showed high fat-fed mice had greater atrophic capillaries, pericyte ghosts, and permeability than controls. However, electroretinographic dysfunction began at 6 months in high fat-fed mice, manifested by increased latencies and reduced amplitudes of oscillatory potentials compared with controls. These electroretinographic abnormalities were correlated with glucose intolerance. Unexpectedly, retinas from high fat-fed mice manifested striking induction of stress kinase and neural inflammasome activation at 3 months, before the development of systemic glucose intolerance, electroretinographic defects, or microvascular disease. These results suggest that retinal disease in the diabetic milieu may progress through inflammatory and neuroretinal stages long before the development of vascular lesions representing the classic hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, establishing a model for assessing novel interventions to treat eye disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Oral Lesions Induced by Chronic Khat Use Consist Essentially of Thickened Hyperkeratinized Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiba Mohammed Lukandu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The habit of khat chewing is prevalent in many Middle Eastern and African cultures and has been associated with various adverse conditions in humans. This study aimed to describe histological changes induced by chronic khat chewing on the buccal mucosa. Methods. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa from 14 chronic khat chewers, 20 chronic khat chewers who also smoked tobacco, and 8 nonchewers were compared for epithelial thickness, degree and type of keratinization, and connective tissue changes. Results. Tissues from khat chewers depicted abnormal keratinization of the superficial cell layer and showed increased epithelial thickness affecting all layers. Epithelial thickness in control samples was 205 ± 26 μm whereas thickness in khat chewers and khat chewers who smoked tobacco was significantly higher measuring 330 ± 35 μm and 335 ± 19 μm, respectively. Tissues from khat chewers also showed increased intracellular edema, increased melanin pigment deposits, and increased number of rete pegs most of which were thin and deep. Conclusions. These results show that oral lesions induced by chronic chewing of khat in the buccal mucosa present with white and brown discoloration due to increased epithelial thickness, increased keratinization, and melanin deposition.

  11. Vestibular lesion-induced developmental plasticity in spinal locomotor networks during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Anna; Rao, Guillaume; Ladepeche, Laurent; Jacques, André; Simmers, John; Le Ray, Didier

    2013-01-01

    During frog metamorphosis, the vestibular sensory system remains unchanged, while spinal motor networks undergo a massive restructuring associated with the transition from the larval to adult biomechanical system. We investigated in Xenopus laevis the impact of a pre- (tadpole stage) or post-metamorphosis (juvenile stage) unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on young adult swimming performance and underlying spinal locomotor circuitry. The acute disruptive effects on locomotion were similar in both tadpoles and juvenile frogs. However, animals that had metamorphosed with a preceding UL expressed restored swimming behavior at the juvenile stage, whereas animals lesioned after metamorphosis never recovered. Whilst kinematic and electrophysiological analyses of the propulsive system showed no significant differences in either juvenile group, a 3D biomechanical simulation suggested that an asymmetry in the dynamic control of posture during swimming could account for the behavioral restoration observed in animals that had been labyrinthectomized before metamorphosis. This hypothesis was subsequently supported by in vivo electromyography during free swimming and in vitro recordings from isolated brainstem/spinal cord preparations. Specifically, animals lesioned prior to metamorphosis at the larval stage exhibited an asymmetrical propulsion/posture coupling as a post-metamorphic young adult. This developmental alteration was accompanied by an ipsilesional decrease in propriospinal coordination that is normally established in strict left-right symmetry during metamorphosis in order to synchronize dorsal trunk muscle contractions with bilateral hindlimb extensions in the swimming adult. Our data thus suggest that a disequilibrium in descending vestibulospinal information during Xenopus metamorphosis leads to an altered assembly of adult spinal locomotor circuitry. This in turn enables an adaptive compensation for the dynamic postural asymmetry induced by the vestibular imbalance

  12. Improvement of cerebral hypometabolism after resection of radiation-induced necrotic lesion in a patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yae; Hirata, Kenji; Nakayama, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Yoshida, Michiharu; Onodera, Shunsuke; Manabe, Osamu; Shiga, Tohru; Terae, Satoshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman underwent radiosurgery for a left cerebral hemisphere arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and developed radiation-induced necrosis causing a massive edema in the surrounding brain tissues. Despite various therapies, the edema expanded to the ipsilateral hemisphere and induced neurological symptoms. The radiation-induced necrotic lesion was surgically removed 4 years after radiosurgery. While the preoperative FDG PET revealed severe hypometabolism in the left cerebrum, the necrotomy significantly ameliorated the brain edema, glucose metabolism (postoperative FDG PET), and symptoms. This case indicates that radiation necrosis-induced neurological deficits may be associated with brain edema and hypometabolism, which could be reversed by appropriate necrotomy

  13. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianfoni, A.; Caulo, M.; Cerase, A.; Della Marca, G.; Falcone, C.; Di Lella, G.M.; Gaudino, S.; Edwards, J.; Colosimo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention

  14. Seizure-induced brain lesions: A wide spectrum of variably reversible MRI abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfoni, A., E-mail: acianfoni@hotmail.com [Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Italian Switzerland–Ospedale regionale Lugano, Via Tesserete 46, Lugano, 6900, CH (Switzerland); Caulo, M., E-mail: caulo@unich.it [Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, University of Chieti, Via dei Vestini 33, 6610 Chieti. Italy (Italy); Cerase, A., E-mail: alfonsocerase@gmail.com [Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention NINT, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico “Santa Maria alle Scotte”, V.le Bracci 16, Siena (Italy); Della Marca, G., E-mail: dellamarca@rm.unicatt.it [Neurology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Falcone, C., E-mail: carlo_falc@libero.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Di Lella, G.M., E-mail: gdilella@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Gaudino, S., E-mail: sgaudino@sirm.org [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy); Edwards, J., E-mail: edwardjc@musc.edu [Neuroscience Dept., Medical University of South Carolina, 96J Lucas st, 29425, Charleston, SC (United States); Colosimo, C., E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it [Radiology Dept., Catholic University of Rome, L.go F Vito 1, 00100, Rome (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction MRI abnormalities in the postictal period might represent the effect of the seizure activity, rather than its structural cause. Material and Methods Retrospective review of clinical and neuroimaging charts of 26 patients diagnosed with seizure-related MR-signal changes. All patients underwent brain-MRI (1.5-Tesla, standard pre- and post-contrast brain imaging, including DWI-ADC in 19/26) within 7 days from a seizure and at least one follow-up MRI, showing partial or complete reversibility of the MR-signal changes. Extensive clinical work-up and follow-up, ranging from 3 months to 5 years, ruled out infection or other possible causes of brain damage. Seizure-induced brain-MRI abnormalities remained a diagnosis of exclusion. Site, characteristics and reversibility of MRI changes, and association with characteristics of seizures were determined. Results MRI showed unilateral (13/26) and bilateral abnormalities, with high (24/26) and low (2/26) T2-signal, leptomeningeal contrast-enhancement (2/26), restricted diffusion (9/19). Location of abnormality was cortical/subcortical, basal ganglia, white matter, corpus callosum, cerebellum. Hippocampus was involved in 10/26 patients. Reversibility of MRI changes was complete in 15, and with residual gliosis or focal atrophy in 11 patients. Reversibility was noted between 15 and 150 days (average, 62 days). Partial simple and complex seizures were associated with hippocampal involvement (p = 0.015), status epilepticus with incomplete reversibility of MRI abnormalities (p = 0.041). Conclusions Seizure or epileptic status can induce transient, variably reversible MRI brain abnormalities. Partial seizures are frequently associated with hippocampal involvement and status epilepticus with incompletely reversible lesions. These seizure-induced MRI abnormalities pose a broad differential diagnosis; increased awareness may reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and unnecessary intervention.

  15. The role of thymus-dependent T cells in hexachlorobenzene-induced inflammatory skin and lung lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, CCPPC; Bloksma, N; Klatter, FA; Rozing, J; Vos, JG; van Dijk, JE

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of thymus-dependent T cells in the inflammatory skin and lung lesions and spleen effects induced by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was investigated by using genetically athymic and euthymic WAG/Rij rats and Brown Norway (BN) rats with or without depletion of T cells by adult thymectomy,

  16. Systemic sclerosis complicated with localized scleroderma-like lesions induced by Köbner phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Ryosuke; Asano, Yoshihide; Yamashita, Takashi; Takahashi, Takehiro; Nakamura, Kouki; Miura, Shunsuke; Ichimura, Yohei; Toyama, Tetsuo; Taniguchi, Takashi; Sumida, Hayakazu; Tamaki, Zenshiro; Miyazaki, Miki; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Sato, Shinichi

    2018-03-01

    Scleroderma is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by skin fibrosis and is divided into two clinical entities: systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LSc). In general, LSc is rarely complicated with SSc, but a certain portion of SSc patients manifests bilateral symmetric LSc-like lesions on the trunk and extremities. We investigated SSc patients with LSc-like lesions to clarify the underlying pathophysiology. Nine SSc cases complicated with LSc-like lesions were clinically and histologically characterized. SSc patients with LSc-like lesions exhibited multiple progressive hyper- and/or hypo-pigmented plaques with mild sclerosis symmetrically distributed on the trunk and extremities, especially abdominal region. In histological assessment, epidermal IL-1α expression was elevated in both forearms and LSc-like lesions of these patients to a greater extent than in forearms of control patients (SSc patients without LSc-like lesions). Of note, the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells were evident throughout the dermis of LSc-like lesions, while detectable to a lesser extent in forearms of SSc patients with LSc-like lesions and control patients. The epidermis of SSc patients with LSc-like lesions seems to possess an inflammatory phenotype, leading to the activation of mast cells in the dermis of mechanically stressed skin. Köbner phenomenon may be involved in the induction of LSc-like lesions in a certain subset of SSc. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 escorts XPC to UV-induced DNA lesions during nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Mihaela; Shah, Rashmi G; Purohit, Nupur K; Zhou, Pengbo; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Shah, Girish M

    2017-08-15

    Xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein initiates the global genomic subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) for removal of UV-induced direct photolesions from genomic DNA. The XPC has an inherent capacity to identify and stabilize at the DNA lesion sites, and this function is facilitated in the genomic context by UV-damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which is part of a multiprotein UV-DDB ubiquitin ligase complex. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has been shown to facilitate the lesion recognition step of GG-NER via its interaction with DDB2 at the lesion site. Here, we show that PARP1 plays an additional DDB2-independent direct role in recruitment and stabilization of XPC at the UV-induced DNA lesions to promote GG-NER. It forms a stable complex with XPC in the nucleoplasm under steady-state conditions before irradiation and rapidly escorts it to the damaged DNA after UV irradiation in a DDB2-independent manner. The catalytic activity of PARP1 is not required for the initial complex formation with XPC in the nucleoplasm but it enhances the recruitment of XPC to the DNA lesion site after irradiation. Using purified proteins, we also show that the PARP1-XPC complex facilitates the handover of XPC to the UV-lesion site in the presence of the UV-DDB ligase complex. Thus, the lesion search function of XPC in the genomic context is controlled by XPC itself, DDB2, and PARP1. Our results reveal a paradigm that the known interaction of many proteins with PARP1 under steady-state conditions could have functional significance for these proteins.

  18. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  19. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p cycle.

  20. Prevalence of carriers of premutation-size alleles of the FMR1 gene-and implications for the population genetics of the fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, F.; Rouillard, P.; Morel, M.L. [Universite Laval, Quebec City (Canada)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the second leading cause of mental retardation after Down syndrome. Fragile X premutations are not associated with any clinical phenotype but are at high risk of expanding to full mutations causing the disease when they are transmitted by a carrier woman. There is no reliable estimate of the prevalence of women who are carriers of fragile X premutations. We have screened 10,624 unselected women by Southern blot for the presence of FMR1 premutation alleles and have confirmed their size by PCR analysis. We found 41 carriers of alleles with 55-101 CGG repeats, a prevalence of 1/259 women (95% confidence interval 1/373-1/198). Thirty percent of these alleles carry an inferred haplotype that corresponds to the most frequent haplotype found in fragile X males and may indeed constitute premutations associated with a significant risk of expansion on transmission by carrier women. We identified another inferred haplotype that is rare in both normal and fragile X chromosomes but that is present on 13 (57%) of 23 chromosomes carrying FMR1 alleles with 53-64 CGG repeats. This suggests either (1) that this haplotype may be stable or (2) that the associated premutation-size alleles have not yet reached equilibrium in this population and that the incidence of fragile X syndrome may increase in the future. 42 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Virtual lesions of the inferior parietal cortex induce fast changes of implicit religiousness/spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Aglioti, Salvatore M; Fabbro, Franco; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-05-01

    Religiousness and spirituality (RS) are two ubiquitous aspects of human experience typically considered impervious to scientific investigation. Nevertheless, associations between RS and frontoparietal neural activity have been recently reported. However, much less is known about whether such activity is causally involved in modulating RS or just epiphenomenal to them. Here we combined two-pulse (10 Hz) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) with a novel, ad-hoc developed RS-related, Implicit Association Test (IAT) to investigate whether implicit RS representations, although supposedly rather stable, can be rapidly modified by a virtual lesion of inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A self-esteem (SE) IAT, focused on self-concepts nonrelated to RS representations, was developed as control. A specific increase of RS followed inhibition of IPL demonstrating its causative role in inducing fast plastic changes of religiousness/spirituality. In contrast, DLPFC inhibition had more widespread effects probably reflecting a general role in the acquisition or maintenance of task-rules or in controlling the expression of self-related representations not specific to RS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photoreactivation reverses ultraviolet radition induced premutagenic lesions leading to frameshift mutations in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo

    1985-01-01

    The effect of photoreactivation of the ultraviolet radiation induced reversion of a trpE9777 frameshift mutation was studied in a uvr A6 derivative of Escherichia coli K12. Two different photoreactivation treatments were used, one providing a single flash of photoreactivating light and another providing 10 min of light from fluorescent lamps. The reversion frequency of the trpE9777 frameshift mutation was strongly reduced when subsueqently exposed to visible light. The dose modification factor (the ratio of equally effective doses), for cells challenged with single-flash photoreactivation, for survival and induction of reversion to Trp + was 3.6 and 3.4, respectively. UV induction of RecA protein synthesis was not reversed by a single flash of photoreactivation. The dose modification factor for 10 min of fluorescent lamp photoreactivation for survival and for induction of reversion to Trp + was 6.5 and 6.3, respectively. The dose modification factor for 10 min of photoreactivation for induction of RecA protein was 1.7-2.5. Photoreactivation decreased the reversion of trpE9777 and increased survival to the same extent. We concluded that cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers are the premutagenic lesions of UV mutagenesis of the trpE9777 allele in a uvr A6 background. (orig.)

  3. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced lesions of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miholic, J.; Schwarz, C.; Moeschl, P.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-six operations for late sequelae of radiotherapy were carried out in 31 patients from 1971 to 1986. The most frequent indications for surgery were stricture (58 percent) and fistula (29 percent). In the first 8 year period from 1971 through 1978, 13 of 14 operations were diversions (colostomy or by-pass). From 1979 through 1986, a more aggressive approach prevailed. Only 32 percent of the operations were diversions. This more aggressive strategy was accompanied by a decrease of the postoperative mortality rate from 21 percent through 1978 to 0 in the later period. The overall complication rate was 23 percent. Complications were relatively more frequent after two-layer sutured or stapled anastomoses and after resection or fistula closure without temporary colostomy. We conclude that in radiation-induced colonic and rectal lesions, diversion should be performed in patients with unproved cure of disease or tumor persistence. Resection and fistula closure can be carried out safely, and a temporary colostomy is strongly recommended

  4. Laser-induced fluorescence studies of premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, Claes; Wang, Ingrid; Lindquist, Charlotta; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Svanberg, Katarina

    1997-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was studied in vivo from premalignant and benign lesions in the female genital tract, in particular the cervix. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibilities to differentiate cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from normal tissue by means of two different fluorescence modalities. Most of the patients were given a low dose (5 mg/kg bw) of (delta) -amino levulinic acid (ALA). The ALA was orally administered 2 - 4 hours prior to the investigation. During this time, the ALA is transformed to the strongly fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) via the haem cycle. Excitation light with a wavelength of 405 nm was used to excite the PpIX fluorescence. Excess amounts of PpIX were accumulated preferentially in diseased tissue. However, the variability in the PpIX accumulation from patient to patient was large. By using excitation light at 337 nm, the endogenous fluorophores are more efficiently excited. Therefore, this excitation modality was exploited for studying spectral characteristics of the autofluorescence in different tissue types. The spectra obtained were evaluated by forming fluorescence intensity ratios. The tissue types were grouped according to the histopathological examination. A correlation with the fluorescence ratios was performed. Some problems with the classification remain, mostly due to the difficulties in obtaining histopathologic evaluation of the biopsies at the exact location of the LIF measurements.

  5. Learning tasks as a possible treatment for DNA lesions induced by oxidative stress in hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DragoCrneci; Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in conditions ranging from cardiovascular dysfunc-tion, arthritis, cancer, to aging and age-related disorders. The organism developed several path-ways to counteract these effects, with base excision repair being responsible for repairing one of the major base lesions (8-oxoG) in al organisms. Epidemiological evidence suggests that cognitive stimulation makes the brain more resilient to damage or degeneration. Recent studies have linked enriched environment to reduction of oxidative stressin neurons of mice with Alzheimer’s dis-ease-like disease, but given its complexity it is not clear what specific aspect of enriched environ-ment has therapeutic effects. Studies from molecular biology have shown that the protein p300, which is a transcription co-activator required for consolidation of memories during specific learning tasks, is at the same time involved in DNA replication and repair, playing a central role in the long-patch pathway of base excision repair. Based on the evidence, we propose that learning tasks such as novel object recognition could be tested as possible methods of base excision repair faci-litation, hence inducing DNA repair in the hippocampal neurons. If this method proves to be effective, it could be the start for designing similar tasks for humans, as a behavioral therapeutic complement to the classical drug-based therapy in treating neurodegenerative disorders. This review presents the current status of therapeutic methods used in treating neurodegenerative diseases induced by reactive oxygen species and proposes a new approach based on existing data.

  6. Altered structural brain connectome in young adult fragile X premutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Alex; Harvey, Danielle; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J; Gadelkarim, Johnson; Kumar, Anand; Zhan, Liang; Rivera, Susan M; Simon, Tony J

    2014-09-01

    Fragile X premutation carriers (fXPC) are characterized by 55-200 CGG trinucleotide repeats in the 5' untranslated region on the Xq27.3 site of the X chromosome. Clinically, they are associated with the fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome, a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder with diffuse white matter neuropathology. Here, we conducted first-ever graph theoretical network analyses in fXPCs using 30-direction diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images acquired from 42 healthy controls aged 18-44 years (HC; 22 male and 20 female) and 46 fXPCs (16 male and 30 female). Globally, we found no differences between the fXPCs and HCs within each gender for all global graph theoretical measures. In male fXPCs, global efficiency was significantly negatively associated with the number of CGG repeats. For nodal measures, significant group differences were found between male fXPCs and male HCs in the right fusiform and the right ventral diencephalon (for nodal efficiency), and in the left hippocampus [for nodal clustering coefficient (CC)]. In female fXPCs, CC in the left superior parietal cortex correlated with counting performance in an enumeration task. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. EXERCISE-INDUCED SYMPATHETIC FFA MOBILIZATION IN VMH-LESIONED RATS IS NORMALIZED BY FASTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Dijk, G. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    This study investigates whether reduced sympathetic responses during physical exercise in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned obese rats are the direct result of damage to hypothalamic circuits or a secondary effect of the altered metabolism in obesity. Obese, VMH-lesioned rats and lean

  8. The role of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Yuanita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periapical lesions, are characterized by an immune response to the invading bacteria consequences periapical bone destruction. In root canal treatment failure was found Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis as most species. iNOS found an important role in protection against infection, plays vital roles in fighting pathogens and contributing to disease pathology. Purpose: This study was to observed the role of iNOS in teeth periapical lessions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis. Methods: The randomized post-only control group design used in this study, This study used 24 Wistar rats, were divided into three groups (each group consisted of 8 rats, as negative controls group is a normal teeth, in the positive controls group was made by drilling the upper right first molar to penetrate the dental pulp and was induced with 10µl BHI-b then filled with Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC and the treatment group, after drilling the teeth, then inoculated with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 106 CFU into 10µl BHI-b then filled with GIC to prevent contamination. It takes 21 days to get periapical lesions and rat were sacrificed, and then the expression of iNOS was measured. Results: Statistical analysis using ANOVA found a significant differenced between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that iNOS role in teeth periapical lesions immunopathogenesis caused by E. faecalis.Latar belakang: Lesi periapikal merupakan hasil suatu respon imun untuk melawan invasi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi tulang periapikal. Pada perawatan saluran akar yang mengalami kegagalan ditemukan Enterococcus faecalis sebagai spesies terbanyak. iNOS berperan penting untuk proteksi terhadap bakteri, mempunyai peran yang vital untuk melawan patogen dan berkonstribusi secara patologik untuk menyebabkan suatu penyakit. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengobservasi peran iNOS secara imunohistokimia pada lesi periapikal tikus Wistar. Metode

  9. Laser induced biostimulation: A possible healing prospect in endo-perio lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithra N Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The health of the tooth is governed by both endodontic tissue and periodontal apparatus. "Endo-perio lesion" is the term used to describe the lesions in which inflammatory products involves both pulpal and periodontal tissues in varying degrees. The disease of endodontium may lead to the involvement of the periodontium and vice versa. Endo-perio lesions are the clinical conditions that are often difficult to diagnose and persistent if not treated appropriately. Lasers have been used successfully in endodontic as well as periodontal procedures. With endodontic treatment alone, only part of the lesion will heal to the level of the secondary periodontal lesion. Overall prognosis depends upon the severity of periodontal damage and the efficacy of the periodontal treatment. Laser can be considered as an efficacious tool and an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy both for its decontaminating and biostimulating effects.

  10. The role of food for the formation and prevention of gastrointestinal lesions induced by aspirin in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2013-10-01

    The effects of feeding conditions (fasted or fed) and dietary fiber (DF) in the diet on gastrointestinal (GI) damage induced by aspirin (ASA) were examined in cats. Plain ASA (P-ASA, 20 mg/kg) or one enteric-coated ASA tablet (EC-ASA, containing 100 mg ASA) was administered p.o. once daily for 3 or 7 days just after morning meal, 3 h after the evening meal, or in the morning without a morning meal (fasted). Several types of diet, dry food (DRY, DF: 2.8 %), canned food (CAN, DF: 0.4 %), and diets with added cellulose or pectin were provided twice daily. P-ASA or EC-ASA administered just after feeding of DRY caused marked lesions in the GI tract, although EC-ASA did not produce any lesions in the stomach. GI damage was markedly decreased when ASA was administered 3 h after the evening meal. The induction of lesions by EC-ASA was markedly decreased in cats that ate CAN, but lesions were induced in cats fed CAN with added cellulose (6 %). The addition of pectin (6 %) to the DRY markedly decreased the induction of lesions by EC-ASA. The results indicate that the induction of GI lesions by ASA was highly dependent on the feeding conditions and DF. To minimize the induction of GI damage, it would be better to take ASA 3 h after the evening meal, or after consuming diets that contain low amounts of insoluble DF and high amounts of soluble DF.

  11. Hyperactivity induced by stimulation of separate dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in rats with bilateral 6-OHDA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnt, J

    1985-08-26

    The effects of DA agonists and antagonists with different dopamine (DA) D-1 and D-2 receptor selectivity have been studied in rats with bilateral 6-OHDA lesions. The D-1 agonist SK & F 38393, the D-2 agonist pergolide and the mixed agonist apomorphine all induced marked hyperactivity in lesioned rats in doses which were without stimulant effect in sham-operated animals. The hyperactivity induced by SK & F 38393 was blocked by the DA D-1 antagonist SCH 23390, but unaffected by the D-2 antagonists spiroperidol or clebopride. Pergolide-induced hyperactivity showed the reverse selectivity. The mixed D-1/D-2 antagonists, cis(Z)-flupentixol and cis(Z)-clopenthixol, however blocked the effect of both agonists. Apomorphine-induced hyperactivity was neither blocked by selective D-1 nor D-2 antagonists, but was dose-dependently inhibited by cis(Z)-flupentixol and cis(Z)-clopenthixol. Potent blockade was also obtained by combined treatment with SCH 23390 and spiroperidol, indicating the need of blocking both D-1 and D-2 receptors simultaneously. The results indicate that D-1 and D-2 receptor function can be independently manipulated in denervated rats and they confirm similar results obtained in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions using circling behaviour.

  12. An in vitro comparison of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and spectrophotometer on monitoring artificial white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) compared to a spectrophotometer in monitoring progression of enamel lesions. To generate artificial caries with various severities of lesion depths, twenty bovine specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 40 days. During the production of the lesions, repeat measurements of fluorescence loss (ΔF) and color change (ΔE) were performed in six distinct stages after the demineralization of the specimens: after 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of exposure to the demineralizing solution. Changes in the ΔF values in the lesions were analyzed using the QLF-D, and changes in the ΔE values in lesions were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. The repeated measures ANOVA of ΔF and ΔE values were used to determine whether there are significant differences at different exposure times in the demineralizing solution. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was analyzed between ΔF and ΔE. The ΔF values significantly decreased based on the demineralizing period (pmonitoring color changes. Our findings demonstrate that QLF-D are a more efficient and stable tool for early caries detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gypenosides attenuate the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Keon Sung; Zhao, Ting Ting; Park, Keun Hong; Park, Hyun Jin; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Chong Kil; Lee, Myung Koo

    2015-04-21

    Gypenosides (GPS) and ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) show anxiolytic effects on affective disorders in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Long-term administration of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) leads to the development of severe motor side effects such as L-DOPA-induced-dyskinesia (LID) in PD. The present study investigated the effects of GPS and GP-EX on LID in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of PD. Daily administration of L-DOPA (25 mg/kg) in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD for 22 days induced expression of LID, which was determined by the body and locomotive AIMs scores and contralateral rotational behaviors. However, co-treatments of GPS (25 and 50 mg/kg) or GP-EX (50 mg/kg) with L-DOPA significantly attenuated the development of LID without compromising the anti-parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA. In addition, the increases in ∆FosB expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats induced by L-DOPA administration were significantly reduced by co-treatment with GPS (25 and 50 mg/kg) or GP-EX (50 mg/kg). These results suggest that GPS (25 and 50 mg/kg) and GP-EX (50 mg/kg) effectively attenuate the development of LID by modulating the biomarker activities of ∆FosB expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. GPS and GP-EX will be useful adjuvant therapeutics for LID in PD.

  14. Dotted collar placed around carotid artery induces asymmetric neointimal lesion formation in rabbits without intravascular manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivelä Antti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium. Methods We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods. Results When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point. Conclusion The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.

  15. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes in nonneoplastic breast lesions. Possible pitfalls in cytodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterse, J.L.; Thunnissen, F.B.; van Heerde, P.

    1989-01-01

    The range of radiation-induced changes in fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast is described. In 41 of more than 800 patients who underwent breast-conserving treatment, a palpable breast lesion developed, and FNA was performed. In six cases, a recurrent carcinoma was present. In the remaining cases, three patterns of nonneoplastic lesions could be discerned: epithelial atypia (14 cases), fat necrosis (10 cases) and poorly cellular smears without epithelial atypia or fat necrosis (13 cases). It is important to be familiar with the patterns of radiation-induced epithelial atypia, since such atypia may lead to a misdiagnosis of recurrent carcinoma. These atypical cells may show impressive anisocytosis and anisonucleosis; however, the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio remains normal and an admixture of bipolar cells is present. Cell dissociation and necrotic cell debris, as often seen in breast cancer smears, were never encountered in FNA smears from radiated nonneoplastic breasts

  17. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. DNA damage and mutagenesis of lambda phage induced by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Heidi

    1988-01-01

    Lambda phage DNA was gamma irradiated in aqueous solution and strand breakage determined. Twice as much minor structural damage per lethal hit was found in this DNA compared with DNA from irradiated phage suspensions. The in vitro irradiated DNA was repackaged into infectious particles. Induction of mutations in the cI or cII cistron was scored using SOS-induced host cells. In vitro prepared particles were found to have second-order kinetics for mutagenesis induced by gamma rays indicating two pre-mutational events were necessary to produce a mutation, but bacteria-free phage suspensions ('lys-phage') showed single hit kinetics for mutagenesis after irradiation. Increase in the mutation rate in the phage particles was mainly due to minor lesions, i.e. ssb, als and unidentified base damage. In lys-phage, mutagenesis might be enhanced by clustered DNA damage - configuration not existing in pack-phage. Loss of infectivity was analysed in comparison with structural damage. All lesions contributed to biological inactivation. Minor lesions were tolerated by lambda phage to a limited extent. Major lesions (e.g. dsb) contributed most to infectivity loss and were considered lethal events. (U.K.)

  19. Male carriers of the FMR1 premutation show altered hippocampal-prefrontal function during memory encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI (fMRI studies have shown that fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 premutation allele carriers (FXPCs exhibit decreased hippocampal activation during a recall task and lower inferior frontal activation during a working memory task compared to matched controls. The molecular characteristics of FXPCs includes 55 to 200 CGG trinucleoutide expansions, increased FMR1 mRNA levels, and decreased FMRP levels especially at higher repeat sizes. In the current study, we utilized MRI to examine differences in hippocampal volume and function during an encoding task in young male FXPCs. While no decreases in either hippocampal volume or hippocampal activity were observed during the encoding task in FXPCs, FMRP level (measured in blood correlated with decreases in parahippocampal activation. In addition, activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during correctly encoded trials correlated negatively with mRNA levels. These results, as well as the established biological effects associated with elevated mRNA levels and decreased FMRP levels on dendritic maturation and axonal growth, prompted us to explore functional connectivity between the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. In FXPCs, the right hippocampus evinced significantly lower connectivity with right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and right parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, the weaker connectivity between the right hippocampus and VLPFC was associated with reduced FMRP in the FXPC group. These results suggest that while FXPCs show relatively typical brain response during encoding, faulty connectivity between frontal and hippocampal regions may have subsequent effects on recall and working memory.

  20. Influence of very short patch mismatch repair on SOS inducing lesions after aminoglycoside treatment in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Zeynep; Mazel, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Low concentrations of aminoglycosides induce the SOS response in Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli. In order to determine whether a specific factor present in E. coli prevents this induction, we developed a genetic screen where only SOS inducing mutants are viable. We identified the vsr gene coding for the Vsr protein of the very short patch mismatch repair (VSPR) pathway. The effect of mismatch repair (MMR) mutants was also studied. We propose that lesions formed upon aminoglycoside treatment are preferentially repaired by VSPR without SOS induction in E. coli and by MMR when VSPR is impaired. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastroprotective effect of diligustilide isolated from roots of Ligusticum porteri coulter & rose (Apiaceae) on ethanol-induced lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Moyado, Josué A; Martínez-González, Alejandro; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Mata, Rachel; Navarrete, Andrés

    2015-11-04

    The rhizome of Ligusticum porteri Coulter& Rose (LP) has been traditionally used by the ethnic group Raramuri in the North of México for treatment of diabetes, tuberculosis, stomachaches, diarrhea and ritual healing ceremonies. It is use as antiulcer remedy has been extended to all Mexico. To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of LP organic extracts and the major natural product diligustilide (DLG),using as experimental model the inhibition of the ethanol-induced lesions in rats. Gastric ulcers were induced by intragastric instillation of absolute ethanol (1 mL). We tested the gastroprotective activity of the organic extracts of LP and the pure compound DLG. The ulcer index (UI) was determined to measure the activity. In order to elucidate the action mechanism of DLG the animals were treated with L-NAME, N-ethylmalemide, Forskolin, 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, Indomethacin, Glibenclameide, Diazoxide, NaHS and DL-Propargylglycine. The pylorus-ligated rat model was used to measure gastric secretion. The oral administration of organic extracts of Ligusticum porteri showed gastroprotective effect at 30 mg/Kg on ethanol induced gastric lesions; hexane and dichloromethane extracts were the most active. DLG was the major compound in the hexane extract. This compound at 10 mg/kg prevented significantly the gastric injuries induced by ethanol. The alkylation of endogenous non-protein-SH groups with N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotective effect of DLG and blocking the formation of endogenous prostaglandins by the pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the gastroprotective effect of DLG. The gastroprotective activity demonstrated in this study tends to support the ethnomedical use of Ligusticum porteri roots. DLG, isolated as major compound of this medicinal plant has a clear gastroprotective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The results suggest that the antiulcer activity of DLG depends on the participation of the endogenous non-protein -SH groups

  2. Evidence for a role of orexin/hypocretin system in vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of arsanilate- or 3, 3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN-induced vestibular lesion (AVL or IVL on the orexin-A (OXA labeling in rat hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. The vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities were recorded and verified using a histamine H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 (20 mg/kg, i.p.. The effects of the orexin receptor type 1 antagonist SB334867 (16 μg, i.c.v. on these behavior responses were also investigated. At 72 h post-AVL and IVL, animals exhibited vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity in the home cages. These responses were significantly alleviated by JNJ7777120 which also eliminated AVL-induced increases in exploratory behavior in an open field. The numbers of OXA-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in the AVL animals at 72 h post-AVL and in the IVL animals at 24, 48 and 72 h post-IVL. SB334867 significantly attenuated the vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity at 72 h post-AVL and IVL. It also decreased exploratory behavior in the AVL animals. These results suggested that the alteration of OXA expression might contribute to locomotor abnormalities after acute vestibular lesion. The orexin receptors might be the potential therapeutic targets for vestibular disorders.

