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Sample records for premorbid personality disorders

  1. Prevalence of premorbid personality disorder and its clinical correlates in patients with delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Portugal, Enrique; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; González-Molinier, Manuel; de Castro, María Jesús; del Amo, Victoria; Arango, Celso; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of premorbid Personality Disorder (PD) and its relationship with clinical correlates in patients with Delusional Disorder (DD). Eighty-six outpatients with DD whose diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I) Disorders (psychosis module) were evaluated for premorbid PD utilizing the Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP). Psychopathology was assessed using Module B of SCID-I and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); psychosocial functioning was evaluated with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Premorbid intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, vocabulary subtest. A sociodemographic-clinical questionnaire was completed. Sixty-four percent of the patients had at least one premorbid PD, the most common being paranoid PD (38.4%), followed by schizoid PD (12.8%). The presence of at least one premorbid PD was significantly associated with higher scores for psychopathology, in particular, on the affective dimension of DD symptoms. However, the presence of premorbid PD was not associated with psychosocial functioning. Each of the premorbid PD was associated with different psychopathological profiles. Premorbid PD is a relevant phenomenon in DD, given its high prevalence and comorbidity, its influence on clinical correlates and its potential ability to predict specific sub-syndromes.

  2. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  3. Premorbid adjustment and previous personality in schizophrenic patients

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    José Juan Rodríguez Solano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial adjustment and premorbid personality are two factors that are frequently studied in order to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Premorbid adjustment alterations and personality disorders (principally those of the schizophrenia spectrum have been considered vulnerability elements or have been linked with the early manifestations of a disease that is still underdeveloped (hypothesis of neurodevelopment. In this paper we review the literature. We also studied the relationship between premorbid adjustment (PAS scale and previous personality disorders (SCID-II in a sample of 40 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, CIE-10, and statistically correlated them. The results show that premorbid adjustment correlates with avoidant, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders: the more personality pathology found, the poorer is the premorbid psychosocial adjustment. Premorbid adjustment positively correlates with histrionic personality traits. The pathological traits of schizotypal and schizoid personalities account for up to 77% of the variance of the total premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The degrees of premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia are related to the different premorbid personality disorders of schizophrenic patients, which are mainly those most genetically related with schizophrenia, that is, the spectrum of the schizophrenia.

  4. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    to these three diagnostic categories. Twelve-year-old children destined to develop a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum deviated significantly from healthy controls on a number of personality characteristics: they were rated significantly lower than controls on intelligence, concentration, maturity......Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...... schizophrenia spectrum disorder in adult life. In 1972, 265 children at an average age of 12 (90 with at least one schizophrenic parent) from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort participated in a 1-day follow-up during which they were in contact with seven examiners who rated their personality by means...

  5. Comparative analysis of relation between premorbid period and variants of endogenous mental disorders beginning

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    A. A. Krasnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the long-term observation period (1986 through 2012 the properties of endogenous mental disorders premorbid period in 107 persons (of mean age 21.5±1.5 years were studied. In 41.2% of the cases, premorbid period was characterized by premorbid disorders, which included disorders of development, deviation of behavior and motor skills, behavioral abnormalities, affective and somatic disorders combined with quantitative changes in personality, and decline of cognitive indicators. Premorbid disorders in 56.2% of cases were preceded by clinical features of endogenous mental disorders such as a progressive or continuous-attack-like progressive course, low severity of positive symptoms in period of manifestation.

  6. Premorbid intelligence and educational level in bipolar and unipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Sæbye, Ditte; Urfer-Parnas, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups.......Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups....

  7. Are abnormal premorbid personality traits associated with Alzheimer's disease? - A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Helen; Moran, Paul; Foy, Catherine; Brown, Richard G; Lovestone, Simon; Bryant, Stephanie; Boothby, Harry

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between premorbid personality traits, social networks and AD, using a case-control design, and two informant-based retrospective assessments of premorbid personality. Cases consisted of 217 Subjects diagnosed with probable late onset Alzheimer's disease (160 females and 57 males). Recruitment was from both community and nursing home settings. Controls consisted of 76 unaffected siblings (44 females and 32 males) of patients with AD. Both cases and controls received informant ratings of premorbid personality. A selection of abnormal personality traits were over represented in the AD group. AD was particularly associated with Cluster A personality disorder traits (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal). AD cases had correspondingly sparser social networks. There is an association between abnormal personality traits and AD. Individuals with AD also appear to have had lower levels of social interactivity.

  8. Premorbid personality and insight in first-episode psychosis.

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    Campos, Maria S; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K; David, Anthony S; Peralta, Victor M D; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2011-01-01

    Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital were included in the study. Eighty-one patients completed at 1 month a premorbid personality evaluation, plus baseline, and 6-month insight assessments. We used the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology inventory for assessing insight dimensions (not feeling ill, lack of insight, and refusal of treatment) and the Personality Assessment Schedule for ascertaining 5 dimensions of premorbid personality (schizoid, passive-dependent, anancastic, sociopathic, and schizotypy). At baseline, personality dimensions did not show any association with insight dimensions, with the exception of schizotypy traits. At 6 months, schizoid and sociopathic personality showed a significant association with not feeling ill (r = .30, P ≤ .007; r = .27, P = .01) and lack of insight (r = .36, P = .001; r = .41, P schizoid and sociopathic personality had moderate correlation with the lack of insight dimension (r = -.34, P = .002; r = .38, P schizoid personality significantly predicted lack of insight at 6 months and change from baseline to the 6 months assessment. Sociopathic and schizoid personality dimensions were not only significantly associated with lack of insight at 6 months but also predicted change on lack of insight over 6 months. Therefore, exploring premorbid personality traits at the beginning of a psychotic episode may be helpful in identifying patients at high risk for lack of insight during the initial course of the illness.

  9. Premorbid Personality and Insight in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maria S.; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K.; David, Anthony S.; Peralta MD, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. Aim: To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Methods: One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital...

  10. Premorbid multivariate prediction of adult psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D.;

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children ...

  11. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  12. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...

  13. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  14. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic...... diagnoses [schizophrenia (Sz), non-schizophrenic, non-affective psychoses (NSAP), affective (AD), personality (PD) and neurotic/stress disorders (ND)] were followed up to ages 43-54 years. Individuals hospitalized 1 year after appearing before the draft board were excluded. RESULTS: All future patients...

  15. [Premorbid personality and aggressive behavior: a study with residents of psychogeriatric nursing homes].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.; Ekkerink, J.L.P.; Mahler, M.M.; Kuin, Y.; Wetzels, R.B.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    From experimental research it appears that personality plays a role in causes and onset of aggressive behavior in adults. However, studies about the influence of premorbid personality on aggressive behavior of older persons with dementia show contradictory results. In this study we gathered data on

  16. Premorbid Multivariate Prediction of Adult Psychosis-Spectrum Disorder: A High-Risk Prospective Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole; Sorensen, Holger J.; Dodge, Shana; Tsuji, Thomas; Mortensen, Erik L; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured...

  17. An operationalized procedure for the recognition of premorbid personality types in biographical case notes on psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Pössl, J; Gruben, S; Tauscher, R; Barthelmes, H

    1994-01-01

    A method for the assessment of six premorbid personality types from biographical data in psychiatric case histories is described. Trained raters have to fill in a list comprising 106 items as descriptors of a patient's premorbid behavioural development. The assignment to the types in question (the "manic type" and its rare variant, the "happy-go-lucky type", the "melancholic type", the "anxious insecure type" and its rare variant, the "unrealistic dreamy type", and finally, the "nervous tense type") is computed on the basis of the item scores by forming type scores and comparing their height intraindividually. The subject under study is assigned to the type reaching the comparatively highest value. Two raters independently analyzed 261 records from which all information on mental disorders in family members and the patient himself/herself as well as all biographical data from the first manifestation of a symptom disorder onwards had been erased by technical assistants. In 106 of the records, a global assignment to the types of premorbid personality had already been performed by one of the authors of the typology. The scores for the same type assessed by the two ratings correlated highly with each other (0.77 to 0.80), the concordance of types reached a kappa-value of 0.55 (P < 0.001), and the results of the operationalized typing agreed in the same order with the result of global typing in the subsample of n = 106.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...

  19. The relationship of premorbid functioning to illness course in schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders during two years following first hospitalization.

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    Haim, Rachel; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn

    2006-10-01

    Studies suggest that better premorbid functioning is associated with better outcomes in chronic schizophrenia. Yet first admission studies, which are more appropriate to examine this, are less conclusive. Also, little attention has been given to whether these findings hold for other psychoses. We examined the relationship of premorbid functioning using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale and outcomes in first admission psychoses (schizophrenia, N = 177; bipolar disorder, N = 106; major depression, N = 68) in the Suffolk County-wide mental health project. Poor premorbid functioning was associated with worse outcomes in all three diagnostic groups. Specifically, it was associated with more negative symptoms early in the course of illness, less improvement in negative symptoms, poorer overall clinical functioning, and poorer social functioning. Consistent with new epidemiological research, early assessment of premorbid functioning could provide an avenue for targeted interventions that might improve outcomes.

  20. Premorbid IQ and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Verbal and Performance subtests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 133 had no diagnosis (ND). The SSD group obtained lower scores than the ND group on all subtests and IQs, but when adjusted for sex and parental social status only significantly lower scores on similarities, object assembly, mazes, and total IQ. Compared with the ND group......, the OPD group obtained significantly lower scores on similarities, vocabulary, verbal IQ, and total IQ. The only significant difference between the SSD and OPD groups was on object assembly (OPD performed at the level of ND). The results suggest a premorbid deficit in general intelligence in individuals...... who later develop SSD. The results for the OPD group support recent studies demonstrating that premorbid IQ deficits may characterize a wide range of psychiatric disorders....

  1. Premorbid risk factors for major depressive disorder: are they associated with early onset and recurrent course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age 11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual single nucleotide polymorphism based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset.

  2. Personality Disorders

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    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  3. The influence of obsessive-compulsive neurosis patients' premorbid personality on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and efficacy of medication.

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    Nishimura, R; Hosoba, T; Ide, M; Seiwa, H

    1998-06-01

    We conducted a survey with the Lynfield obsessive-compulsive symptom questionnaire (revised version) on 48 obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients as the survey subjects. In the factor analysis five factors of obsessions, were identified: (i) the desire for perfection; (ii) compulsive checking; (iii) washing; (iv) feelings of uncleanliness; and (v) anthropophobia. High correlations were noted between these factors. We also investigated the premorbid personalities of obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients with a multidimensional personality scale and obtained an extroversion dimension and neuroticism dimension. The influence of these premorbid personality dimensions on obsessive-compulsive symptoms became clear; (i) neuroticism is related to the levels of obsession after onset, but not related to compulsive behaviors; and (ii) No differences in premorbid personality dimensions were noted between compulsive checking and compulsive washing behaviors. We also studied whether it was possible to predict the efficacy of pharmacotherapy upon obsessive-compulsive symptoms. It was elucidated that the obsessions of those whose premorbid personalities are emotionally stable and extroversive are susceptible to antidepressants. Based on these results, we discussed the usefulness of premorbid personalities in predicting diversity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as in prediction the efficacy of medication.

  4. A retrospective study of the functional outcome of schizophrenia depending on premorbid personality at the time of diagnosis

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    Aruna D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia constitutes a serious public health problem all over the world. It is one of the leading causes of disability among young adults and prevents them from leading normal productive lives. Methods: We retrospectively studied new cases diagnosed to have schizophrenia (n=211 seen during the period, March 1999 - February 2001. Their premorbid personality traits, socio-demographic parameters were recorded from the case records. Psychopathology was assessed by using positive and negative symptom scale for schizophrenia (PANSS; functional outcome was assessed by using Global Assessment Scale (GAS. Results: Socio-demographic variables did not have influence on outcome. Among patients with well adjusted personality 50% showed good to fair outcome. Patients with schizoid premorbid personality had a fair outcome. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that premorbid personality has a definite impact on outcome of schizophrenia.

  5. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology......This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits...... non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both...

  6. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  7. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to s...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task.......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  8. Premorbid obesity and metabolic disturbances as promising clinical targets for the prevention and early screening of bipolar disorder.

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    Gálvez, Juan F; Sanches, Marsal; Bauer, Isabelle E; Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Hamilton, Jane; Mwangi, Benson; Quevedo, Joao; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence shows an important relationship between metabolic disturbances and bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is still unclear whether such metabolic disturbances are only a consequence or to some extent the precipitating factors for health problems and maladaptive behaviors observed in BD. Because both metabolic disturbances and BD are medical conditions sharing common alterations in multiple biomarkers, it is plausible to hypothesize that metabolic disturbances may be considered to some extent as a major vulnerability factor in the latent phase of BD for some young adults. In line with this hypothesis, obesity may be regarded as a major driving force for prevalent cardio-metabolic disorders encountered within the early stages of BD. Likewise, premorbid metabolic disturbances as a whole may be considered as a potential source for vulnerability to develop BD. In addition, a synergistic relationship between obesity and metabolic disturbances associated with a premorbid disruption of biological rhythms may also lead to BD. Therefore, we postulate that metabolic disturbances may serve as a specific marker of premorbid illness activity in some people at risk for BD. Future prospective studies should focus on validating metabolic disturbances as vulnerability factors within the staging model of BD.

  9. Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A high-risk prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J.;

    2013-01-01

    who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker......Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants...