  3. Treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among girls aged 5 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Alumeti, Desiré; Himpens, Jacques; Cadière, Guy-Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among young girls. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from girls aged 5 years or younger who were treated for sexual-assault-related injuries at the General Referral Hospital, Panzi, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2014. Data were obtained from review of charts, records of the mother's impressions and physical examinations, and photographic evidence. Elective surgery had been reserved for patients experiencing fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Overall, 205 girls aged 5 years or younger presented with rape injuries: 162 (79.1%) had only mucocutaneous lesions, 22 (10.7%) had musculocutaneous lesions, and 21 (10.2%) had musculocutaneous lesions complicated by fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among the 21 girls who underwent perineal surgery, two with fecal and urinary incontinence and perforation of the peritoneum of Douglas pouch were additionally treated by laparoscopy. Among 16 patients with fecal incontinence, the continence score had improved significantly at 10.4 months after surgery (Prape survivors aged 5 years or younger, a treatment strategy by which surgery is reserved for incontinent patients provided good cosmetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective brain lesions reduce morphine- and radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The apparent resemblance between the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed after either an injection of morphine or irradiation of the C57BL/6J mouse has suggested the possibility of similar biochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of these behaviors. In this study the authors made selective brain lesions in an attempt to reverse the locomotor response observed after morphine (30 mg/kg) or radiation (1500 rads /sup 60/Co) treatments. Lesions impinging on both the dorso-medial caudate and lateral septal nuclei caused a significant decrease in morphine-induced and radiogenic locomotion. Lesions of the individual brain areas did not significantly alter the opiate locomotor response. This reduction in locomotion could not be attributed to a generalized post-surgical lethargy since other brain lesions of similar size did not significantly suppress these behaviors. These data suggest the possibility of some common central nervous system mechanisms which may support the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after either morphine or radiation treatment

  5. Synthesis of modified oligonucleotides that contain purine and pyrimidine radio-induced base lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Different factors as oxidizing or carcinogenesis agents, UV and ionizing radiations,.... can generate a wide, spectrum of DNA base damages. In order to study the biochemical and structural features of these DNA damages, it is important to prepare short DNA fragments (20 to 50 bases long) bearing a single or several modifications at specific sites in their sequences. The chemical synthesis is a powerful tool to prepare such modified DNA fragments. This work focusses on the chemical incorporation of several modified nucleosides formed in DNA by ionizing radiations or by photo-sensitization. The first part of this study describes the preparation of a phosphoramidite synthon of 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine and its subsequent incorporation into synthetic oligonucleotides ranging from 14 to 33 bases long. In a second part (chapters Ill and IV), the synthesis and incorporation of original radiation-induced tandem lesions: the carbon-bridged cyclo-nucleosides are presented. Both (5'R)- and (5'S) diastereomers of 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine and 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine have been individually inserted into various different oligonucleotides (3 to 22 bases long) by using the standard phosphoramidite chemistry. The chemical incorporation of a pyrimidine analogue: (5'S, 6S)-5',6-cyclo-5,6-dihydro-thymidine has been also achieved. The loss of aromaticity of this modified nucleoside and its poor reactivity required the development of a synthetic strategy entirely different from that used for the preparation and subsequent incorporation of the phosphoramidite synthons of 5',8-cyclo-purine-2'-deoxyribo-nucleosides. The third part of this study deals with the synthesis of a phosphoramidite synthon of 4-hydroxy-8-oxo-4,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. The two (4R)- and (4S)- diastereomers of this oxidized purine have been separated and individually inserted in several synthetic DNA fragments. No epimerization of C-4 position was observed during the solid-phase synthesis and during the

  6. Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L.

    1989-01-01

    Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

  7. Use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive in rat liver induced lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Orlando José dos; Marques, Giancarlo de Souza; Sauaia Filho, Euler Nicolau; Frota, Gustavo Medeiros; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the healing process of rat traumatic liver lesion corrected with the use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive, compared to the use of biologically absorbable chromed catgut thread suture. Thirty mail adult rats were divided into two groups (15 per group) according to the used method for liver lesion correction as follows: adhesive group (AG), and catgut group (CG); each group being divided into three subsets of five animals (7th, 14th, and 21st day), respectively, according to post-surgery evaluation. All animals were submitted to homogeneous lesion applying synthetic bonding to AG and using chromed catgut suture to CG for lesion correction. Macroscopic and microscopic parameters of healing processes were evaluated. Both groups of animals showed excellent abdominal wall healing, with no evidence of infection, and no abdominal cavity peritonitis or abscess. The presence of adherence was observed in both groups with no statistically significant difference. As to macroscopic evaluation, there was statistically significant difference with respect to specific factors of clinical inflammation (ischemic inflammation and giant celular inflammatory reaction) between animals evaluated on the 10th day (ischemic necrosis and giant cellular inflammatory reaction) among animals evaluated on the 14th day (A14 versus C14). Applying 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive for correcting rat liver lesion does not change healing process when compared to the use of chromed catgut stitch.

  8. Effect of acyclovir on radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mouth lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubley, G.J.; Chapman, B.; Chapman, S.K.; Crumpacker, C.S.; Schnipper, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Several chemotherapeutic regimens and radiation therapy, if delivered to the oral mucosa, are associated with a high frequency of mouth lesions. The cause of this side effect is not known for certain, but in past studies it has sometimes been associated with the ability to culture herpes simplex virus type 1 from the mouth. In a double-blind prospective trial, patients with head and neck tumors treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy were treated with either acyclovir or placebo. Although the frequency of culture-positive herpes simplex virus was low in the untreated group, it was significantly lower, zero, in the acyclovir-treated group. However, there were no differences in the frequency or type of mouth lesions experienced by patients receiving either radiation or chemotherapy who were taking acyclovir or placebo. These results suggest that herpes simplex virus is not a frequent cause or complication of oral lesions afflicting this patient population

  9. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    mice. We found that lesioning led to translaminar sprouting of Timm stained regio inferior hippocampus (CA3)-associated fibre systems into the denervated termination zones of the CA3 and dentate gyrus, from the adjacent non-denervated stratum radiatum of CA3. Differences were seen in the Timm staining...... pattern of the two strains of mice, while the response to lesioning appeared similar albeit less pronounced than that observed in the rat. We also observed an intensified acetylcholine esterase staining reflective of cholinergic sprouting in the denervated perforant path termination zones, which...... was particularly prominent in areas with sprouting of Timm stained CA3-associated fibres. Finally, we showed that some of the sprouting fibres within the CA3 were myelinated, due to an increased density of silver impregnated myelinated fibres in this region after lesioning. These results show that the basic...

  10. Lesion-induced DNA weak structural changes detected by pulsed EPR spectroscopy combined with site-directed spin labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Giuseppe; Mathis, Gérald; Aci-Sèche, Samia; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Boulard, Yves; Gasparutto, Didier; Gambarelli, Serge

    2009-06-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) was applied to determine nanometre spin-spin distances on DNA duplexes that contain selected structural alterations. The present approach to evaluate the structural features of DNA damages is thus related to the interspin distance changes, as well as to the flexibility of the overall structure deduced from the distance distribution. A set of site-directed nitroxide-labelled double-stranded DNA fragments containing defined lesions, namely an 8-oxoguanine, an abasic site or abasic site analogues, a nick, a gap and a bulge structure were prepared and then analysed by the DEER spectroscopic technique. New insights into the application of 4-pulse DEER sequence are also provided, in particular with respect to the spin probes' positions and the rigidity of selected systems. The lesion-induced conformational changes observed, which were supported by molecular dynamics studies, confirm the results obtained by other, more conventional, spectroscopic techniques. Thus, the experimental approaches described herein provide an efficient method for probing lesion-induced structural changes of nucleic acids.

  11. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson's disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models.

  12. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Yu-Xian; Dai, Min; Liu, Li-Hua

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen (CII) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions. AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam, AA model+oral CII, AA model+nasal CII, AA model+ meloxicam+oral C II and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CII (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CII intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats. There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CII (20 microg/kg) could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05 for oral CII; P<0.01 for nasal CII), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes. However, oral administration of CII (20 microg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis in AA+meloxicam model and the

  13. Bisphosphonate-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Maxilla Resembling a Persistent Endodontic Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaferi, Hossein; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sharifi, Sanaz; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from pain in the anterior maxillary region, presented to the clinic. Examination revealed a draining sinus tract in the buccal vestibule of the maxilla in the left anterior segment and expansion in the middle of palate. On conventional radiographic examination the lesion was initially assumed to be a periapical problem related to the incisors but subsequently it was diagnosed to be a bisphosphonate osteonecrosis. Acquiring a comprehensive medical history from the patients, conducting the clinical vitality tests and most importantly being familiar with the non-odontogenic lesions that can be side effects of specific medications are important requirements for reaching a correct diagnosis.

  14. Intestinal lesions induced by radiotherapy of malignant pelvic tumors. 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manigand, G; Pointud, P; Foulon, D; Montely, J M; Testas, P; Paillas, J; Deparis, M [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1976-11-16

    Intestinal lesions after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors are of two types: ulcerative colitis with stenosis and hemorrhage sometimes severe and repeated, and ileal involvement with focal ischemic lesions and malabsorption responsible for nutritional disorders. It is difficult to distinguish them from a recurrence of the tumor in spite of endoscopy, arteriography and biopsy. The course in 3 stages is of great value in diagnosis. A reduction in the frequency of such complications may be hoped for by assessment and exclusion of predisposing factors, by strict observance of therapeutic rules. They are serious owing to the marked irreversible conjunctivo-vascular changes and the fragility of the irradiated tissues during operation.

  15. Radiation-induced focal cortical necrosis of the femur presenting as a lytic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Schils, Jean [Cleveland Clinic, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Joyce, Michael [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shah, Chirag [Cleveland Clinic, Radiation Oncology, Cleveland, OH (United States); Zhang, Yaxia [Cleveland Clinic, Pathology, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Management of soft tissue sarcomas is often complicated, requiring radiation before and in some cases after limb-sparing surgery. Radiation necrosis is a severe complication after radiation treatment and is typically dose related and involves medullary bone. We report on two cases of hitherto unreported focal circumscribed intra-cortical lytic lesions within the radiation portal, which appeared 19 months and 31 months, respectively, after the conclusion of radiation treatment. Both patients had a history of soft tissue sarcoma treated with radiation (66 Gy) and surgical resection. Biopsy of these lesions showed necrotic bone attributed to radiation. (orig.)

  16. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown.

  17. Molecular - and genetic aspects of the repair of the lesions induced by the furocoumarin photoaddition in Sacharomyces cerevisiae : role of the PSO genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, J.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Experiences with strains of Sacharomyces cerevisiae with the aim to obtain informations about molecular steps and genetic control of the DNA photo-induced lesion repair by furocoumarins are described. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Pragmatic Language Features of Mothers with the "FMR1" Premutation Are Associated with the Language Outcomes of Adolescents and Young Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; McGrath, Sara E.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Roberts, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pragmatic language difficulties have been documented as part of the FMR1 premutation phenotype, yet the interplay between these features in mothers and the language outcomes of their children with fragile X syndrome is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether pragmatic language difficulties in mothers with the "FMR1"…

  19. Identification and Map-Based Cloning of the Light-Induced Lesion Mimic Mutant 1 (LIL1) Gene in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Zhifei; Liu, Tiantian; Gao, Bida; Xiong, Xingyao

    2017-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is a mechanism by which plants prevent the spread of pathogen. Despite extensive study, the molecular mechanisms underlying HR remain poorly understood. Lesion mimic mutants (LMMs), such as LIL1 that was identified in an ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenized population of Indica rice ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica ) 93-11, can be used to study the HR. Under natural field conditions, the leaves of LIL1 mutant plants exhibited light-induced, small, rust-red lesions that first appeared at the leaf tips and subsequently expanded throughout the entire leaf blade to the leaf sheath. Histochemical staining indicated that LIL1 lesions displayed an abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and resulted from programmed cell death (PCD). The LIL1 mutants also displayed increased expression of defense-related genes and enhanced resistance to rice blast fungus ( Magnaporthe grisea ). Genetic analysis showed that mutation of LIL1 created a semi-dominant allele. Using 1,758 individuals in the F 2 population, LIL1 was mapped in a 222.3 kb region on the long arm of chromosome 7. That contains 12 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis of these 12 candidate genes revealed a G to A base substitution in the fourth exon of LOC_Os07g30510, a putative cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase (CRK), which led to an amino acid change (Val 429 to Ile) in the LIL1 protein. Comparison of the transcript accumulation of the 12 candidate genes between LIL1 and 93-11 revealed that LOC_Os07g30510 was up-regulated significantly in LIL1 . Overexpression of the LOC_Os07g30510 gene from LIL1 induced a LIL1 -like lesion phenotype in Nipponbare. Thus, LIL1 is a novel LMM in rice that will facilitate the further study of the molecular mechanisms of HR and the rice blast resistance.

  20. Hippocampus lesions induced deficits in social and spatial recognition in Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekita, Tomoko; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies of rodents reported that the hippocampus plays an important role in social behavior as well as spatial behavior. However, there are inconsistencies between reports of the effects of hippocampal lesions on social behavior. The present study sought to clarify the aspects of social behavior in which the hippocampus plays a role in the degu, Octodon degus, a social rodent. We examined the effects of hippocampal lesions on social behavior in the degu using familiar and novel partners. When placed in a familiar environment with a familiar partner after surgery, sham operation control (S.Cont) degus exhibited affinitive behavior longer compared with hippocampal lesioned (HPC) degus. In a novel environment, S.Cont degus exhibited longer aggressive behavior toward novel partners, and longer affinitive behavior with familiar partners compared with HPC degus. HPC degus did not show evidence of differentiation in social behavior, regardless of partner's novelty. The results of an anxiety test confirmed that these findings could not be attributed to changes in emotional state. We conducted an object-recognition test with the same subjects. HPC degus showed an impairment in spatial recognition but not object recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that the degu hippocampus plays an important role not only in spatial recognition but also social recognition. The changes in social behavior resulting from hippocampal lesions were interpreted as due to an impairment of social recognition rather than an impairment in novelty detection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  2. Lithium-induced Nephrotoxicity: A Case Report of Renal Cystic Disease Presenting as a Mass Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne McCartney

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an effective therapeutic agent used in the management of bipolar disorder. However, lithium is also associated with several side effects, including renal toxicity. We present a case of a symptomatic cystic mass lesion in the kidney of a patient who had a history of lithium therapy for the management of bipolar disorder.

  3. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies

  4. Characterization and Early Detection of Balance Deficits in Fragile X Premutation Carriers With and Without Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Joan A; Robertson-Dick, Erin; Dunn, Emily J; Li, Yan; Deng, Youping; Fiutko, Amber N; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-12-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a "premutation" size 55-200 CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Core motor features include cerebellar gait ataxia and kinetic tremor, resulting in progressive mobility disability. There are no published studies characterizing balance deficits in FMR1 premutation carriers with and without FXTAS using a battery of quantitative measures to test the sensory integration underlying postural control, automatic postural reflexes, and dynamic postural stability limits. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) and two performance-based balance measures were administered in 44 premutation carriers, 21 with FXTAS and 23 without FXTAS, and 42 healthy controls to compare balance and functional mobility between these groups. Relationships between FMR1 molecular variables, age, and sex and CDP scores were explored. FXTAS subjects demonstrated significantly lower scores on the sensory organization test (with greatest reductions in the vestibular control of balance), longer response latencies to balance perturbations, and reduced stability limits compared to controls. Premutation carriers without FXTAS also demonstrated significantly delayed response latencies and disrupted sensory weighting for balance control. Advancing age, male sex, increased CGG repeat size, and reduced X activation of the normal allele in premutation carrier women predicted balance dysfunction. These postural control deficits in carriers with and without FXTAS implicate dysfunctional cerebellar neural networks and may provide valuable outcome markers for tailored rehabilitative interventions. Our findings suggest that CDP may provide sensitive measures for early detection of postural control impairments in at-risk carriers and better characterize balance dysfunction and progression in FXTAS.

  5. Pyrimidine dimers are not the principal pre-mutagenic lesions induced in lambda phage DNA by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the role of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in the process of mutagenesis by ultraviolet light. Lambda phage DNA was irradiated with u.v. and then incubated with an Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme, which monomerizes cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers upon exposure to visible light. The photoreactivated DNA was packaged into lambda phage particles, which were used to infect E. coli uvr - host cells that had been induced for SOS functions by ultraviolet irradiation. Photoreactivation removed most toxic lesions from irradiated phage, but did not change the frequency of induction of mutations to the clear-plaque phenotype. This implies that cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers can be lethal, but usually do not serve as sites of mutations in the phage. The DNA sequences of mutants, derived from photoreactivated DNA showed that almost two-thirds (16/28) were transitions, the same fraction found for u.v. mutagenesis without photoreactivation. Thus the lesion inducing transitions is not the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. Photoreactivation of SOS-induced host cells before infection with u.v.-irradiated phage reduced mutagenesis substantially. In this case, photoreversal of cyclobutyl dimers serves to reduce expression of the SOS functions that are required in targeted u.v. mutagenesis. (author)

  6. Comparative pathogenesis of radium-induced intracortical bone lesions in humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Morgan, J.P.; Parks, N.J.; Farnham, J.E.; Littman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    An interlaboratory research team from our Laboratory and the Center for Human Radiobiology at Argonne National Laboratory has performed an initial comparison of intracortical lesions in the long bones of dog and man following chronic radium deposition in the skeleton. The sequential radiographic appearance and morphology of radiation osteodystrophy is discussed. The role of osteodystrohy in the evaluation of bone tumors in the dog is examined

  7. On the biophysical interpretation of lethal DNA lesions induced by ionising radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, Pavel; Stewart, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 122, 1-4 (2006), s. 169-172 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : clustered DNA lesions * V79 cells * proton tracks * DNA damage * DNA repair * radiobiological modelling Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2006

  8. Indication of the radiofrequency induced lesion size by pre-ablation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stagegaard, Niels; Petersen, Helen Høgh; Chen, Xu

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias tissue heating and hence lesion size depend on electrode-tissue contact and cooling of the electrode tip caused by cavitary blood flow. These factors are unique and unknown for each catheter placement in the beating heart. A tool for asses......BACKGROUND: During radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias tissue heating and hence lesion size depend on electrode-tissue contact and cooling of the electrode tip caused by cavitary blood flow. These factors are unique and unknown for each catheter placement in the beating heart. A tool...... for assessing these factors prior to ablation may indicate the lesion size which will be obtained for any given catheter position. METHODS AND RESULTS: Radiofrequency ablation was performed in vitro on strips of left ventricular porcine myocardium during two different levels of convective cooling (0 or 0.1 m....../s), two different contact pressures (10 or 30 g) and parallel or perpendicular electrode-tissue orientation using 7F 4 mm tip catheters. Prior to ablation the impedance rise (DeltaIMP) caused by the obtained contact and the temperature rise with a 0.6 W 5 s test pulse (DeltaT) were measured. Subsequently...

  9. Synthesis of modified oligonucleotides for repair and replication studies of single and double radio-induced DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several oxidative processes induce the formation of DNA lesions. In order to evaluate the biological and structural significance of such damage, several DNA lesions were inserted into synthetic oligonucleotides at defined sites. The research work aimed at describing the preparation of oligonucleotides t hat contained DNA damage and the evaluation of the biological properties of the lesions. A first part described the incorporation of radiation-induced lesions, namely (5'S,6S)-5',6-cyclo-5,6-dihydro-2'-deoxyuridine and (5'S,5S,6S)-5',6-cyclo-5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-2'-desoxyuridine into oligonucleotides. The modified DNA fragments were characterised by several spectroscopic and biochemical analyses including ESI MS, MALDI-TOF MS, CLHP and enzymatic digestions. During in vitro DNA synthesis by Taq DNA polymerase and Klenow exo fragment, the pyrimidine cyclo-nucleosides were found to block the progression of the enzymes. Then, repair studies by ADN N glycosylases, operating in the base excision repair pathway, have shown that the anhydro-nucleoside lesions were not recognised nor excised by Fpg, endo III, endo VIII, yNtg1 yNtg2 and yOgg1. Interestingly, the Latococcus lactis Fpg protein recognises (formation of a non covalent complex) but do not excise the damage. The incorporation into oligonucleotides of the (5R*) and (5S*) diastereoisomers of 1-[2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl]-5-hydroxy-hydantoin, generated by several oxidative processes was then described. In vitro DNA replication assays using modified oligonucleotides matrix showed a lethal potential of the latter base damage. Repair studies by ADN N-glycosylases showed that the damage was substrate for Fpg, endo III, endo VIII, Ntg1, Ntg2 and Fpg-L1. The rates of excision as inferred from the determination of the Michaelis kinetics constants were found to be affected by the presence of the damage. MALDI-TOF MS was used in order to gain insights into mechanistic aspects of oligonucleotides cleavage by the

  10. Prefrontal cortex or basolateral amygdala lesions blocked the stress-induced inversion of serial memory retrieval pattern in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, F; Piérard, C; Coutan, M; Drouet, I; Liscia, P; Béracochéa, D

    2008-09-01

    Previous data from our team have shown that pre-test stress in mice reversed the pattern of memory retrieval in a contextual serial spatial task (CSD; Celerier, A., Pierard, C., Rachbauer, D., Sarrieau, A., & Beracochea, D. (2004). Contextual and serial discriminations: A new learning paradigm to assess simultaneously the effects of acute stress on retrieval of flexible or stable information in mice. Learning and Memory, 11, 196-204). The present study is aimed at determining brain areas which might be critically involved in mediating the stress effect on memory retrieval in the CSD task. For that purpose, we studied hereby the effects of ibotenic acid lesions of either the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in Stressed or Non-Stressed Balb/c mice on memory retrieval in the CSD task. In that task, mice learned two successive spatial discriminations (D1 and D2) within two different internal contexts in a four-hole board. The stressor (electric footshocks) was delivered 5 min before test, occurring 24 h after acquisition. During test, mice were relocated either on the floor of the first or of the second discrimination. Results showed that (i) spatial memory was substantial and remained unaffected both by lesions and stress; (ii) Non-Stressed controls as well as Non-Stressed or Stressed PFC and BLA-lesioned mice remembered accurately D1 but not D2; and (iii) in contrast, Stressed controls accurately remembered D2 but not D1. In parallel to behavioral experiments, we also showed that PFC and BLA lesions did not affect the stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone levels. All together, PFC and BLA integrity are not necessary for retrieval processes per se; in contrast, the PFC and BLA are critically involved in the mediation of the deleterious stress effects on serial order memory retrieval.

  11. Pathological Lesions and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in the Liver of Mice Experimentally Infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins.

  12. Microscopic analysis of the chromium content in the chromium-induced malignant and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yuji; Kondo, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Sumiyo; Uchihara, Hiroshi; Fujino, Haruhiko; Sawada, Naruhiko; Miyoshi, Takanori; Sakiyama, Shoji; Izumi, Keisuke; Monden, Yasumasa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies demonstrated that the frequency of gene instability in lung cancer of chromate workers was very high, but the frequencies of the p53 and ras gene mutations were low. To clarify the carcinogenesis of chromate in the lung, we established a chromate-induced cancer model in the rat proximal airway and examined the relationship between chromium accumulations and the chromium-induced cancer and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat. Methods: Fifteen male, bred, 12-week-old Jcl-Wister rats were used. A pellet of strontium chromate were inserted into the bronchus of the rats. The rats were sacrificed 9 months after the pellet was inserted. We pathologically examined the region of the bronchi to which the pellet was attached. We quantified the amount of chromium accumulation in the bronchial lesions using a microscopic X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results: Of the 15 rats, 1 rat had a lesion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 7 rats had carcinoma in situ (CIS) or dysplasia, 8 rats had squamous metaplasia, and 5 rats had goblet cell hyperplasia. The amounts of chromium accumulation in normal epithelium (n=24), goblet cell hyperplasia (n=14), squamous metaplasia (n=8), and dysplasia plus CIS plus SCC (n=9) were 500±1354, 713±1062, 941±1328, and 3511±4473 (mean±SD) counts/s/mA, respectively. The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium (Spearman's correlation coefficient by ranks, rs=0.454, P<0.01). Conclusions: The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium. Examining the genetic alterations of histologic changes in this model was helpful in elucidating the process of carcinogenesis of chromium in the lung

  13. The microRNA effector RNA-induced silencing complex in hidradenitis suppurativa: a significant dysregulation within active inflammatory lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessam, S; Sand, M; Skrygan, M; Bechara, Falk G

    2017-09-01

    Recently, we could show that the expression levels of the key regulators of the microRNA (miRNA) maturation and transport were dysregulated in inflamed hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) tissue (Heyam et al. in Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 6:271-289, 2015). The RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is the central element of the miRNA pathway and regulates miRNA formation and function. We investigated the expression of the RISC components, namely transactivation-responsive RNA-binding protein-1 (TRBP1), TRBP2, protein activator (PACT) of the interferon-induced protein kinase R, Argonaute RISC Catalytic Component-1 (AGO1) and Component-2 (AGO2), metadherin, and staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain-containing-1 (SND1) in inflamed HS tissue compared to healthy and psoriatic controls by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression levels of all investigated components were significantly lower in lesional HS skin (n = 18) compared to healthy controls (n = 10). TRBP1, PACT, AGO1, AGO2, and SND1 expression levels were significantly down-regulated in lesional HS skin compared to healthy-appearing perilesional skin (n = 7). TRBP2 and SND1 expression levels were significantly lower in healthy-appearing perilesional skin compared to healthy controls. In lesional HS skin, expression levels of PACT, AGO1, and AGO2 were significantly lower compared to psoriatic skin (n = 10). In summary, our data showed that all investigated components of RISC are dysregulated in the skin of HS patients, providing support for the hypothesis that miRNAs may have a pathological role in the inflammatory pathogenesis of HS.

  14. Peripheral facial nerve lesions induce changes in the firing properties of primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múnera, A; Cuestas, D M; Troncoso, J

    2012-10-25

    Facial nerve lesions elicit long-lasting changes in vibrissal primary motor cortex (M1) muscular representation in rodents. Reorganization of cortical representation has been attributed to potentiation of preexisting horizontal connections coming from neighboring muscle representation. However, changes in layer 5 pyramidal neuron activity induced by facial nerve lesion have not yet been explored. To do so, the effect of irreversible facial nerve injury on electrophysiological properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was characterized. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly subjected to two experimental treatments: either surgical transection of mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve (n=18) or sham surgery (n=6). Unitary and population activity of vibrissal M1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons recorded in vivo under general anesthesia was compared between sham-operated and facial nerve-injured animals. Injured animals were allowed either one (n=6), three (n=6), or five (n=6) weeks recovery before recording in order to characterize the evolution of changes in electrophysiological activity. As compared to control, facial nerve-injured animals displayed the following sustained and significant changes in spontaneous activity: increased basal firing frequency, decreased spike-associated local field oscillation amplitude, and decreased spontaneous theta burst firing frequency. Significant changes in evoked-activity with whisker pad stimulation included: increased short latency population spike amplitude, decreased long latency population oscillations amplitude and frequency, and decreased peak frequency during evoked single-unit burst firing. Taken together, such changes demonstrate that peripheral facial nerve lesions induce robust and sustained changes of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vibrissal motor cortex. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Different Formulations of Calcium Hydroxide on Healing of Intentionally Induced Periapical Lesions in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma El-Ashry, Ashraf Abu-Seida1, Houry Al-Boghdady2, Kareem El-Batouty and Medhat Abdel-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to study the effect of different formulations of Ca (OH2 on healing of induced periapical lesions in dog. A total of 96 teeth with intentionally induced periapical lesions were classified according to the observation period into three groups; I, II and III (2 dogs each. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups (8 teeth each namely; A, B, C and D which were dressed with Ca(OH2 with saline, Ca(OH2 with chlrohexidine, Ca(OH2 with iodoform and control respectively. Histopathological findings showed that the apical and periapical repair were better in subgroup A than in other subgroups in all groups. Total inflammatory cell count was significantly different between the four subgroups in group I. In both groups II and III, there was no significant difference between subgroups B and C. In conclusion, the use of saline as a vehicle for Ca (OH2 has a favorable action on periapical tissue healing in endodontically treated dogs.

  16. High level expression of human epithelial β-defensins (hBD-1, 2 and 3 in papillomavirus induced lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kong T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial defensins including human β-defensins (hBDs and α-defensins (HDs are antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the mucosal defense system. However, the role of defensins in papillomavirus induced epithelial lesions is unknown. Results Papilloma tissues were prospectively collected from 15 patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP and analyzed for defensins and chemokine IL-8 expression by quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. HBD-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs were detectable in papilloma samples from all RRP patients and the levels were higher than in normal oral mucosal tissues from healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both hBD-1 and 2 were localized in the upper epithelial layers of papilloma tissues. Expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 appeared to be correlated as indicated by scatter plot analysis (r = 0.837, p Conclusion Human β-defensins are upregulated in respiratory papillomas. This novel finding suggests that hBDs might contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses targeted against papillomavirus-induced epithelial lesions.

  17. Suppression of neurotoxic lesion-induced seizure activity: evidence for a permanent role for the hippocampus in contextual memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser T Sparks

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus (HPC using the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA can cause retrograde amnesia for contextual fear memory. This amnesia is typically attributed to loss of cells in the HPC. However, NMDA is also known to cause intense neuronal discharge (seizure activity during the hours that follow its injection. These seizures may have detrimental effects on retrieval of memories. Here we evaluate the possibility that retrograde amnesia is due to NMDA-induced seizure activity or cell damage per se. To assess the effects of NMDA induced activity on contextual memory, we developed a lesion technique that utilizes the neurotoxic effects of NMDA while at the same time suppressing possible associated seizure activity. NMDA and tetrodotoxin (TTX, a sodium channel blocker, are simultaneously infused into the rat HPC, resulting in extensive bilateral damage to the HPC. TTX, co-infused with NMDA, suppresses propagation of seizure activity. Rats received pairings of a novel context with foot shock, after which they received NMDA-induced, TTX+NMDA-induced, or no damage to the HPC at a recent (24 hours or remote (5 weeks time point. After recovery, the rats were placed into the shock context and freezing was scored as an index of fear memory. Rats with an intact HPC exhibited robust memory for the aversive context at both time points, whereas rats that received NMDA or NMDA+TTX lesions showed a significant reduction in learned fear of equal magnitude at both the recent and remote time points. Therefore, it is unlikely that observed retrograde amnesia in contextual fear conditioning are due to disruption of non-HPC networks by propagated seizure activity. Moreover, the memory deficit observed at both time points offers additional evidence supporting the proposition that the HPC has a continuing role in maintaining contextual memories.

  18. [Accident-induced lesions of the facial nerve in relation to the extent of pyramidal pneumatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoori, S; Limberg, C

    1985-12-01

    Perilabyrinthine pneumatisation of the petrous pyramid constitutes a risk factor for the facial nerve in its labyrinthine part in a fracture of the temporal bone because serious splintering of bone is possible. Splinters dislocated into the Fallopian canal may damage the nerve seriously. On the other hand a perineural haematoma can flow out of the canal into the neighbouring cells through dehiscences or through the fractured canal walls and a compression of the nerve may be avoided. The decision to undertake early surgical intervention must take into account the degree of pneumatisation of the pyramid in posttraumatic lesions of the facial nerve. The timing and extent of recovery cannot be predicted.

  19. The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Rumney, Robin M H; Schoof, Erwin M

    2015-01-01

    Tumour metastasis is a complex process involving reciprocal interplay between cancer cells and host stroma at both primary and secondary sites, and is strongly influenced by microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia. Tumour-secreted proteins play a crucial role in these interactions and present...... morbidity and mortality. The molecular interactions governing the early events of osteolytic lesion formation are currently unclear. Here we show hypoxia to be specifically associated with bone relapse in patients with oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Global quantitative analysis of the hypoxic...

  20. Oral lichenoid contact lesions induced by areca nut and betel quid chewing: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, Peter A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut chewing is widely prevalent in many parts of Asia and Asian-migrant communities throughout the world. Global reports estimate 600 million users. Sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity has been found for BQ and its main ingredient, areca nut. BQ areca nut users have an increased risk of potentially malignant disorders. Among chewers, BQ remains in contact with the oral mucosa for prolonged periods. This review examines the clinical and pathological aspects of lichenoid lesions caused by areca nut and BQ, a condition that has received little attention in the published literature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Interaction of DNA-lesions induced by sodium fluoride and radiation and its influence in apoptotic induction in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an essential trace element but also an environmental contaminant with major sources of exposure being drinking water, food and pesticides. Previous studies showed that sodium fluoride (NaF at 5 mM or more is required to induce apoptosis and chromosome aberrations and proposed that DNA damage and apoptosis play an important role in toxicity of excessive fluoride. The aim of this study is directed to understand the nature of DNA-lesions induced by NaF by allowing its interaction with radiation induced DNA-lesions. NaF 5 mM was used after observing inability to induce DNA damages and apoptosis by single exposure with 50 μM or 1 mM NaF. Co-exposure to NaF and radiation significantly increased the frequency of aberrant metaphases and exchange aberrations in human lymphocytes and arrested the cells in G1 stage instead of apoptotic death. Flow cytometric analysis, DNA fragmentation and PARP-cleavage analysis clearly indicated that 5 mM NaF together with radiation (1 Gy induced apoptosis in both U87 and K562 cells due to down regulation of expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, like Bcl2 in U87 and inhibitors of apoptotic proteins like survivin and cIAP in K562 cells. This study herein suggested that single exposure with extremely low concentration of NaF unable to induce DNA lesions whereas higher concentration induced DNA lesions interact with the radiation-induced DNA lesions. Both are probably repaired rapidly thus showed increased interactive effect. Coexposure to NaF and radiation induces more apoptosis in cancer cell lines which could be due to increased exchange aberrations through lesions interaction and downregulating anti-apoptotic genes.

  2. Axonal neuropathy in female carriers of the fragile X premutation with fragile x-associated tremor ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Suresh; Devapriya, Inoka A; Fenton, Grace; Mcvay, Lindsey; Nguyen, Danh V; Tassone, Flora; Maselli, Ricardo A; Hagerman, Randi J

    2015-08-01

    In this study we examined whether females with the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and non-FXTAS premutation carriers have electrophysiological signs of underlying peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed on 19 women with FXTAS, 20 non-FXTAS carriers, and 26 age-matched controls. The results were compared with existing data on corresponding male carriers. Women with FXTAS and non-FXTAS carriers had reduced sensory nerve action potential amplitudes. Also, there was a strong trend for reduced compound muscle action potential amplitudes in women with FXTAS, but not in non-FXTAS carriers. No significant slowing of nerve conduction velocities, prolongation of F-wave latencies, or associations with molecular measures was observed. This study suggests an underlying axonal neuropathy in women with FXTAS. However, in comparison to men with FXTAS, the NCS abnormalities in women were less severe, possibly due to the effect of a normal X chromosome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Osteopontin mediates Citrobacter rodentium-induced colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia and attaching-effacing lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Eytan; Shen-Tu, Grace; Gareau, Mélanie G; Goldberg, Harvey A; Licht, Christoph; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Sorensen, Esben S; Greenaway, James; Sodek, Jaro; Zohar, Ron; Sherman, Philip M

    2010-09-01

    Although osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases, its role in disease pathogenesis remains controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the role of OPN in host responses to a non-invasive bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, which serves as a murine infectious model of colitis. OPN gene knockout and wild-type mice were infected orogastrically with either C. rodentium or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. Mouse-derived OPN(+/+) and OPN(-/-) fibroblasts were incubated with C. rodentium and attaching-effacing lesions were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Colonic expression of OPN was increased by C. rodentium infection of wild-type mice. Furthermore, colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia, the hallmark of C. rodentium infection, was reduced in OPN(-/-) mice, and spleen enlargement by infection was absent in OPN(-/-) mice. Rectal administration of OPN to OPN(-/-) mice restored these effects. There was an 8- to 17-fold reduction in bacterial colonization in OPN(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by reduced attaching-effacing lesions, both in infected OPN(-/-) mice and OPN(-/-) mouse fibroblasts. Moreover, adhesion pedestals were restored in OPN(-/-) cells complemented with human OPN. Therefore, lack of OPN results in decreased pedestal formation, colonization, and colonic epithelial cell hyperplasia responses to C. rodentium infection, indicating that OPN impacts disease pathogenesis through bacterial attachment and altered host immune responses.