  10. Histrionic personality disorder

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    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  11. Individually-personal features of patients with dissociative disorders

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    A. N. Stolyarenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Predisposed factors in the development of dissociative disorders remains a pressing question in the context of dissociative disorders establishing. Leading role in this aspect was given to the premorbid characteristics of patients. Aim: to study individually-personal features of patients with dissociative disorders and to establish premorbid characteristics and predisposed factors of the disease. Methods and results. 108 patients with dissociative disorders were examined on the basis of Public Health Institution «Regional clinical mental hospital» of the Zaporizhzhian regional council. The next methods of research were used: socio-demographic, medical history, follow-up, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic. Results. It has been established that patients with dissociative disorders were characterized by: female gender; the presence of accentuations of character in 94.44% of cases; the ratio of "clean" and amalgam of character accentuation 3:2; the prevalence of hysteroid (56.48%, labile (28.70% and epileptic (24.07% radicals in the personality structure of patients; domination hysteroid (38.71%, epileptoid (24.19% and labile (24.19% types among the "pure" character accentuation; the dominance of anxiety-hysterical (32.50%, hystero-excitable (30.00% and hystero-labile (30.00% types of accentuations. Men significantly frequently had balanced personality and "pure" schizoid-type personality accentuation. The study highlighted individually-personal features of patients with dissociative disorders, the prevailing premorbid characteristics of patients with dissociative disorders. The results of the study showed prevalence of the dissociative disorders in women. Conclusion. Question about the role of established premorbid characteristics and predisposed factors of the disease on the compliance to therapy in patients with dissociative disorders stays still open.

  12. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... A person with antisocial personality disorder may: Be able to act witty and charming Be good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions Break the ...

  13. Borderline personality disorder

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    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  14. Paranoid personality disorder

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    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  15. Influence of premorbid psychopathology and lesion location on affective and behavioral disorders after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Pinedo, Fernando; Hernández-Pérez, José María; Zurdo, Martín; Rodríguez-Fúnez, Beatriz; Hernández-Bayo, José María; García-Fernández, Ciara; Cueli-Rincón, Bernardo; Castro-Posada, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of psychopathological symptoms (PSs) after stroke is important because they greatly influence the recovery of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors of PSs occurring in patients with ischemic stroke. Eighty-nine patients were prospectively evaluated upon admission and 4, 12, and 26 weeks later with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton's Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, and a battery of neuropsychological and functional scales. Depression and apathy were the most frequent PSs detected after stroke. Premorbid psychopathologies and right-hemisphere location were the main predictive indicators of early and long-term PSs.

  16. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  17. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  18. The role of premorbid personality and social cognition in suicidal behaviour in first-episode psychosis: A one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Lopez-Moriñigo, J D; Barrigón, M L; Perona-Garcelán, S; Jimenez-Casado, C; David, A S; Obiols-Llandrich, J E; Ruiz-Veguilla, M

    2017-10-01

    High suicide attempt (SA) rates have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, particularly during the first year after the illness onset. Despite previous studies establishing several risk factors for suicidal behaviour in FEP, premorbid personality and social cognition have not been sufficiently investigated to date. To test whether personality traits and social cognition are associated with SAs in FEP over a 12-month follow-up. Sixty-five FEP patients were evaluated at first contact with mental health services. The presence of SAs was recorded at six and twelve months after first presentation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses explored the influence of a range of sociodemographic and clinical variables, including premorbid personality and social cognition-related Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, on SAs. SAs were associated with greater severity of symptoms at first hospitalization with psychotic symptoms (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.25-3.82), schizoid personality traits (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.57) and impairment in a first-order false belief task (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 1.05-17.31) in the multivariate models. Symptom severity at illness onset, premorbid schizoid personality traits and ToM impairment emerged as predictors of SA in this FEP sample, which, if replicated, may be useful in identifying high-risk groups and implementing more targeted suicide prevention programs in FEP. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co-occurring mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, along with substance abuse, self- ... Study Borderline Personality Disorder Studies Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Borderline Personality ... Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  1. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personality disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range ...

  2. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have depression. A second personality disorder, such as paranoid personality disorder , is also common. Common signs of ... of risk, such as a family history of schizophrenia, may allow early diagnosis. References American Psychiatric Association. ...

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking Care of Yourself Questions About ...

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000934.htm Narcissistic personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental condition in which ...

  6. Schizoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000920.htm Schizoid personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Schizoid personality disorder is a mental condition in which a ...

  7. Premorbid Personality Characteristics in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malinchoc

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking data from a case–control study of Alzheimer’s disease with data from a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI outpatient study, we identified 13 Alzheimer's disease cases and 16 controls for case–control comparison. The mean time between personality testing and onset of Alzheimer's disease (or corresponding age for controls was 13 years in cases and 14 years in controls. Alzheimer's disease cases, but not the controls, had scores significantly greater than the normative reference on MMPI scales measuring Social Introversion (p = 0.05, and Pessimism (p = 0.01. When compared to controls, Alzheimer's disease cases had significantly greater scores on the Social Introversion scale (p = 0.03. Despite the small sample size and some design limitations of this exploratory study, our findings may suggest that subjects who score higher on these personality scales have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Premorbid Negative Symptoms in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Cuesta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative symptoms emerge in many patients with psychotic disorders long before the onset of the acute illness. These symptoms are often impossible to differentiate from certain Cluster A personality traits. Methods: The current study examines the extent to which premorbid negative symptoms are contributing factors to the development of primary and secondary negative symptomatology. Participants were 84 neuroleptic-naïve patients experiencing the occurrence of their first acute psychotic episode. Symptoms of psychopathology were assessed at two points: at admission and after remission of the acute episode. The Spanish version of the PANSS scale was administered. Premorbid personality assessment was considered as a proxy measure to evaluate each participant's negative symptomatology prior to the onset of the illness. Potential causes of secondary negative symptomatology, such as depression and extrapyramidal symptoms, were also examined. Results: 'Non-respondent' or 'residual' negative symptoms at discharge were significantly predicted by primary negative symptoms. To a lesser extent, disorganization and depressive symptoms at discharge and the Schizoid dimension of premorbid personality predicted residual negative symptoms. Conclusions: The severity of negative symptoms at the onset of the psychotic episode varied across patients. After controlling for 'respondent' and 'non-respondent' primary negative symptoms and other potential causes of negative symptoms, premorbid negative symptoms had a slight, but significant predictive relationship with residual negative symptoms.

  9. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  10. Premorbid multivariate markers of neurodevelopmental instability in the prediction of adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golembo-Smith, Shana; Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether multiple childhood indicators of neurodevelopmental instability known to relate to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders could predict later schizophrenia-spectrum outcomes. A standardized battery of neurological and intellectual assessments was administered to a sample...... of 265 Danish children in 1972, when participants were 10-13years old. Parent psychiatric diagnoses were also obtained in order to evaluate the predictive strength of neurodevelopmental factors in combination with genetic risk. Adult diagnostic information was available for 244 members of the sample....... Participants were grouped into three categories indicating level of genetic risk: children with a parent with schizophrenia (n=94); children with a parent with a non-psychotic mental health diagnosis (n=84); and children with a parent with no records of psychiatric hospitalization (n=66). Variables measured...

  11. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro;

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits...... with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other....... All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children...

  12. Premorbid Adjustment Profiles in Psychosis and the Role of Familial Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J.; Meijer, Julia H.; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, Andre; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Meijer, Carin J.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  13. Premorbid adjustment profiles in psychosis and the role of familial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J; Meijer, Julia H; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, André; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Meijer, Carin J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  14. [Affective disorders and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  16. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  17. Paranoid personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  18. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  19. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  20. Multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, A A

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents a description of Multiple Personality Disorder--its development, etiology, and presentation. The paper stresses the criteria for diagnosis that can help professionals to identify individuals at an early stage. An overview of treatment approaches and indications for hospitalization, length of treatment, and goals are also explained.

  1. Premorbid intelligence of inpatients with different psychiatric diagnoses does not differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stratta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Stratta1, Ilaria Riccardi2, Annarita Tomassini2, Maria Marronaro2, Roberta Pacifico2, Alessandro Rossi2,31Department of Mental Health, A.U.S.L. 4 L’Aquila, Italy; 2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of L’Aquila, Italy; 3Clinical Psychology Unit at Villa Serena, c/o ‘Casa di Cura Villa Serena’, Viale L. Petruzzi, 19, Città S.Angelo, Pescara, ItalyAbstract: The diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid intelligence is controversial. We explored premorbid intelligence level in psychiatric patients with personality disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders and schizophrenic disorders. 273 consecutively admitted patients and 81 controls were included in the study and tested with the ‘Test di Intelligenza Breve’, an Italian adaptation of the National Adult Reading Test. Significant differences between the clinical samples and the control subjects were found but not among the 4 clinical groups. The observation of premorbid IQ deficits in subjects with diagnoses other than schizophrenia suggests a common vulnerability diathesis, which is most likely to have a neurodevelopmental basis.Keywords: premorbid intelligence, psychiatric disorders, specificity

  2. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  3. Are personality disturbances in anorexia nervosa related to emotion processing or eating disorder symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness associated with a number of personality disturbances. However, whether these personality characteristics are related to eating disorder symptomatology or emotion regulation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate these relationships. Twenty-four individuals with AN and 25 age- and premorbid intelligence-matched controls completed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, and scores were correlated with measures of emotionality and negative mood states, and eating disorder symptomatology. AN was associated with increased scores on schizoid, borderline, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, negativistic and depressive personality dimensions, relative to controls. In AN, eating disorder symptomatology did not significantly correlate with scores on any personality dimension. However, a number of personality characteristics were found to correlate with negative mood states. The findings suggest that personality disturbances in AN are not related to disorder-specific symptoms, but are related to negative mood states.

  4. Maladaptive personality traits increase subjectively during the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Katrin; Naber, Dieter; Huber, Christian G

    2014-04-01

    We assessed both current maladaptive personality traits (MPTs) and, retrospectively, premorbid MPTs in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). This was to examine whether the patients had the impression that their personality had changed and which traits were affected. We also wanted to determine whether the perceived changes could be explained by SSD psychopathology. MPTs were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnoses, axis II disorders, screening questionnaire and interview, integrating questions on subjective estimation of premorbid MPTs in moderately ill SSD patients. Forty-five patients were included. Premorbid MPTs were remembered as significantly less pronounced than current MPTs for the whole spectrum of personality traits (p < 0.001). Antisocial traits had worsened significantly less (p < 0.001), and borderline and obsessive-compulsive traits had worsened significantly more (both p < 0.01) than the mean increase. Associations between MPT increase and SSD psychopathology were significant for schizotypal, avoidant, and depressive traits. According to the patients' retrospective assessment, MPTs increased through onset and course of SSDs. Memory bias, depressed mood, and SSD symptoms alone could not sufficiently explain these differences. Subjective MPT increase may play a role for the patients' concept of illness, quality of life, and adherence to therapeutic interventions. It should be addressed in SSD treatment.

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  6. [Borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machizawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Although Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) overlaps considerably with Major Depression, recent studies of biology, genetics and childhood trauma have demonstrated that there are substantial differences between the two disorders. It is suggested that their apparent relationship is rather nonspecific. In this paper, the author emphasizes that the core symptom of BPD is impulsiveness, which causes depressive symptoms and/or is induced by depressive episodes, forming a vicious cycle. Furthermore, in BPD patients, depressive symptoms are modified by impulsiveness, masochism, vanity, despair, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. The author concludes that BPD is not a homogeneous but heterogeneous syndrome, classified into subtypes: depressive type, impulsive type, and identity diffusion type. Treatment needs to be considered according to these types.

  7. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  8. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1994-06-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  9. Multiple personality disorder following childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, J M; Friedman, T

    1993-06-01

    A case of multiple personality disorder is described as a coping mechanism protecting the patient from the abuse to which she was subjected throughout her life. The multiple personalities became more prominent following the birth of a severely handicapped child.

  10. Parental rearing style, premorbid personality, mental health, and quality of life in chronic regional pain: A causal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Yi-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Fei-Yin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the causal model among parental bonding, personality characteristics, mental health, quality of life, and chronic regional pain (CRP). Thirty CRP patients and 56 mental illness patients were compared using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Tawain Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW), and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). There were significant differences in mental health, personality characteristics, and quality of life between the CRP and mental illness groups. Structural equation modeling showed that parental bonding could directly affect personality characteristics, and, hence, directly impact disease and quality of life. CRP is different from mental illness in many dimensions. In this study, CRP appeared to be caused by actual physical dysfunction rather than mental dysfunction.

  11. Integrative interpersonal psychotherapy for personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Divac-Jovanović, Mirjana; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional diagnosis of personality disorders defines personality disorders as borderline level of functioning of various types of personality adaptations. This multilevel diagnosis enables dynamic insight into personality disorder as a reversible adaptation disorder in personalities fundamentally belonging to different structures and types (narcissistic, histrionic, obsessive, schizoid, antisocial, etc). Efficient therapy for personality disorders must also be multidimensional, as it n...

  12. [Personality disorders in eating disorder patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Murcia, Francisco M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Pozo, Eugenia M; Martínez Sánchez, Margarita; López Pérez, Manuel

    2009-02-01

    Personality disorders in eating disorder patients. A follow-up study was designed to analyze the relation between personality disorders (PD) and the course of eating disorders (ED) in 34 patients who required treatment over 4 years and half. 91% of the clinical sample met the criteria for PD at the initial assessment and 36% at the end of treatment, with a significant reduction in MCMI-II scores at follow-up. The outcome of the ED was significantly related to the PD outcome. There was a higher rate of improvement of PD in the bulimic group (61%) than in anorexic group (34%). The patients who presented schizoid and avoidant personality disorders were the most resistant and they adhered less to treatment. The prevalence of PD in the clinical sample and its relation to the course of ED from a person-centered model is discussed.