  4. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  5. Topical chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Lee, Jeng-Woei; How, Mon-Hsin

    2010-02-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has become a prominent cancer because of its highest annual increase rate among all cancer diseases. Betel quid chewing habit is a major risk factor for oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and there are more than two million people who have this habit in Taiwan. Our previous studies showed that chlorophyll-pheophytin derivative (CPD)-mediated PDT is very effective for killing of SCC-4 cell lines in vitro. In order to decrease the systemic phototoxic effect of CPD, this study was designed to use a topical CPD-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical CPD-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when CPD reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of CPD gel. We found that CPD reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 1 hour (range, 0 to 30 hours) after topical application of CPD gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical CPD-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 200 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 100 J/cm2) using the portable WonderLight LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device once or twice a week. Visual and histological examination demonstrated that topical CPD-mediated PDT was partially effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  6. The frog vestibular system as a model for lesion-induced plasticity: basic neural principles and implications for posture control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois M Lambert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of behavioral consequences after unilateral labyrinthectomy have a long tradition in the quest of determining rules and limitations of the CNS to exert plastic changes that assist the recuperation from the loss of sensory inputs. Frogs were among the first animal models to illustrate general principles of regenerative capacity and reorganizational neural flexibility after a vestibular lesion. The continuous successful use of the latter animals is in part based on the easy access and identifiability of nerve branches to inner ear organs for surgical intervention, the possibility to employ whole brain preparations for in vitro studies and the limited degree of freedom of postural reflexes for quantification of behavioral impairments and subsequent improvements. Major discoveries that increased the knowledge of post-lesional reactive mechanisms in the central nervous system include alterations in vestibular commissural signal processing and activation of cooperative changes in excitatory and inhibitory inputs to disfacilitated neurons. Moreover, the observed increase of synaptic efficacy in propriospinal circuits illustrates the importance of limb proprioceptive inputs for postural recovery. Accumulated evidence suggests that the lesion-induced neural plasticity is not a goal-directed process that aims towards a meaningful restoration of vestibular reflexes but rather attempts a survival of those neurons that have lost their excitatory inputs. Accordingly, the reaction mechanism causes an improvement of some components but also a deterioration of other aspects as seen by spatio-temporally inappropriate vestibulo-motor responses, similar to the consequences of plasticity processes in various sensory systems and species. The generality of the findings indicate that frogs continue to form a highly amenable vertebrate model system for exploring molecular and physiological events during cellular and network reorganization after a loss of

  7. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  8. Percutaneous CT-guided high frequency induced thermotherapy as a treatment hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ligong; Luo Pengfei; Chen Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy, side effects and complications of percutaneous high frequency induced thermotherapy (HiTT) performed under CT guidance involving 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and hepatic metastatic lesions. Methods: HiTT was performed in treatment of 36 patients (24 men and 12 women) with 42 hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic carcinoma (six patient out of 36 had two nidi). The diameter of the tumors ranged from 1.6 to 7.8 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). The efficacy of HiTT was evaluated with triphasic spiral CT performed 1 month after the procedure. Results: The post-treatment CT scan showed complete necrosis in 33 nidi (78%) out of 42 nidi of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic carcinoma in 30 patients out of 36. Complete necrosis was obtained in 18 (95%) of 19 tumors no larger than 3 cm in diameter, 13 (72%) of 18 tumors between 3.0 and 5.0 cm in diameter. Eleven tumors showed incomplete necrosis. In our study, none of the patients experienced severe complications. All the patients are alive in the follow-up ranging from 2 to 12 months (mean, 7 months). Conclusion: Our research suggests that HiTT can be a safe and effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatic metastatic carcinoma when the lesion is no larger than 3 cm. The treatment is relatively effective for hepatocellular carcinoma between 3 and 5 cm in size. (authors)

  9. Cytogenetic insights into DNA damage and repair of lesions induced by a monomethylated trivalent arsenical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen, and only recently have animal models been developed that are useful in investigating its carcinogenic mode ofaction (MOA). However, how arsenic induces cancer is still an open question. In a previous paper, we proposed a model detailing how arsenic ...

  10. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  11. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Baek, Hyunjung; Kang, Manho; Kim, Namsik; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Hyunsu

    2017-02-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg), and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE) in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  12. Analysis of damaged DNA / proteins interactions: Methodological optimizations and applications to DNA lesions induced by platinum anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounaix Morand du Puch, Ch

    2010-10-01

    DNA lesions contribute to the alteration of DNA structure, thereby inhibiting essential cellular processes. Such alterations may be beneficial for chemotherapies, for example in the case of platinum anticancer agents. They generate bulky adducts that, if not repaired, ultimately cause apoptosis. A better understanding of the biological response to such molecules can be obtained through the study of proteins that directly interact with the damages. These proteins constitute the DNA lesions interactome. This thesis presents the development of tools aiming at increasing the list of platinum adduct-associated proteins. Firstly, we designed a ligand fishing system made of damaged plasmids immobilized onto magnetic beads. Three platinum drugs were selected for our study: cisplatin, oxali-platin and satra-platin. Following exposure of the trap to nuclear extracts from HeLa cancer cells and identification of retained proteins by proteomics, we obtained already known candidates (HMGB1, hUBF, FACT complex) but also 29 new members of the platinated-DNA interactome. Among them, we noted the presence of PNUTS, TOX4 and WDR82, which associate to form the recently-discovered PTW/PP complex. Their capture was then confirmed with a second model, namely breast cancer cell line MDA MB 231, and the biological consequences of such an interaction now need to be elucidated. Secondly, we adapted a SPRi bio-chip to the study of platinum-damaged DNA/proteins interactions. Affinity of HMGB1 and newly characterized TOX4 for adducts generated by our three platinum drugs could be validated thanks to the bio-chip. Finally, we used our tools, as well as analytical chemistry and biochemistry methods, to evaluate the role of DDB2 (a factor involved in the recognition of UV-induced lesions) in the repair of cisplatin adducts. Our experiments using MDA MB 231 cells differentially expressing DDB2 showed that this protein is not responsible for the repair of platinum damages. Instead, it appears to act

  13. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALESKA B. MARTINS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waleska B; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Silva, Hatamy K; Dantas, Camila G; Júnior, Waldecy DE Lucca; Filho, Lauro Xavier; Cardoso, Juliana C; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2016-09-01

    The Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulacaceae) is a cosmopolitan species with a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant and neuroprotective actions. We investigated the effects of P. oleracea extracts in a 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease, a debilitating disorder without effective treatments. Chemical profiles of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole plant were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and the antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazila method. Male Wistar rats received intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine and were treated with vehicle or extracts (oral, 200 and 400 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. The behavioral open field test was conducted at days 1 and 15. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed 4 weeks after surgery to quantify tyrosine-hydroxylase cell counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Extracts presented antioxidant activity in concentrations above 300 µg/kg. The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of Levodopa, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and polysaccharides. Both extracts improved motor recovery 15 days after lesion and protected from tyrosine-hydroxylase cell loss after 4 weeks, but these effects were more evident for the aqueous extract. Because the dopamine precursor is present, in addition to antioxidant compounds and neuroprotective effects, P. oleracea can be considered as potential strategy for treating Parkinson's disease.

  15. Effect of bioglass on artificially induced enamel lesion around orthodontic brackets: OCT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Turki; Al-batati, Mohammed; Mukhtar, Mona; Al-Najjar, Mohammed; Bakhsh, Saud; Bakhsh, Abdulsalam; Bakry, Ahmad; Mandurah, Mona; Abbassy, Mona

    2018-02-01

    Background and Objective: White spot lesions (WSLs) are commonly seen after completing orthodontic treatment. Different approaches have been suggested to avoid such a complication. Recently, 45S5 bioglass (BG) was introduced as remineralizing agent. Therefore, the objective of this in-vitro study was to assess the effect of BG in remineralizing WSLs using Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Fifteen human premolar teeth were sectioned and bonded to orthodontic brackets with Transbond XT primer followed by Transbond PLUS color change adhesive (3M Unitek, USA) on their smooth surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, all specimens were varnished excluding the area of interest (AOI) around the bonded restoration, immersed in demineralizing solution and imaged by cross-polarization OCT (CONT group), and the maximum pixel value (MPV) of the AOI were calculated. Then, they were subjected to remineralizing solutions and BG application followed by OCT imaging (REM group). Results: Mann-Whitney test showed the MPV of the AOI in REM was greatly increased and was significantly different from CONT (penamel by MPV technique. The BG has a great potential to remineralize enamel defects, however further investigation is required.

  16. ORAL LESIONS OF DRUG INDUCED ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME and ndash; REPORT OF THREE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Hegde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition considered to be a hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections and medications. A range of medications can trigger the EM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS which are most commonly prescribed for pain relief can also produce rare adverse reactions such as EM. EM is clinically characterized by a and lsquo; and lsquo;minor'' form and a and lsquo; and lsquo;major'' form. Only few reports have stated about oral EM as the third variant of EM. However it is unclear whether EM involving only oral mucosa is a separate entity or is a part of minor form of EM. In this report three cases of EM are discussed , in which two cases involved exclusively oral mucosal lesions and in one case skin manifestations along with oral mucosa was observed. Also the uncommon adverse effects of NSAIDS is highlighted in this report along with its management. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 193-196

  17. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martinić, Roko; Šošić, Hrvoje; Turčić, Petra; Konjevoda, Paško; Fučić, Aleksandra; Stojković, Ranko; Aralica, Gorana; Gabričević, Mario; Weitner, Tin; Štambuk, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for se...

  18. Carboxymethyl chitin-glucan (CM-CG) protects human HepG2 and HeLa cells against oxidative DNA lesions and stimulates DNA repair of lesions induced by alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamenová, Darina; Kováciková, Ines; Horváthová, Eva; Wsólová, Ladislava; Navarová, Jana

    2010-10-01

    A large number of functional foods, including those that contain β-d-glucans, have been shown to prevent human DNA against genotoxic effects and associated development of cancer and other chronic diseases. In this paper, carboxymethyl chitin-glucan (CM-CG) isolated from Aspergillus niger was investigated from two standpoints: (1) DNA-protective effects against oxidative DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) and alkylating DNA damage induced by MMS and MNNG, and (2) a potential effect on rejoining of MMS- and MNNG-induced single strand DNA breaks. The results obtained by the comet assay in human cells cultured in vitro showed that CM-CG reduced significantly the level of oxidative DNA lesions induced by H(2)O(2) but did not change the level of alkylating DNA lesions induced by MMS or MNNG. On the other side, the efficiency of DNA-rejoining of single strand DNA breaks induced by MMS and MNNG was significantly higher in HepG2 cells pre-treated with CM-CG. The antioxidative activity of carboxymethyl chitin-glucan was confirmed by the DPPH assay. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  20. Radiation-induced emesis in the dog: effects of lesions and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Briggs, D.B.; Knox, A.P.; Strominger, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    Dogs exposed to 8 Gy 60 Co gamma mid-abdominal irradiation exhibited emesis with an average latency of 102 min and an average of 7.4 episodes over 96 min. There were no significant changes in dogs subjected to a chronic bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, but emesis was prevented by ablation of the area postrema. Indomethacin pretreatment also prevented radiation-induced emesis in two of seven dogs and in the remainder reduced the average number of episodes. Domperidone pretreatment prevented radiation-induced emesis in all of four dogs tested. In electrophysiological studies recording from the area postrema the chemosensitive neurons were found to be normally silent in anesthetized preparations but excitable by a variety of emetic agents. After irradiation of the abdomen spontaneously active neurons were found with a discharge pattern that mirrored the behavioral pattern of postirradiation emesis. These studies are consistent with radiation-induced emesis being humorally mediated in the dog and implicate dopamine and/or prostaglandins as possible mediators

  1. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-01-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by [ 3 H]dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced [ 3 H]dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing [ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry

  2. A single-strand specific lesion drives MMS-induced hyper-mutability at a double-strand break in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A

    2010-08-05

    Localized hyper-mutability (LHM) can be important in evolution, immunity, and genetic diseases. We previously reported that single-strand DNA (ssDNA) can be an important source of damage-induced LHM in yeast. Here, we establish that the generation of LHM by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) during repair of a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) can result in over 0.2 mutations/kb, which is approximately 20,000-fold higher than the MMS-induced mutation density without a DSB. The MMS-induced mutations associated with DSB repair were primarily due to substitutions via translesion DNA synthesis at damaged cytosines, even though there are nearly 10 times more MMS-induced lesions at other bases. Based on this mutation bias, the promutagenic lesion dominating LHM is likely 3-methylcytosine, which is single-strand specific. Thus, the dramatic increase in mutagenesis at a DSB is concluded to result primarily from the generation of non-repairable lesions in ssDNA associated with DSB repair along with efficient induction of highly mutagenic ssDNA-specific lesions. These findings with MMS-induced LHM have broad biological implications for unrepaired damage generated in ssDNA and possibly ssRNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Extracts of human atherosclerotic lesions modify LDL inducing enhanced macrophage uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.F.; O'Neill, J.

    1986-01-01

    Both an LDL-like fraction isolated from human aortic plaques and LDL incubated with cultured aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells have been shown to be internalized by macrophages in vitro in an unregulated fashion leading to foam cell formation. Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals released from cells was shown to be responsible for cell-modified LDL. The authors incubated LDL with a supernatant fraction of leached, i.e. non-homogenized, extracts of aortic plaques for one hour at 37 0 C, to determine whether extracellular components present in arteries were also capable of modifying LDL. Extract-treated LDL showed the following changes relative to untreated LDL: 1) increased electrophretic mobility, 2) altered pattern of B-100 on SDS-PAGE, i.e. presence of a doublet with higher M/sub r/ than B-100, and 3) enhanced uptake by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages as measured by increased degradation of 125 I-LDL, and increased stimulation of cholesterol esterification using 14 C-oleate. Extracts from homogenized plaques and grossly normal intima induced similar changes. The modification was tissue specific in that extracts of arteries but not of liver, muscle or skin modified LDL. Protease degradation of LDL during incubation was probably not responsible since inhibitors did not prevent modification. It is possible that products of lipid peroxidation present in extracellular lipid of arteries may propagate free radicals or be incorporated into LDL, leading to modifications similar to those found in cell-modified LDL

  4. Co-micronized palmitoylethanolamide/polydatin treatment causes endometriotic lesion regression in a rodent model of surgically-induced endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Di Paola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic, painful disease characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, an endogenous fatty acid amide, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. PEA lacks free radical scavenging activity, unlike polydatin (PLD, a natural precursor of resveratrol. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orally administered co-micronized PEA/polydatin (m(PEA/PLD in an autologous rat model of surgically-induced endometriosis. Endometriosis was induced in female Wistar albino rats by auto-transplantation of uterine squares (implants into the intestinal mesentery and peritoneal cavity. Rats were distributed into one control group and one treatment group (10 animals each: m(PEA/PLD 10 mg/kg/day. At 28 days after surgery the relative volume of the endometrioma was determined. Endometrial-like tissue was confirmed by histology: Masson trichrome and toluidine blue were used to detect fibrosis and mast cells, respectively. The treated group displayed a smaller cyst diameter, with improved fibrosis score and mast cell number decrease. m(PEA/PLD administration decreased angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, nerve growth factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression and lymphocyte accumulation. m(PEA/PLD treatment also reduced peroxynitrite formation, (poly-ADPribose polymerase activation, IkBα phosphorylation and nuclear facor-kB traslocation in the nucleus. Our results suggested that m(PEA/PLD may be of use to inhibit development of endometriotic lesions in rats.

  5. Repair of 313-nm induced lesions and photoprotection in yeast Candida guilliermondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.; Pospelov, M.E.; Rubin, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    The present communication is concerned with the effects of near-UV radiation (300-380 nm) on yeast Candida guilliermondii. It was found that certain doses of 313 nm irradiation caused inactivation of the yeast which was exhibited in a way different from the lethal action of far-UV radiation. It was also found that the cells inactivated by 313 nm are capable of recovering vitality, if incubated for some time in a non-nutrient medium. The yeast inactivated by far-UV radiation also proved to be capable of recovering, though to a lesser degree. Both 334 nm radiation and non-lethal doses at 313 nm induced the photoprotective effect against far-UV damage. The effect was exhibited if there was a certain time interval (2-4 h) between the exposures to photoprotective light and subsequent far-UV radiation. Within this time interval the extent of photoprotection was dependent on temperature. (author)

  6. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  7. Effect of quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on performance on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement: implications for inter-temporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzina, G; Body, S; Cheung, T H C; Hampson, C L; Deakin, J F W; Anderson, I M; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2008-04-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is believed to contribute to the control of operant behaviour by reinforcers. Recent evidence suggests that it is not crucial for determining the incentive value of immediately available reinforcers, but is important for maintaining the values of delayed reinforcers. This study aims to examine the effect of AcbC lesions on performance on a progressive-ratio schedule using a quantitative model that dissociates effects of interventions on motor and motivational processes (Killeen 1994 Mathematical principles of reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172). Rats with bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the AcbC (n = 15) or sham lesions (n = 14) were trained to lever-press for food-pellet reinforcers under a progressive-ratio schedule. In Phase 1 (90 sessions) the reinforcer was one pellet; in Phase 2 (30 sessions), it was two pellets; in Phase 3, (30 sessions) it was one pellet. The performance of both groups conformed to the model of progressive-ratio performance (group mean data: r2 > 0.92). The motor parameter, delta, was significantly higher in the AcbC-lesioned than the sham-lesioned group, reflecting lower overall response rates in the lesioned group. The motivational parameter, a, was sensitive to changes in reinforcer size, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. The AcbC-lesioned group showed longer post-reinforcement pauses and lower running response rates than the sham-lesioned group. The results suggest that destruction of the AcbC impairs response capacity but does not alter the efficacy of food reinforcers. The results are consistent with recent findings that AcbC lesions do not alter sensitivity to reinforcer size in inter-temporal choice schedules.

  8. Resveratrol ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like lesions through effects on the epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Caglayan Sozmen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that exhibits anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on epithelium-derived cytokines and epithelial apoptosis in a murine model of atopic dermatitis-like lesions. Material and Methods. Atopic dermatitis-like lesions were induced in BALB/c mice by repeated application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene to shaved dorsal skin. Twenty-one BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: group I (control, group II (vehicle control, and group III (resveratrol. Systemic resveratrol (30 mg/kg/day was administered repeatedly during the 6th week of the experiment. After the mice had been sacrificed, skin tissues were examined histologically for epithelial thickness. Epithelial apoptosis (caspase-3 and epithelium-derived cytokines [interleukin (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP] were evaluated immunohistochemically. Results. Epithelial thickness and the numbers of IL-25, IL-33, TSLP and caspase-3-positive cells were significantly higher in group II compared to group I mice. There was significant improvement in epithelial thickness in group III compared with group II mice (p < 0.05. The numbers of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP-positive cells in the epithelium were lower in group III than in group II mice (p < 0.05. The number of caspase-3-positive cells, as an indicator of apoptosis, in the epithelium was significantly lower in group III than in group II mice (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Treatment with resveratrol was effective at ameliorating histological changes and inflammation by acting on epithelium-derived cytokines and epithelial apoptosis.

  9. Nonaggressive systemic mastocytosis (SM) without skin lesions associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis shows unique features versus other indolent SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Twose, Iván; Zanotti, Roberta; González-de-Olano, David; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Vega, Arantza; Matito, Almudena; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Morgado, José Mário; Perbellini, Omar; García-Montero, Andrés; De Matteis, Giovanna; Teodósio, Cristina; Rossini, Maurizio; Jara-Acevedo, María; Schena, Donatella; Mayado, Andrea; Zamò, Alberto; Mollejo, Manuela; Sánchez-López, Paula; Cabañes, Nieves; Orfao, Alberto; Escribano, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) without skin lesions (ISMs(-)) shows a higher prevalence in males, lower serum baseline tryptase levels, and KIT mutation more frequently restricted to bone marrow (BM) mast cells (MCs) than ISM with skin lesions (ISMs(+)). Interestingly, in almost one-half of ISMs(-) patients, MC-mediator release episodes are triggered exclusively by insects. We aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory features of ISMs(-) associated with insect-induced anaphylaxis (insectISMs(-)) versus other patients with ISM. A total of 335 patients presenting with MC activation syndrome, including 143 insectISMs(-), 72 ISMs(-) triggered by other factors (otherISMs(-)), 56 ISMs(+), and 64 nonclonal MC activation syndrome, were studied. Compared with otherISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, insectISMs(-) cases showed marked male predominance (78% vs 53% and 46%; P < .001), a distinct pattern of MC-related symptoms, and significantly lower median serum baseline tryptase levels (22.4 vs 28.7 and 45.8 μg/L; P ≤ .009). Moreover, insectISMs(-) less frequently presented BM MC aggregates (46% vs 70% and 81%; P ≤ .001), and they systematically showed MC-restricted KIT mutation. ISMs(-) patients with anaphylaxis triggered exclusively by insects display clinical and laboratory features that are significantly different from other ISM cases, including other ISMs(-) and ISMs(+) patients, suggesting that they represent a unique subgroup of ISM with a particularly low BM MC burden in the absence of adverse prognostic factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray lesion attenuates nociception but does not change anxiety-like indices or fear-induced antinociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Gomes, Joyce; Amaral, Vanessa Cristiane Santana; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2011-06-01

    The exposure of rodents to an open elevated plus-maze (oEPM: four open arms raised from the floor) elicits naloxone-insensitive antinociception. Midazolam infusion into the dorsal portion of the periaqueductal gray (dPAG), a structure of the descending inhibitory system of pain, failed to alter oEPM-induced antinociception. Chemical lesion of dorsomedial and dorsolateral PAG attenuated defensive behavior in the standard EPM (sEPM), an animal model of anxiety, but failed to change oEPM-induced antinociception. The present study investigated the effects of bilateral lesion, with the injection of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid), of the ventrolateral column of PAG (vlPAG) (i) on nociceptive response induced by 2.5% formalin injected into the right hind paw (nociception test) in mice exposed to the enclosed EPM (eEPM: four enclosed arms - a non-aversive situation) or to the oEPM and (ii) on anxiety indices in mice exposed to the sEPM without prior formalin injection. Results showed that oEPM-induced antinociception was not altered by lesion of vlPAG. Nevertheless, the lesion reduced the nociceptive response in mice exposed to the eEPM and increased general locomotor activity during the eEPM and oEPM exposure. Furthermore, vlPAG lesion did not alter anxiety-like indices in mice exposed to the sEPM. The results suggest that vlPAG does not play a role in oEPM-induced antinociception or in defensive reactions assessed in the sEPM. Moreover, vlPAG inactivation induces pain inhibition in mice not exposed to an aversive situation and seems to increase general activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  12. IL-22/STAT3-Induced Increases in SLURP1 Expression within Psoriatic Lesions Exerts Antimicrobial Effects against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Moriwaki

    Full Text Available SLURP1 is the causal gene for Mal de Meleda (MDM, an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma and transgressive keratosis. Moreover, although SLURP1 likely serves as an important proliferation/differentiation factor in keratinocytes, the possible relation between SLURP1 and other skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, has not been studied, and the pathophysiological control of SLURP1 expression in keratinocytes is largely unknown.Our aim was to examine the involvement of SLURP1 in the pathophysiology of psoriasis using an imiquimod (IMQ-induced psoriasis model mice and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs.SLURP1 expression was up-regulated in the skin of IMQ-induced psoriasis model mice. In NHEKs stimulated with the inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α, which are reportedly expressed in psoriatic lesions, SLURP1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by IL-22 but not the other two cytokines. The stimulatory effect of IL-22 was completely suppressed in NHEKs treated with a STAT3 inhibitor or transfected with siRNA targeting STAT3. Because IL-22 induces production of antimicrobial proteins in epithelial cells, the antibacterial activity of SLURP1 was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, which is known to be associated with disease severity in psoriasis. SLURP1 significantly suppressed the growth of S. aureus.These results indicate SLURP1 participates in pathophysiology of psoriasis by regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, and by suppressing the growth of S. aureus.

  13. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  14. Success or failure of vaccination for HPV16-positive vulvar lesions correlates with kinetics and phenotype of induced T-cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, Marij J. P.; Kenter, Gemma G.; de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J.; Löwik, Margriet J. G.; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M. A.; Essahsah, Farah; Stynenbosch, Linda F. M.; Vloon, Annelies P. G.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Piersma, Sytse J.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Fathers, Lorraine M.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2010-01-01

    One half of a group of 20 patients with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-induced vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 displayed a complete regression (CR) after therapeutic vaccination with HPV16 E6/E7 synthetic long peptides. Patients with relatively larger lesions generally did not display

  15. Gastroprotective activity of polysaccharide from Hericium erinaceus against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer, and its antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yin; Yin, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2018-04-15

    The gastroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide was investigated in rats. The antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Pre-treatment of polysaccharide could reduce ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. The polysaccharide exhibited scavenging activities of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrozyl and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. In the pylorus ligation-induced model, gastric secretions (volume of gastric juice, gastric acid, pepsin and mucus) of ulcer rats administrated with polysaccharide were regulated. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β in serum, and myeloperoxidase activity of gastric tissue were reduced, while antioxidant status of gastric tissue was improved. Defensive factors (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factor) in gastric tissue were increased. These results indicate that Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide possess gastroprotective activity, and the possible mechanisms are related to its regulations of gastric secretions, improvements of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant status, as well as increments of defensive factors releases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hedgehog Signaling Components Are Expressed in Choroidal Neovascularization in Laser-induced Retinal Lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochioka, Katsunori; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Morita, Shoko; Ogata, Nahoko; Wanaka, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization is one of the major pathological changes in age-related macular degeneration, which causes devastating blindness in the elderly population. The molecular mechanism of choroidal neovascularization has been under extensive investigation, but is still an open question. We focused on sonic hedgehog signaling, which is implicated in angiogenesis in various organs. Laser-induced injuries to the mouse retina were made to cause choroidal neovascularization. We examined gene expression of sonic hedgehog, its receptors (patched1, smoothened, cell adhesion molecule down-regulated by oncogenes (Cdon) and biregional Cdon-binding protein (Boc)) and downstream transcription factors (Gli1-3) using real-time RT-PCR. At seven days after injury, mRNAs for Patched1 and Gli1 were upregulated in response to injury, but displayed no upregulation in control retinas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Patched1 and Gli1 proteins were localized to CD31-positive endothelial cells that cluster between the wounded retina and the pigment epithelium layer. Treatment with the hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine did not significantly decrease the size of the neovascularization areas, but the hedgehog agonist purmorphamine made the areas significantly larger than those in untreated retina. These results suggest that the hedgehog-signaling cascade may be a therapeutic target for age-related macular degeneration

  17. Apelin-13 ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. UVA/UVB-induced genotoxicity and lesion repair in Colossoma macropomum and Arapaima gigas Amazonian fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Aline Aparecida; da Silva, Juliana; Nunes, Emilene A; Ianistcki, Martus; Guecheva, Temenouga N; de Oliveira, Alzira Miranda; de Oliveira, Christiane Patrícia Feitosa; Val, Adalberto Luis; Henriques, João A P

    2010-05-03

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to cause adverse effects to aquatic species and aquatic environments. The fish Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) and Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) live in the Amazon basin, near the Equator, and thus receive high intensity of ultraviolet radiation. Deforestation further aggravates the situation by reducing shade at ground level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of UVA and UVB radiation on erythrocytes of tambaqui and pirarucu fish using Micronuclei test and Comet assay. Our study showed that UV radiation caused DNA damage in both species as detected by Comet assay. In addition, there were differences in response to genotoxicity between both species, which are possibly related to their evolutionary history. Tambaqui fish exposed to ultraviolet radiation for different periods presented clear dose-response in DNA damage profile. Significant damage repair was observed 24h after cessation of ultraviolet radiation exposure. At the test conditions used, no significant increase in micronucleated cells was observed in tambaqui and pirarucu fish. Tambaqui proved to be more sensitive to ultraviolet radiation than Pirarucu, as detected by Comet assay, showing statistically higher baseline DNA damage. The present results demonstrated that alkaline Comet assay was very sensitive for detecting the UV-induced genotoxicity during the short exposure period in our study. In addition, the present study also suggests that tambaqui and pirarucu fish are useful sentinel organisms, as their UV sensitivity allows them to be effective monitors of biological hazards in the Amazon region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prophylaxis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral lesions in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga O.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the efficacy of developed multimodality therapy and prophylaxis of complications of chemotherapy in the oral cavity of patients with breast cancer. We studied activity of elastase, lysozyme, catalase, urease, malondialdehyde content and the degree of dysbiosis in the oral fluid of patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy, dental prophylaxis, professional oral hygiene and accompanying multimodality therapy. At baseline elastase activity was above normal by 4 times. In 1 month it decreased by 2.1 times. After 6 months it decreased to normal level. The primary analysis showed a decrease of lysozyme activity by 9 times. After 1 month it increased by 4.4 times, and after 6 months – by 9.7 times. At baseline urease activity was several times higher than normal level. After 1 month it decreased by 49.0%, and after 6 months - up to the normal level. The degree of dysbiosis (DD in the oral cavity revealed a very high values of this parameter (mean - 46. After 6 months DD was 1.5. At ba¬seline catalase activity was low. After 1 month it increased by 4.3 times, and then it correspond to the normal values. At baseline the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased by 66.7%. After 1 month it decreased by 40.4% and corresponded to normal values. After 3 and 6 months the rate remained at a low level. Study showed a high therapeutic efficacy of the proposed multimodality therapy. The scheme can be used for treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  20. Chronic excitotoxic lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus induces sodium appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcante-Lima H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined if the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN exerts tonic control of basal and stimulated sodium and water intake. Male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were microinjected with phosphate buffer (PB-DRN, N = 11 or 1 µg/0.2 µl, in a single dose, ibotenic acid (IBO-DRN, N = 9 to 10 through a guide cannula into the DRN and were observed for 21 days in order to measure basal sodium appetite and water intake and in the following situations: furosemide-induced sodium depletion (20 mg/kg, sc, 24 h before the experiment and a low dose of dietary captopril (1 mg/g chow. From the 6th day after ibotenic acid injection IBO-DRN rats showed an increase in sodium appetite (12.0 ± 2.3 to 22.3 ± 4.6 ml 0.3 M NaCl intake whereas PB-DRN did not exceed 2 ml (P < 0.001. Water intake was comparable in both groups. In addition to a higher dipsogenic response, sodium-depleted IBO-DRN animals displayed an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake compared to PB-DRN (37.4 ± 3.8 vs 21.6 ± 3.9 ml 300 min after fluid offer, P < 0.001. Captopril added to chow caused an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake during the first 2 days (IBO-DRN, 33.8 ± 4.3 and 32.5 ± 3.4 ml on day 1 and day 2, respectively, vs 20.2 ± 2.8 ml on day 0, P < 0.001. These data support the view that DRN, probably via ascending serotonergic system, tonically modulates sodium appetite under basal and sodium depletion conditions and/or after an increase in peripheral or brain angiotensin II.

  1. Attenuation of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic nigrostriatal lesions in superoxide dismutase transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.L.; Hirata, H.; Asanuma, M.

    1998-01-01

    6-Hydroxydopamine is a neurotoxin that produces degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rodents. Its toxicity is thought to involve the generation of superoxide anion secondary to its autoxidation. To examine the effects of the overexpression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage, we have measured the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on striatal and nigral dopamine transporters and nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (50 μg) in non-transgenic mice produced reductions in the size of striatal area and an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle on both sides of the brains of mice killed two weeks after the injection. In addition, 6-hydroxydopamine caused marked decreases in striatal and nigral [ 125 I]RTI-121-labelled dopamine transporters not only on the injected side but also on the non-injected side of non-transgenic mice; this was associated with decreased cell number and size of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta on both sides in these mice. In contrast, superoxide dismutase transgenic mice were protected against these neurotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine, with the homozygous transgenic mice showing almost complete protection.These results provide further support for a role of superoxide anion in the toxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. They also provide further evidence that reactive oxygen species may be the main determining factors in the neurodegenerative effects of catecholamines. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75

  3. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author)

  4. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna', Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p [it

  5. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  6. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radiation Biology

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author).