  13. Temperament traits and personality disorders. Predictors for personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Martinova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is related to the hypothetical assumption that there are biologically set predispositions as predictors of behavioural and personality disorders. The present work focused on identification of specific inherent predispositions as predictors of behavioural and personality deviations. The examined population of 901 subjects was provided with a battery of self-rating questionnaires: Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A for assessment and diagnosis of the temperament, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ for the assessment and diagnosis of relatively constant personality characteristics, International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE-s screening autoquestionnaire for the assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders and State Trait Anxiety Inventory – Form Y (STAI-Y autoquestionnaire for the assessment and diagnosis of personality and situational anxiety. The results for the represented population showed statistically significant relationships, ranging from weak to strong positive correlation between the types of temperament in TEMPS-A and the personality disorders identified in screening IPDE, with the exception of the hyperthymic temperament scale in which very low non-significant negative relationships were observed. The analysis did not show significant correlations between personality disorders and the hyperthymic temperament type according to TEMPS-A. This temperament type showed weak statistically significant correlations with personality disorders from different clusters. Based on the high values of the linear correlation coefficients, some conclusions could be made on the causal correlation between the presence of a certain type of temperamental predispositions and the registered manifestations of possible personality disorders, namely, which personality disorder is most likely to occur in the prevalence of which temperament.

  14. Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-01-01

    Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…

  15. [Effect of developmental disorders on personality and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders (DD) are now so common that it is even more necessary to investigate the relationship between DD and personality disorders (PD). Despite the lack of studies, DD and PD have much in common. For research on personality and its disorders, direct, real-time observation by researchers themselves on the "black box" of temperament and its interaction with the environment is needed. For research on DD, especially in those with mild DD symptoms, how developmental characteristics and their interaction with the environment affect the personality in adulthood should be investigated.

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Psychotherapy (TFP) This form of therapy is rooted in the patient’s confused and contradictory sense of identity ... person to another person, such as the therapist. In that moment, the therapist talks with the patient ...

  17. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Duišin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.

  18. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary.

  19. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs at NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & ... by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as “... ...

  20. Any Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs at NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & ... to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) . These ...

  1. [The concept of schizoidia in psychiatry : From schizoidia to schizotypy and cluster A personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2017-07-11

    From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III. Due to the prominent concept of schizotypy (Kety, Rado, Meehl) three split up diagnostic categories of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders resulted. Cluster A personality disorders are frequent in community-based epidemiological studies. Health-care seeking behaviour due to primary personality-related problems, however, seems to be less paramount compared to cluster B and C personality disorders. Many family- and twin-based genetic studies convincingly stress a close link between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. This link is less pronounced for paranoid personality disorder, and even vanishingly low for schizoid personality disorder. From a perspective of schizophrenia spectrum disorders a vast amount of data from molecular genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial research has impressingly confirmed this link for schizotypal personality disorder. Major research deficits, however, have to be noticed for paranoid and schizoid personality disorder.

  2. Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long do they last? How do your symptoms affect your life, including school, work and personal relationships? How do you feel — and act — when others ... How would you describe your childhood, including your relationship with your ... you use alcohol or illegal drugs? How often? Are you currently ...

  3. Histrionic personality disorder in women with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J

    1989-01-01

    The clinical distinctions between histrionic personality disorder and somatization disorder have frequently been blurred. In this study, 60 women with somatization disorder were found to have histrionic personality disorder. A DSM-III diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder did not significantly help to improve the diagnosis of somatization disorder. A diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder should stimulate a search for better-validated Axis I diagnoses.

  4. Envy manifestations and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habimana, E; Massé, L

    2000-06-01

    Personality disorders are frequently associated with socially unacceptable behaviours that might not be always considered deviant. On the other hand, envy has been linked with various forms of maladjustment such as interpersonal conflicts, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, aggressiveness, and even criminal behaviour such as vandalism and even murder. According to the DSM-IV, none of the personality disorders, except the narcissistic personality, is formally associated with envy. Nevertheless, this "deadly sin" is so omnipresent in human relationships that it cannot be restricted only to the narcissistic personalities. Most scholars recognise that people would deny that they envy someone else since envy is socially considered as highly undesirable; verbal reports are expected to be biased. To circumvent this difficulty, a projective questionnaire is proposed. We constructed two questionnaires: a direct version (DV) and an indirect version (IV). The sample consisted of 786 students from high school and university. Results suggest that the indirect version provides a more accurate assessment of envy.

  5. Psychotherapy for histrionic personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, MJ

    1997-01-01

    The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians an...

  6. Psychotherapy for histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M J

    1997-01-01

    The author uses a configurational analysis method for case formulation and to establish links between individualized formulation and treatment techniques. A prototype of formulation for the histrionic personality disorder is presented, using theories for formulation about states of mind, defensive control processes, and person schemas. A phase-oriented prototype of a treatment plan is linked to these levels of formulation. The result can provide a guideline for clinicians and a teaching document for trainees.

  7. The Relationship of Personality to Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Besharat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights a variety of personality disorders in individuals with eating disorder and also emphasizes the importance of identifying clinically meaningful eating disorders subtypes based on concurrent personality disorder. The relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders is an important issue as this association has implications for assessment and treatment. Different hypotheses concerning the relationship between personality disorders and eating disorders will be reviewed. The prevalence rates of concomitant personality disorder diagnoses in eating disorder patients is highlighted to illustrate some of the pertinent conceptual issues concerning the meaning of the co-occurrence of separately defined diagnostic entities. The literature review reveals a robust finding that patients with ersonality pathology have a poorer response to treatment of Axis I disorders than those without such pathology. It is also argued that therapeutic relationship deserves more attention in the assessment and treatment of eating disorder patients with a co morbid personality disorder.

  8. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  9. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  10. Pharmacotherapeutical treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, J M

    1995-09-01

    Since some years it has become evident that objective disturbances can be found in patients suffering from personality disorders. Research findings from earlier date already demonstrated low levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially in patients with personality disorders, under exclusion of depressive features. Furthermore, data have been collected on the correlation between a hyposerotonergic state and disturbances in aggression and impulse control in a variety of syndromes such as automutilation, bulimia nervosa, suicide attempts and various states of drug abuse. However, psychopharmacological research in personality disorders is rare and to date mainly patients with borderline and schizotypical personality disorders have been studied. It is quite remarkable for this area to find more review articles than original contributions based on the results of clinical trials. A great variety of recommendations for pharmacotherapy in these patients exists in literature, among which treatment with carbamazepine, lithium, low-dose neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin uptake inhibitors. In this article we will analyze the research methodology and the results of clinical trials forming the base for pharmacotherapeutic treatment recommendations. Only the results of well-controlled studies will be reviewed.

  11. Personality disorders and modern culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martín Murcia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the relation between the modern social context and personality —as an essential psychological entity— and its disorders were analyzed from a dialectic perspective. Therefore, I have specified the bidirectional influences of social paradigmaticchanges in modernity —and in the case of postmodernity— on the construction of personal identity. A historiography of the Self throughout the diverse eras and of the more relevant social changes was carried out, emphasizing the consequences in the development ofcharacter. The analysis includes a reflection on one of the pathologies of increasing incidence in modern societies: image disorders. In the discussion, the difficulties to organize the self in an extremely subjective world, which forces a person to self-realization asexistential task, is criticized.

  12. Theodore Millon's Contributions to Conceptualizing Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We review Theodore Millon's contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders in contemporary clinical science and practice. Millon worked tirelessly across professional domains and theoretical orientations, developing a rich integrative theory of personality and its pathology, directly and indirectly impacting the evolving iterations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III through DSM-5), and advocating for the personality disorders through his contributions to cofounding the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders and the Journal of Personality Disorders. We conclude with a closer look at Millon's final major contributions to conceptualizing personality disorders as well as the strengths and limitations of his approach.

  13. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  14. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  15. Multiple personality disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Suzuki, K; Sato, T; Murakami, Y; Takahashi, T

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the features of multiple personality disorder (MPD) in Japan are similar to those in North America, although a wide disparity exists in the prevalence of MPD between the two areas. In order to describe the features of MPD in Japan, we obtained clinical data from MPD case reports, including two of our own cases, published in Japanese academic journals and compared it with the data from other countries. The cases in Japan differed significantly from those in North America in the mean number of personalities and prevalence of sexual and/or physical abuse.

  16. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  17. Personality disorder & serious further offending

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Offender characteristics are considered important in the prediction of future risk of re-offending and response to treatment. The psychiatric classification of offenders can therefore be an important variable influencing decision making. Although the relationship between personality disorder and offending is established in the literature, the relationship is complex. Recidivism of any type, particularly serious further offending that is violent or sexual in nature, has far reaching impl...

  18. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; KALININA, NATALLIA; Winther Kestner, Kamma; Ettrup Andresen, Lærke

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between the term psychopathy formulated by Robert D. Hare, and the official diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In relation to this, the project discusses the development of moral judgment and empathy, and under which conditions one might develop psychopathy and ASPD - how it is sociologically and biologically wired. Furthermore, we will take into consideration the ethical issues of labeling. We will discuss difficulties and possibilities ...

  19. [Personality disorders in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes are proposed in the personality disorders section of the 5th. edition of the DSM. The article summarizes the historical background of the personality disorder classification, including personality-types theory, trait-theory, and clinical concepts based upon psychiatric and psychoanalytical traditions. After briefly summarizing concerns on current approach to diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-IV, we summarise the most important features of the newly developed personality disorders classification, including concepts have been modified during long years of investigation. The new system will have modified less than was originally intended, and will be a hybrid model of dimensional categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders. The ten personality disorder types are reduced to six, and they will have new criteria based on maladaptive trait dimensions. The trait structure model was derived from existing personality and personality disorder trait models, and includes five broad higher-order trait domains, which are negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A new set of general criteria are developed for defining personality disorder. Self and interpersonal functioning represent the core impairment in personality functioning central to personality disorder, and the presence of maladaptive personality traits is also required. Severity continuum of personality pathology can be rated on the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale.

  20. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders i...

  1. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders i...

  2. Epigenetic perspective on behavior development, personality, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Cloninger, Robert C

    2010-06-01

    After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision. Based on recent advances in molecular biology and epigenetics, we define personality disorders as maladaptive syndromes developed trough person-environment interaction. We conceptualize maladaptation as a failure of integrative functions of personality (i.e., those that carry out adaptive processes) caused by strong biogenetic dispositions or by pathological environmental effects, or both. Hence, accurate diagnosis of personality disorder depends upon neurobiological (innate) and adaptive (interactive) etiological factors. We propose a 2-step diagnostic algorithm for personality disorders: adaptive processes (i.e., character) are used to diagnose maladaptation, whereas biological aspects (i.e., temperament) are used to specify dominant clinical presentation and for differential diagnosis. We suggest that the term "Personality Disorder" be replaced by a more appropriate term "Adaptation Disorder" as the latter reflects more accurately the real nature of the disorder and distributes the causality of maladaptive syndromes more evenly, between the person and the environment. Diagnostic, research, and treatment advantages of the proposed solution are discussed in some detail.

  3. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  4. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  5. The relationship of histrionic personality disorder to antisocial personality and somatization disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, S O; Van Valkenburg, C; Larntz, K; Akiskal, H S

    1986-06-01

    The authors examined the association of antisocial personality disorder, somatization disorder, and histrionic personality disorder, both within individuals and within families, in 250 patients. All three disorders overlapped considerably within individuals; the strongest relationship was between antisocial personality and histrionic personality. A high prevalence of antisocial personality was reported in the families of patients with somatization disorder but not in the families of patients with histrionic personality. The authors suggest that histrionic individuals develop antisocial personality if they are male and somatization disorder if female; moreover, all three conditions may represent alternative manifestations or different stages of the same underlying diathesis.

  6. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  7. [Psychotherapy of personality disorders in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Aline; Schmeck, Klaus; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    By the current state of knowledge adolescent personality disorders should be taken seriously due to their high prevalence and severe symptomatology. Personality disorders are characterized by a stable pattern of deviation concerning cognition, affectivity, impulse control, and interpersonal relationships and have negative repercussions in psychosocial functioning and subsequent development. There is emerging evidence that personality disorder diagnosis is reliable and valid during adolescence. It is essential to detect youth with personality pathology in order to refer them to specific psychotherapeutic interventions and consequently avoid further chronification and life-long functional impairment. This selective review will give an overview over personality disorders in adolescents as well as according psychotherapeutic interventions.

  8. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  9. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  10. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  11. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  12. Treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, A.; Emmelkamp, P.; Ehring, T.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time the diagnosis of personality disorder was associated with therapeutic pessimism: People with these problems were viewed as untreatable, due to fundamental character complications. Failures of anxiety disorder treatment tended to be labeled as "personality disorder". There is little e

  13. Mentalization based treatment for borderline personality disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    .... Given the generality of this definition, most mental disorders will inevitably involve some difficulties with mentalization, but it is the application of the concept to the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD...

  14. The Biological Basis to Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugula, Malathi L; Narang, Puneet D; Lippmann, Steven B

    2017-04-13

    To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report. There are anatomic features typical to the brains of individuals with cluster B personality disorders, for example, abnormalities in the superior frontal cortex and amygdala and enlarged striatal volumes. Emotional dysregulation and impulsiveness are 2 prominent symptoms. Hereditary factors may contribute to the development of such conditions. Understanding the neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders expands knowledge that hopefully results in better clinical management and development of improved treatments. Psychotherapy is currently the most effective intervention for borderline personality disorders. Symptomatic pharmacotherapies may be prescribed adjunctively on an individualized basis if clinically indicated (eg, with a coexistant depression).

  15. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nicoletti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II has been performed to evaluate the presence of personality disorders. Presence of personality disorders, diagnosed according to the DSM-IV, was confirmed by a psychiatric interview. Clinical and pharmacological data were also recorded using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: 100 PD patients (57 men; mean age 59.0 ± 10.2 years and 100 healthy subjects (52 men; mean age 58.1 ± 11.4 years were enrolled in the study. The most common personality disorder was the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder diagnosed in 40 PD patients and in 10 controls subjects (p-value<0.0001 followed by the depressive personality disorder recorded in 14 PD patients and 4 control subjects (p-value 0.02. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was also found in 8 out of 16 de novo PD patients with a short disease duration. CONCLUSION: PD patients presented a high frequency of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder that does not seem to be related with both disease duration and dopaminergic therapy.

  16. Personality disorder: still the patients psychiatrists dislike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important. PMID:28184311

  17. Autobiographical memory in borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Morten; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a severe psychiatric illness. A key feature of the disorder is a disorganized sense of self often referred to as identity diffusion. Autobiographical memory is memory for personal life events. One of the main functions of these memories is to enable us...... to understand who we are by connecting past, present and future experiences. It seems that autobiographical memory is in some way disrupted in individuals with borderline personality disorder. A systematic review is conducted looking at studies that focus on the potential connections. We find that although......, autobiographical memory and borderline personality disorder....

  18. Personality traits, personality disorders, and migraine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Smitherman, Todd A; Baskin, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism has been associated with migraine, although research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the extent to which neuroticism reflects a stable disposition or instead is a function of general somatic distress or situational influences. With the possible exception of harm avoidance, research has not consistently identified any other personality trait unique among migraineurs. Personality disorders have been researched less extensively, but existing data suggests that borderline personality disorder, in particular, is associated with increased negative impact of migraine, risk for medication overuse, and poor response to treatment that is likely of greater clinical importance than any personality trait per se.

  19. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  20. Rorschach indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labott, S M; Leavitt, F; Braun, B G; Sachs, R G

    1992-08-01

    The increase in reported cases of Multiple Personality Disorder underscores a great need to differentiate clearly this from other psychiatric disorders and from simulation of Multiple Personality Disorder. Two sets of Rorschach signs have been advanced as clinical markers by their developers, namely Barach and also Wagner, Allison, and Wagner. As the Wagner signs are prevalent in much of the research on Rorschach responses in Multiple Personality Disorder, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate these signs using Wagner's administration and the resulting Rorschach protocols of 16 Multiple Personality Disorder patients and 16 psychiatric controls. Analysis indicated that this system was deficient in correctly classifying these 32 protocols. A new marker, the Splitting Response, emerged, however, which was more useful. This response, in combination with at least one Dissociative response, produced an accuracy rate of 94%. These new criteria may be useful aids in the detection of Multiple Personality Disorder from Rorschach protocols. Replication is urged.

  1. Personality factors and disorders in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, J N; Vaillancourt, P D

    1999-07-01

    It has long been recognized that there is a relationship between certain personality types and personality disorders (PD) and chronic nonmalignant pain (CP). The relationship, however, is far from understood and the physiological and psychological mechanisms that underlie it are unclear. Those who treat chronic pain face many challenges when dealing with individuals who have personality disorders and they often become frustrated when interacting with these patients. Patients with certain traits and personality disorders may continue to worry and ruminate about their symptoms long after the tissue pathology has resolved. Other individuals may overly rely on the clinician and assume a passive role in their treatment, thereby decreasing the likelihood for a positive outcome. Moreover, patients with personality disorders may be demanding (eg, borderline), self-absorbed (eg, narcissistic), or substance seeking (eg, antisocial, borderline). In an attempt to improve management of such patients, pain specialists have attempted to better understand the complex relationship between personality and chronic pain. In this article, we will review the predominant historical and current theories of pain and personality, discuss aspects of the gate-control theory of pain that may relate to personality, and discuss the diathesis-stress model of personality disorders in pain. Last, we will review studies of personality and personality disorders in chronic pain and their treatment implications. We conclude that, based on the underlying neurochemistry, there may be a direct or indirect link between PD and CP, but further prospective research, both on the biological and psychological relationship, should be conducted.

  2. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  3. Analysis of Pre-morbid Personality and Correlative Factors in Patient with Post-stroke Depression%卒中后抑郁病人的病前人格及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宗新; 涂江龙; 熊友生

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨卒中病人的病前人格及相关因素与卒中后抑郁(PSD)发生的相关性.方法 对PSD病人(病例组)29例和脑卒中病人(对照组)32例进行艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)调查,并记录每位病例的相关资料.结果 男、女性病例组N值均较对照组大(均P0和优势比为1.504;而E值均较对照组小(均P0.05).结论 PSD病人的病前人格中有更多的情绪不稳定和性格内向,情绪不稳定和性格内向与PSD有相关性,是其危险因素.%Objective To explore the occurrenced correlation between pre-morbid personality and correlative factors in patient with post-stroke depression (PSD) and stoke.Methods Twenty-nine patients with PSD (case group) and 32 patients with subacute stroke (control group) investigated of eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ).The recording information of each case was correlative.Results N value of male and female case group was higher than those in control group(P0 and odds ratio was 1.504;while E value was reversed(P0.05,respectively).Conclusion Unstable emotion and introverted personality show more frequently in patient with PSD,which maybe correlative in the occurrence of depression in patient with stroke.They are risk factors of PSD.

  4. The relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavissakalian, M

    1990-12-01

    This selective review of the relationship between panic disorder/agoraphobia and DSM-III personality disorders points to a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and reveals a certain degree of covariation between severity of Axis I disorder and personality functioning. However, the link between panic/agoraphobia and Axis II disorders does not appear to be specific because (1) general features such as neuroticism, stress, dysphoric mood, and interpersonal sensitivity, rather than duration and severity of panic attacks and phobias, emerge as unique predictors or determinants of personality disorder; and (2) similar personality profiles are obtained in a heterogenous population of psychiatric outpatients or patients with social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depression.

  5. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  6. [Concepts of the borderline personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-08-01

    For many years, the borderline personality disorders have mainly been researched in terms of psychoanalytical theories, such as theories on relations with the object. Nowadays, there are three kinds of concepts that are distinguishable. The first ones are those which are group models, serving attempts to made characteristic sets of qualities, represented by individuals suffering from the borderline personality disorders, more precise. The remaining concepts are models of conflict and deficit, which explain complicated mechanisms of interactions of social, psychological and biological factors, and therefore, contribute to better understanding of the genesis of the symptoms of this disorder. Upon the basis of the attempts made so far in the field of describing the borderline personality disorders, one may indicate certain criteria, representative for the entire group of individuals with this diagnosis, regardless of the assumptions applicable to the genesis of the disorder and its symptoms, even though the population of the infirm suffering from the borderline personality disorders is not internally homogenous. The interest of psychologists, attempting to describe the borderline personality disorders, is focused upon certain sets of qualities, presented as the examples of descriptive models. Among the researchers, working on the issues of the borderline personality disorders in this manner, there are: Gunderson, Kernberg, Kohut, Winnicot, Guntrip, Fairbaim, Adler and Buie.

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie P. Lizeretti; María Vázquez Costa; Ana Gimeno-Bayón

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (AD) are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and personality disorders (PersD) in ...

  8. The personal social networks of personality disordered forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Haar-Pomp, Lydia; Spreen, Marinus; Bogaerts, Stefan; Volker, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Summary There has hardly been any examination of the personal social networks of personality disordered forensic psychiatric patients leading up to, and at the time of their offence. To shed light on this question, 36 male inpatients were interviewed by forensic social workers about their social

  9. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  10. Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganić-Gajić Saveta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT system in panic disorder (PD, however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

  11. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Goulding, Sandra M; Walker, Elaine F

    2010-12-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area.

  12. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area. PMID:21116455

  13. [Diagnosis and therapy of personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, V

    1997-07-01

    Approximately 10% of the unselected population are affected with personality disorders, among the patients of psychiatrists and family doctors the quota goes up to 40%. Personality disorders comprise deeply ingrained and enduring behaviour patterns, manifesting themselves as inflexible responses to a broad range of personal and social situations. They are stable and lead frequently to subjective distress and/or to impaired social functioning. The division in subgroups is made on the reason of typical patterns of experience and behaviour, but overlapping between different subtypes is frequent. People with personality disorders often come into conflicts with their environment because of their maladaptive behaviour which lead to crises and need of intervention. Psychopharmaca can be given in such situations, but substances with an addictive potential like benzodiazepines should not be prescribed for a longer period. The long-term psychotherapy of personality disordered persons requires an individual planing after a careful analysis of the behaviour pattern and should focus on concretely defined and reachable aims. Personality disordered persons belong to the most difficult patients, their long-term treatment demands appropriate therapeutic skills. In the primary care family doctors therapy and support is important but several basic rules should be followed.

  14. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  15. Assessment of DSM-5 Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an approach to defining, identifying, and assessing personality disorders, including the links between these definitions and personality assessment, with a particular reference to the proposed revisions to the personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013 ). The article discusses measures of maladaptive variants of the Five-factor model (FFM) that are coordinated with both the traditional personality disorder syndromes as well as the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. Discussed as well is the assessment of the more psychodynamically oriented deficits in sense of self and interpersonal relatedness that are also included within the hybrid model proposed for DSM-5.

  16. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa eNovais

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histerical personality disorder (HPD made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II and since the DSM-III, histrionic personality disorder is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria.The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  17. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapara, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge.

  18. Dysfunctional Affect Regulation : in borderline personality disorder and somatoform disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to provide a systematic exploration of the nature and distribution of dysfunctional affect regulation, its associated phenomena, and retrospectively reported potentially traumatizing events in 475 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD),

  19. The Concept of Personality Disorder in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S.

    1984-01-01

    Advises child psychiatrists to use personality disorder diagnoses sparingly; to be aware of the constraints on adaptability of normal variations of temperament; and to positively diagnose those rare pathological impairments of personality brought about by minimal cerebral dysfunction, schizoid traits, and traits of excessive shyness. (RH)

  20. The Concept of Personality Disorder in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S.

    1984-01-01

    Advises child psychiatrists to use personality disorder diagnoses sparingly; to be aware of the constraints on adaptability of normal variations of temperament; and to positively diagnose those rare pathological impairments of personality brought about by minimal cerebral dysfunction, schizoid traits, and traits of excessive shyness. (RH)

  1. Construct Validity of Adolescent Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Elkins, Irene J.; Legrand, Lisa; Peuschold, Dawn; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosed in adolescence. Boys and girls were grouped by history of DSM-III-R conduct disorder (CD) and ASPD: Controls (n = 340) had neither diagnosis; CD Only (n = 77) had CD by age 17 but no ASPD through age 20; Adolescent ASPD (n = 64) had ASPD by age 17. The…

  2. [Differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, S; Völkl, G; Soyka, M

    1998-05-01

    Recently the concept of dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) has attracted increasing public and scientific interest. However, it is rarely diagnosed in the clinical setting. the reported case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of child abuse demonstrates the problems of differential diagnosis. A number of psychopathologic symptoms pointed to a multiple personality disorder, but in the follow-up psychotic symptoms such as delusions, possible hallucinations and bizarre behavior clearly emerged. The differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder includes paranoid schizophrenia, as in the case described, borderline personality disorder, hysteria, simulation and the false memory syndrome. Finally, social and cultural factors have to be considered.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that they consider more appropriate, like anxiety or frustration. A person with OCPD has symptoms of perfectionism ... help reduce anxiety and depression from OCPD. Talk therapy is thought to be the most effective treatment ...

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Time for Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses among women illustrates problems and limitations of the medical model system. Article explores overlapping relationship between BPD and PTSD and critiques how both are viewed within the mental health community. Previous research is…

  5. Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-12-01

    This investigation attempted to examine the cognitive schemas of five distinct clusters that emerged from a cluster analysis of the personality disorder scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987). Specifically, the degree to which early maladaptive schemas, as measured by the Cognitive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1994), could correctly identify empirically derived patterns of personality disorders was examined. Between-cluster differences centered on five personality components and five schemas. Discriminant analyses revealed two significant functions composed of cognitive schemas, which correctly identified 61.2% of the entire sample in terms of cluster group membership. The total proportion of variance in the two significant functions associated with cluster group differences was 76.8%. Findings are discussed in relation to the domain theory of personality disorders posited by Millon and Davis (1996).

  6. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-09-12

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  7. [Personality disorders: old and new problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B; Shostakovich, B V

    2001-01-01

    Correlations were found between the structure of personality disorders (PD) (neurotic--borderline personality organization) and the regularities of PD dynamics. Taking into consideration the regularities of interaction of psychopathologic manifestations with positive symptomatology, three types of PD dynamics were psychopathologically identified, which show information on polar (compensation--decompensation) processes: 1) that in form of personality development; 2) that in form of PD-associated quasipsychoses; associated with DP; 3) that in form of transformation of characterological disorders into psychopathologic ones. The first two types of dynamics, which appear as as actualization of pathocharacterological formations in the pattern of mental disorders, reflect decompensation processes. In neurotic personality (emotionally labile, anxious, dependent, sensitive schizoids, etc) there is a deep (in terms of personality development) reorganization of characterological abnormalies. In borderline personality (paranoid, expansive schizoids, anancasts, borderline, etc.), aggravation and chronic pattern of mental disorders occurs with dynamics of PD-associated quasipsychoses. The third type of dynamics is not accompanied by aggravation of pathocharacterological manifestations and reflects compensation process. Separation of the isolated symptom complexes, PD derivatives (steady-state catathymically charged pathocharacterological formations are symptom-forming) is possible in any type of personality organization, but more frequently is observed at complex forms with a high proportion of facultative complexes and accentuations.