  7. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, M.; Coppola, A.; Mansilla, E.; Drago, H.; Dubner, D.; Radl, A.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial micro-vessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radio-pathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radio-pathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. (authors)

  8. Use of Human Cadaveric Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cell Therapy of a Chronic Radiation-Induced Skin Lesion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portas, M; Mansilla, E; Drago, H; Dubner, D; Radl, A; Coppola, A; Di Giorgio, M

    2016-09-01

    Acute and late radiation-induced injury on skin and subcutaneous tissues are associated with substantial morbidity in radiation therapy, interventional procedures and also are of concern in the context of nuclear or radiological accidents. Pathogenesis is initiated by depletion of acutely responding epithelial tissues and damage to vascular endothelial microvessels. Efforts for medical management of severe radiation-induced lesions have been made. Nevertheless, the development of strategies to promote wound healing, including stem cell therapy, is required. From 1997 to 2014, over 248 patients were referred to the Radiopathology Committee of Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burns Hospital) for the diagnosis and therapy of radiation-induced localized lesions. As part of the strategies for the management of severe cases, there is an ongoing research and development protocol on 'Translational Clinical Trial phases I/II to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adult mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow for the treatment of large burns and radiological lesions'. The object of this work was to describe the actions carried out by the Radiopathology Committee of the Burns Hospital in a chronic case with more than 30 years of evolution without positive response to conventional treatments. The approach involved the evaluation of the tissular compromise of the lesion, the prognosis and the personalized treatment, including regenerative therapy. © World Health Organisation 2016. All rights reserved. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  9. Excision repair of gamma-ray-induced alkali-stable DNA lesions with the help of γ-endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilin, N.V.; Barenfeld, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    γ-endonuclease Y, an enzyme that hydrolyses phosphodiester bonds at alkali-stable lesions in γ-irradiated (N 2 , tris buffer) DNA, has been partially purified from Micrococcus luteus. The enzyme has a molecular weight of about 19 000, induces single-strand breaks with 3'OH-5'PO 4 termini and contains endonuclease activity towards DNA treated with 7-bromomethylbenz(a)anthracene. γ-endonuclease Y induces breaks in OsO 4 -treated poly(dA-dT) and apparently is specific towards γ-ray-induced base lesions of the t' type. The complete excision repair of γ-endonuclease Y substrate sites has been performed in vitro by γ-endonuclease Y, DNA polymerase and ligase. (author)

  10. Excision repair of gamma-ray-induced alkali-stable DNA lesions with the help of. gamma. -endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomilin, N V; Barenfeld, L S [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii

    1979-03-01

    ..gamma..-endonuclease Y, an enzyme that hydrolyses phosphodiester bonds at alkali-stable lesions in ..gamma..-irradiated (N/sub 2/, tris buffer) DNA, has been partially purified from Micrococcus luteus. The enzyme has a molecular weight of about 19 000, induces single-strand breaks with 3'OH-5'PO/sub 4/ termini and contains endonuclease activity towards DNA treated with 7-bromomethylbenz(a)anthracene. ..gamma..-endonuclease Y induces breaks in OsO/sub 4/-treated poly(dA-dT) and apparently is specific towards ..gamma..-ray-induced base lesions of the t' type. The complete excision repair of ..gamma..-endonuclease Y substrate sites has been performed in vitro by ..gamma..-endonuclease Y, DNA polymerase and ligase.

  11. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-11-07

    Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 microg/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with

  12. The water channel AQP1 is expressed in human atherosclerotic vascular lesions and AQP1 deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wintmo, P.; Johansen, S. H.; Hansen, P. B. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) promotes endothelial cell migration. It was hypothesized that AQP1 promotes neovascularization and growth of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: AQP1 immunoreactivity and protein abundance was examined in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and aortic...... minipumps for 4 weeks. Results: In human atherosclerotic lesions and AAA, AQP1 immunoreactive protein was associated with intralesional small vessels. In ApoE-/- mouse aorta, APQ1 mRNA levels were increased with time on WD (n = 7-9, P ... increased with time on WD but was not different between ApoE-/- and AQP1-/-ApoE-/- mice at either 8 or 16 weeks (n = 13-15). Baseline blood pressure and ANGII-induced hypertension were not different between genotypes. Conclusion: AQP1 is expressed in atherosclerotic lesion neovasculature in human and mouse...

  13. Irradiation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal area induces complete regression of mucocutaneous lesions in disseminated histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, G.; Stefani, S.; Gridelli, C.; Conte, A.; Airoma, G.; Contegiacomo, A.; Bianco, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    We report on a 54-year-old woman with disseminated histiocytosis X who had a complete regression of all mucocutaneous lesions within 1 month from the completion of radiation therapy (4500 cGy) to the hypothalamic-hypophyseal (H-H) area. This response lasted 12 months, after which new cutaneous and bone lesions appeared

  14. Mutagenic potency of MMS-induced 1meA/3meC lesions in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Mielecki, Damian; Sikora, Anna; Wrzesiński, Michał; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Krwawicz, Joanna; Janion, Celina; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta

    2009-12-01

    The mutagenic activity of MMS in E. coli depends on the susceptibility of DNA bases to methylation and their repair by cellular defense systems. Among the lesions in methylated DNA is 1meA/3meC, which is recently recognized as being mutagenic. In this report, special attention is focused on the mutagenic properties of 1meA/3meC which, by the activity of AlkB-dioxygenase, are quickly and efficiently converted to natural A/C bases in the DNA of E. coli alkB(+) strains, preventing 1meA/3meC-induced mutations. We have found that in the absence of AlkB-mediated repair, MMS treatment results in an increased frequency of four types of base substitutions: GC-->CG, GC-->TA, AT-->CG, and AT-->TA, whereas overproduction of PolV in CC101-106 alkB(-)/pRW134 strains leads to a markedly elevated level of GC-->TA, GC-->CG, and AT-->TA transversions. It has been observed that in the case of AB1157 alkB(-) strains, the MMS-induced and 1meA/3meC-dependent argE3-->Arg(+) reversion occurs efficiently, whereas lacZ(-)--> Lac(+) reversion in a set of CC101-106 alkB(-) strains occurs with much lower frequency. We considered several reasons for this discrepancy, namely, the possible variance in the level of the PolV activity, the effect of the PolIV contents that is higher in CC101-106 than in AB1157 strains and the different genetic cell backgrounds in CC101-106 alkB(-) and AB1157 alkB(-) strains, respectively. We postulate that the difference in the number of targets undergoing mutation and different reactivity of MMS with ssDNA and dsDNA are responsible for the high (argE3-->Arg(+)) and low (lacZ(-) --> Lac(+)) frequency of MMS-induced mutations.

  15. Effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole on mucosal hydroxyproline content in healing of ethanol-hcl-induced gastric lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Yoshio; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Masakatsu; Fujita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shin; Harata, Masao; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mizuno, Tamaki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Ohta, Yoshiji; Nakano, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    1. No general consensus has been reached on the treatment of acute gastric lesions. The aims of the present study were to clarify the effects of sucralfate, cimetidine and rabeprazole monotherapies and combination therapies on acute gastric lesions from the viewpoint of connective tissue regeneration. 2. Gastric lesions were experimentally created by the oral administration of 50% ethanol-0.15 mol/L HCl to rats. After 30 min, the anti-ulcer agents sucralfate (100 mg/kg), cimetidine (20 mg/kg) and rabeprazole (2 mg/kg) were administered separately or in combination and the stomach was excised at different times to measure the level of hydroxyproline in the gastric mucosa and determine lesion index. Immunostaining against prolylhydroxylase was performed on some specimens. 3. In the control group, lesion index decreased linearly from 30 min after ethanol-HCl administration and the level of mucosal hydroxyproline peaked between 2 and 4 h later. Although sucralfate significantly promoted lesion healing, it had no effect on mucosal hydroxyproline level. Cimetidine suppressed increases in mucosal hydroxyproline and prolonged lesion healing, but these findings were reversed by combining cimetidine and sucralfate. Rabeprazole had no significant effect on lesion healing, but promoted lesion healing in combination with sucralfate. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that prolylhydroxylase was expressed in spindle cells that lined the glandular cells in a boundary area between normal and injured tissues. 4. Under conditions in which the effects of intragastric pH are minimal, sucralfate is superior to antisecretory agents in promoting the healing of acute gastric lesions.

  16. The Role of Light-Induced Fluorescence in the Treatment of Smooth Surface Carious Lesions with Icon Infiltration and the Results After 1 Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaktchieva R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries infiltration is a novel technique that brings out immediate esthetic improvement in the opacity of the white spot lesions. Light-induced fluorescence method is a modern caries diagnostic method. In this study SoproLife camera (Acteon, France was applied for diagnosing and follow-up of the results. The aims of this in vivo study are to test the role of light-induced fluorescence method (SoploLife camera in the diagnosis of non-cavitated smooth surfaces carious lesions (ICDAS codes 1 and 2 of primary and permanent teeth and in the follow-up period immediately after application, 6 months and 1 year after applying ICON material (DMG. Teeth: n = 90; primary teeth: 6 kids; n = 40 teeth; permanent teeth: 6 patients; n = 50 teeth. Visual examination by ICDAS without probe, dry for 10 s with 3-in-1 syringe using lightening; SoproLife camera (450 nm, digital photos. LIF method applied with SoproLife camera (Diagnostic mode with day light and blue light is more accurate than visual examination only when applied for single tooth diagnose. Moreover, LIF method for single tooth is more accurate in following up the effect of non-operative treatment of smooth surfaces lesions than using digital images. ICON is a material that stops the progression of non-cavitated smooth surfaces carious lesions in both primary and permanent teeth and make the aesthetic result better up to 1 year following the procedure.

  17. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Astaxanthin on Histamine Induced Lesions in the Gizzard and Proventriculus of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-hyang Ohh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ASX is a xanthophyll pigment isolated from crustaceans and salmonids. Owing to its powerful antioxidant activity, ASX has been reported to have the potential to protect against gastric ulcers and a variety of other illnesses. Histamine (His is a dietary factor that causes gastric erosion and ulceration in young chicks. In this study, we examined whether ASX had protective effects on dietary histamine-induced lesions in the gizzard and proventriculus of broiler chickens. Four experimental treatment groups were planned: basal diet (BD, BD+His, BD+ASX, and BD+ASX+His, with four chicks (5 days old in each group and three replications (i.e., a total of 12 chicks per group. The BD was supplemented with either 0.4% His or 100 ppm ASX. The birds were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks, and diets contained no antimicrobial compounds. Supplementing the diet with His significantly decreased body weight gain, but increased the weights of the gizzard and proventriculus of the chicks as compared with those of chicks in the BD group (p<0.05. ASX did not affect His-dependent changes in chick body weight or weights of the gizzard and proventriculus. The loss of gastric glands in the proventriculus, which was observed in His-treated chicks, was not prevented by ASX administration. The frequency of proventricular ulceration, however, was lowered by treatment with ASX, without significant differences between the two supplementation levels. In conclusion, our data showed that ASX might be helpful for alleviating structural damage to the digestive system in poultry under certain stressful conditions.

  18. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  19. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Isran, Rakesh; Bhati, Sharwan; Pyarelal; Basu, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend up to day - 14 in non drug treated groups and day - 7 in drug treated groups, thereafter value elevated up to day - 28. The biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase or decrease in the values. The changes were found dose dependent. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate synergistic effect were observed. The liver of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check lead and radiation induced heptic lesion in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  20. Histopathological Study of Protective Effects of Honey on Subacute Toxicity of Acrylamide-Induced Tissue Lesions in Rats’ Brain and Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Ahrari Roodi; Zahra Moosavi*; Amir Afkhami Goli; Mohammad Azizzadeh; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic potential of honey is related to antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species because it contains compounds such as polyphenols; therefore, we evaluated the potential protective effect of honey on subacute toxicity of ACR by histopathologic study on tissue lesions in rat. Methods: In Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 2016, male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. To induce toxicity, ACR was injected (50 mg/kg for 11 d) to rats in 5 group...

  1. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Dasom Shin; Won Choi; Hyunsu Bae

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA...

  2. Arsenic-induced skin lesions among Atacameño people in Northern Chile despite good nutrition and centuries of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A H; Arroyo, A P; Mazumder, D N; Kosnett, M J; Hernandez, A L; Beeris, M; Smith, M M; Moore, L E

    2000-07-01

    It has been suggested that the indigenous Atacameño people in Northern Chile might be protected from the health effects of arsenic in drinking water because of many centuries of exposure. Here we report on the first intensive investigation of arsenic-induced skin lesions in this population. We selected 11 families (44 participants) from the village of Chiu Chiu, which is supplied with water containing between 750 and 800 microg/L inorganic arsenic. For comparison, 8 families (31 participants) were also selected from a village where the water contains approximately 10 microg/L inorganic arsenic. After being transported to the nearest city for blind assessment, participants were examined by four physicians with experience in studying arsenic-induced lesions. Four of the six men from the exposed village, who had been drinking the contaminated water for more than 20 years, were diagnosed with skin lesions due to arsenic, but none of the women had definite lesions. A 13-year-old girl had definite skin pigmentation changes due to arsenic, and a 19-year-old boy had both pigmentation changes and keratoses on the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. Family interviews identified a wide range of fruits and vegetables consumed daily by the affected participants, as well as the weekly intake of red meat and chicken. However, the prevalence of skin lesions among men and children in the small population studied was similar to that reported with corresponding arsenic drinking water concentrations in both Taiwan and West Bengal, India--populations in which extensive malnutrition has been thought to increase susceptibility.

  3. Misrepair of overlapping daughter strand gaps as a possible mechanism for UV induced mutagenesis in uvr strains of Escherichia coli: a general model for induced mutagenesis by misrepair (SOS repair) of closely spaced DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    It has been previously reported that an inducible form of post-replication repair appeared to be required for UV induced mutagenesis in an uvrA strain of Escherichia coli. It is shown here that the numbers of daughter strand gaps requiring inducible repair were similar to the numbers calculated to be overlapping one another in opposite daughter chromosomes. An estimation of survival with no repair of these gaps resembled the survival predicted with mutagenesis. It is thus proposed that inducible post-replication repair causes mutagenesis by the repair of overlapping daughter strand gaps. A general model for induced mutagenesis is presented. It is proposed that (a) some DNA lesions introduced by any DNA damaging agent may be close enough to interfere with constitutive repair replication of each other, (b) these lesions induce a repair system (SOS repair) which involves the recA + . lexA + and polC + genes (c) repair, and noncomitant mutagenesis occurs during repair replication by the insertion of mismatched bases oppposite the noncoding DNA lesions

  4. Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 14, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 4, and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Development of Periapical Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassanta, Lorena Teodoro de Castro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Violatti-Filho, Jose Roberto; Teixeira Neto, Benedito Alves; Tavares, Vinícius Marques; Bernal, Eduarda Castelo Branco Araujo; Souza, Danila Malheiros; Araujo, Marcelo Sivieri; de Lima Pereira, Sanivia Aparecida; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Periapical cysts and granulomas are chronic lesions caused by an inflammatory immune response against microbial challenge in the root canal. Different cell types, cytokines, and molecules have been associated with periapical lesion formation and expansion. Therefore, because of the chronic inflammatory state of these lesions, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 and -19, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and -4, CD68, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periapical cysts and granulomas. Sixteen cases of periapical cysts and 15 cases of periapical granulomas were analyzed. Ten normal dental pulps were used as the negative control. Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-MMP-19, anti-MMP-14, anti-TIMP-3, anti-TIMP-4, anti-iNOS, and anti-CD68 antibodies. The expression of TIMP-3, TIMP-4, iNOS, and CD68 was significantly higher in both the cyst and granuloma groups than in the control group. TIMP-4 was also significantly higher in cases of chronic apical abscess. There was also a significant difference in the expression of MMP-14 between the cyst and control groups. However, there were no differences in the expression of MMP-19 between the 3 groups. Our data suggest that the expression of MMP-14, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 is associated with the development of periapical lesions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A cross sectional study of anemia and iron deficiency as risk factors for arsenic-induced skin lesions in Bangladeshi women

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    Molly L. Kile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Ganges Delta, chronic arsenic poisoning is a health concern affecting millions of people who rely on groundwater as their potable water source. The prevalence of anemia is also high in this region, particularly among women. Moreover, arsenic is known to affect heme synthesis and erythrocytes and the risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions appears to differ by sex. Methods We conducted a case-control study in 147 arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi women to assess the association between anemia and arsenic-induced skin lesions. Results We observed that the odds of arsenic-related skin lesions were approximately three times higher among women who were anemic (hemoglobin < 120 g/L compared to women with normal hemoglobin levels [Odds Ratio (OR = 3.32, 95 % Confidence Intervals (CI: 1.29, 8.52] after adjusting for arsenic levels in drinking water and other covariates. Furthermore, 75 % of the women with anemia had adequate iron stores (serum ferritin ≥12 μg/L, suggesting that the majority of anemia detected in this population was unrelated to iron depletion. Conclusions Considering the magnitude of arsenic exposure and prevalence of anemia in Bangladeshi women, additional research is warranted that identifies the causes of anemia so that effective interventions can be implemented while arsenic remediation efforts continue.

  6. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender P Dubey

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse.Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i. to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25% of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle.This study reevaluated

  7. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Aki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic

  8. The use of guided tissue regeneration principles in endodontic surgery for induced chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions: a clinical, radiographic, and histologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britain, Steven K; Arx, Thomas von; Schenk, Robert K; Buser, Daniel; Nummikoski, Pirkka; Cochran, David L

    2005-03-01

    Chronic periodontic-endodontic lesions are not uncommon in clinical practice and their regenerative capacity has long been questioned. However, there are no published studies investigating the application of guided tissue regeneration techniques in combination with endodontic surgery using an induced perio-endo defect model. This study evaluated the clinical, radiographic, and histologic outcomes of three surgical procedures used to treat induced perio-endo lesions. Pulpal necrosis was induced in foxhounds along with surgical removal of radicular buccal bone. After 4 weeks, chronic lesions were clinically and radiographically assessed. Treatment surgery consisted of apicoectomy, root canal instrumentation, and retrofilling with mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth were then assigned to one of the following treatment groups: open flap debridement only (OFD), OFD with bioabsorbable porcine-derived collagen membrane (BG), or OFD with BG and anorganic bovine bone matrix (BO/BG). Clinical parameters and standardized radiographs were assessed at defect creation; treatment surgery; and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. Animals were sacrificed at 6 months and specimens prepared for histometric analysis. Clinical and radiographic conditions improved during the study period. Mean epithelial attachment was similar between all groups. Mean connective tissue attachment for groups OFD, BG, and BO/BG was 3.79 mm, 2.63 mm, and 1.75 mm, respectively, and mean radicular bone height was 2.16 mm, 3.24 mm, and 3.45 mm, respectively. Statistically significant increases in the amount of new cementum were observed in groups BG and BO/BG when compared with OFD (P periodontal ligament, and significant increases in the amount of new cementum when compared to open flap debridement in a canine model.

  9. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces cell-surface Ro/SSA antigen expression by human keratinocytes in vitro: a possible mechanism for the UVR induction of cutaneous lupus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies are useful markers of connective tissue disease. In this study, UVB but not UVA induced the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on keratinocyte surfaces in vitro. This expression was also found with the extractable nuclear antigens RnP and Sm, but not with single or double-stranded DNA. The expression was prevented by blocking protein synthesis, suggesting that it was an active process. The results suggest that UVB exposure may result in the expression of Ro/SSA antigen on the surfaces of basal keratinocytes in vivo. This antigen could then bind circulating antibody leading to the cutaneous lesions in neonatal and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Author)

  11. Can the lesions induced with actinic keratosis become an enigma for dermatologists? Results of an open perspective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. . Bujnauskajte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different face skin diseases (basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, rosacea, solar elastosis, etc. could clinically manifest itself as erythematic patches, pimples or plagues. It is very hard to make the clinical exclusion in some cases of these diseases since their characters can partially overlap or certain lesion can mimic another one especially in the cases of skin areas affected with sun. Therefore, the histopathological analysis remains the “golden standard” of the dermatological diagnosis at skin diseases. Our study has shown that certified dermatologists detect actinic keratosis (AK of face/head skin of I/II levels very well. Verdicts of dermatologists and pathomorfologists are congruent on account of diagnosis in 90,7% cases. Diseases clinically excluded as AK revealed as malignant neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma in less than 1% of case lesions.

  12. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  13. Mechanisms involved in repairing the lesions induced in pBR 322 by PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen + ultraviolet A light)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauluz, C.

    1988-01-01

    This work deals with the genotoxic effects derived from damaging pBR322 DNA through PUVA treatment (8-Methoxypsoralen plusUVA light), both with respect to the lethality and mutagenicity of the lesions produced by the treatment. The mechanisms involved in the repair of the plasmid lesions have been investigated by transforming several strains of E. coli differing in their DNA-repair capacities. The frequency, distribution and type of mutations occurring in a restriction fragment of the damaged plasmid were determined in order to establish the mutagenic features of the PUVA treatment. Damages produced bY PUVA habe a strong lethal effect on plasmid survival; however, partial recovery is possible through some of the bacterial DNA repair pathways, namely Excision repair, SOS-repair and a third mechanism which appears to be independent from the analised genes and is detected at high density of lesions per plasmid molecule. PUVA treatment produces a high increase in plasmid mutagenesis; however, the contribution of such an increase to the whole plasmid survival is negligible. Only punctual mutations were detected and consisted mainly in base-pair substitutions. Some mutation-prone regions were sound inside the investigated DNA fragment, a though their existence is more likely to be related with the structure acquired by the damaged DNA than with the type of damaging agent. (Author)

  14. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  15. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Li, Siang-Ling; Peng, Ying-Che; Fan, Ya-Hsu; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV) has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR) were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  16. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs).

  17. Effect of rotary or manual instrumentation, with or without a calcium hydroxide/1% chlorhexidine intracanal dressing, on the healing of experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, Andiara; Silva, Léa A B; Leonardo, Mario R; Rocha, Lenaldo B; Rossi, Marcos A

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate the healing of experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions in dogs at 30, 75, and 120 days after root canal instrumentation with rotary NiTi files or manual K-files, with or without a calcium hydroxide/1% chlorhexidine paste intracanal dressing. The second, third, and fourth mandibular premolars and the second and third maxillary premolars of 5 dogs (12 to 18 months of age, weighing 8 to 15 kg) were selected for treatment (a total of 82 root canals). After pulp removal, the root canals were left exposed to the oral cavity for 7 days to allow microbial contamination, after which the root canals were sealed with ZOE cement until periapical lesions were confirmed with radiography. Group I and II teeth were instrumented with manual K-files using the crown-down technique. In group III and IV teeth, NiTi rotary files were used. The apical delta was perforated by using #20 to #30 K-files at the length of the tooth, thus creating a standardized apical opening. The apical stop was enlarged to size 70, with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation at each file change. Teeth in groups II and IV were dressed with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 )/1% chlorhexidine (CHX) paste for 15 days before root filling. Group I and III teeth did not receive an intracanal dressing. The access openings of the teeth were permanently restored with silver amalgam condensed on a glass ionomer cement base. Pairs of standardized periapical radiographs were taken at the beginning of the treatment (0 days) and at 30, 75, and 120 days after filling. There was no significant difference in the rate of radiographic healing of the periapical lesions between manual and rotary instrumentation. Radiographs taken at 120 days showed that the treatment with Ca(OH) 2 /1% CHX paste resulted in a significant reduction in mean size of the periapical lesions in comparison to single-session treatment. These findings were also true for histologic observations. The findings support the hypothesis that

  18. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong; Tang Jian

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE -/- mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury

  19. Ex vivo assessment of protective effects of carvacrol against DNA lesions induced in primary rat cells by visible light excited methylene blue (VL+MB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamenova, D; Horvathova, E; Chalupa, I; Wsolova, L; Navarova, J

    2011-01-01

    Carvacrol belongs to frequently occurring phenolic components of essential oils (EOs) and it is present in many kinds of plants. Biological effect of this phenol derivative on human beings is however not sufficiently known. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the level of VL+MB-induced oxidative DNA lesions in hepatocytes and testicular cells (freshly isolated from control or carvacrol-watered rats) by the modified single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The results showed that carvacrol significantly reduced the level of VL+MB-induced oxidized bases (EndoIII- and Fpg-sensitive sites) only in hepatocytes but not in testicular cells. Chromosomal aberration assay of primary hepatocytes, isolated from control or carvacrol-watered rats did not testify any genotoxic activity of carvacrol. We suggest that in vivo applied synthetic carvacrol, whose antioxidative activity was confirmed by DPPH assay, exhibits primarily a strong hepatoprotective activity against oxidative damage to DNA.

  20. Prevention of ethanol-induced vascular injury and gastric mucosal lesions by sucralfate and its components: possible role of endogenous sulfhydryls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S.; Brown, A.

    1987-09-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that sucralfate, which contains eight sulfate and aluminum molecules on a sucrose and its other components might decrease ethanol-induced vascular injury and hemorrhagic mucosal lesions through a sulfhydryl (SH)-sensitive process. Experiments performed in rats revealed that the entire sucralfate molecule is not a prerequisite for protection against ethanol-induced mucosal vascular injury and erosions. It appears that sulfate and sucrose octasulfate are potent components of sucralfate, although an equimolar amount of sucralfate is at least twice as effective in gastroprotection than its components. The SH alkylator N-ethylmaleimide abolished the gastroprotection by sucralfate, suggesting SH-sensitive process in the mucosal protection which seems to be associated with the prevention of rapidly developing vascular injury in the stomach of rats given ethanol.

  1. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Alleviate House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions by the CD206 Mannose Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dasom; Choi, Won; Bae, Hyunsu

    2018-04-02

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by highly pruritic, erythematous, and eczematous skin plaques. We previously reported that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) derived from bee venom alleviates AD-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and house dust mite extract ( Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) in a murine model. However, the underlying mechanisms of PLA2 action in actopic dermatitis remain unclear. In this study, we showed that PLA2 treatment inhibited epidermal thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and cytokine levels, macrophage and mast cell infiltration in the ear of an AD model induced by DFE and DNCB. In contrast, these effects were abrogated in CD206 mannose receptor-deficient mice exposed to DFE and DNCB in the ear. These data suggest that bvPLA2 alleviates atopic skin inflammation via interaction with CD206.

  2. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Repeated administration of the monoamine reuptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 induces ipsilateral circling in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat without sensitizing motor behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, E L; Cheetham, S C; Jenner, P

    2005-01-01

    BTS 74 398 (1-[1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-2-(3-diaminethylaminopropylthio)ethanone monocitrate) is a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that reverses motor deficits in MPTP-treated (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) common marmosets without provoking established dyskinesia. However, it is not known whether BTS 74 398 primes the basal ganglia for dyskinesia induction. In this study, the ability of BTS 74 398 to sensitize 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats for the production of abnormal motor behaviours and the induction of striatal DeltaFosB were determined in comparison with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester (L-dopa). Acute administration of BTS 74 398 induced a dose-dependent ipsilateral circling response in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats whereas L-dopa produced dose-dependent contraversive rotation. The ipsilateral circling response to BTS 74 398 did not alter during 21 days of administration. In contrast, L-dopa treatment for 21 days caused a marked increase in rotational response. Repeated administration of both L-dopa and BTS 74 398 increased general motor activity and stereotypic behaviour. In L-dopa-treated rats, orolingual, locomotive, forelimb and axial abnormal movements developed whereas BTS 74 398 produced only locomotion with a side bias but no other abnormal movements. Sensitization of circling responses and the development of abnormal movements in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats have been associated with the potential of dopaminergic drugs to induce dyskinesia. Furthermore, striatal DeltaFosB immunoreactivity, shown to correlate with dyskinesia induction, was increased by L-dopa but was unaffected by repeated BTS 74 398 administration. The lack of such changes following repeated BTS 74 398 treatment suggests that it may be an effective antiparkinsonian therapy that is unlikely to produce involuntary movements.

  4. Progression and Regression of Hepatic Lesions in a Mouse Model of NASH Induced by Dietary Intervention and Its Implications in Pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ming Ding

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the temporal changes of hepatic lesions in the progression and regression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is vital to elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH, and critical to the development of a strategy for NASH pharmacotherapy. There are challenges in studying hepatic lesion progression and regression in NASH patients due to the slow development of NASH in humans, one being the requirement for multiple biopsies during the longitudinal follow-up. Here we studied lesion progression and regression in the diet-induced animal model of NASH by application or removal of the pathogenic diet for multiple time periods. Male C57BL/6 mice fed Western diet developed progressive hepatic steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration, as well as perisinusoidal fibrosis and occasionally portal fibrosis as early as 2 months after initiation of the Western diet. In the same period, the mice exhibited elevated ALT (alanine aminotransferase and AST (aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, CK18 (cytokeratin−18, PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen, and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase−1. Hepatic steatosis diminished rapidly when the Western diet was replaced by normal rodent chow diet and hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte degeneration were also reduced. Interestingly, perisinusoidal fibrosis and portal fibrosis regressed 8 months after chow diet replacement. To understand pharmacotherapy for NASH, mice with established NASH hepatic lesions were treated with either FXR agonist obeticholic acid (Ocaliva, or CCR2/5 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Similar to the diet replacement, metabolic modulator Ocaliva markedly reduced steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, hepatic inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration effectively, but exhibited no significant effect on liver fibrosis. Anti-inflammation drug Cenicriviroc, on the other hand, markedly decreased inflammation and hepatocyte

  5. Targeting of macrophages for the scintigraphic evaluation of inflammatory lesions in a model of radio-induced inflammation in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffschir, D.; Daburon, F.; Normier, G.; Binz, H.; Le Pape, A.

    1991-01-01

    For a new scintigraphic strategy based on the targeting of macrophages recruited by inflammatory lesions, a specific ligand able to interact with these cells both in vitro and in vivo has been developed. J001 is a 34 KDa acylated peptidopoly 1-3 galactoside isolated from proteoglycans of a non pathogenic strain of klebsiella. When labelled with 99mTc then administrated by aerosol, this agent has been demonstrated to be a potent tool for the scintigraphic imaging of inflammatory lymph nodes in experimental berylliosis and in patients with sarcoidosis, lung tumors and ganglionic metastases. An experimental model was developed in pigs using an acute and localized muscular γ irradiation in the limb and skin resection to prevent ulceration. Dynamic imaging was performed during two hours after intravenous injection of 1 mg J001 labelled with 370 MBq 99mTc in the presence of 0.125 mg stannous fluoride. The perfusion of the lesions was evaluated from scintigraphic data obtained both 15 min after IV injection of J001 or 99mTc 04-. The intensity of the fixation of J001 was quantified 2 hours after injection and expressed as a scintigraphic ratio: R2h = cpm in lesion / cpm in a defined healthy area in the same limb. After induction of irradiation, scintigraphic ratios exhibited a progressive increase to reach a maximum (R2h = 3.6) after 3 months. Then, they decreased to recover a normal value about 6 months after irradiation. At that time, histological controls and clinical observations exhibited a significant decrease in inflammatory reaction, macrophages recruitment and apparition of fibrosis. J001 fixation was very sensitive to corticosteroids that resulted in a complete clearing of the scintigraphic images 12 to 24 hours after treatment. Two weeks were then required for a complete recovery of the inflammatory reaction and J001 fixation. So, targeting of macrophages with J001 should offer a sensitive and specific tool for the scintigraphic assessment of inflammation and

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus and human papilloma virus - why HPV-induced lesions do not spontaneously resolve and why therapeutic vaccination can be successful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Burg Sjoerd H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV and HPV can both cause chronic infections and are acquired during sexual contact. HIV infection results in a progressive loss of CD4+ T cells that is associated with an increased prevalence of HPV infections, type-specific persistence and an increase in HPV-associated malignancies. On the one hand this illustrates the important role of HPV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell immunity, on the other it shows the Achilles heel of the HPV-specific immune response. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART results in a rapid reduction of HIV and a reconstitution of systemic CD4+ T-cell levels. The use of HAART thus has the potential to raise immunity to HPV but to the surprise of many, the incidence of HPV-induced diseases has increased rather than declined since the introduction of HAART. Here, the knowledge on how HPV-induced diseases develop in the face of a non-compromised immune system will be used to explain why the effect of HAART on HPV-induced diseases is modest at best. Furthermore, exciting new data in the field of therapeutic vaccines against HPV will be discussed as this may form a more durable and clinically successful therapeutic approach for the treatment of HPV-induced high-grade lesions in HIV-positive subjects on HAART.

  7. Influence of gravity on the spatial orientation of eye nystagmus induced by unilateral lesion of horizontal semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ermanno, M; Pierangelo, E; Silvarosa, G

    2000-03-01

    The influence of gravity in the orientation and slow phase eye velocity of the ocular nystagmus following unilateral damage of the cupula in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal (UHCD) was investigated. The nystagmus was analysed at different sagittal head positions using the x-y infrared eye monitor technique. The nystagmus was almost horizontal at 0 degrees head pitch angle and remained partially fixed in space when the head was pitched upward or downward. The reorientation gain of the slow and quick phases was high (about 0.75) within +/- 45 degrees of head pitch angle, but beyond this range, it decreased greatly. The gain value depended on the lesion extension to otolithic receptors. The absolute value of the slow phase eye velocity of UHCD nystagmus was also modified systematically by the head pitch, showing a reduction in the upward and an increase in the downward.