  8. Personality traits in schizophrenia and related personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisa, Kathryn M; Bockbrader, Marcia A; Lysaker, Paul; Rae, Lauren L; Brenner, Colleen A; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2005-01-30

    We investigated whether schizophrenia spectrum disorders share common personality characteristics or traits. Participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) or with a schizophrenia spectrum personality disorder (schizophrenia spectrum PD: schizoid, paranoid, and schizotypal personality disorder) were compared with non-psychiatric control subjects on the five-factor model of personality and the psychosis-proneness scales. On the five-factor personality scales, SZ subjects showed higher levels of neuroticism, and lower levels of openness, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness than control subjects. Higher scores on openness and lower scores on neuroticism distinguished schizophrenia spectrum PD from SZ. On the psychosis-proneness scales, both PD and SZ participants scored high relative to non-psychiatric control participants on magical ideation and perceptual aberration, while PD participants scored intermediate between non-psychiatric control participants and SZ on social anhedonia. Discriminant analysis indicated that schizophrenia spectrum patients could be distinguished from PDs by more severe social withdrawal and maladjustment, while subjects with PDs could be best distinguished from control subjects on the basis of odd or novel ideation and decreased conscientiousness.

  9. Personality disorders and accentuations in at-risk persons with and without conversion to first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Michel, Chantal; Winkler, Karen; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2012-11-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Cluster A personality disorders (PDs), particularly schizotypal PD, are considered a part of the schizophrenia spectrum and a risk factor of psychosis. The role of PDs and personality accentuations (PAs) in predicting conversion to psychosis was studied in patients symptomatically considered at risk, assuming a major role of the schizotypal subtype. PDs and PAs, assessed at baseline with a self-report questionnaire, were compared between risk-, gender- and age-matched at-risk patients with (n = 50) and without conversion to psychosis (n = 50). Overall, Cluster A-PDs were the least frequent cluster (14%), and schizotypal PD was rare (7%). Yet, PDs in general were frequent (46%), especially Cluster B- (31%) and C-PDs (23%). Groups did not differ in frequencies of PDs, yet converters tended to have a higher expression of schizoid (P = 0.057) and Cluster A-PAs (P = 0.027). In regression analyses, schizoid PA was selected as sole but weak predictor of conversion (OR = 1.685; 95% CIs: 1.134/2.504). Unexpectedly, schizotypal PD was infrequent and did not predict conversion. Conversion was best predicted by schizoid PA, indicating more severe, persistent social deficits already at baseline in later converters. This corresponds to premorbid social deficits reported for genetic high-risk children and low social functioning in at-risk patients later converting to psychosis. Further, PDs occurred frequently in at-risk patients irrespective of conversion. As psychopathology and personality relate closely to one another, this result highlights that, beyond the current narrow focus on schizotypal PD, personality-related factors should be considered more widely in the prevention of psychosis. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  11. Multiple personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Distinct entities or variations on a common theme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J; Black, D W; Keen, P

    1993-06-01

    We report data from a comparison of 14 subjects with multiple personality disorder (MPD) and 13 subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). There were few significant differences between the groups. The authors discuss the concept of MPD as an epiphenomenon of BPD, and argue their fundamental similarity.

  12. Personality disorder: a new global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to ...... incerasing evidence that some teratments, manilyl psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task.......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry acreoss the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  13. Conscientiousness and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    A dimensional perspective on personality disorder hypothesizes that the current diagnostic categories represent maladaptive variants of general personality traits. However, a fundamental foundation of this viewpoint is that dimensional models can adequately account for the pathology currently described by these categories. While most of the personality disorders have well established links to dimensional models that buttress this hypothesis, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has obtained only inconsistent support. The current study administered multiple measures of 1) conscientiousness-related personality traits, 2) DSM-IV OCPD, and 3) specific components of OCPD (e.g., compulsivity and perfectionism) to a sample of 536 undergraduates who were oversampled for elevated OCPD scores. Six existing measures of conscientiousness-related personality traits converged strongly with each other supporting their assessment of a common trait. These measures of conscientiousness correlated highly with scales assessing specific components of OCPD, but obtained variable relationships with measures of DSM-IV OCPD. More specifically, there were differences within the conscientiousness instruments such that those designed to assess general personality functioning had small to medium relationships with OCPD, but those assessing more maladaptive variants obtained large effect sizes. These findings support the view that OCPD does represent a maladaptive variant of normal-range conscientiousness.

  14. Borderline personality disorder: a disorder in search of advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Compared with bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is as frequent (if not more frequent), as impairing (if not more impairing), and as lethal (if not more lethal). Yet, BPD has received less than one-tenth the funding from the National Institutes of Health than has bipolar disorder. More than other reviewers of the literature on the interface between bipolar disorder and BPD, Paris and Black (Paris J and Black DW (2015) Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: What is the Difference and Why Does it Matter? J Nerv Ment Dis 203:3-7) emphasize the clinical importance of correctly diagnosing BPD and not overdiagnosing bipolar disorder, with a focus on the clinical feature of affective instability and how the failure to recognize the distinction between sustained and transient mood perturbations can result in misdiagnosing patients with BPD as having bipolar disorder. The review by Paris and Black, then, is more of an advocacy for BPD than other reviews in this area have been. In the present article, the author will illustrate how the bipolar disorder research community has done a superior job of advocating for and "marketing" their disorder compared with researchers of BPD. Specifically, researchers of bipolar disorder have conducted multiple studies highlighting the problem with underdiagnosis, written commentaries about the problem with underdiagnosis, developed and promoted several screening scales to improve diagnostic recognition, published numerous studies of the operating characteristics of these screening measures, attempted to broaden the definition of bipolar disorder by advancing the concept of the bipolar spectrum, and repeatedly demonstrated the economic costs and public health significance of bipolar disorder. In contrast, researchers of BPD have almost completely ignored each of these issues and thus have been less successful in highlighting the public health significance of the disorder.

  15. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L; Lukowitsky, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and describe a significant criterion problem related to four inconsistencies in phenotypic descriptions and taxonomic models across clinical theory, research, and practice; psychiatric diagnosis; and social/personality psychology. This impedes scientific synthesis, weakens narcissism's nomological net, and contributes to a discrepancy between low prevalence rates of NPD and higher rates of practitioner-diagnosed pathological narcissism, along with an enormous clinical literature on narcissistic disturbances. Criterion issues must be resolved, including clarification of the nature of normal and pathological narcissism, incorporation of the two broad phenotypic themes of narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability into revised diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments, elimination of references to overt and covert narcissism that reify these modes of expression as distinct narcissistic types, and determination of the appropriate structure for pathological narcissism. Implications for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the science of personality disorders are presented.

  16. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. Conclusion There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations.

  17. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  18. Sleep and borderline personality disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Sina

    2013-12-01

    Sleep problems are very common among psychiatric patients. Borderline personality disorder, as a common and severe mental disorder, is associated with different types of sleep disturbances, such as disturbances of sleep continuity, altered REM sleep regulation and nightmares. These disturbances are the result of interaction of the personality traits, concomitant and comorbid diseases and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of sleep related disorders in BPD patients, this aspect of BPD is still neglected in clinical and research settings. To date there has been little agreement on sleep characteristics of BPD among different studies, and presence of some uncontrolled confounding factors, make interpretation of the results difficult. However, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in BPD patients might lead to better outcome. This article aimed to review the current literature of sleep studies in BPD. Some recommendations and suggestions were made for future researches in this field.

  19. Historical roots of histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women's afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a "neurosis" with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined "neurosis" as a re-experience of past psychological trauma. Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) made its first official appearance in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders II (DSM-II) and since the DSM-III, HPD is the only disorder that kept the term derived from the old concept of hysteria. The subject of hysteria has reflected positions about health, religion and relationships between the sexes in the last 4000 years, and the discussion is likely to continue.

  20. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... of these alternative proposals within a common hierarchical structure. An illustration of a potential integration is provided using the constructs assessed within existing dimensional models. Suggestions for future research that will help lead toward a common, integrative dimensional model of personality disorder...

  1. Alzheimer's disease camouflaged by histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Sabine; Dykierek, Petra; Hellwig, Bernhard; Zwernemann, Stefan; Meyer, Philipp T

    2012-02-01

    A common condition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unawareness of deficits. Different concepts try to elucidate the nature of this symptom. An essential question relates to the interaction of organic and psychogenic factors. Here we present a patient who displayed her cognitive deficits as attention-seeking behaviour. There was a history of histrionic personality disorder according to ICD-10 criteria. Unexpectedly, the final diagnosis after extensive diagnostic work-up was AD. The unusual coincidence of AD and a histrionic personality disorder hampered the clinical process of diagnosing dementia. We discuss unawareness as a complex concept incorporating neuroanatomical, psychiatric, and psychosocial aspects.

  2. Prognosis of psychic disorders in young persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Krasnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term (1986 - 2012 years dynamic monitoring of mental health were analyzed in 897 people. 278 of them showed mental disorders in the period of observation. Significant difference between the indices of cognitive functions and personality specifics in the healthy and sick people in the period before illness debut was identified. A prediction model of mental disorders in the period before illness debut was created.

  3. Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Bender, Donna S; Morey, Leslie C

    2014-10-01

    The criteria for personality disorders in Section II of DSM-5 have not changed from those in DSM-IV. Therefore, the diagnosis of Section II narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) will perpetuate all of the well-enumerated shortcomings associated with the diagnosis since DSM-III. In this article, we will briefly review problems associated with Section II NPD and then discuss the evolution of a new model of personality disorder and the place in the model of pathological narcissism and NPD. The new model was intended to be the official approach to the diagnosis of personality pathology in DSM-5, but was ultimately placed as an alternative in Section III for further study. The new model is a categorical-dimensional hybrid based on the assessment of core elements of personality functioning and of pathological personality traits. The specific criteria for NPD were intended to rectify some of the shortcomings of the DSM-IV representation by acknowledging both grandiose and vulnerable aspects, overt and covert presentations, and the dimensionality of narcissism. In addition, criteria were assigned and diagnostic thresholds set based on empirical data. The Section III representation of narcissistic phenomena using dimensions of self and interpersonal functioning and relevant traits offers a significant improvement over Section II NPD.

  4. Core features of personality disorder: differentiating general personality dysfunctioning from personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Han; Kamphuis, Jan H; Verheul, Roel

    2012-10-01

    The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) and Severity Indices for Personality Problems (SIPP-118) to measure GPD, and the NEO-PI-R to measure SPT. The sample consisted of 424 psychiatric patients. Using principal component analysis, GPD and SPT appeared to be clearly distinct components of personality. Our GPD model consisted of three factors, i.e., Self-identity dysfunctioning, Relational dysfunctioning, and Prosocial functioning. This model remained by and large intact when combined with SFT factors. Our findings support the distinction between personality traits and personality dysfunction laid down in the recent proposal by the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group of the DSM-5 Task Force.

  5. Increased serum prolactin in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Korkmaz, Sevda; Ustundag, Bilal; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Although there is an important interaction between serotonergic system, prolactin and suicidal behavior, and impulsivity, no investigation examined the prolactin values in borderline personality disorder in which suicidal behavior and impulsivity are core symptom dimensions. In this context, in the present investigation, we planned to measure serum prolactin levels in the patients with borderline personality disorder. The study comprised 15 patients with borderline personality disorder and 15 healthy controls. Prolactin values were measured in both patients and control subjects. The patients had abnormally higher mean value of prolactin compared to those of healthy controls (48.66 ± 36.48 mg/dl for patients vs. 15.20 ± 7.81 mg/dl for healthy controls). There was no correlation between prolactin values and any demographic variables for both the patients and control subjects. In conclusion, our present results suggest that prolactin values increased in the patients with borderline personality disorder and are required to be replicated by more comprehensive and detailed further studies to decipher the exact roles of prolactin increase.