  8. Effects of different hydrostatic pressure on lesions in ex vivo bovine livers induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Zhong, Zhiqiang; Li, Xing; Gong, Xiaobo; Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Faqi

    2017-05-01

    It is well-known that acoustic cavitation associated with the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment often would change the morphology and size of lesions in its treatment. In most studies reported in literature, high ambient hydrostatic pressure was used to suppress the cavitation completely. Investigation of the effects by varying the ambient hydrostatic pressure (P stat ) is still lacking. In this paper, the effects of HIFU on lesions in ex vivo bovine liver specimens under various P stat are systematically investigated. A 1MHz HIFU transducer, with an aperture diameter of 70mm and a focal length of 55mm, was used to generate two groups US exposure of different acoustic intensities and exposure time (6095W/cm 2 ×8s and 9752W/cm 2 ×5s), while keeping the same acoustic energies per unit area (48760J/cm 2 ). The peak acoustic negative pressures (p - ) of the two groups were p 1 - =9.58MPa and p 2 - =10.82MPa, respectively, with the difference p d - =p 2 - -p 1 - =1.24MPa. A passive cavitation detection (PCD) was used to monitor the ultrasonic cavitation signal during exposure of the two groups. The US exposures were done under the following ambient hydrostatic pressures, P stat : atmospheric pressure, 0.5MPa, 1.0MPa, 1.5MPa, 2.0MPa, 2.5MPa and3.0MPa, respectively. The result of PCD showed that there was a statistically significant increase above background noise level in broadband emissions at dose of 9752W/cm 2 ×5s, but not at dose of 6095W/cm 2 ×8s under atmospheric pressure; i.e., the acoustic cavitation took place for p 2 - but not for p 1 - when under atmospheric pressure. The results also showed that there was no statistically difference of the morphology and size of lesions for 6095W/cm 2 ×8s exposure under the aforementioned different ambient hydrostatic pressures. But the lesions generated at 9752W/cm 2 ×5s exposure under P stat =atmospheric pressure, 0.5MPa, 1.0MPa (all of them are less than p d - ), were larger than those under 1.5MPa

  9. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain.Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling.MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected.The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  10. 99mTc human IgG radiolabelled by HYNIC. Biodistribution and scintigraphy of experimentally induced inflammatory lesions in animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, U.; Markiewicz, A.; Mikolajczak, R.; Michalik, J.; Lisiak, E.; Bilski, M.; Pietrzykowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Our goal was the efficient labelling of highly purified human gammaglobulin. This radioactive protein fraction can be used as a basic compound of radiopharmaceutical formulation for inflammation lesion diagnosis. This application was experimentally illustrated in animal models with artificially induced inflammatory lesions after turpentine oil injection into mouse leg muscle. Hydrazine nicotinamine derivative of human gammaglobulin (IgG-HYNIC) was synthesized according to Abrams method. The radionuclide: technetium 99mT c has been introduced into protein molecules by indirect method incorporation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, in the presence of stannous chloride as a reducing agent for sodium pertechnetate, and EDTA as a coligand. Radiochemical purity was estimated by thin layer chromatography. The stability of labelled IgG-HYNIC derivative in human serum in presence of copper, cobalt, iron and manganese salts was analyzed by HPLC method (BioSEP SEC 4000, eluent: 0.1mol/L phosphate). Inflammation lesions were induced in Balb/3 mice muscles by injection of 0.2 ml turpentine oil into the leg muscle. Five days later, inflammation lesions were visualized by hIgG-HYNIC- 99mT c injections. The tracer accumulation in tissue was evaluated by gamma camera at 1 to 24 hour intervals. Efficiency of technetium 99mT c human gammaglobulin labelling (pH 7.4, temp. 37 o C) was strictly dependant on ligand and coligand presence in the reaction mixture. Labelling of IgG molecules without any supplements resulted in very low efficiency, never exceeding the range of 5%. Presence of EDTA or hydrazine nicotinamide (HYNIC) conjugated with IgG increased radiolabelling efficiency to 50%. IgG-HYNIC derivative in EDTA presence enables us to reach value above 95% radiochemical purity. Stability of IgG-HYNIC derivative labelled with technetium 99mT c decreased rapidly in serum in time - up to 70% of initial value in 30 minutes and only 20% during further 4 hr incubation. This means that as much

  11. Histopathological Study of Protective Effects of Honey on Subacute Toxicity of Acrylamide-Induced Tissue Lesions in Rats’ Brain and Liver

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    Parichehr Ahrari Roodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic potential of honey is related to antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species because it contains compounds such as polyphenols; therefore, we evaluated the potential protective effect of honey on subacute toxicity of ACR by histopathologic study on tissue lesions in rat. Methods: In Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, 2016, male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups. To induce toxicity, ACR was injected (50 mg/kg for 11 d to rats in 5 groups. In treatment groups, rats received three doses of honey 1.25, 2.5, and 5 g/kg in addition to the ACR. The two remaining groups received vitamin E (200 IU/kg and normal saline as positive and negative control respectively. On the last day, after necropsy, tissue specimens from brain and liver were collected for histopathological studies. Results: Receiving of ACR caused tissue injuries including degeneration, necrosis, hyperemia, hemorrhage and inflammation in liver; ischemic cell change, hyperemia, hemorrhage and edema in brain tissue. Administration of honey considerably reduced tissue damages caused by ACR, particularly with dosage 5 g/kg. Conclusion: The severity of tissue lesions caused by the ACR can be reduced by honey, likely through its antioxidant activity. Increasing concentrations of honey will enhance its effectiveness.

  12. Pseudolaric acid B extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Cortex Pseudolaricis ameliorates DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Teng Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pseudolaric acid B (PB is a newly identified diterpenoid isolated from Tujinpi (Cortex Pseudolaricis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of PB on atopic dermatitis (AD, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects. Methods: BALB/c mice treated with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene were orally administered with PB (10 mg∙kg-1∙d-1. After evaluating the AD score, serum levels of IgE and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR respectively. Results: The results showed that PB treatment significantly ameliorated the development of AD-like clinical symptoms and effectively suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PB inhibited the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β in skin lesions, and downregulated serum IgE levels. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory properties of PB were demonstrated using the 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced mouse model of AD-like skin lesions. Our study highlighted the potential use of PB as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated skin diseases.

  13. A role for b-cell-depleting agents in treating psoriatic skin lesions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Codrina Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding the pathological pathways, clinical pattern and management opportunities for new-onset psoriasis as a paradoxical adverse event in patients receiving TNF inhibitors for their immune-mediated disorder, there is a subset of patients who are either partial responders or non-responders, whatever the therapeutic scenario. We present the case of new-onset psoriasis and severe alopecia development in a case study of long-standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA treated with adalimumab (ADA and leflunomide. Since skin lesions and alopecia are resistant to the classic protocol (topical treatment, ADA discontinuation and RA becomes highly active, rituximab (RTX was started. Dramatic improvement in joint disease, total remission of alopecia and partial remission of pustular psoriasis were described after the first RTX cycle. Although B-cell-depleting agents result in controversial effects on psoriatic skin lesions, this is the first case of ADA-induced psoriasis and alopecia that improved under RTX, suggesting a possible role in treating such a patient population.

  14. Two cases of greater omentum use for treatment of radiation-induced chest lesions in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboinski, G [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of extensive ulcerations induced by radiotherapy during treatment of breast cancer are described. The ulcerations were excised and the remaining tissue defect was covered with greater omentum shifted to the chest. The omentum was covered with a free dermo-epidermal graft. In both cases rapid healing of the wound and disappearance of pain was obtained.

  15. Concomitant occurrence of macroprolactin, exercise-induced amenorrhea, and a pituitary lesion: a diagnostic pitfall. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, F A; Fahie-Wilson, M N

    2001-08-01

    The authors report the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with amenorrhea and an increased level of serum prolactin. Magnetic resonance images of the pituitary revealed a lesion with characteristics consistent with those of a microadenoma. Transsphenoidal exploration was performed, but a prolactinoma was not found. After endocrinological review, the patient's hyperprolactinemia was found to be caused by the presence of macroprolactin and her amenorrhea was due to intense exercise and low body weight. Macroprolactin is an isoform of prolactin that is variably reactive in assays for prolactin, but displays minimum bioactivity in vivo. Patients with macroprolactin are mostly asymptomatic. This phenomenon may cause elevated prolactin values, which the authors view as apparent hyperprolactinemia. The presence of macroprolactin is an underrecognized problem, occurring in as many as 15 to 20% of patients with elevated prolactin values and often leading to unnecessary, expensive diagnostic procedures and inappropriate treatment. The presence of macroprolactin should always be suspected when the patient's clinical history or clinical or radiological data are incompatible with the prolactin value. Physicians dealing with diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia (general practitioners, gynecologists, neurosurgeons, endocrinologists, and biochemists) should be aware of the potentially misleading nature of macroprolactin.

  16. Molecular confirmation of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever lesions in cattle from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Selwyn A. Headley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular findings that confirmed the participation of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 in the lesions that were consistent with those observed in malignant catarrhal fever of cattle are described. Three mixed-breed cattle from Rio Grande do Norte state demonstrated clinical manifestations that included mucopurulent nasal discharge, corneal opacity and motor incoordination. Routine necropsy examination demonstrated ulcerations and hemorrhage of the oral cavity, corneal opacity, and lymph node enlargement. Significant histopathological findings included widespread necrotizing vasculitis, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic interstitial nephritis and hepatitis, and thrombosis. PCR assay performed on DNA extracted from kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one animal amplified a product of 423 base pairs corresponding to a target sequence within the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Direct sequencing of the PCR products, from extracted DNA of the kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one cow, amplified the partial nucleotide sequences (423 base pairs of OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Blast analysis confirmed that these sequences have 98-100% identity with similar OVH-2 sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the deduced amino acid sequences, demonstrated that the strain of OVH-2 circulating in ruminants from the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte and Minas Gerais are similar to that identified in other geographical locations. These findings confirmed the active participation of OVH-2 in the classical manifestations of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever.

  17. A female survivor of childhood medulloblastoma presenting with growth-hormone-induced edema and inflammatory lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biassoni Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The improved survival of children with brain tumors has increased concerns about treatment-related sequelae. Growth hormone deficiency is frequently observed after craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. It has been widely reported that growth hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of second tumors, but there are reports in the literature of growth hormone, and its downstream mediator insulin-like Growth Factor 1, having an important proinflammatory action. There are few reports, however, on the "in-vivo" induction of edema and symptomatic inflammatory lesions during replacement therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old girl treated for metastatic medulloblastoma who developed growth hormone deficiency 2 years after oncological treatment. Three months after replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed exacerbation of her brain edema, which was already present after oncological treatment. We consequently suspended the growth hormone until a new magnetic resonance image obtained 3 months later documented a reduction of the inflammatory areas. We then re-introduced somatotropin at lower doses with no further increase in brain edema in subsequent radiological controls. Conclusion This case and its iconography suggest a strong association between growth hormone administration and the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions within the tumor bed. Replacement therapy should be carefully monitored in this particular subset of patients.

  18. L-selenomethionine does not protect against testosterone plus 17β-estradiol-induced oxidative stress and preneoplastic lesions in the prostate of NBL rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Nur; Schlicht, Michael; Diamond, Alan M; Bosland, Maarten C

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal studies examining dietary selenium effects on prostatic carcinogenesis did not show preventive benefit, including 1 study in a rat model involving testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)-induced prostatic oxidative stress. Here, we examined modulation of T + E2-induced prostatic oxidative stress, dysplasia, and inflammation by L-selenomethionine at 1.5 or 3.0 mg selenium/kg in NIH-07 diet in Noble (Nbl)/Crl rats treated with T + E2 for 16 wk. Hormone treatment increased immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the prostatic sites of T + E2-induced preneoplasia (P < 0.05), but selenomethionine did not attenuate 8-OHdG staining and dysplasia in the lateral prostate. Glutathione-peroxidase activity (P < 0.05) and mRNA expression were induced by T + E2 (P < 0.0001) but not changed by selenomethionine. Selenomethionine did not cause significant responses in expression and activity of glutathione-peroxidase and MnSOD, except for a reduction of MnSOD protein expression in the lateral prostate (P < 0.01). The absence of reduction of oxidative stress and dysplasia and the minimal effects on antioxidant enzymes caused by selenomethionine are consistent with the null effects observed in selenium supplementation animal studies and clinical trials. Significant (P < 0.01) opposite apoptosis/cell proliferation balance responses to selenomethionine and to T + E2 occurred in the lateral and dorsal prostate, explaining why T + E2 induces lesions selectively in the lateral lobe of NBL rats.

  19. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alese, Margaret Olutayo; Adewole, Stephen Olarinde; Akinwunmi, Kemi Feyisayo; Omonisi, Abidemi Emmanuel; Alese, Oluwole Ojo

    2017-08-15

    In this study, Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor and Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 were localised to investigate the healing effects of a flavonoid-rich fraction of M. paradisiaca fruit in the gastric corpus of Wistar rats following aspirin-induced gastric lesion. Mature, unripe fruits of M. paradisiaca were peeled; air dried, pulverised, extracted with 70% methanol, concentrated and partitioned. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 15 rats each. The gastric lesion was induced in groups B, C, D, E and F rats by administration of 400 mg/kg aspirin in distilled water. Group A received distilled water. After 24 hours, flavonoid fraction of M. paradisiaca was administered to groups C, D and E at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively for 21 days. Group F rats received omeprazole at 1.8 mg/kg for 21 days. Five rats from each group were anaesthetized with ketamine on days 14, 21 and 28. Gastric tissues were excised and fixed in Neutral buffered formalin. This was followed by paraffin wax embedding method and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin and for immunolocalisation of EGFR and PECAM-1. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a significant difference in the ulcer index in the corpus of control and treated rats throughout the experimental period (p = 0.0001). H&E stained sections showed a gradual restoration of the epithelial lining in the treated groups. Immunohistochemical examination showed that M. paradisiaca significantly increased (p Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Bronchial lesions of mouse model of asthma are preceded by immune complex vasculitis and induced bronchial associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ian C; Sell, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    We systematically examined by immune histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 h after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy (GCHT). After two challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 h, increases by 72 h, and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant GCHT and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After three challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH, and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels of IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex-mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell-activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery.

  1. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  2. hREV3 is essential for error-prone translesion synthesis past UV or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA lesions in human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhang Hong; McManus, Terrence P.; McCormick, J. Justin; Lawrence, Christopher W.; Maher, Veronica M

    2002-12-29

    In S. cerevisiae, the REV3 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta, is involved in translesion synthesis and required for the production of mutations induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) photoproducts and other DNA fork-blocking lesions, and for the majority of spontaneous mutations. To determine whether hREV3, the human homolog of yeast REV3, is similarly involved in error-prone translesion synthesis past UV photoproducts and other lesions that block DNA replication, an hREV3 antisense construct under the control of the TetP promoter was transfected into an infinite life span human fibroblast cell strain that expresses a high level of tTAk, the activator of that promoter. Three transfectant strains expressing high levels of hREV3 antisense RNA were identified and compared with their parental cell strain for sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of UV. The three hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were not more sensitive than the parental strain to the cytotoxic effect of UV, but the frequency of mutants induced by UV in their HPRT gene was significantly reduced, i.e. to 14% that of the parent. Two of these hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were compared with the parental strain for sensitivity to ({+-})-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9{alpha},10{alpha}-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro= benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). They were not more sensitive than the parent strain to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE, but the frequency of mutants induced was significantly reduced, i.e. in one strain, to 17% that of the parent, and in the other, to 24%. DNA sequencing showed that the kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in the parental and the derivative strains did not differ and were similar to those found previously with finite life span human fibroblasts. The data strongly support the hypothesis that hRev3 plays a critical role in the induction of mutations by UV or BPDE. Because the level of hRev3 protein in human fibroblasts is below the level of antibody

  3. hREV3 is essential for error-prone translesion synthesis past UV or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA lesions in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhang Hong; McManus, Terrence P.; McCormick, J. Justin; Lawrence, Christopher W.; Maher, Veronica M.

    2002-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the REV3 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta, is involved in translesion synthesis and required for the production of mutations induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) photoproducts and other DNA fork-blocking lesions, and for the majority of spontaneous mutations. To determine whether hREV3, the human homolog of yeast REV3, is similarly involved in error-prone translesion synthesis past UV photoproducts and other lesions that block DNA replication, an hREV3 antisense construct under the control of the TetP promoter was transfected into an infinite life span human fibroblast cell strain that expresses a high level of tTAk, the activator of that promoter. Three transfectant strains expressing high levels of hREV3 antisense RNA were identified and compared with their parental cell strain for sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of UV. The three hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were not more sensitive than the parental strain to the cytotoxic effect of UV, but the frequency of mutants induced by UV in their HPRT gene was significantly reduced, i.e. to 14% that of the parent. Two of these hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were compared with the parental strain for sensitivity to (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). They were not more sensitive than the parent strain to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE, but the frequency of mutants induced was significantly reduced, i.e. in one strain, to 17% that of the parent, and in the other, to 24%. DNA sequencing showed that the kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in the parental and the derivative strains did not differ and were similar to those found previously with finite life span human fibroblasts. The data strongly support the hypothesis that hRev3 plays a critical role in the induction of mutations by UV or BPDE. Because the level of hRev3 protein in human fibroblasts is below the level of antibody detection, it was not

  4. New method for estimating clustering of DNA lesions induced by physical/chemical mutagens using fluorescence anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Ken; Shikazono, Naoya; Saito, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a new method for estimating the localization of DNA damage such as apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (APs) on DNA using fluorescence anisotropy. This method is aimed at characterizing clustered DNA damage produced by DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. A fluorescent probe with an aminooxy group (AlexaFluor488) was used to label APs. We prepared a pUC19 plasmid with APs by heating under acidic conditions as a model for damaged DNA, and subsequently labeled the APs. We found that the observed fluorescence anisotropy (r obs ) decreases as averaged AP density (λ AP : number of APs per base pair) increases due to homo-FRET, and that the APs were randomly distributed. We applied this method to three DNA-damaging agents, 60 Co γ-rays, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and neocarzinostatin (NCS). We found that r obs -λ AP relationships differed significantly between MMS and NCS. At low AP density (λ AP  < 0.001), the APs induced by MMS seemed to not be closely distributed, whereas those induced by NCS were remarkably clustered. In contrast, the AP clustering induced by 60 Co γ-rays was similar to, but potentially more likely to occur than, random distribution. This simple method can be used to estimate mutagenicity of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Arsenic activates canonical Hippo signaling pathway and up-regulates αCatenin in the skin. •Arsenic activates transcriptional activity of Yap by its nuclear translocation. •Yap is involved in the disruption of tight/adherens junctions in arsenic-exposed animals. -- Abstract: Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive. Here, we provide novel observations that arsenic induced Hippo signaling pathway in the murine skin. This pathway plays crucial roles in determining organ size during the embryonic development and if aberrantly activated in adults, contributes to the pathogenesis of epithelial neoplasm. Arsenic treatment enhanced phosphorylation-dependent activation of LATS1 kinase and other Hippo signaling regulatory proteins Sav1 and MOB1. Phospho-LATS kinase is known to catalyze the inactivation of a transcriptional co-activator, Yap. However, in arsenic-treated epidermis, we did not observed its inactivation. Thus, as expected, unphosphorylated-Yap was translocated to the nucleus in arsenic-treated epidermis. Yap by binding to the transcription factors TEADs induces transcription of its target genes. Consistently, an up-regulation of Yap-dependent target genes Cyr61, Gli2, Ankrd1 and Ctgf was observed in the skin of arsenic-treated mice. Phosphorylated Yap is important in regulating tight and adherens junctions through its binding to αCatenin. We found disruption of these junctions in the arsenic-treated mouse skin despite an increase in αCatenin. These data provide evidence that arsenic-induced canonical Hippo signaling pathway and Yap-mediated disruption of tight and adherens junctions are independently regulated. These effects together may contribute to the carcinogenic effects of arsenic in the skin

  6. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  7. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  8. PGC-1α may associated with the anti-obesity effect of taurine on rats induced by arcuate nucleus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-juan; Jin, Yong-jun; Li, Ming-e; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Mei-zi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.

  9. Myelin-specific T cells induce interleukin-1beta expression in lesion-reactive microglial-like cells in zones of axonal degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebing, Manuela; Nielsen, Helle H; Fenger, Christina D

    2016-01-01

    lesion-reactive CD11b(+) ramified microglia. These results suggest that myelin-specific T cells stimulate lesion-reactive microglial-like cells to produce IL-1β. These findings are relevant to understand the consequences of T-cell infiltration in white and gray matter lesions in patients with MS. GLIA...

  10. Long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd: YAG laser ameliorates LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions through promoting collagen remodeling in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miri; Kim, Jongsic; Jeong, Seo-Won; Jo, Hyunmu; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2018-02-01

    Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (LPND) effectively treats rosacea, although the underlying mechanism is unclear, to evaluate the histological effects and molecular mechanism of LPND on LL-37-induced rosacea-like skin lesions in mice. Intradermal injection of LL-37 was performed into the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice (n = 30) twice a day for 2 days. Fifteen mice were treated with LPND. After 48 h, the excised skin sample was stained for histology and type I collagen; transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1α mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Intradermal injection of LL-37 induced rosacea-like clinical features. LPND treatment significantly reduced erythema and increased dermal collagen production. Levels of Type I collagen, TGF-β, and MMP-1 mRNA were significantly higher in LPND-treated mice than in untreated mice. LPND may improve rosacea by ameliorating dermal connective tissue disorganization and elastosis through MMP-mediated dermal collagen remodeling.

  11. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  12. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  13. Effects of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf and bloom head extracts on chemically induced DNA lesions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Richter, Marc François; da Silva, Juliana; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    The genotoxicity of bloom head (BHE) and leaf (LE) extracts from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), and their ability to modulate the mutagenicity and recombinogenicity of two alkylating agents (ethyl methanesulfonate - EMS and mitomycin C - MMC) and the intercalating agent bleomycin (BLM), were examined using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither the mutagenicity nor the recombinogenicity of BLM or MMC was modified by co- or post-treatment with BHE or LE. In contrast, co-treatment with BHE significantly enhanced the EMS-induced genotoxicity involving mutagenic and/or recombinant events. Co-treatment with LE did not alter the genotoxicity of EMS whereas post-treatment with the highest dose of LE significantly increased this genotoxicity. This enhancement included a synergistic increase restricted to somatic recombination. These results show that artichoke extracts promote homologous recombination in proliferative cells of D. melanogaster.

  14. Ultraviolet light-induced keratinocyte apoptosis: a potential mechanism for the induction of skin lesions and autoantibody production in LE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciola-Rosen, L; Rosen, A

    1997-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototype systemic autoimmune disease which is characterized clinically by pleiotropy and periodicity. The immune features which accompany the characteristic flares of the disease have strongly suggested that the autoimmune response is driven by self antigen, and is T cell-dependent. These features have prompted the search for potential initiating process(es) which induce the release of self-antigens in a form which causes T cell tolerance to those self molecules to be broken. We review here several recent observations which implicate apoptotic cells as an important potential source of clustered and concentrated autoantigens in SLE, and present our current model whereby the novel autoantigen fragments generated in apoptotic surface blebs initiate and drive the autoimmune response in this disease.

  15. Serum level of expressed in renal carcinoma (ERC)/ mesothelin in rats with mesothelial proliferative lesions induced by multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Dai, Nakae; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Kanako; Ohashi, Norio; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Hino, Okio; Ogata, Akio

    2010-04-01

    Expressed in renal carcinoma (ERC)/mesothelin is a good biomarker for human mesothelioma and has been investigated for its mechanistic rationale during the mesothelioma development. Studies are thus ongoing in our laboratories to assess expression of ERC/mesothelin in sera and normal/proliferative/neoplastic mesothelial tissues of animals untreated or given potentially mesothelioma-inducible xenobiotics, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for N- and C-(terminal fragments of) ERC/mesothelin and immunohistochemistry for C-ERC/mesothelin. In the present paper, we intend to communicate our preliminary data, because this is the first report to show how and from what stage the ERC/mesothelin expression changes during the chemical induction of mesothelial proliferative/neoplatic lesions. Serum N-ERC/mesothelin levels were 51.4 +/- 5.6 ng/ml in control male Fischer 344 rats, increased to 83.6 +/- 11.2 ng/ml in rats given a single intrascrotal administration of 1 mg/kg body weight of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and bearing mesothelial hyperplasia 52 weeks thereafter, and further elevated to 180 +/- 77 ng/ml in rats similarly treated and becoming moribund 40 weeks thereafter, or killed as scheduled at the end of week 52, bearing mesothelioma. While C-ERC/mesothelin was expressed in normal and hyperplastic mesothelia, the protein was detected only in epithelioid mesothelioma cells at the most superficial layer. It is thus suggested that ERC/mesothelin can be used as a biomarker of mesothelial proliferative lesions also in animals, and that the increase of levels may start from the early stage and be enhanced by the progression of the mesothelioma development.

  16. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Sarasin, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis

  17. The role of UV induced lesions in skin carcinogenesis: an overview of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene modifications in xeroderma pigmentosum skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)]. E-mail: daya@igr.fr; Sarasin, Alain [Laboratory of Genetic Instability and Cancer, UPR2169 CNRS, IFR 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39, rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2005-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), a rare hereditary syndrome, is characterized by a hypersensitivity to solar irradiation due to a defect in nucleotide excision repair resulting in a predisposition to squamous and basal cell carcinomas as well as malignant melanomas appearing at a very early age. The mutator phenotype of XP cells is evident by the higher levels of UV specific modifications found in key regulatory genes in XP skin tumors compared to those in the same tumor types from the normal population. Thus, XP provides a unique model for the study of unrepaired DNA lesions, mutations and skin carcinogenesis. The high level of ras oncogene activation, Ink4a-Arf and p53 tumor suppressor gene modifications as well as alterations of the different partners of the mitogenic sonic hedgehog signaling pathway (patched, smoothened and sonic hedgehog), characterized in XP skin tumors have clearly demonstrated the major role of the UV component of sunlight in the development of skin tumors. The majority of the mutations are C to T or tandem CC to TT UV signature transitions, occurring at bipyrimidine sequences, the specific targets of UV induced lesions. These characteristics are also found in the same genes modified in sporadic skin cancers but with lower frequencies confirming the validity of studying the XP model. The knowledge gained by studying XP tumors has given us a greater perception of the contribution of genetic predisposition to cancer as well as the consequences of the many alterations which modulate the activities of different genes affecting crucial pathways vital for maintaining cell homeostasis.

  18. Gastroprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf Juices against Indomethacin and Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats

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    Edilane Rodrigues Dantas de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for treating peptic ulcers and inflammatory problems. In this context, this study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the leaf juices of the two species in acute gastric lesions models. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-MS were performed for chemical characterization. Wistar rats were pre-treated orally with leaf juices (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg or ranitidine (50 mg/kg. The peaks observed in the chromatogram of K. brasiliensis showed similar mass spectra to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed mass spectra similar to compounds derived from quercetin, patuletin, eupafolin and kaempferol. K. brasiliensis at all doses and K. pinnata at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the lesions in the ethanol induction model. In the indomethacin induction model, both species showed significant results at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Also, the pre-treatment with leaf juices increased the antioxidant defense system, glutathione (GSH, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were significantly decreased. Treatment with leaf juices led to the upregulation of zone occludes-1 (ZO-1 and the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and factor nuclear-κβ transcription (NF-κB-p65, while also showing a cytoprotective effect and maintaining mucus production. These findings show that the leaf juices of the two species showed gastroprotective effects on ethanol and gastric indomethacin injury which were a consequence of gastric inflammation suppression, antioxidant activity and the maintenance of cytoprotective defenses and mucosal structure architecture.

  19. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage of the ankle joint: Results after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC)-aided reconstruction of osteochondral lesions of the talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorski, M.; Miska, M.; Kretzschmar, M.; Studler, U.; Bieri, O.; Valderrabano, V.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess cartilage quality using delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus using autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Materials and methods: A three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (SGE) sequence at 3 T was used to obtain quantitative T1 relaxation times before and after Gd-DTPA2 (Magnevist, 0.2 mM/kg bod weight) administration to assess 23 cases of AMIC-aided repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus. Delta relaxation rates (ΔR1) for reference cartilage (RC) and repair tissue (RT), and the relative delta relaxation rate (rΔR1) were calculated. The morphological appearance of the cartilage RT was graded on sagittal dual-echo steady-state (DESS) views according to the “magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue” (MOCART) protocol. The study was approved by the institutional review board and written consent from each patient was obtained. Results: The AMIC cases had a mean T1 relaxation time of 1.194 s (SD 0.207 s) in RC and 1.470 s (SD 0.384 s) in RT before contrast medium administration. The contrast-enhanced T1 relaxation time decreased to 0.480 s (SD 0.114 s) in RC and 0.411 s (SD 0.096 s) in RT. There was a significant difference (p > 0.05) between the ΔR1 in RC (1.372 × 10 −3 /s, range 0.526–3.201 × 10 −3 /s, SD 0.666 × 10 −3 /s) and RT (1.856 × 10 −3 /s, range 0.93–3.336 × 10 −3 /s, SD 0.609 × 10 −3 /s). The mean rΔR1 was 1.49, SD 0.45). The mean MOCART score at follow-up was 62.6 points (range 30–95, SD 15.3). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that repair cartilage resulting from AMIC-aided repair of osteochondral lesions of the talus has a significantly lower glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content than normal hyaline cartilage, but can be regarded as having hyaline-like properties

  20. Delineation of the working memory profile in female FMR1 premutation carriers: the effect of cognitive load on ocular motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Annie L; Cornish, Kim M; Godler, David E; Clough, Meaghan; Kraan, Claudine; Bui, Minh; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation carriers (PM-carriers) are characterised as having mid-sized expansions of between 55 and 200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. While there is evidence of executive dysfunction in PM-carriers, few studies have explicitly explored working memory capabilities in female PM-carriers. 14 female PM-carriers and 13 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls completed an ocular motor n-back working memory paradigm. This task examined working memory ability and the effect of measured increases in cognitive load. Female PM-carriers were found to have attenuated working memory capabilities. Increasing the cognitive load did not elicit the expected reciprocal increase in the task errors for female PM-carriers, as it did in controls. However female PM-carriers took longer to respond than controls, regardless of the cognitive load. Further, FMR1 mRNA levels were found to significantly predict PM-carrier response time. Although preliminary, these findings provide further evidence of executive dysfunction, specifically disruption to working memory processes, which were found to be associated with increases in FMR1 mRNA expression in female PM-carriers. With future validation, ocular motor paradigms such as the n-back paradigm will be critical to the development of behavioural biomarkers for identification of PM-carrier cognitive-affective phenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Live birth following serial vitrification of embryos and PGD for fragile X syndrome in a patient with the premutation and decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayot, Dan; Chung, Jin Tae; Son, Weon-Young; Ao, Assangla; Hughes, Mark; Dahan, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    To present a live birth resulting from serial vitrification of embryos and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). A 31-year-old with primary infertility, fragile-X premutation, and decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) (baseline FSH level 33 IU/L), presented after failing to stimulate to follicle diameters >10 mm with three cycles of invitro fertilization (IVF). After counseling, the couple opted for serial in-vitro maturation (IVM), embryo vitrification, and genetic testing using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and PGD. Embryos were vitrified 2 days after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Thawed embryos were biopsied on day-three and transferred on day-five. The couple underwent 20 cycles of assisted reproductive technology. A total of 23 in-vivo mature and five immature oocytes were retrieved, of which one matured in-vitro. Of 24 embryos, 17/24 (71 %) developed to day two and 11/24 (46 %) survived to blastocyst stage with a biopsy result available. Four blastocysts had normal PGD and aCGH results. Both single embryo transfers resulted in a successful implantation, one a blighted ovum and the other in a live birth. Young patients with DOR have potential for live birth as long as oocytes can be obtained and embryos created. Serial vitrification may be the mechanism of choice in these patients when PGD is needed.

  2. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

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    Liyun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1 Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2 Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis.

  3. Inhibitory effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia on 1,2-dimethylhidrazine-induced genotoxicity and preneoplastic lesions in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Carla C; Furtado, Ricardo A; Santiago, Mirian L; Manhas, Simony S; Bastos, Jairo K; Tavares, Denise C

    2014-07-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the main botanical source of green propolis, also known as 'alecrim-do-campo' and 'vassourinha', is a shrub of the Brazilian 'cerrado' and is native to the South and Southeast of Brazil. The effects of B. dracunculifolia ethyl acetate extract (Bd-EAE) were evaluated on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of male Wistar rats by the comet and ACF assays, respectively. The animals were treated by gavage with doses of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were also administered a single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg DMH and were killed after 4 h for evaluation of DNA damage. Also, two doses of 40 mg/kg of DMH were administered weekly for 2 weeks, and animals were killed 2 weeks after the last injection for evaluation of ACF development in the colon. The results showed a significant reduction in the frequency of DNA damage and ACF in the group treated with the Bd-EAE plus DMH in comparison with those treated with DMH alone, suggesting that Bd-EAE reduced DNA damage and suppressed the formation of ACF and also exerted a protective affect against colon carcinogenesis.

  4. Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation syndrome. Individual radiosensitivity assessment in patients undergoing medical exposures presenting severe cutaneous radiation induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Perez, Maria R.; Portas, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Burn Center) is one of the reference hospitals of the Medical Radiological Emergency Response Network of Argentina. In the frame of an agreement between the Burn Center and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, a research project for an approach based on diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous radiation induced lesions is in progress. Individual radiosensitivity assessment was conducted in patients included in this research protocol that showed acute and/or late cutaneous reactions with grades 3 and 4 of the Toxicity criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer (EORTC). DNA repair capacity and its kinetics were evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test. In this paper, two representative cases, in which the research protocol was applied, are presented. Therapeutic response and its correlation with radiosensitivity test results are described. Case 1: female patient undergoing external radiotherapy for invasive ductal breast cancer that presented acute cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 3 (confluent moist epithelitis, )that led to treatment break. Case 2: male patient undergoing coronary angioplasty (interventional radiology), which developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity, grade 4 (ulceration at the dorsal region). Patients were treated with: topic administration of trolamine and silver sulfadiazine with lidocaine, associated with systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and anti-oxidants. The therapeutic response was evaluated through clinical follow-up, serial photographic record and complementary tests (tele thermography and high frequency ultrasonography). Case 1 response was positive (favorable) with early local recovery and complete remission of signs and symptoms after 5 months. Both MN frequencies and comet assay showed values compatible with normal radiosensitivity

  5. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

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    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  6. A Patient with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Presenting with Executive Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral White Matter Lesions

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    Kensaku Kasuga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects males who are carriers of a premutation of a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene. In Asian populations, FXTAS has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a Japanese FXTAS patient who showed predominant executive cognitive deficits as the main feature of his disease. In contrast, the patient exhibited only very mild symptoms of intention tremor and ataxia, which did not interfere with daily activities. A gene analysis revealed that the patient carried a premutation of a CGG expansion (111 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. The mRNA expression level of FMR1 in the patient was 1.5-fold higher than in controls. On brain MRI scans, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed high-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles and the cerebral white matter, with a frontal predominance. The present case extends previous notions regarding the cognitive impairment in FXTAS patients. Recognizing FXTAS patients with predominant cognitive impairment from various ethnic backgrounds would contribute to our understanding of the phenotypic variation of this disease.

  7. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  9. Qualitative analysis of mouse specific-locus mutations: information on genetic organization, gene expression, and the chromosomal nature of induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of mouse specific-locus (SL) mutations at three loci has identified over 33 distinct complementation groups - most of which are probably overlapping deficiencies - and 13 to 14 new functional units. The complementation maps that have been generated for the d-se and c regions include numerous vital functions; however, some of the genes in these regions are non-vital. At such loci, hypomorphic mutants must represent intragenic alterations, and some viable nulls could conceivably be intragenic lesions also. Analysis of SL mutations has provided information on genetic expression. Homozygous deficiencies can be completely viable or can kill at any one of a range of developmental stages. Heterozygonus deficiencies of up to 6 cM or more in genetic length have been recovered and propagated. The time of death of homozygous and the degree of inviability of heterozygous deficiencies are related more to specific content of the missing segment than to its length. Combinations of deficiencies with x-autosome translocations that inactivate the homologous region in a mosaic fashion have shown that organismic lethals are not necessarily cell lethal. The spectrum of mutations induced depends on the nature of the mutagen and the type of germ cell exposed. Radiation of spermatogonia produces intragenic as well as null mutations. Spontaneous mutations have an admixture of types not present in populations of mutations induced in germ cells, and this raises doubts concerning the accuracy of doubling-dose calculations in genetic risk estimation. The analysis of SL mutations has yielded genetic tools for the construction of detailed gene-dosage series, cis-trans comparisons, the mapping of known genes and identification of new genes, genetic rescue of various types, and the identification and isolation of DNA sequences

  10. Targeting the D1-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex reduces L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned Parkinson’s rats

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    Song L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lu Song,1,* Zhanzhao Zhang,2,* Rongguo Hu,1 Jie Cheng,1 Lin Li,1 Qinyi Fan,1 Na Wu,1 Jing Gan,1 Mingzhu Zhou,1 Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, 2Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa remains the most effective therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD, but its long-term administration is associated with the development of debilitating motor complications known as L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Enhanced function of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is believed to participate in the pathogenesis of LID. Given the existence of physical and functional interactions between D1R and NMDAR, we explored the effects of uncoupling D1R and NMDA GluN1 (GluN1 interaction on LID by using the Tat-conjugated interfering peptide (Tat-D1-t2. In this study, we demonstrated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned PD rat model that intrastriatal injection of Tat-D1-t2 alleviated dyskinetic behaviors and downregulated the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 induced by levodopa. Moreover, we also showed intrastriatal administration of Tat-D1-t2 elicited alterations in membranous GluN1 and D1R expression. These findings indicate that D1R/GluN1 complexes may be a molecular target with therapeutic potential for the treatment of dyskinesia in Parkinson’s patients.Keywords: 6-hydroxydopamine, Parkinson’s disease, dyskinesia, L-dopa, D1 receptor, NMDA, protein–protein interaction

  11. Effect of morphine-induced antinociception is altered by AF64A-induced lesions on cholinergic neurons in rat nucleus raphe magnus.

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    Abe, Kenji; Ishida, Kota; Kato, Masatoshi; Shigenaga, Toshiro; Taguchi, Kyoji; Miyatake, Tadashi

    2002-11-01

    To examine the role of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in noxious heat stimulation and in the effects of morphine-induced antinociception by rats. After the cholinergic neuron selective toxin, AF64A, was microinjected into the NRM, we examined changes in the antinociceptive threshold and effects of morphine (5 mg/kg, ip) using the hot-plate (HP) and tail-flick (TF) tests. Systemic administration of morphine inhibited HP and TF responses in control rats. Microinjection of AF64A (2 nmol/site) into the NRM significantly decreased the threshold of HP response after 14 d, whereas the TF response was not affected. Morphine-induced antinociception was significantly attenuated in rats administered AF64A. Extracellular acetylcholine was attenuated after 14 d to below detectable levels in rats given AF64A. Naloxone (1 microg/site) microinjected into control rat NRM also antagonized the antinociceptive effect of systemic morphine. These findings suggest that cholinergic neuron activation in the NRM modulates the antinociceptive effect of morphine simultaneously with the opiate system.

  12. Accurate Depth of Radiofrequency-Induced Lesions in Renal Sympathetic Denervation Based on a Fine Histological Sectioning Approach in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaoka, Atsushi; Terao, Hisako; Nakamura, Shintaro; Hagiwara, Hitomi; Furukawa, Toshihito; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Sakakura, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    Ablation lesion depth caused by radiofrequency-based renal denervation (RDN) was limited to radiofrequency-RDN cannot ablate a substantial percentage of renal sympathetic nerves. We aimed to define the true lesion depth achieved with radiofrequency-RDN using a fine sectioning method and to investigate biophysical parameters that could predict lesion depth. Radiofrequency was delivered to 87 sites in 14 renal arteries from 9 farm pigs at various ablation settings: 2, 4, 6, and 9 W for 60 seconds and 6 W for 120 seconds. Electric impedance and electrode temperature were recorded during ablation. At 7 days, 2470 histological sections were obtained from the treated arteries. Maximum lesion depth increased at 2 to 6 W, peaking at 6.53 (95% confidence interval, 4.27-8.78) mm under the 6 W/60 s condition. It was not augmented by greater power (9 W) or longer duration (120 seconds). There were statistically significant tendencies at 6 and 9 W, with higher injury scores in the media, nerves, arterioles, and fat. Maximum lesion depth was positively correlated with impedance reduction and peak electrode temperature (Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.59 and 0.53, respectively). Lesion depth was 6.5 mm for radiofrequency-RDN at 6 W/60 s. The impedance reduction and peak electrode temperature during ablation were closely associated with lesion depth. Hence, these biophysical parameters could provide prompt feedback during radiofrequency-RDN procedures in the clinical setting. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Primary study on the lesions and specific proteins in BEAS-2B cells induced with the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shisong; Zhang, Kaining; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xin; Lu, Xing; Peng, Bo; Wu, Weihua; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Shiju; Zhang, Renli; Xue, Hong; Yu, Muhua; Cheng, Jinquan

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the lesions and proteins with differential expression in cells infected with the 2009 A (H1N1) virus and to determine the specific proteins involved in cell damage, the present study has been performed. BEAS-2B cells were infected with the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus or the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed with flow cytometry. Total cellular proteins were extracted and underwent two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins underwent mass spectrometry for identification. The results showed that after 12 h, cells infected with the virus strain sourced from severe cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cells infected with the virus strain sourced from fatal cases and severe cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cells infected with virus strains from fatal cases and ordinary cases had the highest apoptosis rate (P cell cycle arrest mainly at the G0/G1 phase. Eighteen differentially expressed proteins were identified, including galectin-1, cofilin-1, protein DJ-1, proteasome subunit α type-5, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, translationally controlled tumor protein, profilin 1, and interferon α-2. Galectin-1 was specifically observed in BEAS-2B infected with 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses, and cofilin-1 was specifically observed in BEAS-2B cells in the late stage of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus infection. In conclusion, differential effects of the 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus and seasonal H1N1 influenza virus were identified on the cell cycle and apoptosis, and galectin-1 may play a role in cell apoptosis induced by 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus.

  14. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of methanolic extracts from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesion in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noraziah; Salama, Suzy Munir; Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Omar, Hanita; Fadaienasab, Mehran; Karimian, Hamed; Taha, Hairin; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    A natural source of medicine, Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant which belongs to the family Annonaceae. In this study, methanol extract from the leaves and stems of this species was evaluated for its gastroprotective potential against mucosal lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Seven groups of rats were assigned, groups 1 and 2 were given Tween 20 (10% v/v) orally. Group 3 was administered omeprazole 20 mg/kg (10% Tween 20) whilst the remaining groups received the leaf and stem extracts at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. After an additional hour, the rats in groups 2-7 received ethanol (95% v/v; 8 mL/kg) orally while group 1 received Tween 20 (10% v/v) instead. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h and their stomachs subjected to further studies. Macroscopically and histologically, group 2 rats showed extremely severe disruption of the gastric mucosa compared to rats pre-treated with the E. pulchrum extracts based on the ulcer index, where remarkable protection was noticed. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of inhibition was shown with the stem extract at 62% (150 mg/kg) and 65% (300 mg/kg), whilst the percentage with the leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg was 63% and 75%, respectively. An increase in mucus content, nitric oxide, glutathione, prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, protein and catalase, and a decrease in malondialdehyde level compared to group 2 were also obtained. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of groups 4-7 exhibited down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Hsp70 proteins. The methanol extract from the leaves and the stems showed notable gastroprotective potential against ethanol.

  15. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  16. Unconditioned stimulus pathways to the amygdala: effects of lesions of the posterior intralaminar thalamus on foot-shock-induced c-Fos expression in the subdivisions of the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, E; Moncho-Bogani, J; Ledoux, J E

    2008-08-26

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a site of convergence for auditory (conditioned stimulus) and foot-shock (unconditioned stimulus) inputs during fear conditioning. The auditory pathways to LA are well characterized, but less is known about the pathways through which foot shock is transmitted. Anatomical tracing and physiological recording studies suggest that the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus, which projects to LA, receives both auditory and somatosensory inputs. In the present study we examined the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the LA in rats in response to foot-shock stimulation. We then determined the effects of posterior intralaminar thalamic lesions on foot-shock-induced c-Fos expression in the LA. Foot-shock stimulation led to an increase in the density of c-Fos-positive cells in all LA subnuclei in comparison to controls exposed to the conditioning box but not shocked. However, some differences among the dorsolateral, ventrolateral and ventromedial subnuclei were observed. The ventrolateral subnucleus showed a homogeneous activation throughout its antero-posterior extension. In contrast, only the rostral aspect of the ventromedial subnucleus and the central aspect of the dorsolateral subnucleus showed a significant increment in c-Fos expression. The density of c-Fos-labeled cells in all LA subnuclei was also increased in animals placed in the box in comparison to untreated animals. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the posterior intralaminar thalamic nucleus and the medial division of the medial geniculate body reduced foot-shock-induced c-Fos activation in the LA ipsilateral to the lesion. The number of c-Fos labeled cells on the lesioned side was reduced to the levels observed in the animals exposed only to the box. These results indicate that the LA is involved in processing information about the foot-shock unconditioned stimulus and receives this kind of somatosensory information from the posterior intralaminar

  17. Bilateral LMAN lesions cancel differences in HVC neuronal recruitment induced by unilateral syringeal denervation. Lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrecht, L; Petersen, T; Nottebohm, F

    2002-12-01

    Twenty-six-day-old male zebra finches received (1) unilateral section of their tracheosyringeal nerve, (2) bilateral lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN), and (3) both operations. All birds were kept with an adult, singing male as a tutor until day 65. Tracheo-syringeal nerve-cut birds were able to imitate this model, but LMAN-lesioned birds were not. Bromodeoxyuridine, a marker of cell division, was injected intramuscularly during post-hatching days 61-65 and all birds were killed at 91 days of age. The number of bromodeoxyuridine+ neurons in the high vocal center of the tracheosyringeal-cut birds was twice as high in the intact as in the nerve cut side. This asymmetry disappeared when nerve section was combined with bilateral LMAN lesions. The latter operation, by itself, had no effect on new neuron counts. We suggest that the single nerve cut produced a hemispheric asymmetry in learning, reflected in new neuron recruitment, which disappeared when LMAN lesions blocked learning.

  18. Effect of single intralesional treatment of surgically induced equine superficial digital flexor tendon core lesions with adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells : a controlled experimental trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geburek, Florian; Roggel, Florian; van Schie, Hans T M; Beineke, Andreas; Estrada, Roberto; Weber, Kathrin; Hellige, Maren; Rohn, Karl; Jagodzinski, Michael; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Conrad, Sabine; Skutella, Thomas; van de Lest, Chris; van Weeren, René; Stadler, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of tendon disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single intralesional implantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) on artificial lesions in

  19. Peripheral nerve injury fails to induce growth of lesioned ascending dorsal column axons into spinal cord scar tissue expressing the axon repellent Semaphorin3A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Anderson, Patrick N; Verhaagen, J

    We have investigated the hypothesis that the chemorepellent Semaphorin3A may be involved in the failure of axonal regeneration after injury to the ascending dorsal columns of adult rats. Following transection of the thoracic dorsal columns, fibroblasts in the dorsolateral parts of the lesion site

  20. The effect of temperature and wavelength on production and photolysis of a UV-induced photosensitive DNA lesion which is not repaired in xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.A.; Carrier, W.L.; Regan, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet light causes a type of damage to the DNA of human cells that results in a DNA strand break upon subsequent irradiation with wavelengths around 300 nm. This DNA damage disappears from normal human fibroblasts within 5 h, but not from pyrimidine dimer excision repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells or from excision proficient xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells. The apparent lack of repair of the ultraviolet light DNA damage described here may contribute to the cancer prone nature of xeroderma pigmentosum variant individuals. These experiments show that the same amount of damage was produced at 0 0 C and 37 0 C indicating a photodynamic effect and not an enzymatic reaction. The disappearance of the photosensitive lesions from the DNA is probably enzymatic since none of the damage was removed at 0 0 C. Both the formation of the lesion and its photolysis by near ultraviolet light were wavelength dependent. An action spectrum for the formation of photosensitive lesions was similar to that for the formation of pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts and included wavelengths found in sunlight. The DNA containing the lesions was sensitive to wavelengths from 304 to 340 nm with a maximum at 313 to 317 nm. This wavelength dependence of photolysis is similar to the absorption and photolysis spectra of the pyrimidine (6-4) photoproducts. (author)

  1. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiong; Wang Yi Na; Wang Bo

    2013-01-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a + Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer. (author)

  2. Spared pre-irradiated area in pustular lesions induced by icotinib showing decreased expressions of CD1a+ langerhans cells and FGFR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yi Na; Wang, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Icotinib hydrochloride, a novel inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, has been approved by the State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Up to date, cutaneous response to icotinib is largely unknown. Here we report an uncommon lesional phenomenon in a 56-year-old Chinese male with non-small-cell lung cancer, who received icotinib as a second-line treatment. Characteristic papulopustular rash on the chest and back was observed 4 days later. Interestingly, the rash completely spares a pre-irradiated area. The immunohistochemical study in the lesional skin area and spared skin area revealed a significant decrease in CD1a(+) Langerhans cells, Ki-67 as well as FGFR2 in the spared area than in the lesional area. Thus, the present case indicated that loss of the basal layer of proliferative cells and antigen-presenting cells (Langerhans cell), as well as the down-regulation of FGFR2 signaling in the pre-irradiated skin area, may join forces in inhibiting icotinib-associated cutaneous reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both lesional area and lesion-spared area in a Chinese male receiving treatment with a new epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (icotinib). The immunohistochemical reactions described here also provide new insight into the pathogenesis of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related skin toxicities, and the role that other tyrosine kinase receptors (including FGFR) played in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  3. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  4. 牛磺酸拮抗铅对大鼠海马NOS阳性神经元数目的影响%The effect of taurine to NOS vigor in hippocampus of rat induced lead lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李积胜; 杨峰; 刘亚华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study taurine resist lead impact ability of learning and memory. Methods: Using NADPH - dhistochemistry method to study the quantity change of the rat's NOS positive neuron in hippocampus , the rat in experi-ment sections which are feeded with distinct dosage lead acetate in drinking (0.02, 0.2g/L) and feed contain distinctdosage taurine (5, 10g/kg). Results: Taurine could increase NOS positive neuron quantity obviously in hippocampus ofrat induced lead lesion. Conclusion: Taurine could resist lead impact ability of learning and memory obviously.

  5. Peritoneal macrophages mediated delivery of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle to the lesion site in a murine radiation-induced fibrosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawroth, Isabel; Alsner, Jan; Deleuran, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles directed towards silencing TNF alpha in local macrophage populations, but the mechanism for the therapeutic effect at the lesion site remains unclear. Methods. Using the same murine RIF model we utilized an optical imaging technique and fluorescence microscopy to investigate...... the uptake of chitosan/fluorescently labeled siRNA nanoparticles by peritoneal macrophages and their subsequent migration to the inflamed tissue in the RIF model. Results. We observed strong accumulation of the fluorescent signal in the lesion site of the irradiated leg up to 24 hours using the optical...... imaging system. We further confirm by immunohistochemical staining that Cy3 labeled siRNA resides in macrophages of the irradiated leg. Conclusion. We provide a proof-of-concept for host macrophage trafficking towards the inflamed region in a murine RIF model, which thereby suggests that the chitosan...

  6. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  7. Combined hyperextension and supination of the elbow joint induces lateral ligament lesions. An experimental study of the pathoanatomy and kinematics in elbow ligament injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological study suggested that the injury mechanism of 'handball goalie's elbow' may be hyperextension. The pathomechanics of hyperextension combined with supination was studied in ten macroscopically normal, male, cadaveric elbow joint specimens. The age of the donors was 28.8 years...... rupture of the lateral collateral ligament. The lesions indicate that combined hyperextension and supination represent a possible mechanism leading to 'handball goalie's elbow'....

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates estradiol-induced aldehydic DNA lesions in human breast cancer cells through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fang, Ju-Pin; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2015-05-01

    Many genes responsible for the bioactivation of endogenous estrogen to reactive quinonoid metabolites, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, are well-known target genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The purpose of this research was to investigate the roles of TCDD-mediated altered gene expression in the induction of aldehydic DNA lesions (ADLs) by 17β-estradiol (E2) in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that increases in the number of oxidant-mediated ADLs, including abasic sites and aldehydic base/sugar lesions, were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to E2. The DNA-damaging effects of E2 in MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented by pretreatment of cells with TCDD. In contrast, we did not observe statistically significant increases in the number of ADLs in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. However, with TCDD pretreatment, an approximately twofold increase in the number of ADLs was detected in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. TCDD pretreatment induces disparity in the disposition of E2 to reactive quinonoid metabolites and the subsequent formation of oxidative DNA lesions through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

  9. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  10. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  11. A signaling pathway contributing to platelet storage lesion development: targeting PI3-kinase–dependent Rap1 activation slows storage-induced platelet deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Peter; Thon, Jonathan N.; Walsh, Geraldine M.; Chen, Cindy H.I.; Moore, Edwin D.; Devine, Dana V.; Kast, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The term platelet storage lesion (PSL) describes the structural and biochemical changes in platelets (PLTs) during storage. These are typified by alterations of morphologic features and PLT metabolism leading to reduced functionality and hence reduced viability for transfusion. While the manifestations of the storage lesion are well characterized, the biochemical pathways involved in the initiation of this process are unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A complementary proteomic approach has recently been applied to analyze changes in the PLT proteome during storage. By employing stringent proteomic criteria, 12 proteins were identified as significantly and consistently changing in relative concentration over a 7-day storage period. Microscopy, Western blot analysis, flow cytometry, and PLT functionality analyses were used to unravel the involvement of a subset of these 12 proteins, which are connected through integrin signaling in one potential signaling pathway underlying storage lesion development. RESULTS Microscopic analysis revealed changes in localization of glycoprotein IIIa, Rap1, and talin during storage. Rap1 activation was observed to correlate with expression of the PLT activation marker CD62P. PLTs incubated for 7 days with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 showed diminished Rap1 activation as well as a moderate reduction in integrin αIIbβ3 activation and release of α-granules. Furthermore, this inhibitor seemed to improve PLT integrity and quality during storage as several in vitro probes showed a deceleration of PLT activation. CONCLUSION These results provide the first evidence for a signaling pathway mediating PSL in which PI3-kinase–dependent Rap1 activation leads to integrin αIIbβ3 activation and PLT degranulation. PMID:19497060

  12. The lethal interaction of x ray and penicillin induced lesions following x-irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r in the presence of hypoxic cell sensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, N.E.; Obioha, F.I.

    1982-01-01

    When Escherichia coli B/r were x-irradiated under anoxia in the presence of different electron-affinic sensitizers and then incubated in broth containing penicillin (at a concentration that did not kill unirradiated cells) additional killing of the bacteria occurred provided the sensitizers were of relatively high lipophilicity. The overall effect was to increase the efficiency of these sensitizers. It is concluded that sensitizer-dependent latent radiation lesions(s) are produced in membrane components of the cell envelope that interact with damage caused by penicillin in the peptidoglycan layer and this causes the additional lethality

  13. [Discussion on combined periodontic-endodontic lesion type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhou, Li

    2008-02-01

    Combined the elaboration on periodontic-endodontic lesion in the textbook Periodontics with the deficiencies existed in the clinical and teaching work and demonstrated the understanding on the type of the combined periodontic-endodontic lesion, and suggested the viewpoint of no sub-type of combined periodontic-endodontic lesion. Only regard the type of pulp disease that induced by periodontal disease as genuine combined periodontic-endodontic lesion.

  14. Constants of the Alper and Howard-Flanders oxygen equation for damage to bacterial membrane, deduced from observations on the radiation-induced penicillin-sensitive lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obioha, F.I.; Gillies, N.E.; Cullen, B.M.; Walker, H.C.; Alper, T.

    1984-01-01

    E. coli were irradiated in the presence of 100% oxygen, oxygen-free nitrogen and mixtures of 1.01, 0.59, 0.3, 0.1 and 0.06% oxygen in nitrogen. Changes in sensitivity with pO 2 conformed with the Alper and Howard-Flanders equation for bacteria treated after irradiation by penicillin as well as for the untreated ones. Values of m were respectively 4.8 and 3.3; values of K were identical, within experimental error, (4.4 mmHg). Sensitivity to induction of the bacterial membrane penicillin-sensitive lesion was calculated from the difference in the reciprocals of D 0 values proper to untreated and treated bacteria, for every gas used. The value of m could not be directly calculated because the effect of penicillin on anoxically irradiated bacteria was not detectable. For that reason, a transformation of the oxygen equation was used, allowing estimates to be made of both m and K, provided the results conformed with the equation. Within experimental error they did. Calculated values of m and K for induction of the penicillin-sensitive lesion were respectively 8 and 5.9 mmHg, but it is shown that the oxygen enhancement ratio was probably underestimated and the value overestimated. (author)

  15. Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii irradiated with 255 Gy induces decrease of cysts and cerebral lesions in mice challenged with cysts of ME-49

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Galisteo Juniorm Andres Jimenez; Nascimento, Nanci do; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis can cause ocular lesions in normal individuals and several diseases in foetus, HIV infection and transplants. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle, involving cats, as the definitive host, and warm blood species, as intermediated hosts. The infection occurs by ingestion of food and water contaminated with infected cat faeces, contaminated milk and cheese or raw and undercook meat of the intermediated hosts. To date, there is no commercial vaccine of use in humans. In this work, tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain were irradiated with 255 Gy and inoculated in C57Bl/6j mice (3 doses, biweekly), after mice were challenged with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 25 cysts of ME-49 by oral gavage. The lesions and cysts in the brain were analyzed in all mice, after 4-week post infection. The mortality was 20% in control mice (ME-49 cysts only) and not one in immunized mice. The number of cysts was high in the control group, but low in immunized 255 Gy mice (n<100). Immunized mice showed less cerebral pathology and necrosis foci. Ionizing radiation is an important tool in the study toxoplasmosis and vaccine development. (author)

  16. Up-regulation of serotonergic binding sites labeled by (3H) WB4101 following fimbrial transection and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, A.L.; Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Loy, R.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lesions of the serotonergic afferents to the hippocampus, by fimbrial transection or by 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment, produce an increase in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 to its nanomolar affinity binding site, with no effect on its picomolar affinity binding site or on ( 3 H)prazosin binding. The nanomolar site is serotonergic as the serotonergic agonists, serotonin and 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT) have nanomolar affinity for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding when studied in the presence of a prazosin mask (30nM) of the alpha-1 component of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding. The serotonin receptor antagonists metergoline, lysergic acid diethylamide and lisuride also have high nanomolar affinities while ketanserin, yohimbine, prazosin and noradrenergic agonists have affinities in the micromolar range. Fimbrial transection or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine injections produced 32% and 44% increases in the Bmax of ( 3 H)WB4101 binding in the presence of a prazosin mask. Serotonin competition for ( 3 H)WB4101 binding was identical in control and experimental tissues from each lesion experiment. Although specific binding of ( 3 H)WB4101 was increased, there was no change in the affinities or the percentages of the two binding components for serotonin competition with ( 3 H)WB4101. These data suggest that removal of the serotonergic input to the hippocampus produces an increase in the Bmax of serotonin receptor binding sites labeled by ( 3 H)WB4101. 33 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  17. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  18. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  19. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M.; Els, T.

    2001-01-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  20. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  1. Levodopa/benserazide microsphere (LBM) prevents L-dopa induced dyskinesia by inactivation of the DR1/PKA/P-tau pathway in 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson's rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-long; Wang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Su-fang; Yuan, Ming-Lu; Che, Jun-Yi; Gan, Jing; Song, Lu; Yuan, Wei-En; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2014-12-16

    L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) is the gold standard for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but long-term therapy is associated with the emergence of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). In the present study, L-dopa and benserazide were loaded by poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (LBM), which can release levodopa and benserazide in a sustained manner in order to continuous stimulate dopaminergic receptors. We investigated the role of striatal DR1/PKA/P-tau signal transduction in the molecular event underlying LID in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. We found that animals rendered dyskinetic by L-dopa treatment, administration of LBM prevented the severity of AIM score, as well as improvement in motor function. Moreover, we also showed L-dopa elicits profound alterations in the activity of three LID molecular markers, namely DR1/PKA/P-tau (ser396). These modifications are totally prevented by LBM treatment, a similar way to achieve continuous dopaminergic delivery (CDD). In conclusion, our experiments provided evidence that intermittent administration of L-dopa, but not continuous delivery, and DR1/PKA/p-tau (ser396) activation played a critical role in the molecular and behavioural induction of LID in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In addition, LBM treatment prevented the development of LID by inhibiting the expression of DR1/PKA/p-tau, as well as PPEB mRNA in dyskintic rats.

  2. Oral administration of Uncariae rhynchophylla inhibits the development of DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via IFN-gamma down-regulation in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Young; Jung, Jung-A; Kim, Tae-Ho; Seo, Sang-Wan; Jung, Sung-Ki; Park, Cheung-Seog

    2009-04-21

    Uncariae rhynchophylla (UR) is an herb which has blood pressure lowering and anti-inflammatory effects and has been prescribed traditionally to treat stroke and vascular dementia. In the present study, we examined whether UR suppress Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice treated with 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) under SPF conditions. The effect of UR in DNFB- treated NC/Nga mice was determined by measuring the skin symptom severity, levels of serum IgE, and of the amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma secreted by activated T cells in draining lymph nodes. Oral administration of UR to DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice was found to inhibit ear thickness increases and the skin lesions induced by DNFB. IFN-gamma production by CD4+ T cells from the lymph nodes of DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice was significantly inhibited by UR treatment, although levels of IL-4 and total IgE in serum were not. UR may suppress the development of AD-like dermatitis in DNFB-treated NC/Nga mice by reducing IFN-gamma production.

  3. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  4. Correlation of p63 immunohistochemistry with histology and contrast enhanced MRI in characteristic lesions induced by minimally invasive thermal treatments in a dog prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, A.; Butts-Pauly, K.; Plata, J.; Sommer, G.; Daniel, B.; Bouley, D. M.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal ablation techniques are important tools to treat low grade tumors in the prostate gland. The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been an excellent tool to visualize and assess the thermally ablated areas in real time. In this study slides from dog prostates previously treated with cryoablation or High Intensity Focal Ultrasound (HIFU) were immunohistochemically stained with the biomarker p63, in order to determine if this marker would be helpful for differentiatiating between viable, sub lethally damaged and normal glands. Digitized slides were analyzed using Sedeen Viewer software, and compared with corresponding representative H&E slides and MR images. p63 staining in the cryoablated acute duration prostates was negative in the coagulation necrosis zone (region of interest subjected to the coldest temperatures). In acute duration HIFU treated prostates, the central heat-fixed zone (region of interest subjected to the hottest temperatures) still displayed + p63 staining. Cryoablated or HIFU subacute duration treated prostates were very hemorrhagic, but presented the same stain pattern in the treated areas as the acute duration prostates, and in chronic duration prostates, whether treated with cryo or HIFU, glands displayed robust p63 staining most prevalent in the outer edges of the lesion where there was extensive glandular regeneration. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value of p63 IHC and its usefulness in detecting viable prostate basal cells in normal dog prostates following either cryoablation of HIFU. Our results suggest that the portions of the lesion with complete loss of p63 staining correspond well to the non-enhancing region in cryoablated prostates, as viewed with MRI. However, p63 staining in the heat-fixed zone in acute harvested HIFU treated prostates remains positive, suggesting either inadequate heat to destroy basal cells, or heat-fixation of the p63 antigen and false positive staining. Therefore p63 staining does not

  5. Does troncular vagotomy modify the proliferative gastric lesions induced in rats by duodenogastric reflux? A vagotomia troncular modifica as lesões proliferativas gástricas induzidas em ratos pelo refluxo duodenogástrico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to investigate if combining VT to DGR through the pylorus can modulate the biological behavior of PL induced by DGR and to verify if TV alone can induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa. METHODS: 62 male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: 1 - Control (CT gastrotomy; 2 - Troncular Vagotomy (TV plus gastrotomy; 3 - Duodenogastric reflux through the pylorus (R and 4 - Troncular vagotomy plus DGR (RTV. The animals were killed at the 54 week of the experiment. DGR was obtained by anastomosing a proximal jejunal loop to the anterior gastric wall. TV was performed through isolation and division of the vagal trunks. Gastrotomy consisted of 1 cm incision at the anterior gastric wall. PL were analyzed gross and histologically in the antral mucosa, at the gastrojejunal stoma and at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa. RESULTS: Groups R and RTV developed exophytic lesions in the antral mucosa (R=90.9%; RTV=100% and at the gastrojejunal stoma (R=54.54%; RTV=63.63%. Histologically they consisted of proliferative benign lesions, without cellular atypias, diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia. Both groups exposed to DGR presented squamous hyperplasia at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa (R= 54.5%; RTV= 45.4%. TV, alone, did not induce gross or histological alterations in the gastric mucosa. TV did note change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. CONCLUSIONS: DGR induces the development of PL in the pyloric mucosa and at the gastrojejunal stoma. TV does not change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. TV alone is not able to induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa.OBJETIVO: investigar se a adição da VT ao RDG através do piloro, interfere no comportamento biológico das LP induzidas pelo RDG e observar se a VT isoladamente leva ao desenvolvimento de lesões morfológicas na mucosa gástrica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 62 ratos Wistar machos, distribu

  6. Lesion Size Is Exacerbated in Hypoxic Rats Whereas Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increase in Injured Normoxic Rats: A Prospective Cohort Study of Secondary Hypoxia in Focal Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Eric Peter; Frostell, Arvid; Mulder, Jan; Mitsios, Nicholas; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Risling, Mårten; Svensson, Mikael; Morganti-Kossmann, Maria Cristina; Bellander, Bo-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a severe insult shown to exacerbate the pathophysiology, resulting in worse outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypoxic insult in a focal TBI model by monitoring brain edema, lesion volume, serum biomarker levels, immune cell infiltration, as well as the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 73, including sham and naive) were used. The rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated. A controlled cortical impact device created a 3-mm deep lesion in the right parietal hemisphere. Post-injury, rats inhaled either normoxic (22% O2) or hypoxic (11% O2) mixtures for 30 min. The rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-injury. Serum was collected for S100B measurements using ELISA. Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to determine lesion size and edema volume. Immunofluorescence was employed to analyze neuronal death, changes in cerebral macrophage- and neutrophil infiltration, microglia proliferation, apoptosis, complement activation (C5b9), IgG extravasation, HIF-1α, and VEGF. The hypoxic group had significantly increased blood levels of lactate and decreased pO2 (p hypoxic animals (p hypoxic group at 1 day after trauma (p = 0.0868). No differences were observed between the groups in cytotoxic and vascular edema, IgG extravasation, neutrophils and macrophage aggregation, microglia proliferation, or C5b-9 expression. Hypoxia following focal TBI exacerbated the lesion size and neuronal loss. Moreover, there was a tendency to higher levels of S100B in the hypoxic group early after injury, indicating a potential validity as a biomarker of injury severity. In the normoxic group, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was found elevated, possibly indicative of neuro-protective responses occurring in this less severely injured group. Further studies are

  7. HPV16-E2 induces prophase arrest and activates the cellular DNA damage response in vitro and in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuezhen; Toh, Shen Yon; He, Pingping; Lim, Thimothy; Lim, Diana; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2015-10-27

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is the precursor to cervical carcinoma. The completion of the HPV productive life cycle depends on the expression of viral proteins which further determines the severity of the cervical neoplasia. Initiation of the viral productive replication requires expression of the E2 viral protein that cooperates with the E1 viral DNA helicase. A decrease in the viral DNA replication ability and increase in the severity of cervical neoplasia is accompanied by simultaneous elevated expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Here we reveal a novel and important role for the HPV16-E2 protein in controlling host cell cycle during malignant transformation. We showed that cells expressing HPV16-E2 in vitro are arrested in prophase alongside activation of a sustained DDR signal. We uncovered evidence that HPV16-E2 protein is present in vivo in cells that express both mitotic and DDR signals specifically in CIN3 lesions, immediate precursors of cancer, suggesting that E2 may be one of the drivers of genomic instability and carcinogenesis in vivo.

  8. Overexpression of Rice Auxilin-Like Protein, XB21, Induces Necrotic Lesions, up-Regulates Endocytosis-Related Genes, and Confers Enhanced Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Jin; Wei, Tong; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-12-01

    The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). To elucidate the mechanism of XA21-mediated immunity, we previously performed a yeast two-hybrid screening for XA21 interactors and identified XA21 binding protein 21 (XB21). Here, we report that XB21 is an auxilin-like protein predicted to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate an XA21/XB21 in vivo interaction using co-immunoprecipitation in rice. Overexpression of XB21 in rice variety Kitaake and a Kitaake transgenic line expressing XA21 confers a necrotic lesion phenotype and enhances resistance to Xoo. RNA sequencing reveals that XB21 overexpression results in the differential expression of 8735 genes (4939 genes up- and 3846 genes down-regulated) (≥2-folds, FDR ≤0.01). The up-regulated genes include those predicted to be involved in 'cell death' and 'vesicle-mediated transport'. These results indicate that XB21 plays a role in the plant immune response and in regulation of cell death. The up-regulation of genes controlling 'vesicle-mediated transport' in XB21 overexpression lines is consistent with a functional role for XB21 as an auxilin.

  9. DNA repair kinetic of hydrogen peroxide and UVA/B induced lesions in peripheral blood leucocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elio A Prieto; Mudry, Marta D; Palermo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the fine kinetics of DNA repair in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) syndrome, a complex disorder linked to a deficiency in repair that increases cancer susceptibility. The repair process was evaluated by the comet assay (CA) in cells from 2 XP patients and 9 controls exposed to UVA/B (UVA 366/UVB 280 nm) and H2O2 (150 μM) at temperatures of 4, 15, and 37°C. Samples were taken at 2-min intervals during the first 10 min to analyze the "fine kinetics" repair during the initial phase of the curve, and then at 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min. CA evaluation of DNA repair activity points to BER/NER initiation in the first 30 min with both inductors at 37°C and 15°C, but final comet length showed differences according to treatment. Repair kinetics during 120 min showed a good correlation with clinical features in both XP patients. Differences in final comet length were less pronounced in XP cells treated with H2O2 than with UVA/B, probably because the peroxide produces mainly base oxidation but less bulky lesions; UVA/B generates a mixture of both. These findings reinforce the value of CA in testing in DNA repair ability or exposure monitoring.