  6. Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Hope L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

  7. Multiple Personality Disorder: Concepts and Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Hope L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents two case examples illustrating nature and etiology of multiple personality disorder in two clients and describing their entry into counseling and progress through treatment. Compares and contrasts cases in areas of diagnosis, symptoms, history, and treatment. Suggests that mental health counselors combine firmness with flexibility in…

  8. An Integrative Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Livesley, W. John; Clark, Lee Anna

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment research concerns how to describe psychological dysfunction in ways that are both valid and useful. Recent advances in assessment research hold the promise of facilitating significant improvements in description and diagnosis. One such contribution is in the classification of personality disorder symptomatology. The…

  9. Comorbid personality disorders among patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nahathai Wongpakaran, Tinakon Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: To investigate the personality disorders (PDs diagnosed in patients with depressive disorders.Material and methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis, and was an extension of the Thai Study of Affective Disorder (THAISAD project. Eighty-five outpatients with depressive disorders were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess for depression, in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision and using the Thai version of the Structured Clinical Interview for PDs to assess for PD.Results: Seventy-seven percent of the patients had at least one PD, 40% had one PD and 60% had two or more PDs (mixed cluster. The most common PDs found were borderline PD (20% and obsessive–compulsive PD (10.6%, while the occurrence of avoidant PD was low when compared to the findings of previous, related studies. Among the mixed cluster, cluster A combined with cluster C was the common mix. Both dysthymic disorder and double depression were found to have a higher proportion of PDs than major depressive disorder (85.7% versus 76.1%. Dependent PD was found to be less common in this study than in previous studies, including those carried out in Asia.Conclusion: The prevalence of PDs among those with depressive disorder varied, and only borderline PD seems to be consistently high within and across cultures. Mixed cluster plays a prominent role in depression, so more attention should be paid to patients in this category. Keywords: personality disorders, depressive disorder, prevalence, Asian, mixed cluster, SCID-II

  10. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  11. [Screening measure for borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Vonau, Melanie; Kliem, Sören; Kosfelder, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a life-threatening mental disorder. To date, there is no German screening tool available. To examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). A heterogeneous outpatient sample (N=168) was used to examine discriminatory ability, diagnostic efficiency as well as indicators for internal consistency and convergent validity. The area under the curve was AUC=0.90 (CI 95%: 0.85 internal consistency was 0.81. Associations with other self-rating measures were found as expected. The German version of the MSI-BPD has demonstrated good psychometric properties for a screening tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Interpersonal evaluation bias in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Stopsack, Malte; Grabe, Hans Joergen; Meinke, Claudia; Spitzer, Carsten; Kronmüller, Klaus; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2009-05-01

    The cognitive theory of personality disorders hypothesizes that the emotional dysregulation and interpersonal problems in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are, at least partially, caused by dysfunctional cognitive schemas. These schemas lead to biased evaluation of environmental and interpersonal stimuli. This study examined the interpersonal evaluations of individuals with BPD, depressive and healthy control participants with the thin-slice judgments paradigm. Participants were asked to evaluate six persons in six film clips, which showed these persons for 10s, during which these persons entered a room and took a seat. Interpersonal style of the BPD group was investigated with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-C) questionnaire. Individuals with BPD judged the persons as being more negative and aggressive and less positive than the healthy participants, and more aggressive than the depressive individuals. In addition, individuals with BPD reported more extreme interpersonal behavior relative to the controls. The findings indicate an aggressivistic evaluation bias and elevated levels of interpersonal problems in individuals with BPD as suggested in the cognitive theory.

  13. ADHD in adolescents with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortese Samuele

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of a comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD diagnosis in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, and its impact on the clinical presentation of BPD in adolescents, and to determine which type of impulsivity specifically characterizes adolescents with BPD-ADHD. Methods ADHD diagnoses were sought in a sample of 85 DSM-IV BPD adolescents drawn from the EURNET BPD. Axis-I and -II disorders were determined with the K-SADS-PL and the SIDP-IV, respectively. Impulsivity was assessed with the BIS-11. Results 11% (N = 9 of BPD participants had a current ADHD diagnosis. BPD-ADHD adolescents showed higher prevalence of Disruptive disorders (Chi2 = 9.09, p = 0.01 and a non-significant trend for a higher prevalence of other cluster B personality disorders (Chi2 = 2.70, p = 0.08. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between Attentional/Cognitive impulsivity scores and ADHD (Wald Z = 6.69; p = 0.01; Exp(B = 2.02, CI 95% 1.19-3.45. Conclusions Comorbid ADHD influences the clinical presentation of adolescents with BPD and is associated with higher rates of disruptive disorders, with a trend towards a greater likelihood of cluster B personality disorders and with higher levels of impulsivity, especially of the attentional/cognitive type. A subgroup of BPD patients may exhibit developmentally driven impairments of the inhibitory system persisting since childhood. Specific interventions should be recommended for this subsample of BPD adolescents.

  14. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Modica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders acco...

  15. Personality disorders from a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr Zengers, O

    2008-01-01

    Different studies have questioned the capacity of the categorical diagnostics to establish a clear distinction between the existence or not of a determined personality disorder. The dimensional perspective would approach more to reality, in the measure that it tries to measure the different intensity degrees in which these disorders are present in the patients. But its application is very laborious and besides, presupposes that those categories whose nuances it pretends to measure really exist. The foresaid leads us to appeal to phenomenological perspective, which seems to be more adequate for the study of complex realities, as it is the case of the personality and its disorders. The essential features of the phenomenological method in the sense of Husserl are described, as well as his contribution to the study of personality disorders. This can be summarized in three fundamental points: the ideal types, introduced in psychiatry by Karl Jaspers, the existential types, by Ludwig Binswanger, and the dialectic typologies and polarities, by Wolfgang Blankenburg and the undersigned. This author defines and develops each one of these concepts, aiming to show their advantages with respect to the categorical and dimensional systems.

  16. Narcissistic personality disorder: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    Narcissistic traits and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) present specific diagnostic challenges. While they are often readily and straightforwardly identified, their presentation in some patients and the reasons for which such patients seek treatment may conceal significant narcissistic pathology. Recently, several empirical studies have confirmed that the phenotypic range of people with NPD includes individuals with insecure, shy, and hypersensitive traits with prominent internalized narcissistic features and functioning. Other studies have confirmed that internal emotional distress, interpersonal vulnerability, fear, pain, anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and depressivity can also co-occur with narcissistic personality functioning. This paper focuses on integrating these findings into the diagnostic evaluation and initial negotiation of treatment for NPD. In patients with narcissistic traits or NPD, it is important to give attention to the two sides of character functioning, which include both self-serving and self-enhancing manifestations as well as hypersensitivity, fluctuations in self-esteem, and internal pain and fragility. This article highlights some of these seemingly incompatible clinical presentations of narcissistic traits and NPD, especially as they co-occur with depressivity and perfectionism, and it discusses implications for building a treatment alliance with a patient with such a predominant disorder of character functioning. The article also discusses the importance of retaining the NPD diagnosis as a separate type of personality disorder, with this range of features, in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-5).

  17. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder and Somatoform Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijke, A.; Ford, J.D.; Van der Hart, O.; Van Son, M.J.M.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Buerhing, M.

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS), also known as Complex posttraumatic stress disorder, was assessed in a sample (N = 472) of adult psychiatric patients with confirmed diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Somatoform Disorders (SoD), comorbid BPD + SoD, or Af

  18. Major depressive disorder, personality disorders, and coping strategies are independent risk factors for lower quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Champagne, Anne-Laure; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for lower quality of life (QOL) in non-metastatic breast cancer patients. Our study included 120 patients from the University Hospital Centers of Tours and Poitiers. This cross-sectional study was conducted 7 months after patients' breast cancer diagnosis and assessed QOL (Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 = QLQ-C30), socio-demographic characteristics, coping strategies (Brief-COPE), physiological and biological variables (e.g., initial tumor severity and types of treatment received), the existence of major depressive disorder (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and pain severity (Questionnaire de Douleur Saint Antoine). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (Vragenlijst voor Kenmerken van de Persoonlijkheid questionnaire). We used multiple linear regression models to determine which factors were associated with physical, emotional, and global QOL. Lower physical QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, younger age, a more severe initial tumor stage, and the use of the behavioral disengagement coping. Lower emotional QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, and lower use of acceptance coping strategies. Lower global QOL was associated with major depressive disorder, the existence of a personality disorder, a more severe pain level, higher use of self-blame, lower use of positive reframing coping strategies, and an absence of hormone therapy. Lower QOL scores were more strongly associated with variables related to the individual's premorbid psychological characteristics and the manner in which this individual copes with the cancer (e.g., depression, personality, and coping) than to cancer-related variables (e.g., treatment types and cancer severity). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Inpatient Therapeutic Assessment With Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supporting the effectiveness of Collaborative/Therapeutic Assessment (C/TA) has led clinicians and researchers to apply C/TA to a variety of clinical populations and treatment settings. This case example presents a C/TA inpatient adaptation illustrated with narcissistic personality disorder. After a brief overview of salient concepts, I provide a detailed account of the clinical interview, test interpretation paired with diagnostic considerations specific to narcissism, planned intervention, and discussion of assessment results. Throughout the case study, I attempt to demonstrate defining features of C/TA, inpatient adaptations, and clinical techniques that encourage meaningful engagement with a "hard to reach" personality.

  20. [Premorbid markers of cardiovascular diseases in mining industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, O Iu; Vlasova, E M; Luzhetskii, k P; Ivashova, Iu A; Belitskaia, V E

    2014-01-01

    Functional studies of cardiovascular system in mine cutting machine operators with 10 years of underground length of service under exposure to occupational hazards (air pollution with sylvinite dust, noise, general and local vibration, increased humidity, absent natural illumination, work hardiness and intensity), helped to establish premorbid markers of cardial diseases--labile arterial hypertension, disordered processes of myocardial excitability, conductivity and automatism, higher thickness of intima-media complex in extracranial branches of brachiocephalic arteries. To decrease cardiovascular morbidity in mine cutting machine operators, the authors recommend additional blood pressure monitoring and ultrasound study of intima-media complex of extracranial brachiocephalic arteries within periodic medical examinations.

  1. DSM-5 and personality disorders: where did axis II go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has seen a period of extensive research into the etiology, pathophysiology, assessment, and treatment of personality disorders. Concomitantly, a group of experts in the field were brought together to form the Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), charged with the responsibility of updating the diagnostic approach to personality disorders. This article is a review of some of the history of the American Psychiatry Association's approach to the recognition and diagnosis of personality disorders over the past half century, the process of developing the recommendations for a DSM-5 personality disorder diagnosis and the elimination of the multiaxial system, and how DSM-5 has left us with essentially no changes of relevance to the practice of forensic psychiatry in the process for diagnosing personality disorders or in the specific diagnoses of personality disorder.

  2. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  3. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Young, Jeffrey E

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy.

  4. Social networks in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Allan; Pilkonis, Paul A; McCarty, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The interpersonal dysfunction that characterizes borderline personality disorder (BPD) has generally been studied using broad global measures, leading to a lack of precision. We report on a novel methodology using social network analysis (SNA) to quantify interactions with others in the patient's social world. We assessed the social networks of 22 clinical patients, diagnosed with either BPD (N = 11) or no personality disorder (No PD; N = 11). The social networks of patients with BPD contained a greater number of former romantic partners, and a greater number of relationships that had been terminated. Mixed model analyses found that the No PD group reported higher levels of positive relationships (e.g., trust, social support) with more central members of their social networks, whereas the BPD group did not discriminate among members of their networks. Results suggest deficits in social cognition for positive relations, but not for negative relations such as interpersonal conflict.

  5. Borderline personality disorder and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Mathell; Schuurmans, Hanneke; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Smeets, Guus; Verkoeijen, Peter; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated emotional intelligence (EI) in borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that patients with BPD (n = 61) compared with patients with other personality disorders (PDs; n = 69) and nonpatients (n = 248) would show higher scores on the ability to perceive emotions and impairments in the ability to regulate emotions. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso [New York: MHS, 2002]). As compared with the PD group and the nonpatient group, the patients with BPD displayed the anticipated deficits in their ability to understand, whereas no differences emerged with respect to their ability to perceive, use, and regulate emotions. In addition, a negative relationship was found between the severity of BPD and total EI score. However, this relationship disappeared when intelligence quotient was partialled out. These results suggest that BPD is associated with emotion understanding deficits, whereas temporary severity of BPD is associated with emotion regulation deficits.

  6. Personality disorders, attachment and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry

    2014-01-01

    While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.

  7. Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, Margareth I; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-01-01

    Developmental antecedents of borderline personality disorders (BPDs) were examined in 25 DSM-IV-diagnosed subjects with BPD and 107 non-borderline control subjects on the basis of medical records and 28 years follow-up. Abuse, neglect, environmental instability, paternal psychopathology, and lower score on protective factors differentiated significantly between the groups. Environmental instability and lower score on protective factors such as artistic talents, superior school performance, above average intellectual skills, and talents in other areas were found to be independent predictors of BPD diagnosis. The results of this study suggest that both abuse and neglect, unpredictable and unstable early environment, as well as deficit in protective factors may substantially contribute to the development of BPD in persons constitutionally predisposed for the disorder. The results of the study also suggest that future research should address the impact of social and cultural context, as well as the absence of protective factors, on the development of the BPD.

  8. [Construction of educational software about personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Nadja Cristiane Lappann; Carneiro, Ana Luíza Marques; Almeida, Camila Souza; Pereira, Cíntia Braga Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the experience of building educational software in the area of mental health. The software was developed to enable the nursing student identify personality disorders. In this process, we applied the pedagogical framework of Vygotsky and the theoretical framework of the diagnostic criteria defined by DSM-IV. From these references were identified personality disorders characters in stories and / or children's movies. The software development bank was built with multimedia graphics data, sound and explanatory. The software developed like educational game like questions with increasing levels of difficulty. The software was developed with Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007. It is believed in the validity of this strategy for teaching-learning to the area of mental health nursing.

  9. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  10. DSM-5-classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen bij ouderen [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    OpenAIRE

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5 defines personality disorders relating to older persons. METHOD: We make a critical evaluation of the description of personality disorders given in DSM-5. RESULTS: First of all, we question whether...

  11. Historical roots of histrionic personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Novais, Filipa; Araújo, Andreia; Godinho, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states. Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a “neurosis” with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined “neurosis” as a re-experience of past psycholog...

  12. Historical Roots of Histrionic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Filipa eNovais; Andreia Monteiro Araújo; Paula eGodinho

    2015-01-01

    Histrionic Personality Disorder is one of the most ambiguous diagnostic categories in psychiatry. Hysteria is a classical term that includes a wide variety of psychopathological states.Ancient Egyptians and Greeks blamed a displaced womb, for many women’s afflictions. Several researchers from the 18th and 19th centuries studied this theme, namely, Charcot who defined hysteria as a neurosis with an organic basis and Sigmund Freud who redefined neurosis as a re-experience of past psychological t...