  10. Differential involvement of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the circling behaviour induced by apomorphine, SK & F 38393, pergolide and LY 171555 in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnt, J; Hyttel, J

    1985-01-01

    The antagonistic effect of dopamine (DA) D-1 and D-2 antagonists against circling behaviour induced by various DA agonists in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats has been investigated. DA D-1/D-2 selectivity of agonists in vitro was measured by the stimulatory effect on DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat striatal homogenates (D-1), the inhibitory effect on electrically-induced release of 3H-DA in rabbit striatal slices (D-2) and the affinity to 3H-piflutixol (D-1) and 3H-spiroperidol (D-2) binding sites in rat striatal membranes. The contralateral circling behaviour induced by the DA D-1 agonist SK & F 38393 was blocked by the DA D-1 antagonist, SCH 23390, and by the mixed DA D-1/D-2 antagonist cis(Z)-flupentixol, but was not influenced by the DA D-2 antagonists spiroperidol and clebopride. In contrast, circling behaviour induced by the preferential DA D-2 agonists pergolide and LY 171555 was blocked by clebopride, spiroperidol, and cis(Z)-flupentixol, but weakly or not influenced by SCH 23390. Apomorphine-induced circling behaviour was blocked by cis(Z)-flupentixol, partially antagonized by SCH 23390 and clebopride but not inhibited by spiroperidol, although the time-course of circling was changed. Combinations of SCH 23390 with spiroperidol or clebopride in low doses completely blocked the effect of apomorphine. These results indicate that DA D-1 and D-2 receptors mediate circling behaviour through separate mechanisms which can be independently manipulated with respective agonists and antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Prevalência de coilocitose em biópsias penianas de parceiros de mulheres com lesões genitais induzidas pelo HPV Prevalence of koilocytosis in penile biopsies of partners of women with HPV-induced genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Azoubel Antunes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de coilocitose em biópsias penianas de parceiros de mulheres com lesões genitais induzidas pelo HPV e analisar os fatores de risco envolvidos com a infecção peniana. MÉTODOS: foram incluídos neste estudo de coorte transversal 80 parceiros de mulheres com lesões induzidas pelo HPV no período de maio de 2002 a junho de 2003. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 34,1 anos (variando de 16 a 63. Todos os pacientes negavam ou desconheciam qualquer tipo de lesão genital. Foram submetidos à anamnese específica quanto a presença de sintomas uretrais, passado de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST, número de parceiras sexuais, uso de preservativos e postectomia. Posteriormente foram submetidos à peniscopia com a utilização de soluções de ácido acético e azul de toluidina, tendo sido colhido material para biópsia das lesões de aspecto morfológico sugestivo de contaminação por HPV. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste do chi2. RESULTADOS: o exame foi considerado negativo em 24 pacientes (30%. Todos os outros 56 pacientes (70% apresentaram lesões acetobrancas e azul de toluidina positivas. Destes, 53 foram biopsiados, e 41 pacientes (77,3% apresentaram biópsia com alterações histológicas sugestivas de infecção pelo HPV. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência da infecção genital masculina pelo HPV foi de 51,2%, e nenhum fator de risco analisado foi associado com uma maior prevalência da infecção genital pelo vírus.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of koilocytosis in penile biopsies of partners of women with HPV-induced genital lesions, and to analyze the risk factors associated with the penile viral infection. METHODS: a total of 80 partners of HPV-infected women with genital lesions were included in this transversal cohort study. The study was carried out between May 2002 and June 2003. The mean age was 34.1 years (16 to 63. No patient reported any kind of genital lesion

  12. First Patagonian Course on 'Diagnosis and Therapy of Injuries Induced by Ionizing Radiation'; Primer curso patagonico 'Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Lesiones Inducidas por Radiaciones Ionizantes'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, Mariela I., E-mail: bellotti@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAB/CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia; Andres, Pablo A., E-mail: andresp@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAB/CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Division Proteccion Radiologica; Cascón, Adriana S., E-mail: adrianacascon@yahoo.com [Instituto de Medicina, Radiomedicina y Seguridad (IMERASE SA), Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    In Patagonia there are academic centers, health and industrial facilities that use ionizing radiations in its usual practices. However, they do not have protocols that respond to local needs. For this reason was held from October 5 to November 10, 2012 in Bariloche Atomic Center, a training course for health personnel. The range of topics covered ranged from the definition of dosimetry quantities, types of radiation and biological dosimetry, biological effects, radiation acute syndrome, radiation-induced cutaneous syndrome, internal contamination, screening in radiological emergencies, etc.The course provided a theoretical and practical guide about how to recognize and treat people exposed to radiations, guidelines for acting in radiological emergencies and a perception of the psychosocial impact of the radiation accidents.The result was a pocket book for health personnel that will be used in case of having a patient with radiation induced injury.

  13. Arterial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake reflects balloon catheter-induced thrombus formation and tissue factor expression via nuclear factor-κB in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji

    2013-01-01

    Imaging modalities to assess atherosclerotic plaque thrombogenicity have not been established, so in this study the relationship between [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake and thrombus formation was investigated in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in the iliacofemoral artery by balloon injury and a 0.5% cholesterol diet. At 3 weeks after the first balloon injury, the arteries were visualized by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging 2 h after an 18 F-FDG infusion, and then arterial thrombus was induced by a second balloon injury of both iliacofemoral arteries. Imaging with 18 F-FDG-PET revealed significantly more radioactivity along the injured (0.63±0.12 standardized uptake value (SUV)max), than the contralateral non-injured artery (0.34±0.08 SUVmax, n=17, P 18 F-FDG uptake reflects the thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque following balloon injury. (author)

  14. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and vitamin E on histopathological lesions induced in bursa of Fabricius of broiler chicks by salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayrafi, Reza; Mirzakhani, Navideh; Mobaseri, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of the turmeric in comparison to vitamin E on bursal damages induced by salinomycin in broiler chickens. In this study, forty one day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups: 1- basal diet as control, 2- basal diet plus salinomycin, 3- basal diet plus salinomycin (SLM) and vitamin E (Vit. E) and 4- basal diet plus salinomycin and turmeric powder. The chicks were treated for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the bursal tissues were removed and fixed in 10% formalin solution. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain for histopathological studies. Light microscopic observations showed that, SLM diminished cortex thickness of bursal tissue, enhanced its medulla zone and caused severe lymphocytic necrosis. In addition, SLM led to fibrosis of interstitium along with sever edema of medulla zone in the bursal tissue of the chicken. Administration of Vit. E and TP significantly inhibited the SLM-induced derangements and comparing the Vit. E and TP showed no significant differences. The results of this study indicated that the turmeric may protect bursa of Fabricius against toxicity induced by salinomycin in chicks.

  15. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD. The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and interleukins (ILs. Glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13 levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

  16. Heavy ion-induced lesions in DNA: A theoretical model for the initial induction of DNA strand breaks and chromatin breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed and used to calculate yields and spatial distributions of DNA strand breaks resulting from the interactions of heavy ions with chromatin in aqueous systems. The three dimensional spatial distribution of ionizing events has been modeled for charged particles as a function of charge and velocity. Chromatin has been modeled as a 30 nm diameter solenoid of nucleosomal DNA. The Monte Carlo methods used by Chatterjee et al. have been applied to DNA in a chromatin conformation. Refinements to their methods include: a combined treatment of primary and low energy (<2 keV) secondary electron interactions, an improved low energy delta ray model, and the combined simulation of direct energy deposition on the DNA and attack by diffusing hydroxyl radicals. Individual particle tracks are treated independently, which is assumed to be applicable to low fluence irradiations in which multiple particle effects are negligible. Single strand break cross section open-quotes hooksclose quotes seen in experiments at very high LET appear to be due to the collapsing radial extent of the track, as predicted in the open-quotes deep sieveclose quotes hypothesis proposed by Tobias et al. Spatial distributions of lesions produced by particles have been found to depend on chromatin structure. In the future, heavy ions may be used as a tool to probe the organization of DNA in chromatin. A Neyman A-binomial variation of the open-quotes cluster modelclose quotes for the distribution of chromatin breaks per irradiated cell has been theoretically tested. The model includes a treatment of the chromatin fragment detection technique's resolution, which places a limitation on the minimum size of fragments which can be detected. The model appears to fit some of the experimental data reasonably well. However, further experimental and theoretical refinements are desirable

  17. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  19. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  20. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  1. Coexposure to benzo[a]pyrene plus UVA induced DNA double strand breaks: visualization of Ku assembly in the nucleus having DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko; Koike, Manabu; Ohashi, Norio; Takahashi, Sentaro; Goto, Rensuke

    2004-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with potential carcinogenicity. It has been shown that BaP, upon UVA irradiation, synergistically induced oxidative DNA damage, but other DNA damage was not confirmed. In this study, we examined whether coexposure to BaP plus UVA induces double strand breaks (DSBs) using xrs-5 cells, deficient in the repair of DSBs (Ku80 mutant), and whether Ku translocates involving the formation of DSBs. BaP plus UVA had a significant cytotoxic effect on CHO-K1 cells and an even more drastic effect on Ku80-deficient, xrs-5 cells, suggesting that the DSBs were generated by coexposure to BaP plus UVA. The DSBs were repaired in CHO-K1 cells within 30 min, but not in xrs-5 cells, indicating the involvement of a non-homologous end joining, which needs Ku proteins. Furthermore, we succeeded in visualizing that Ku80 rapidly assembled to the exposed region, in which DSBs might be generated, and clarified that the presence of both Ku70 and Ku80 was important for their accumulation

  2. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  3. A Comparative study for striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons to DA depletion-induced lesion in a PD rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuefeng; Wu, Jiajia; Zhu, Yaofeng; Chen, Si; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Tao; Huang, Ziyun; Wei, Jiayou; Li, Yanmei; Lei, Wanlong

    2018-04-16

    Striatal-direct and -indirect Pathway Neurons showed different vulnerability in basal ganglia disorders. Therefore, present study aimed to examine and compare characteristic changes of densities, protein and mRNA levels of soma, dendrites, and spines between striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons after DA depletion by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time PCR and immunoelectron microscopy techniques. Experimental results showed that: 1) 6OHDA-induced DA depletion decreased the soma density of striatal-direct pathway neurons (SP+), but no significant changes for striatal-indirect pathway neurons (ENK+). 2) DA depletion resulted in a decline of dendrite density for both striatal-direct (D1+) and -indirect (D2+) pathway neurons, and D2+ dendritic density declined more obviously. At the ultrastructure level, the densities of D1+ and D2+ dendritic spines reduced in the 6OHDA groups compared with their control groups, but the density of D2+ dendritic spines reduced more significant than that of D1. 3) Striatal DA depletion down-regulated protein and mRNA expression levels of SP and D1, on the contrary, ENK and D2 protein and mRNA levels of indirect pathway neurons were up-regulated significantly. Present results suggested that indirect pathway neurons be more sensitive to 6OHDA-induced DA depletion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  5. Lesions in nerves and plexus after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vees, W.

    1978-01-01

    Apart from the typical, radiation-induced changes in the skin, common secondary findings were oedemas, radiation-induced ulceration, fibroses of the mediastinum and lungs, pleura adhesions, and osteoradionecroses. In one patient with radiogenic paresis of the plexus brachialis, irradiation of the spinal cord because of epidural metastases of a mammary carcinoma resulted in radiation myelopathy which was verified by laminectomy. Observations of radiogenic lesions of the plexus brachialis show that the usual site of the lesion in the vasomotoric nerve bundle is the axilla. The lesion is assumed to be caused mainly by an overlapping of the axillary, infraclavicular and supraclavicular fields of irradiation which results in a dose peak in the axilla. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  6. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves on indomethacin and stress induced gastric lesions in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatware, Ketan Vinayakrao; Sharma, Sanjay; Patil, Kiran; Shete, Meghanath; Karri, Sravani; Gupta, Gaurav

    2018-07-01

    The Cordia dichotoma (CD) is having anticancer and other pharmacological effects as it contains mainly flavonoids. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of CD leaves (MECD) obtained using Soxhlet extractor. In this study the qualitative phytochemical analysis of MECD revealed the presence of bioflavonoids and determination of quercetin was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The MECD was administered orally at doses 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats. Omeprazole at 10 mg/kg orally was used as the reference standard. The various parameters like gastric volume, gastric pH, total acidity, ulcer index, percent protection were estimated for assessment of anti-secretory and gastroprotective effects of MECD. At the same time antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in addition to that inflammatory parameters such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were also estimated according to their respective method of estimation using analyzing kit. The MECD have reduced gastric volume, total acidity and gastric mucosal damage in both the experimental models significantly and dose dependently as compared with control group. Similarly the antioxidant enzymes like SOD and CAT were increased while MDA levels were decreased significantly, at the same time TNF-α and IL-6 levels were decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels were increased significantly in MECD treated groups. Thus the pretreatment with MECD has shown significant gastroprotective potential probably due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10−4 μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH’s protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH’s protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED. PMID:26685899

  9. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-12-21

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.

  10. Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg, and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p., a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.

  11. Pulmonary lesion induced by low and high positive end-expiratory pressure levels during protective ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pássaro, Caroline P; Silva, Pedro L; Rzezinski, Andréia F; Abrantes, Simone; Santiago, Viviane R; Nardelli, Liliane; Santos, Raquel S; Barbosa, Carolina M L; Morales, Marcelo M; Zin, Walter A; Amato, Marcelo B P; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the effects of low and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), without recruitment maneuvers, during lung protective ventilation in an experimental model of acute lung injury (ALI). Prospective, randomized, and controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control (C) [saline (0.1 mL), intraperitoneally] and ALI [paraquat (15 mg/kg), intraperitoneally] groups. After 24 hours, each group was further randomized into four groups (six rats each) at different PEEP levels = 1.5, 3, 4.5, or 6 cm H2O and ventilated with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg) and open thorax. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est, L) and viscoelastic pressure (DeltaP2, L)] and arterial blood gases were measured before (Pre) and at the end of 1-hour mechanical ventilation (Post). Pulmonary histology (light and electron microscopy) and type III procollagen (PCIII) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were measured after 1 hour of mechanical ventilation. In ALI group, low and high PEEP levels induced a greater percentage of increase in Est, L (44% and 50%) and DeltaP2, L (56% and 36%) in Post values related to Pre. Low PEEP yielded alveolar collapse whereas high PEEP caused overdistension and atelectasis, with both levels worsening oxygenation and increasing PCIII mRNA expression. In the present nonrecruited ALI model, protective mechanical ventilation with lower and higher PEEP levels than required for better oxygenation increased Est, L and DeltaP2, L, the amount of atelectasis, and PCIII mRNA expression. PEEP selection titrated for a minimum elastance and maximum oxygenation may prevent lung injury while deviation from these settings may be harmful.

  12. Mechanisms for enlarging lesion size during irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helen Høgh; Roman-Gonzalez, Javier; Johnson, Susan B

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Irrigated tip radiofrequency ablation of cardiac arrhythmias was developed to increase the size of the radiofrequency-induced lesion, since cooling of the electrode tip allows use of higher power settings. The purpose of this study was to determine if the increased lesion size during...

  13. Verruco-papillary lesions in relation to human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plethora of pathologic conditions may affect the normal morphologic characteristics and intactness of the oral mucosa, presenting as surface alterations.The prevalence of the different types of HPV worldwide has implications for the effectiveness of HPV vaccinations against HPV-induced carcinogenesis. This article discusses HPV related lesions with emphasis on verrucopapillary lesions.

  14. Lesions causing freezing of gait localize to a cerebellar functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Laganiere, Simon E.; Lam, Susy; Fox, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, but the brain regions involved in symptom generation remain unclear. Here we analyze brain lesions causing acute onset freezing of gait to identify regions causally involved in symptom generation. Methods Fourteen cases of lesion-induced freezing of gait were identified from the literature and lesions were mapped to a common brain atlas. Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location, not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. This technique, termed lesion network mapping, has been recently shown to identify regions involved in symptom generation across a variety of lesion-induced disorders. Results Lesion location was heterogeneous and no single region could be considered necessary for symptom generation. However, over 90% (13/14) of lesions were functionally connected to a focal area in the dorsal medial cerebellum. This cerebellar area overlapped previously recognized regions that are activated by locomotor tasks, termed the cerebellar locomotor region. Connectivity to this region was specific to lesions causing freezing of gait compared to lesions causing other movement disorders (hemichorea or asterixis). Interpretation Lesions causing freezing of gait are located within a common functional network characterized by connectivity to the cerebellar locomotor region. These results based on causal brain lesions complement prior neuroimaging studies in Parkinson’s disease patients, advancing our understanding of the brain regions involved in freezing of gait. PMID:28009063

  15. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  17. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  18. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  19. Göttingen minipig model of diet-induced atherosclerosis: influence of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lesion severity and markers of inflammation evaluated in obese, obese and diabetic, and lean control animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    in human patients, inclusion of this disease aspect in the characterization of a such model, is highly relevant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on ex- and in vivo end-points in a diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig model. Castrated male...... Göttingen minipigs were fed standard chow (CD), atherogenic diet alone (HFD) or with superimposed mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes (HFD-D). Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipid and glucose......From a pharmacological perspective, readily-available, well-characterized animal models of cardiovascular disease, including relevant in vivo markers of atherosclerosis are important for evaluation of novel drug candidates. Furthermore, considering the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerosis...

  20. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  1. Computerized axial tomography in traumatic cervical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1982-01-01

    Although plain computerized axial tomography cannot routinely demonstrate the spinal cord, it does provide excellent visualization of the bony outline of the spinal canal and vertebral column. So it should be reasonable to use this technique in cases of cervical traumatic disorders. In this paper we presented 10 cases of cervical traumatic lesions; 3 atlanto-axial dislocation, 2 cervical canal stenosis, 3 OPLL, 1 intramedullary hematoma and 1 C 2 -neurinoma. In some patients neurologic deficits were induced by cervical trauma. Bony lesions appeared more adequately deliniated than intraspinal lesions, however, in some cases intramedullary changes could also be demonstrated. The use of metrizamide with high resolution CT-scanner could improve the usefullness of this technique. (author)

  2. Acquisition of a non-matching to place task by rats with neonatal hippocampal lesion induced by ionizing radiation / Aquisição de uma tarefa espacial por ratos submetidos a lesão hipocampal neonatal induzida por radiação ionizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Catelli Infantozzi Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa, Bueno e Xavier (2005 showed that rats with hippocampus dentate gyrus lesions produced by colchicine have post-surgical tests deficits in spatial tasks involving conditional discrimination (non-matching-to-place, NMTP, although repetitive training does promote the recovery of the lamed subject's performance. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the performance of rats with selective lesions of dentate gyrus induced by neonatal ionizing radiation in the NMTP task. The irradiated group showed deficits in the first training sessions when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, the performance of lesion and control groups was similar at the end of the sessions, as previously reported. The results are discussed in light of the cognitive map theory.

  3. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, P

    1999-01-01

    infections. Specific bacterial infections of gingiva may be due to Neisseria gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, streptococci, and other organisms. The most important viral infections of gingiva are herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Fungal infections may be caused by several fungi...

  5. Theobromine induced seminiferous tubular lesion with elevated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of serum testosterone, albumin, transferrin, total serum protein and testicular histology of male albino wistar rats were evaluated following administration of 700mg/kg body weight theobromine in 0.5ml 14% sodium acetate for seven days. Theobromine administration produced significant increase in serum ...

  6. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  7. Localization of lesions in aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Kei; Watanabe, Shunzo; Tasaki, Hiroichi; Sato, Tokijiro; Metoki, Hirobumi.

    1984-01-01

    Using a microcomputer, the locus and extent of the lesions, as demonstrated by computed tomography for 127 cases with various types of aphasia were superimposed onto standardized marices. The relationship between the foci of the lesions and the types of aphasia was investigated. Broca aphasics (n=39) : Since the accumulated site of the lesions highly involved the deep structures of the lower part of the precentral gyrus as well as the insula and lenticular nucleus, only 60% of the Broca aphasics had lesions on these areas. This finding has proved to have little localizing value. Wernicke aphasics (n=23) : The size of the lesion was significantly smaller than Broca's aphasia. At least 70% of the patients had the superior temporal lesions involving Wernicke's area and subcortical lesions of the superior and middle temporal gyri. Amnestic aphasics (n=18) : The size of the lesion was smaller than any other types. While there was some concentration of the lesions (maximum 40%) in the area of the subcortical region of the anterior temporal gyrus adjacent to Wernicke's area and the lenticular nucleus, the lesions were distributed throughout the left hemisphere. Amnestic aphasia was thought to be the least localizable. Conduction aphasics (n=11) : The lesions were relatively small in size. Many patients had posterior speech area lesions involving at least partially Wernicke's area. In particular, more than 80% of the conduction aphasics had lesions of the supramarginal gyrus and it's adjacent deep structures. Global aphasics (n=36) : In general, the size of the lesion was very large and 70% of the global aphasics had extensive lesions involving both Broca's and Wernicke's areas. However, there were observations showing that the lesions can be small and confined. (J.P.N.)

  8. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  9. AKTIS Nr. 12: To better understand radioactive aerosol deposit in order to better measure it; Radio-induced lesions: a new step towards healing; Modelling the collapse of an immersed grain column; To better model soot deposit; Towards the prediction of the leakage rate of containment enclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benderitter, Marc; Perales, Frederic; Monerie, Yann; Maro, Denis; Boyer, Patrick; Lemaitre, Pascal; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Depuydt, Guillaume; Masson, Olivier; Gensdarmes, Francois

    2013-04-01

    This publication presents the main results of researches undertaken by the IRSN in the field of radiation protection, nuclear safety and security. The topics herein addressed are: radio-induced lesions as a new step towards healing (case of injection mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of induced severe colorectal lesions), the modelling of the collapse of an immersed grain column (to study the nuclear fuel behaviour in an accidental situation through a modelling of fluid-grain interactions), a better understanding of radioactive aerosol deposit (to study particle or aerosol deposits after radioactive releases in the atmosphere in case of accident), a better modelling of soot deposits (in case of fire), the prediction of leakage rates of containment enclosures (ageing phenomena of installations, systems and equipment, with the case of cracks due to material ageing and resulting in confinement losses which could thus be quantified)

  10. Tumor suppression effects of bilberry extracts and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin in early preneoplastic liver cell lesions induced by piperonyl butoxide promotion in a two-stage rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shintaro; Morita, Reiko; Ogawa, Takashi; Segawa, Risa; Takimoto, Norifumi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Hamadate, Naobumi; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Odachi, Ayano; Ogiwara, Isao; Shibusawa, Sakae; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of bilberry extracts (BBE) and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on the hepatocarcinogenic process involving oxidative stress responses, we used a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model in N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-promoted rats. We examined the modifying effect of co-administration with BBE or EMIQ on the liver tissue environment including oxidative stress responses, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/Akt and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signalings on the induction mechanism of preneoplastic lesions during early stages of hepatocellular tumor promotion. PBO increased the numbers and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) liver cell foci and the numbers of Ki-67(+) proliferating cells within GST-P(+) foci. Co-administration of BBE or EMIQ suppressed these effects with the reductions of GST-P(+) foci (area) to 48.9-49.4% and Ki-67(+) cells to 55.5-61.4% of the PBO-promoted cases. Neither BBE nor EMIQ decreased microsomal reactive oxygen species induced by PBO. However, only EMIQ suppressed the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances to 78.4% of the PBO-promoted cases. PBO increased the incidences of phospho-PTEN(-) foci, phospho-Akt substrate(+) foci, phospho-Smad3(-) foci and Smad4(-) foci in GST-P(+) foci. Both BBE and EMIQ decreased the incidences of phospho-PTEN(-) foci in GST-P(+) foci to 59.8-72.2% and Smad4(-) foci to 62.4-71.5% of the PBO-promoted cases, and BBE also suppressed the incidence of phospho-Akt substrate(+) foci in GST-P(+) foci to 75.2-75.7% of the PBO-promoted cases. These results suggest that PBO-induced tumor promotion involves facilitation of PTEN/Akt and disruptive TGF-β/Smad signalings without relation to oxidative stress responses, but this promotion was suppressed by co-treatment with BBE or EMIQ through suppression of cell proliferation activity of preneoplastic liver cells

  11. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  12. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  13. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  14. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  15. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  16. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  17. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  18. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  19. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  20. Complete mucosal healing of distal lesions induced by twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam promoted clinical remission of mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation: double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Makoto; Aoyama, Nobuo; Tada, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kiyonori; Hirai, Fumihito; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Mamoru; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2018-04-01

    Budesonide foam is used for the topical treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. This phase III study was performed to confirm mucosal healing and other therapeutic effects of twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis including left-sided colitis and pancolitis. This was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 126 patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with active inflammation in the distal colon were randomized to two groups receiving twice-daily budesonide 2 mg/25 ml foam or placebo foam. The primary endpoint was the percentage of complete mucosal healing of distal lesions (endoscopic subscore of 0) at week 6. Some patients continued the treatment through week 12. Drug efficacy and safety were evaluated. The percentages of both complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission were significantly improved in the budesonide as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0035). Subgroup analysis showed similar efficacy of budesonide foam for complete mucosal healing of distal lesions and clinical remission regardless of disease type. The clinical remission percentage tended to be higher in patients achieving complete mucosal healing of distal lesions than in other patients. There were no safety concerns with budesonide foam. This study confirmed for the first time complete mucosal healing with twice-daily budesonide 2-mg foam in mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with distal active inflammation. The results also indicated that complete mucosal healing of distal lesions by budesonide foam promotes clinical remission of ulcerative colitis. Clinical trial registration no.: Japic CTI-142704.

  1. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  2. Multiple-lesion track-structure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Shinn, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions

  3. Cholestatic jaundice by malignant lesions: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Anna, Tatiana Kelly Brasileiro de; Santana, Alex Menezes; Rizzuto, Mauricio Soares; Chagas, Alessandro Rosa Rodrigues; Zuppani, Aguinaldo Cunha; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Malignant obstructive jaundice is most commonly caused by cancer of pancreatic head, papilla tumor, cholangiocarcinoma and biliary obstruction induced by secondary lesions of the liver or lymph nodes. Patients usually present with weight loss, abdominal pain, jaundice and progressive increase of direct bilirubin, being essential the evaluation by imaging methods for the proper diagnosis, staging and therapeutic planning. This essay illustrates the imaging aspects of ultrasound and computed tomography - and in specific situations magnetic resonance cholangiography - of the major malignancies that lead to cholestatic jaundice. (author)

  4. [Molecular mechanisms of cytoprotective action of the plant proanthocyanidins in gastric lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiachkivs'ka, O S

    2006-01-01

    The molecular defence mechanisms against ethanol- and stress-induced (WRS) gastric lesions under the action of plant proanthocyanidins from grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) were investigated. Pre-treatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg/day) in dose-dependent manner attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the doses of GCE reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) were 28 and 36 mg/kg/day, respectively and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with PGE2 analogue. Lesions reduction was also accompanied by improvement of gastric blood flow, antiradical action, increased mucosal generation of PGE2, antioxidant activity.

  5. Cryogun cryotherapy for oral leukoplakia and adjacent melanosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hung-Pin; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study has shown that cryogun cryotherapy is a good and effective treatment modality for oral leukoplakia. In this study, we used cryogun cryotherapy to treat 72 oral leukoplakia and adjacent smoking-induced melanosis (OLM) lesions on the buccal mucosae. Of 72 OLM lesions, 14 had epithelial hyperplasia with parakeratosis, 24 had epithelial hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, 26 had mild dysplasia, seven had moderate dysplasia, and one had severe dysplasia. Complete regression was achieved in all 72 OLM lesions after a mean of 3.3 ± 1.3 cryogun cryotherapy treatments. We found that OLM lesions in patients without smoking habit, with the greatest diameter cryotherapy treatment to achieve complete regression than those OLM lesions in patients with smoking habit, with the greatest diameter ≥ 2.8 cm, without epithelial dysplasia, or with a surface keratin thickness > 50 μm (all P-values cryotherapy treatment number (all P-values cryotherapy treatment required to achieve complete regression of the OLM lesion by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Cryogun cryotherapy is an effective treatment modality for OLM lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changing activity in MS lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, A.G.; Tofts, P.S.; Thompson, A.J.; Rudge, P.; MacManus, D.G.; Kendall, B.E.; Moseley, I.F.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; McDonald, W.I.

    1989-01-01

    Gd-DTPA enhanced T1 weighted MRI is a discriminating test for a defective blood-brain barrier, with MS lesions showing considerable variation in the pattern of enhancement. Since little is known of the changes in the blood-brain barrier in the active plaque over time, the natural history of blood-brain barrier disturbance in the MS lesion was examined to confirm earlier reports that Gd-DTPA enhancement is a consistent early event in new lesions of relapsing/remitting MS. This knowledge is essential for the use of MRI in monitoring treatment. (author). 9 refs

  7. PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: CUTANEOUS, SUBCUTANEOUS, NASOPHARYNGEAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasoolinejad

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is an amalgam of clinical diseases caused by a wide variety of dematiaceous fungi. We are reporting on a 16 year-old patient from Amol with subcutaneous cervical nodes and nasopharyngeal lesions of phaeohypho"nmycosis that were confirmed by pathological examination, direct smear, and culture. After treatment with an oral triazole (Itraconazole for 4 months, all nodes and lesions disappeared and treatment was stopped A new lesion appeared on his chest wall 8 months, therapy with itraconazole was restarted and commuted for a long time.

  8. OCT investigation of dental lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiac, Eugen; Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Scrieciu, Monica; Mercuţ, Rǎzvan; Mercuţ, Veronica; Vǎtu, Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    There are several important non carious lesions affecting the tooth structure, lesions which may be classified into four clinical forms of dental wear: abfraction, erosion, attrition and abrasion, and different types of root resorption. Search for new, non-invasive and fast methods able to detect and describe such injuries is of utmost importance. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) proved itself as an appropriate investigation method for several medical fields including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology etc. Our study reveals OCT preliminary investigations as a promising tool for detecting and evaluating of the mentioned lesions.

  9. Reversible Splenial Lesion Syndrome (RESLES) Following Glufosinate Ammonium Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae Oh; Yoon, Jae Chol; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2015-01-01

    Isolated and reversible lesion restricted to the splenium of the corpus callosum, known as reversible splenial lesion syndrome, have been reported in patients with infection, high-altitude cerebral edema, seizures, antiepileptic drug withdrawal, or metabolic disturbances. Here, we report a 39-year-old female patient with glufosinate ammonium (GLA) poisoning who presented with confusion and amnesia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed cytotoxic edema of the splenium of the corpus callosum. The lesion was not present on follow-up MR imaging performed 9 months later. We postulate that a GLA-induced excitotoxic mechanism was the cause of this reversible splenial lesion. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. Polymorphous light eruption. Experimental reproduction of skin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzle, E.; Plewig, G.; Hofmann, C.; Roser-Maass, E.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical features of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) are reviewed from the literature with special emphasis on the experimental reproduction of skin lesions. Our clinical experience with 180 patients is reported. In forty-three patients a newly developed UVA provocation test was performed. UVA, free of sunburn radiation (50-100 J/cm2), was administered, sometimes repeatedly up to four times, to large sites of previously involved skin. With this technic the reproduction of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions was possible in 90% of this group of forty-three patients. The diagnosis was substantiated by microscopic examination of genuine and experimentally induced lesions. Characteristic histologic features of PLE are described. Phototesting with large doses of UVA aids in confirming the diagnosis of PLE. Hitherto, this diagnosis depended often on exclusion of other dermatoses. Eusolex 8021, a UVA-effective sunscreen, blocked eruptions of PLE lesions under laboratory conditions. An effective means of treatment is offered by PUVA therapy

  11. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  12. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sugandha; Vengal, Manoj; Raju, Bina; Patil, Neelkant; Sathosker, Sujatha; Bateja, Sumit; David, Jamil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in chewers. A total of 1209 chewers were identified and categorized into three main groups based on the type of lesion: betel quid oral lichenoid lesions only, betel quid oral lichenoid lesions in association with quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions, and no lesions. Multinomial regression analyses were used to determine associations between dependent and independent variables. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions were more common in individuals who chewed quid comprising both tobacco and areca nut, and in those who chewed it two to three, or greater than three, times a day. Betel quid oral lichenoid lesions + quid-induced other oral mucosal lesions were more likely to occur in females, and in individuals who chewed quid containing both tobacco and areca nut, in their processed and unprocessed forms, and greater than three times a day. The prevalence of betel quid oral lichenoid lesions was higher than that reported in previous studies conducted in India. Increase in the frequency and duration of quid chewing was associated with increased likelihood of developing these oral lichenoid lesions. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Post-radiotherapeutic heart lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testart, F.M.

    1979-05-01

    Heart structures have traditionally been considered radioresistant. In fact all tissues subjected to radiotherapy can develop lesions. Possible damage includes: - pericardiac fibrosis, the commonest and best individualized, associated with a constriction this leads to a stoppage pattern usually occurring late, around the 18th month. Its frequency depends directly on the total radiation dose; - fibrous myocarditis by direct damage to the heart muscle; - stenosis type lesions of the large coronary trunks; - in exceptional cases lesions of the aorta: hyperplastic degenerescence of the intima and adventitia or of the aortic sigmoid valvules and the mitral valves. Three observations are reported, concerning a coronary, a pericardiac and a coronary, myocardiac and pericardiac lesion. Following this account the irradiation techniques and main experimental data are reviewed and the prophylactic and therapeutic consequences to be derived from our observations and those of the literature are examined [fr

  14. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class......Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... be classified according to previously suggested radiologic characteristics and how this classification relates to prognosis. Searching the databases of eight tertiary referral centres we identified 90 adult patients (61 women, 29 men; mean age 34 years) with ≥1 AIIDL. We collected their demographic, clinical...

  15. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  16. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  17. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  18. Role of dental restoration materials in oral mucosal lichenoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental restorative materials containing silver-mercury compounds have been known to induce oral lichenoid lesions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of contact allergy to dental restoration materials in patients with oral lichenoid lesions and to study the effect of removal of the materials on the lesions. Results: Forty-five patients were recruited in three groups of 15 each: Group A (lesions in close contact with dental materials, Group B (lesions extending 1 cm beyond the area of contact and Group C (no topographic relationship. Thirty controls were recruited in two groups of 15 individuals each: Group D (oral lichenoid lesions but no dental material and Group E (dental material but no oral lichenoid lesions. Patch tests were positive in 20 (44.5% patients. Mercury was the most common allergen to elicit a positive reaction in eight patients, followed by nickel (7, palladium (5, potassium dichromate (3, balsam of Peru, gold sodium thiosulphate 2 and tinuvin (2 and eugenol (1, cobalt chloride (1 and carvone (1. Seven patients elicited positive response to more than one allergen. In 13 of 20 patients who consented to removal of the dental material, complete healing was observed in 6 (30%, marked improvement in 7 (35% and no improvement in 7 (35% patients. Relief of symptoms was usually observed 3 months after removal. Limitations: Limited number of study subjects and short follow up after removal/replacement of dental restoration materials are the main limitations of this study. Conclusion: Contact allergy to amalgam is an important etiologic factor in oral lichenoid lesions and removal of restorative material should be offered to patients who have lesions in close proximity to the dental material.