  13. Reclaiming the humanity in personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Karen; Haigh, Kevin; McKeown, Mick

    2007-08-01

    This paper provides a commentary upon the nursing care of individuals diagnosed with personality disorder and associated education courses. The discussion focuses upon recent policy trends in the UK as a point of departure. This policy discourse is critical of mainstream mental health services in previously operating to exclude such individuals. One of the consequences has been a recent growth in interest in relevant training courses, many of which devote significant attention to staff attitudes regarding this client group. Various previous researchers and commentators have remarked upon the implications for practice of a perceived negative attitude among care staff. We reflect upon our own anecdotal experience of developing and delivering new university-based courses for practitioners working in the field of personality disorder to offer a particular critique of the UK context, in which this policy, training, and practice is framed. Social constructionist theories are drawn on to offer insights into public and practitioner discourse and the possible effects on therapeutic relationships. The available discourse constructs individuals with a diagnosis of personality disorder as essentially different from other people. We argue that staff training and practice development initiatives are likely to be more successful if such discourse is challenged, and attempts are made in therapeutic encounters to recognize shared characteristics and positive attributes as much as perceived difference and negative attributes. We refer to this as a re-engagement with common humanity. Despite the singular national context, the discursive themes explored are not necessarily restricted to the UK.

  14. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. Methods: This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients...... in substance use were associated with randomization to Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling. The findings support the usefulness of providing psycho-education to outpatients with antisocial personality disorder. Trial registration: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN67266318, 17/7/2012...

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie P. Lizeretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (AD are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI and personality disorders (PersD in outpatients suffering from AD. The sample was made up of 146 patients with AD from the Mental Health Center at the Health Consortium of Maresme, who were evaluated with the STAI, MSCEIT, and MCMI-II questionnaires. The main findings indicate that 89,4% of the patients in the sample met the criteria for the diagnosis of some PersD. The findings also confirm that patients with AD present a low EI, especially because of difficulties in the skills of emotional comprehension and regulation, and the lack of these skills is related to a higher level of anxiety and the presence of PersD. These findings suggest the need to consider emotional skills of EI and personality as central elements for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  16. Co-occurrence of dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ferrell, Lynn; Schroeder, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that, among individuals with borderline personality disorder, pathological dissociation correlates with a wide range of impairments and difficulties in psychological function. It also predicts a poorer response to dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. We hypothesized that (a) dissociative identity disorder commonly co-occurs with borderline personality disorder and vice versa, and (b) individuals who meet criteria for both disorders have more comorbidity and trauma than individuals who meet criteria for only 1 disorder. We interviewed a sample of inpatients in a hospital trauma program using 3 measures of dissociation. The most symptomatic group was those participants who met criteria for both borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder on the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, followed by those who met criteria for dissociative identity disorder only, then those with borderline personality disorder only, and finally those with neither disorder. Greater attention should be paid to the relationship between borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder.

  17. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p < 0.05), compared with non-NPD patients and controlling for possible confounding variables. NPD was not associated with attempt lethality. NPD patients were more likely to be male, to have a substance use disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients.

  18. An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Roy, K; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1999-01-01

    Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol.

  19. The Coraline Effect: The Misdiagnosis of Personality Disorders in College Students Who Grew up with a Personality Disordered Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    College students may be misdiagnosed as personality disordered when in fact their problems are better explained by their upbringing. Growing up with a personality disordered parent may cause them to initially present with what appear to be personality disordered traits due to issues such as not learning adequate coping skills. Accurate diagnosis…

  20. [Borderline personality disorders: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allilaire, Jean-François

    2012-10-01

    Borderline personality disorders are complex clinical states with highly polymorphic symptoms and signs, leading to delays in their diagnosis and treatment. All international classifications emphasize certain clinical criteria such as unstable identity and interpersonal relationships, feelings of emptiness or boredom, and pathological impulsiveness. The prevalence is about 2%, with a female-male sex ratio of 2 or 3 to 1. Both adolescents and adults may be affected There is a high risk of suicide, addictive behaviors, eating disorders, and criminality. These individuals frequently have a history of trauma in early childhood, such as separation, loss, physical or sexual abuse, or affective privation. Subjective signs and symptoms are particularly important in the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation, and this requires an empathic and subtle approach. Standardized and semi-structured interviews may help to identify comorbidities such as thymic disorders, anxiety, addiction, eating disorders, and, in some cases, psychotic symptoms. The psychiatric bio-psycho-social model takes into account multiple pathogenic factors, such as trauma during early development, temperamental instability and other emotional disorders, as well as psychosocial, neurobiological (5HT etc.) and genetic vulnerabilities. Treatment requires optimal integration of psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Emergency intervention must be available in case of delirious or suicidal behavior The clinical course is often lengthy and complex, but outcome may be favorable, provided the principal risk--suicide--is correctly managed,

  1. Childhood trauma and personality disorder: toward a biological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce

    2006-02-01

    Cross-sectional and prospective associations of personality disorder with childhood trauma provide an important clue regarding the biological mechanism of personality disorder. In this review, empirical literature from several domains is summarized. These include relevant findings from behavioral genetics, preclinical models of early life parental care, and clinical translational studies of personality disorder. Identification of the biological mechanism by which childhood trauma exerts an effect on personality disorder may require modification of the conceptualization of personality disorder, either as a set of categories or dimensions.

  2. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Ghaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.

  3. [Diagnosis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy for personality disordered persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kuninao

    2011-01-01

    The author uses PubMed searches on clinical studies on personality disorders and finds that the borderline personality disorder is most extensively researched. Mary Zanarini summeries there are four kinds of psychotherapies that are proved to be effective in the treatment of BPD patients, including mentalization based treatment, transference focused therapy, dialectic behavior therapy and schema focused therapy. They are all effective to improve the severity of impulsivity and self-destructiveness. The author then reviews McGlashan's series of extensive follow-up studies on BPD and other mental disorders at Chestnut Lodge back in 1980's. The data tells us that both symptomatic stability and level of social adaptation in the long term outcome of BPDs varied to be very poor to recovered. The outcome seem to be heavily relied on the intimate relationship BPDs could enjoy or not. This finding was also noted in a five year Tokyo BPDs follow-up studies by Moriya, Ikuta and Minakawa in 1990's. Both impulsivity and self-destructiveness get always worse along with loss or threatened loss of love object. Therefore all psychotherapies for BPDs should be directed to improve their pathological object relations although it would be extremely difficult to attain. The author finally points it out that the primary prevention of BPDs should be designed and begin a program on a trial basis in a community soon because there are many empirical studies to show the mothers with BPD tend to be frightened by her baby and/or frighten her baby and this pattern of communication is the first epigenetic expression of BPDs.

  4. Are DSM-IV-TR borderline personality disorder, ICD-10 emotionally unstable personality disorder, and CCMD-III impulsive personality disorder analogous diagnostic categories across psychiatric nomenclatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching Man; Leung, Freedom; You, Jianing; Cheung, Fanny

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the validity of the borderline construct which encompasses diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), ICD-10 Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD), and CCMD-III Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD) in a sample of 1,419 Chinese psychiatric patients. Participants completed the Chinese Personality Disorder Inventory and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 assessing various disordered personality features. Adequate internal consistency was found for the borderline construct (α = .83). Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: (1) affective and cognitive disturbances, and (2) impulse dysregulation, which were replicated by confirmatory factor analysis. Item analysis indicated that the various borderline criteria displayed similar levels of diagnostic efficiency, which does not support the elimination of fear of abandonment and transient psychotic features from the EUPD and IPD criteria set. Findings of this study suggest that BPD, EUPD, and IPD may represent analogous diagnostic categories across classification systems.

  5. Borderline personality disorder and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Slepecky, Milos; Kotianova, Antonia; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Zatkova, Marta; Kasalova, Petra; Kamaradova, Dana

    2017-08-05

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition with a chronic and challenging course. BPD is reflected as a disorder of self-regulation" and is associated with both psychological vulnerabilities and social relations that fail to support basic emotional needs. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BPD patients and their families. A computerized search of the literature printed between January 1990 and May 2017 was conducted in PubMed, and additional papers were extracted using keywords "borderline personality disorder,"needs," "pharmacotherapy," "psychotherapy," "CBT," and "family" in various combinations. According to the eligibility criteria, 57 articles were chosen. Secondary articles from the reference lists of primarily identified papers have been selected for the eligibility and added to the first list (N=151). The results were divided into three categories: the needs connected with (1) the symptom control; (2) the treatment; (3) the quality of life. The needs connected with symptoms were described issues such as emotional needs, social interactions, self-harm, parasuicide, suicidality, comorbidity, mentalization, identity disturbance, moreover, barriers to treatment. The needs connected with the treatment described are focused on needs for early diagnosis, early intervention, holding environment, therapeutic relation, assertive community treatment, destigmatization, hospitalization, and primary care. The needs connected with the quality of life involve family needs, physical health, spiritual needs, advocacy needs, and needs for the separation-individuation. The part focused on implications for the treatment presented several treatment approaches, focusing mostly on the their basics and efficacy. Observing the patients' needs may be essential to the treatment of the individuals suffering from BPD. However, many needs remain unmet in the areas linked to medical, personal, and social

  6. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  7. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  8. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkiewicz, Kamila; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryńska, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  9. Mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the nineties last century personality disorders could not be diagnosed before the age of eighteen. Nevertheless, the results of studies published in the last decade have revealed that personality disorders can be observed in children and adolescents and that personality disorders diagnosed in adult patients had been present as early as in childhood. The knowledge of possible mechanisms shaping personality disorders in childhood is unsatisfactory and needs to be expanded. Developmental psychology explains the development of abnormal personality through inappropriate attachment patterns and abnormal transitions between developmental phases. Genetic and temperamental factors are also important in the aetiology of personality disorders as well as early maladaptive schemas resulting from personal experiences and interactions with others. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge on the mechanisms shaping the development of personality and personality disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  10. Recent advances in understanding physical health problems in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Conkey, Lindsey C; Whalen, Diana J

    2017-09-12

    Personality disorders are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, contributing to the high healthcare utilization seen in patients with these disorders. A growing literature supports a robust association of personality disorders and health problems. The primary aim of this article is to summarize the most recent research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. Extending past reviews, we discuss the association of personality disorders with chronic physical illnesses, sleep disturbances, pain conditions, and obesity. We provide recommendations for future research in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Child abuse as an antecedent of multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, L C

    1990-11-01

    Until recently, few cases of multiple personality disorder were diagnosed in children. Today, the number of cases is increasing at an alarming rate and appears to be most closely associated with repeated sexual and physical abuse. This paper focuses on reports of childhood multiple personality disorder in the literature, the etiology of this disorder, family dynamics, the differences between childhood and adult multiple personality disorder, credibility problems in children, reasons for failure to diagnose multiple personality disorder in children, treatment, and signs and symptoms to look for in the clinical setting.

  12. Shame in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kathrin; Vater, Aline; Rüsch, Nicolas; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Schütz, Astrid; Fydrich, Thomas; Lammers, Claas-Hinrich; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-02-28

    Shame has been described as a central emotion in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). However, there is a dearth of empirical data on shame in NPD. Patients with NPD (N=28), non-clinical controls (N=34) and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD, N=31) completed self-report measures of state shame, shame-proneness, and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) was included as a measure of implicit shame, assessing implicit shame-self associations relative to anxiety-self associations. Participants with NPD reported higher levels of explicit shame than non-clinical controls, but lower levels than patients with BPD. Levels of guilt-proneness did not differ among the three study groups. The implicit shame-self associations (relative to anxiety-self associations) were significantly stronger among patients with NPD compared to nonclinical controls and BPD patients. Our findings indicate that shame is a prominent feature of NPD. Implications for diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  13. THE OFFENDER PERSONALITY DISORDER PATHWAY: RISKING REHABILITATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Following over a decade of treatment refusal by 'risky' offenders preventively detained in Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder hospital and prison units, the coalition government now aims to improve treatment engagement in high secure prisons by clarifying pathways out of detention. This article asks whether the reconfiguration will end reliance upon preventive detention for public protection. Drawing on original empirical data collected by the author, it is argued that the government is unaware that offenders with 'severe personality disorder' appear to engage with treatment only if it increases their chances of achieving expedited parole. Hitherto, this incentive was provided by the Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection; its replacement with determinate sentences under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 will worsen treatment engagement, because they provide offenders with a prison release date. The troubling result may be increased reliance by the Secretary of State for Justice on his inherent jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 to transfer offenders due for prison release to secure psychiatric hospitals. To counter this limitation of risk-focused decision-making, it is proposed that judges be able to impose a new hybrid order combining a custodial term with a subsequent community mental health treatment requirement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Personality Profile of Women Affected with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hamid; Abedi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Ameli, Sedigheh Sadr; Samouei, Rahele

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of the present study is to review the psychological profile of female patients with borderline personality disorder in the women referring to the Centers of Counseling and Psychological Services at Isfahan city based on MMPI-2 test and comparing them with ordinary women. Method: The present study is of the type of cause-comparative and the selection of examinees was done in form of random sampling with 50 women with the BPD and 50 ordinary women and through confirmation of test recognition of MCMI-III and clinical interviews. In addition, 370 questions of MMPI-2 have also been implemented. Results: The results of this research showed a significant difference in validity of scales and the clinical scales of MMPI-2 test among women with BPD and regular women. The results of MANOVA test with the power of valuable test confirmed the existing differences. Conclusion: The obtained results shows that female patients with BPD has a specific and different psychological profile as compared with ordinary (regular) women and the obtained profile can be used in recognition and forecasting any disorder. PMID:23687463

  15. Histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder: sex-differentiated manifestations of psychopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Ellison M; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the etiology of histrionic personality disorder (HPD) or its relation to other personality disorders. In this study, we examined whether HPD is etiologically related to psychopathy and more specifically whether HPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are sex-typed alternative manifestations of psychopathy. In addition, based on Newman's (1987) response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy, we examined the associations between psychopathic, HPD, and ASPD features and performance on laboratory measures of passive avoidance errors and interference effects. Seventy-five live theater actors completed self-report questionnaires and two laboratory measures of response modulation, and peers completed questionnaires concerning the participants' personality disorder features. The results provided weak and inconsistent support for the hypotheses that HPD is a female-typed variant of psychopathy and that ASPD is a male-typed variant of psychopathy. Contrary to previous findings, scores on response modulation tasks were not significantly related to psychopathy, or to either HPD or ASPD. The limitations of this study and possibilities for future research in this area are outlined.