  19. Oral mucosal lesions in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Aneksuk, Vilaiwan; Langlais, Robert P

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) and denture-related mucosal lesions (DMLs) in denture wearers and to co-relate the prevalence with age, gender, type of denture and any systemic conditions. Dental records of 380 denture wearers were retrospectively reviewed for OMLs and DMLs. We found 45% of the denture wearers had DMLs and 60.8% had OMLs not related to denture wearing. Although the prevalence of DMLs was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers (49% vs. 42.2%), this difference was not significant. The most common DMLs were traumatic ulcer (19.5%) and denture-induced stomatitis (18.1%). When analysed by type, traumatic ulcer, denture hyperplasia, frictional keratosis and candidiasis were more common in complete denture wearers, whereas denture-induced stomatitis was more common in partial denture wearers. Frictional keratosis was more common in men than in women. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers, and the most common OML was fissured tongue (27.6%). No association between DMLs and systemic conditions or xerostomic drugs was noted. No differences in the prevalence of DMLs in association with denture type were found. The prevalence of OMLs not related to denture wearing was higher in complete denture wearers than in partial denture wearers. This difference was affected by age, and the data were similar to the findings observed in the elderly.

  20. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  1. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  2. Type 1 diabetes promotes disruption of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Fredrik; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Kanter, Jenny E.; Vaisar, Tomas; Merrill, Rachel D.; Geng, Linda; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Chait, Alan; Heinecke, Jay W.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, largely because of disruption of atherosclerotic lesions, accounts for the majority of deaths in people with type 1 diabetes. Recent mouse models have provided insights into the accelerated atherosclerotic lesion initiation in diabetes, but it is unknown whether diabetes directly worsens more clinically relevant advanced lesions. We therefore used an LDL receptor-deficient mouse model, in which type 1 diabetes can be induced at will, to investigate the effects of diabe...

  3. Use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive in rat liver induced lesion Uso adesivo de 2-octil cianoacrilato em lesão induzida de fígado de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing process of rat traumatic liver lesion corrected with the use of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive, compared to the use of biologically absorbable chromed catgut thread suture. METHODS: Thirty mail adult rats were divided into two groups (15 per group according to the used method for liver lesion correction as follows: adhesive group (AG, and catgut group (CG; each group being divided into three subsets of five animals (7th, 14th, and 21st day, respectively, according to post-surgery evaluation. All animals were submitted to homogeneous lesion applying synthetic bonding to AG and using chromed catgut suture to CG for lesion correction. Macroscopic and microscopic parameters of healing processes were evaluated. RESULTS: Both groups of animals showed excellent abdominal wall healing, with no evidence of infection, and no abdominal cavity peritonitis or abscess. The presence of adherence was observed in both groups with no statistically significant difference. As to macroscopic evaluation, there was statistically significant difference with respect to specific factors of clinical inflammation (ischemic inflammation and giant celular inflammatory reaction between animals evaluated on the 10th day (ischemic necrosis and giant celular inflammatory reaction among animals evaluated on the 14th day (A14 versus C14. CONCLUSION: Applying 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive for correcting rat liver lesion does not change healing process when compared to the use of chromed catgut stitch.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processo de cicatrização de lesão induzida em fígado de rato utilizando adesivo de 2-octil cianoacrilato em comparação com a sutura com catgut cromado. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 30 ratos adultos, machos, distribuídos em dois grupos de 15 animais denominados de grupo adesivo (GA e grupo catgut (GC; cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos, cada um com cinco animais, de acordo com a data marcada para avaliação p

  4. MRI of the stener lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, N.; Hiller, N.; Dowdle, J.; Jacobson, M.; Barax, C.N.; Lieberfarb, R.I.; Lester, B.; Kulick, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Six cadaver thumbs had ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears created surgically. MR examinations (2D STIR and 3D GRASS) were performed identically on all specimens both before displacement (non-Stener) and after displacement (Stener lesion) of the UCL. The MR images were then randomly numbered. Each image was evaluated separately in blinded fashion by four musculoskeletal radiologists for the presence or absence of a Stener lesion. Each radiologist reinterpreted the images after an interval of several days. The interpretation was based on previously published criteria for Stener lesion diagnosis by MR. The sensitivity of GRASS ranged from 0.17 to 0.67 with the most experienced reader scoring the lowest. The specificity of GRASS ranged from 0.33 to 1.0 (most experienced reader 0.67, 0.83). STIR had a sensitivity of 0.00-0.17 and a specificity of 0.53-0.83. The K values for inter- and intraobserver agreement were measured. The intraobserver K for GRASS was 0.27-0.75 (most experienced reader 0.75). 2D imaging is probably inadequate for the evaluation of Stener lesions. The most likely reason is that the STIR slice thickness of 3 mm limits resolution of small UCLs. The poor sensitivity and specificity of GRASS as well as poor interobserver agreement suggest that MR may not be sufficiently accurate for Stener lesion evaluation. (orig./MG)

  5. DNA Damage by Ionizing Radiation: Tandem Double Lesions by Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Chaban, Galina M.; Wang, Dunyou; Dateo, Christopher E.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damages by ionizing radiation are the source of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, damage to the central nervous system, lowering of the immune response, as well as other radiation-induced damages to human health. Monte Carlo track simulations and kinetic modeling of radiation damages to the DNA employ available molecular and cellular data to simulate the biological effect of high and low LET radiation io the DNA. While the simulations predict single and double strand breaks and base damages, so far all complex lesions are the result of stochastic coincidence from independent processes. Tandem double lesions have not yet been taken into account. Unlike the standard double lesions that are produced by two separate attacks by charged particles or radicals, tandem double lesions are produced by one single attack. The standard double lesions dominate at the high dosage regime. On the other hand, tandem double lesions do not depend on stochastic coincidences and become important at the low dosage regime of particular interest to NASA. Tandem double lesions by hydroxyl radical attack of guanine in isolated DNA have been reported at a dosage of radiation as low as 10 Gy. The formation of two tandem base lesions was found to be linear with the applied doses, a characteristic of tandem lesions. However, tandem double lesions from attack by a charged particle have not been reported.

  6. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  7. Abfraction lesions reviewed: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical lesions are characterized by structural loss near the cementoenamel junction, without the presence of caries. Anumber of theories have arisen to explain the etiology of such lesions, although the real causes remain obscure, as is reflected by the contradictory terminology used in the literature. In addition to describing acidic and abrasive processes documented as etiological factors, attention is given to the role of mechanical stress from occlusal load, which is the most accepted theory for the development of abfraction lesions. Considering that tensile stress leads to the failure of restorations in the cervical region and that this is a fruitful area for future research, the present study has highlighted diagnosis, prognosis and the criteria for treatment.

  8. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  9. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  10. The radiology in the solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, G.A.; Cardoso, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three methods of radiologic analysis of the solitary bone lesions are reviewed. 1. Radiological analysis of the lesions with the objective to suppose the histologic type; 2. To appreciate the velocity of growth and aggressiveness of the lesions. 3. To appreciate the biological behaviour of the bone lesions, making the diagnosis necessary for the treatment. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Headache in Patients With Pituitary Lesions: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paul; Iuliano, Sherry; Weizenbaum, Emma; Laws, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Headache is a presenting feature in 37% to 70% of patients with pituitary tumor. Other pituitary lesions may also present with headache, and together these lesions account for about 20% of all primary brain lesions. Although pituitary lesions have been associated with headache, the exact nature of the relationship remains undefined. It is not always clear whether the presenting headache is an unrelated primary headache, a lesion-induced aggravation of a preexisting primary headache, or a separate secondary headache related to the lesion. To characterize headache in patients referred to a multidisciplinary neuroendocrine clinic with suspected pituitary lesions and to assess changes in headache in those who underwent surgery. We used a self-administered survey of headache characteristics completed by patients upon presentation and after any pituitary surgical procedure. One hundred thirty-three participants completed the preoperative questionnaire (response rate of 99%). The overall prevalence of headache was 63%. Compared to patients without headache, the group with headache was more likely to be female (P = .001), younger (P = .001), and to have had a prior headache diagnosis (P headache localized to the anterior region of the head. Fifty-one patients with headache underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Headache was not associated with increased odds of having surgery (odds ratio, 0.90). At 3 months, 81% of surgically treated patients with headache who completed the postoperative questionnaire (21/26) reported improvement or resolution of headaches. No patient who completed the postoperative questionnaire (44/84) reported new or worsened headache. Frequent, disabling headaches are common in patients with pituitary lesions referred for neuroendocrine consultation, especially in younger females with a preexisting headache disorder. Surgery in this group was associated with headache improvement or resolution in the majority and was not found to cause or worsen

  12. [The treatment of decubitus lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).

  13. Lesions of juxtacortical origin (surface lesions of bone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenan, S.; Abdelwahab, I.F.; Klein, M.J.; Hermann, G.; Lewis, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A large variety of tumor and tumor-like conditions have been shown to originate from the surface of bone. Most surface lesions are associated with periosteal reaction. The periosteum is a multipotential membrane. Its cellular composition may give rise to a variety of both neoplasms and tumor-like conditions. To avoid misinterpretation, the orthopedist, radiologist, and pathologist should be familiar with the entire spectrum of surface lesions. A better understanding of the natural history and biological behavior at different lesional maturity stages and correlation of the history with the radiographic and pathological findings is essential to establish the correct diagnosis. A history of injury of blunt trauma is very important. A stress fracture may produce a periosteal reaction acd callus that can be difficult to distinguish from osteosarcoma. In this review article, the authors wish to describe and define each term by its anatomy and radiographic features while discussing the entire spectrum of surface lesions. All the illustrative cases in this review article have been proven histologically. (orig.)

  14. Periapical lesions: diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rubio, A.; Bujaldón-Daza, A.L.; Rodríguez-Archilla, A.

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones periapicales resultado de la necrosis de la pulpa dental son las patologías que más frecuentemente ocurren encontradas en el hueso alveolar. El tratamiento consiste en la eliminación de los agentes infecciosos mediante el tratamiento del canal radicular, permitiendo la cicatrización de la lesión. Periapical lesions, which are a result of the necrosis of the dental pulp, are the most frequently occurring diseases found in the alveolar bone. The treatment involves the removal of...

  15. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  16. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  17. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial experience in benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizad, Azra; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Ghosh, Karthik; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Carter, Rickey E; Karaberkmez, Leman Gunbery; Whaley, Dana H; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a newly developed imaging technology that is based on low-frequency vibrations induced in the object by the radiation force of ultrasound. VA is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. Here, we evaluate the performance of VA in identifying benign lesions and compare the results to those of mammography. An integrated mammography-VA system designed for in vivo breast imaging was tested on a group of female volunteers, age ≥ 18 years, with suspected breast lesions based on clinical examination. A set of VA scans was acquired after each corresponding mammography. Most lesions were classified as benign based on their histological results. However, in 4 cases, initial diagnosis based on clinical imaging determined that the lesions were cysts. These cysts were aspirated with needle aspiration and disappeared completely under direct ultrasound visualization. Therefore, no biopsies were performed on these cases and lesions were classified as benign based on clinical findings per clinical standards. To define the VA characteristics of benign breast masses, we adopted the features that are normally attributed to such masses in mammography. In a blinded assessment, three radiologists evaluated the VA images independently. The diagnostic accuracy of VA for detection of benign lesions was assessed by comparing the reviewers’ evaluations with clinical data. Out of a total 29 benign lesions in the group, the reviewers were able to locate all lesions on VA images and mammography, 100% with (95% confidence interval (CI): 88% to 100%). Two reviewers were also able to correctly classify 83% (95% CI: 65% to 92%), and the third reviewer 86% (95% CI: 65% to 95%) of lesions, as benign on VA images and 86% (95% CI: 69% to 95%) on mammography. The results suggest that the mammographic characteristics of benign lesion may also be used to identify such lesions in VA. Furthermore, the results show the ability of VA to detect benign breast

  18. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  19. Aquisição de uma tarefa espacial por ratos submetidos a lesão hipocampal neonatal induzida por radiação ionizante Acquisition of a non-matching to place task by rats with neonatal hippocampal lesion induced by ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Catelli Infantozzi Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa, Bueno e Xavier (2005 mostraram que ratos com lesão do giro denteado hipocampal produzida por colchicina apresentam prejuízo de desempenho em testes pós-operatórios em uma tarefa espacial de discriminação condicional (tarefa de non-matching-to-place, NMTP, embora o treino repetitivo promova recuperação do desempenho dos animais lesados. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de ratos com danos seletivos no giro denteado, induzidos pela exposição neonatal a radiação ionizante, na tarefa de NMTP. O grupo irradiado apresentou prejuízo nas primeiras sessões de treino quando comparado ao grupo controle; porém, seu desempenho se igualou ao dos animais controles nas últimas sessões, replicando resultados anteriores. Os resultados são discutidos no contexto da teoria do mapa espacial cognitivo.Costa, Bueno e Xavier (2005 showed that rats with hippocampus dentate gyrus lesions produced by colchicine have post-surgical tests deficits in spatial tasks involving conditional discrimination (non-matching-to-place, NMTP, although repetitive training does promote the recovery of the lamed subject's performance. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the performance of rats with selective lesions of dentate gyrus induced by neonatal ionizing radiation in the NMTP task. The irradiated group showed deficits in the first training sessions when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, the performance of lesion and control groups was similar at the end of the sessions, as previously reported. The results are discussed in light of the cognitive map theory.

  20. Hepatic lesions that mimic metastasis on radiological imaging during chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy: Recent updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sung Hye; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Yeul Hong [Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    During chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy, the hepatic lesions may occur as chemotherapy-induced lesions or tumor-associated lesions, with exceptions for infectious conditions and other incidentalomas. Focal hepatic lesions arising from chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies (such as chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal injury and steatosis) and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess should be considered a mimicker of metastasis in patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancy in the liver has roles in both the therapeutic effects for hepatic metastasis and injury to the non-tumor bearing hepatic parenchyma. In this article, we reviewed the updated concept of chemotherapy-induced hepatopathies and tumor-associated eosinophilic abscess in the liver, focusing on the pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the causative chemo-agent, pathophysiology, and characteristic imaging findings of these mimickers is critical for accurate diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary exposure of the patient to invasive tissue-based diagnosis and operation.

  1. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Gompertz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  2. Stereotactic lesioning for mental illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)

  3. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Ali, L.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  4. Gustatory thalamus lesions in the rat: III. Simultaneous contrast and autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, S; Pritchard, T C

    1997-12-01

    The performance of rats with electrophysiologically guided electrolytic lesions of the gustatory thalamus (GT) was compared to that of control subjects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, the lesioned rats showed normal simultaneous contrast effects (both positive and negative) during brief, alternating access to 0.15% saccharin and 1.0 M sucrose. There was, however, a substantial lesion-induced impairment in the level of conditioned stimulus-directed maintenance responding on the autoshaping procedure of Experiment 2. These findings are discussed with respect to the anticipatory contrast deficit recently reported in GT-lesioned rats.

  5. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  6. Imaging review of lipomatous musculoskeletal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burt Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomatous lesions are common musculoskeletal lesions that can arise within the soft tissues, bone, neurovascular structures, and synovium. The majority of these lesions are benign, and many of the benign lesions can be diagnosed by radiologic evaluation. However, radiologic differences between benign and malignant lipomatous lesions may be subtle and pathologic correlation is often needed. The use of sonography, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful not only in portraying fat within the lesion, but also for evaluating the presence and extent of soft tissue components. Lipomas make up most soft tissue lipomatous lesions, but careful evaluation must be performed to distinguish these lesions from a low-grade liposarcoma. In addition to the imaging appearance, the location of the lesion and the patient demographics can be utilized to help diagnose other soft tissue lipomatous lesions, such as elastofibroma dorsi, angiolipoma, lipoblastoma, and hibernoma. Osseous lipomatous lesions such as a parosteal lipoma and intraosseous lipoma occur less commonly as their soft tissue counterpart, but are also benign. Neurovascular and synovial lipomatous lesions are much rarer lesions but demonstrate more classic radiologic findings, particularly on MRI. A review of the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of these lesions is presented.

  7. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat and depigmented, but maintains the ...

  8. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  9. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID...

  10. Analysis of damaged DNA / proteins interactions: Methodological optimizations and applications to DNA lesions induced by platinum anticancer drugs; Analyse des interactions ADN lese / proteines: Optimisations methodologiques et applications aux dommages de l'ADN engendres par les derives du platine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounaix Morand du Puch, Ch

    2010-10-15

    DNA lesions contribute to the alteration of DNA structure, thereby inhibiting essential cellular processes. Such alterations may be beneficial for chemotherapies, for example in the case of platinum anticancer agents. They generate bulky adducts that, if not repaired, ultimately cause apoptosis. A better understanding of the biological response to such molecules can be obtained through the study of proteins that directly interact with the damages. These proteins constitute the DNA lesions interactome. This thesis presents the development of tools aiming at increasing the list of platinum adduct-associated proteins. Firstly, we designed a ligand fishing system made of damaged plasmids immobilized onto magnetic beads. Three platinum drugs were selected for our study: cisplatin, oxali-platin and satra-platin. Following exposure of the trap to nuclear extracts from HeLa cancer cells and identification of retained proteins by proteomics, we obtained already known candidates (HMGB1, hUBF, FACT complex) but also 29 new members of the platinated-DNA interactome. Among them, we noted the presence of PNUTS, TOX4 and WDR82, which associate to form the recently-discovered PTW/PP complex. Their capture was then confirmed with a second model, namely breast cancer cell line MDA MB 231, and the biological consequences of such an interaction now need to be elucidated. Secondly, we adapted a SPRi bio-chip to the study of platinum-damaged DNA/proteins interactions. Affinity of HMGB1 and newly characterized TOX4 for adducts generated by our three platinum drugs could be validated thanks to the bio-chip. Finally, we used our tools, as well as analytical chemistry and biochemistry methods, to evaluate the role of DDB2 (a factor involved in the recognition of UV-induced lesions) in the repair of cisplatin adducts. Our experiments using MDA MB 231 cells differentially expressing DDB2 showed that this protein is not responsible for the repair of platinum damages. Instead, it appears to act

  11. ["Palimpsest scar" lesions in a context of torture (Darfur, Sudan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Mostefai Dulac, Y; Deo, S; Jacqueline, S; Brun, L; Hervé, C

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife. The clinical presentation of scarification lesions and that of atypically healed wounds (presumably an effect of inflammation induced by the introduction of irritating foreign bodies such as sand, salt, etc.) are completely different: in all cases they indicate a relative timeframe of the facts, which the clinician should not overlook in reconstructing the patient's course and the injuries to which he has been subjected (hence the proposed designation of "palimpsest scar", in the sense that a palimpsest is a manuscript on a parchment that previously contained writing but has been scratched clean to be overwritten). Thus, a "palimpsest scar" constitutes a fresh scar on top of and hiding another (ritual) scar in a context of ethnic cleansing. The diagnostic and clinical significance comes from the importance of differentiating between ethnic-type lesions and those induced by physical violence and abuse in a context of war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. First Patagonian Course on 'Diagnosis and Therapy of Injuries Induced by Ionizing Radiation'; Primer curso patagonico 'Diagnostico y Tratamiento de Lesiones Inducidas por Radiaciones Ionizantes'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, Mariela I., E-mail: bellotti@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAB/CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Lab. de Cavitacion y Biotecnologia; Andres, Pablo A., E-mail: andresp@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAB/CNEA), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche. Division Proteccion Radiologica; Cascón, Adriana S., E-mail: adrianacascon@yahoo.com [Instituto de Medicina, Radiomedicina y Seguridad (IMERASE SA), Buenos Aires, (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    In Patagonia there are academic centers, health and industrial facilities that use ionizing radiations in its usual practices. However, they do not have protocols that respond to local needs. For this reason was held from October 5 to November 10, 2012 in Bariloche Atomic Center, a training course for health personnel. The range of topics covered ranged from the definition of dosimetry quantities, types of radiation and biological dosimetry, biological effects, radiation acute syndrome, radiation-induced cutaneous syndrome, internal contamination, screening in radiological emergencies, etc.The course provided a theoretical and practical guide about how to recognize and treat people exposed to radiations, guidelines for acting in radiological emergencies and a perception of the psychosocial impact of the radiation accidents.The result was a pocket book for health personnel that will be used in case of having a patient with radiation induced injury.

  13. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid contained in beer, prevents the induction of preneoplastic lesions and DNA damage in liver and colon induced by the heterocyclic aromatic amine amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferk, Franziska; Huber, Wolfgang W.; Filipic, Metka; Bichler, Julia; Haslinger, Elisabeth; Misik, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Zegura, Bojana; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop derived prenylated flavonoid contained in beer. Earlier findings indicated that it has promising chemopreventive properties and protects cells against DNA damage by carcinogens via inhibition of their activation. Furthermore, it was found that XN inhibits DNA synthesis and proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, inactivates oxygen radicals and induces apoptosis. Since evidence for its chemoprotective properties is restricted to results from in vitro experiments, we monitored the impact of XN on the formation of amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced preneoplastic foci in livers and colons of rats (9/group). Additionally, we studied its effects on IQ-induced DNA damage in colonocytes and hepatocytes in single cell gel electrophoresis assays and on the activities of a panel of drug metabolising enzymes. Consumption of the drinking water supplemented with XN (71 μg/kg b.w.) before and during carcinogen treatment led to a significant reduction of the number of GST-p + foci in the liver by 50% and also to a decrease of the foci area by 44%. DNA migration was decreased significantly in both, colon mucosa and liver cells, but no alterations of the activities of different phases I and II enzymes were found in hepatic tissue. Our findings indicate that XN protects against DNA damage and cancer induced by the cooked food mutagen. Since the effects were observed with low doses of XN which are reached after consumption of brews with high XN levels, our findings may be relevant for humans.

  14. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  15. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  16. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  17. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    mostraron lesiones oculares o renales. Las colino deficientes que mostraron lesiones renales, necrosis tubular o cortical, no siempre tuvieron cambios oculares. No se encontraron cambios oculares en la única rata deficiente en colina sin lesión renal. Los cambios oculares consistieron principalmente en hemorragia en ambas cámaras, cuerpo ciliar y vítreo. La correlación entre la lesión ocular y renal (r=0.72, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.48-0.86, lesión ocular y creatinina (r=0.86, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.72-0.93 y lesión ocular y urea (r=0.70, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.44-0.85 fue positiva. La deficiencia de colina induce lesiones oculares luego del desarrollo de la necrosis renal. La patología ocular podría ser debida a la inmadurez de los vasos oculares. El sistema hialoide, coroideo y retinal están involucrados.

  18. Induction of lacI- mutations in Escherichia coli cells after single and split-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.; Ryznar, L.

    1992-01-01

    In the lacI system of Escherichia coli, X-ray mutagenesis follows a linear-quadratic curve with suppression; the survival curve is exponential. Dose fractionation leads to nearly complete repair of premutational lesions during an incubation interval of 3.5 h. Repair starts with a delay of 1.5-2 h, suggesting the involvement of an inducible repair/mutation fixation system. The dose-dependence of mutagenesis is described by a simple model assuming two hits being required. A probable explanation might be that the premutagenic lesions consist of two closely spaced lesions on the opposite strands of the DNA molecule. (author)

  19. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background...

  20. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  1. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  2. The effect of steroid on FDG uptake in experimental tumors, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Songji; Yuji Kuge; Kunihiro Nakada; Masayuki Sato; Toshiki Takei; Zhao Yan; Nagara Tamaki; Masashi Kohanawa; Ken-ichi Seki

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: FDG accumulates not only in malignant tumors but also inflammatory lesions, especially in granulomatous lesions, which makes differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions difficult. To obtain a clue for differentiating malignant lesions from benign ones by FDG-PET, we determined the effect of steroid on FDG uptake in granulomatous and inflammatory lesions, and compared them with those in malignant tumors in rats. Methods: Rats were inoculated with a suspension of allogenic hepatoma cells (KDH-8), Bacille bili e de Calmette-Guerin-(BCG) or Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), or with turpentine oil into the left calf muscle. Two weeks after KDH-8, 19 days after BCG, or one week after S. aureus or turpentine oil inoculations, the rats were fasted overnight and divided into two subgroups (n=5-6, in each group): Prednisolone (PRE)-pretreated (Methylprednisolone acetate, 8 mg/kg body weight, i.m. injection 20 hour before the FDG intravenous injection) and control (untreated) groups. Radioactivity in tissues was determined one hour after i.v. injection of FDG. FDG uptake in tissues were expressed as the percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue after normalization to animal's weight (%ID/g tissue/kg body weight). Results: FDG uptake in the tumor, granulomatous and inflammatory lesions were shown in Table. In the untreated animals, remarkably higher accumulations of FDG were observed in the tumor and granulomatous lesions, compared with those in the inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil. There was no significant difference in the level of FDG uptake between the tumor and granulomatous lesions, and between the two inflammatory lesions. PRE pre-treatment significantly decreased the level of FDG uptake in granulomatous lesions induced by BCG, inflammatory lesions induced by S. aureus and turpentine oil to 52%, 73% and 76% of the control value, respectively. The level of FDG uptake in the tumor was not significantly decreased by PRE

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of a simulated Bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, K P; Deng, X; Borrero, S; Torzilli, P A; Altchek, D A; Warren, R F

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sectioning of the anterior part of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (a simulated Bankart lesion) on load-induced multidirectional glenohumeral motion. Nine fresh, intact cadaveric shoulders were tested on a special apparatus that constrained three rotations but allowed simultaneous measurement of anterior-posterior, superior-inferior, and medial-lateral translation. Coupled anterior-posterior and superior-posterior translations were recorded while anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior forces of fifty newtons were applied sequentially. Testing was done in three positions of humeral elevation in the scapular plane, in three positions of humeral rotation, and with an externally applied joint-compression load of twenty-two newtons. A liquid-metal strain-gauge was placed on the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament to assess concomitant posterior capsular strain during the various test conditions. All shoulders were tested intact and again after the inferior glenohumeral ligament and the labrum had been detached from the glenoid from just superior to the anterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament to a point just posterior to the infraglenoid tubercle. The simulated Bankart lesion resulted in selected increases in anterior translation at all positions of elevation, in posterior translation at 90 degrees of elevation, and in inferior translation at all positions of elevation. However, these increases were very small; the maximum mean increase in translation seen over-all was only 3.4 millimeters, which occurred during inferior translation at 45 degrees of elevation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The diagnostic and prognostic implications of silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions in periodontal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja Mini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The periodontal lesions with cellular proliferation can be assessed by various methods. One of the most recent methods to determine the proliferative activity is silver-staining nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR staining. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, if AgNOR count can act as a proliferative marker and can aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal lesions. Materials and Methods: For this study, subjects with healthy gingival status, non-neoplastic lesions, neoplastic lesions, and plaque-induced gingivitis were included. Following the provisional diagnosis of clinical entity, biopsies were taken from the respective selected sites for histopathological diagnosis. In plaque-induced gingivitis cases, a second biopsy was taken from the selected sites 3 weeks following scaling. After histological confirmation, one more section was prepared, which was subjected to AgNOR staining, and AgNOR numbers were counted by individual and cluster counts and statistically analyzed. Results: Results showed the highest AgNOR count in neoplastic lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions showed a higher AgNOR count as compared to clinically healthy gingiva. Plaque-induced gingivitis showed a considerable reduction in AgNOR count after treatment. Conclusion: Results of this study confirmed that AgNOR count reflects the cellular proliferation and has a limited diagnostic value. However, the prognostic value of AgNOR for periodontal lesions is dependable.

  5. Theory of pairwise lesion interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Dietrich; Virsik-Peuckert, Patricia; Bartels, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between repair time constants measured both at the molecular and cellular levels has shown that the DNA double strand break is the molecular change of key importance in the causation of cellular effects such as chromosome aberrations and cell inactivation. Cell fusion experiments provided the evidence that it needs the pairwise interaction between two double strand breaks - or more exactly between the two ''repair sites'' arising from them in the course of enzymatic repair - to provide the faulty chromatin crosslink which leads to cytogenetic and cytolethal effects. These modern experiments have confirmed the classical assumption of pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) on which the models of Lea and Neary were based. It seems worthwhile to continue and complete the mathematical treatment of their proposed mechanism in order to show in quantitative terms that the well-known fractionation, protraction and linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation effects are consequences of or can at least be partly attributed to PLI. Arithmetic treatment of PLI - a second order reaction - has also the advantage of providing a prerequisite for further investigations into the stages of development of misrepair products such as chromatin crosslinks. It has been possible to formulate a completely arithmetic theory of PLI by consequently applying three biophysically permitted approximations - pure first order lesion repair kinetics, dose-independent repair time constants and low yield of the ionization/lesion conversion. The mathematical approach will be summarized here, including several formulae not elaborated at the time of previous publications. We will also study an application which sheds light on the chain of events involved in PLI. (author)

  6. Benign clavicular lesions that may mimic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerscovich, E.G.; Greenspan, A.; Szabo, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Nontraumatic lesions of the clavicle are infrequent. Of these, malignant tumors are more common than benign lesions. From January 1988 to January 1990, we examined 17 patients with benign lesions of the clavicle; in 8, the morphologic appearance of the lesion raised the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis. The radiologic findings in these patients are presented. We propose that the unique shape and embryologic development of the clavicle may contribute to the atypical, aggressive presentation of some benign lesions in that bone. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  8. Solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.J.; Azouz, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    We evaluated retrospectively the varying radiographic appearances of 15 solitary lucent epiphyseal lesions occurring in children. Imaging modalities used included plain films, conventional tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and computed tomography. 40% of the lesions (6) were due to osteomyelitis. The remaining lesions included tuberculosis (1), foreign body granuloma (1), chondroblastoma (2), chondromyoxid fibroma (1), enchondroma (1), osteoid osteoma (2), and eosinophilic granuloma (1). Although the radiographic appearances of such lesions may be particularly characteristic, pathologic correlation is frequently necessary. The high incidence of osteomyelitis in our cases emphasizes its importance as a cause for a lucent epiphyseal lesion.

  9. Computerized tomography of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroiwa, Mayumi

    1981-01-01

    Two different types of computerized tomography scanners (CT scanner), i.e. a whole-body CT scanner (GE-CT/T8800) and a cerebral CT scanner (EMI-1010), were compared in the assessment and diagnosis of various orbital lesions. The whole-body CT scanner was found to be advantageous over the cerebral CT scanner for the following reasons: (1) CT images were more informative due to thinner slices associated with smaller-sized and larger-numbered matrices; (2) less artifacts derived from motion of the head or eyeball were produced because of the shorter scanning time; (3) with a devised gantry, coronal dissections were available whenever demanded. (author)

  10. Rastreamento e seguimento dos portadores das lesões anais induzidas pelo papilomavírus humano como prevenção do carcinoma anal Screening and follow-up of patients with anal HPV induced lesions for anal carcinoma prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavírus humano (HPV é o agente sexualmente transmissível mais comum na região perianal. O vírus provoca lesões clínicas e subclínicas que podem evoluir para carcinoma anal. É descrito o aumento da incidência desse tipo de tumor naqueles que praticam sexo anal; nos portadores, de ambos os sexos, de lesões genitais HPV induzidas; nas pessoas com neoplasias intraepiteliais anais de alto grau, o precursor do carcinoma, com maior incidência nos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, e com outras causas de supressão imunológica. Outra característica das lesões HPV induzidas é a elevada incidência de recidivas. Daí, a importância do seguimento por longo prazo e da pesquisa de meios terapêuticos para reduzir essa ocorrência. A possibilidade da detecção das lesões precursoras indica que programas padronizados de rastreamento para a prevenção do câncer anal deveriam ser instituídos. Os esfregaços anais para citologia vêm sendo realizados, com eficácia semelhante a das coletas cervicais e a colposcopia anal tem sido indicada para biópsias dirigidas quando a citologia mostrou-se alterada, embora muitos recomendam-na, também, como método de rastreamento. Nesse artigo, descrevemos a padronização da coleta de material para citologia anal e o método de realização da colposcopia anal, bem como a periodicidade com que devem ser repetidos.The human papillomavirus is the most frequent sexually transmitted agent in anorectal area. This virus provokes clinical and sub-clinical lesions that can evolve to anal carcinoma. Its incidence is increasing among those who practice anal receptive sex; in both gender patients with genital HPV induced lesions; in those with high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia, anal carcinoma precursor, mainly among HIV infected persons or with other causes of immunodeficiency. Another HPV induced lesions characteristic is their elevated incidence of recurrences. Therefore

  11. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  12. Photoacoustic discrimination of vascular and pigmented lesions using classical and Bayesian methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Jennifer A.; Holan, Scott H.; Feldman, Mary M.; Viator, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination of pigmented and vascular lesions in skin can be difficult due to factors such as size, subungual location, and the nature of lesions containing both melanin and vascularity. Misdiagnosis may lead to precancerous or cancerous lesions not receiving proper medical care. To aid in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of such pathologies, we develop a photoacoustic system to determine the nature of skin lesions in vivo. By irradiating skin with two laser wavelengths, 422 and 530 nm, we induce photoacoustic responses, and the relative response at these two wavelengths indicates whether the lesion is pigmented or vascular. This response is due to the distinct absorption spectrum of melanin and hemoglobin. In particular, pigmented lesions have ratios of photoacoustic amplitudes of approximately 1.4 to 1 at the two wavelengths, while vascular lesions have ratios of about 4.0 to 1. Furthermore, we consider two statistical methods for conducting classification of lesions: standard multivariate analysis classification techniques and a Bayesian-model-based approach. We study 15 human subjects with eight vascular and seven pigmented lesions. Using the classical method, we achieve a perfect classification rate, while the Bayesian approach has an error rate of 20%.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim

    1990-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim [College of Medicine, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer.

  15. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

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