  16. Personality disorders and social functioning in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, S; Dekker, J; Duijsens, [No Value; de Jonghe, F; de Jong, P; Schouws, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a high level of comorbidity of personality disorders with major depression. Patients who suffer from both depression and an axis II disorder are, in general, more severely ill and ill for longer periods. The presence of personality disorders also has a negative influence on the social funct

  17. Personality disorders and social functioning in depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, S; Dekker, J; Duijsens, [No Value; de Jonghe, F; de Jong, P; Schouws, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a high level of comorbidity of personality disorders with major depression. Patients who suffer from both depression and an axis II disorder are, in general, more severely ill and ill for longer periods. The presence of personality disorders also has a negative influence on the social

  18. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  19. Clinical importance of personality difficulties: diagnostically sub-threshold personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karukivi, Max; Vahlberg, Tero; Horjamo, Kalle; Nevalainen, Minna; Korkeila, Jyrki

    2017-01-14

    Current categorical classification of personality disorders has been criticized for overlooking the dimensional nature of personality and that it may miss some sub-threshold personality disturbances of clinical significance. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of these conditions. For this, we used a simple four-level dimensional categorization based on the severity of personality disturbance. The sample consisted of 352 patients admitted to mental health services. All underwent diagnostic assessments (SCID-I and SCID-II) and filled in questionnaires concerning their social situation and childhood adversities, and other validated tools, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), health-related quality of life (15D), and the five-item Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The patients were categorized into four groups according to the level of personality disturbance: 0 = No personality disturbance, 1 = Personality difficulty (one criterion less than threshold for one or more personality disorders), 2 = Simple personality disorder (one personality disorder), and 3 = Complex/Severe personality disorder (two or more personality disorders or any borderline and antisocial personality disorder). The proportions of the groups were as follows: no personality disturbance 38.4% (n = 135), personality difficulty 14.5% (n = 51), simple personality disorder 19.9% (n = 70), and complex/severe personality disorder 24.4% (n = 86). Patients with no personality disturbance were significantly differentiated (p personality disorders stood out as being worst off. Social dysfunction was related to the severity of the personality disturbance. Patients with a personality difficulty or a simple personality disorder had prominent symptoms and difficulties, but the differences between these groups were mostly non-significant. An elevated severity level of personality disturbance is associated with an

  20. Dissociation in hypnosis and multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, K S

    1991-07-01

    The first part of this paper examines the concept of dissociation in the context of hypnosis. In particular, the neodissociative and social psychological models of hypnosis are compared. It is argued that the social psychological model, in describing hypnotic enactments as purposeful, does not adequately distinguish between behavior that is enacted "on purpose" and behavior that serves or achieves a purpose. 2 recent dissertations (Hughes, 1988; Miller, 1986) from the University of Waterloo are summarized, each of which supports the neodissociative view that hypnotic behavior can be purposeful (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is achieved) and nonvolitional (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is not achieved by high level executive initiative and ongoing effort). The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD). In particular, it is argued that many symptoms of MPD are implicitly suggested effects--particularly prone to occur in persons who have a lifelong tendency to use dissociative type defenses. The present author believes that this account is easier to sustain conceptually and empirically than the current view, which states that a secondary (tertiary, etc.) personality accounts for the striking phenomenological discontinuities experienced by MPD patients.

  1. Case study: Malingering or multiple personality disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba García-Cortés

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dissociative identity disorder (DID can be considered a rare disorder because of its seemingly low prevalence. However, in recent years it points to the possible underdiagnosis because its complexity and confusion at the time of differential diagnosis. On the other hand, the malingering of mental psychopathology can have a major socio-economic and legal impact, particularly important in this type of disorder, given the inability it generates and its complex diagnostic. This paper refers the case of a patient admitted to the short-term hospitalization unit of Dr. Rodríguez Lafora Hospital (Madrid with depressive symptoms. Then the patient seemed to become a TID case. The evaluation consisted of a psychological history and the application of the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptoms (SIMS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II. The results showed an altered personality profile as well as likely malingered symptoms, what prevented us from a DID diagnosis. In view of the results, possible implications of this case for the clinical setting are discussed.

  2. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD, Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD and Dependent personality disorder (DPD and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00. Also the result showed that there are no statistically significant relationship between Paranoid personality disorder(PDD, Schizoid personality disorder(SPD, Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD, Histrionic personality disorder(HPD, Narsistic personality disorder(NPD and Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder (OCPD, The Regression and Prediction Coefficient (stepwise was also used and showed that the Dependent personality disorder, Borderline personality disorder and Antisocial personality disorder predicts substance abuse relapses.

  3. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  4. Personality Pathology of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder without Accompanying Intellectual Impairment in Comparison to Adults with Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Westphal, Linda; Ritter, Kathrin; Heuser, Isabella; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) without accompanying intellectual impairment from personality disorders is often challenging. Identifying personality traits and personality pathology specific to ASD might facilitate diagnostic procedure. We recruited a sample of 59 adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual impairment, 62…

  5. Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliewe Sanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools for training professionals in rating personality disorders are few. We present one such tool: rating of fictional persons. However, before ratings of fictional persons can be useful, we need to know whether raters get the same results, when rating fictional characters. Method Psychology students at the University of Copenhagen (N = 8 rated four different movie characters from four movies based on three systems: Global rating scales representing each of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-IV, a criterion list of all criteria for all DSM-IV personality disorders in random order, and the Ten Item Personality Inventory for rating the five-factor model. Agreement was estimated based on intraclass-correlation. Results Agreement for rating scales for personality disorders ranged from 0.04 to 0.54. For personality disorder features based on DSM-IV criteria, agreement ranged from 0.24 to 0.89, and agreement for the five-factor model ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The largest multivariate effect was observed for criteria count followed by the TIPI, followed by rating scales. Raters experienced personality disorder criteria as the easiest, and global personality disorder scales as the most difficult, but with significant variation between movies. Conclusion Psychology students with limited or no clinical experience can agree well on the personality traits of movie characters based on watching the movie. Rating movie characters may be a way to practice assessment of personality.

  6. Deriving ICD-11 personality disorder domains from DSM-5 traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The personality disorder domains proposed for the ICD-11 comprise Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia, which are reasonably concordant with the higher-order trait domains in the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders. METHOD: We...... in the proposed ICD-11 five-domain structure as well as other recognizable higher-order models of personality and psychopathology. Model fits revealed that the five proposed ICD-11 personality disorder domains were satisfactorily resembled, and replicated in the independent US sample. CONCLUSION: The proposed ICD......-11 personality disorder domains can be accurately described using designated traits from the DSM-5 personality trait system. A scoring algorithm for the ICD-11 personality disorder domains is provided in appendix....

  7. [The assessment of nutritional knowledge of persons with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnewicz-Kamińska, Aleksandra; Gronowska-Senger, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to examine the level of nutritional knowledge of persons with eating disorders. The study was performed in the group of 60 persons (30 persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and 30 persons with diagnosis bulimia nervosa) and 60 controls. We found that ill persons possess the higher level of nutritional knowledge than person from the control group, yet the average of correct answers amounted to 51%. Our results point to the necessity of nutritional education in persons with eating disorders.

  8. Psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H

    2013-06-01

    The best available evidence for psychopharmacologic treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is outlined here. BPD is defined by disturbances in identity and interpersonal functioning, and patients report potential medication treatment targets such as impulsivity, aggression, transient psychotic and dissociative symptoms, and refractory affective instability Few randomized controlled trials of psychopharmacological treatments for BPD have been published recently, although multiple reviews have converged on the effectiveness of specific anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotic agents, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Stronger evidence exists for medication providing significant improvements in impulsive aggression than in affective or other interpersonal symptoms. Future research strategies will focus on the potential role of neuropeptide agents and medications with greater specificity for 2A serotonin receptors, as well as optimizing concomitant implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy and psychopharmacology, in order to improve BPD patients' overall functioning.

  9. Hypersensitivity in borderline personality disorder during mindreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the core symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD is the instability in interpersonal relationships. This might be related to existent differences in mindreading between BPD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We examined the behavioural and neurophysiological (fMRI responses of BPD patients and healthy controls (HC during performance of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET. RESULTS: Mental state discrimination was significantly better and faster for affective eye gazes in BPD patients than in HC. At the neurophysiological level, this was manifested in a stronger activation of the amygdala and greater activity of the medial frontal gyrus, the left temporal pole and the middle temporal gyrus during affective eye gazes. In contrast, HC subjects showed a greater activation in the insula and the superior temporal gyri. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BPD patients are highly vigilant to social stimuli, maybe because they resonate intuitively with mental states of others.

  10. Social interaction in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Stefanie; Bohus, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Studies on natural long-term course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well as on treatment outcome suggest that social integration remains seriously unsatisfactory in the majority of the subjects concerned. Identification of typical borderline problems in social interaction should facilitate both, treatment development and elucidation of the related neuropsychological mechanisms and underpinnings. This review focuses on the experimental investigation of three core domains of social interaction: social affiliation, cooperation and hostility. Data converge, that patients meeting criteria for BPD show a tendency to misinterpret neutral situations, feel socially rejected during normative inclusion conditions and reveal difficulties in repairing cooperation after experiencing disappointment. While from a clinical perspective, most attention has been focused on relationships of BPD patients with their significant others, the literature suggests that encounters with unknown individuals also indicate impairments in interaction behavior, and that such impairments can be linked to altered cerebral processing. Considering these findings psychosocial treatments should extend the programs and develop trainings in normative behavior.

  11. Alliance building and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Building a therapeutic alliance with a patient with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder is a challenging process. A combined alliance building and diagnostic strategy is outlined that promotes patients' motivation and active engagement in identifying their own problems. The main focus is on identifying grandiosity, self-regulatory patterns, and behavioral fluctuations in their social and interpersonal contexts while engaging the patient in meaningful clarifications and collaborative inquiry. A definition of grandiosity as a diagnostic characterological trait is suggested, one that captures self-criticism, inferiority, and fragility in addition to superiority, assertiveness, perfectionism, high ideals, and self-enhancing and self-serving interpersonal behavior. These reformulations serve to expand the spectrum of grandiosity-promoting strivings and activities, capture their fluctuations, and help clinicians attend to narcissistic individuals' internal experiences and motivation as well as to their external presentation and interpersonal self-enhancing, self-serving, controlling, and aggressive behavior. A case example illustrates this process.

  12. Computational Psychiatry in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Sarah K; Stahl, Dylan; Corlett, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification. Methods that test learning and memory in social contexts, collect data from real-world settings, and relate behavior to molecular and circuit networks are yielding data of particular interest. Research in BPD should focus on collaborative efforts to design and interpret experiments with direct relevance to core BPD symptoms and potential for translation to the clinic.

  13. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  14. Schizoid personality disorder linked to unbearable and inescapable loneliness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martens, Willem H.J

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: More insight is needed into the link between loneliness and schizoid personality disorder in order to construct more adequate diagnostic tools and therapeutic programs. Methods...

  15. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis...... impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substance abuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients...... with co-morbid personality disorders and substance abuse....

  16. Admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbui Corrado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders affect a substantial proportion of the population. It is unclear, however, whether the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. To fill this gap, we analyzed trends in admissions for personality disorders in Italy from 1988 to 1998. Methods We used the yearly data from the Italian Central Institute of Statistics to analyse trends in the total number of admissions for personality disorders and in the total number of first admissions for personality disorders. Results The absolute number of admissions for personality disorders almost trebled from 1988 to 1998, as well as the proportion of all psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders. Whilst there has been a marked increase in the absolute number of first admissions, the proportion of all first psychiatric admissions that were for personality disorders showed a steady but modest increase, from 5.7% to 7.6%. Conclusion In Italy, the burden of personality disorders on modern mental health services has been increasing. In terms of public health, these findings highlight the urgent need of developing policies to tackle the increasing demand of care of this difficult-to-treat patient population.

  17. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  18. MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER FOLLOWING CONVERSION AND DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER NOS : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jhingan, Harsh Prem; Aggarwal, Neeruj; Saxena, Shekhar; Gupta, Dhanesh K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Multiple personality disorder following conversion and dissociative disorder nos : a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, H P; Aggarwal, N; Saxena, S; Gupta, D K

    2000-01-01

    A case progressing from symptoms of conversion disorder to dissociative disorder and then to multiple personality disorder as per DSM-III-R criteria is being reported. The clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Personality disorders as maladaptive, extreme variants of normal personality: borderline personality disorder and neuroticism in a substance using sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2013-10-01

    Although the current diagnostic manual conceptualizes personality disorders (PDs) as categorical entities, an alternative perspective is that PDs represent maladaptive extreme versions of the same traits that describe normal personality. Existing evidence indicates that normal personality traits, such as those assessed by the five-factor model (FFM), share a common structure and obtain reasonably predictable correlations with the PDs. However, very little research has investigated whether PDs are more extreme than normal personality traits. Utilizing item-response theory analyses, the authors of the current study extend previous research to demonstrate that the diagnostic criterion for borderline personality disorder and FFM neuroticism could be fit along a single latent dimension. Furthermore, the authors' findings indicate that the borderline criteria assessed the shared latent trait at a level that was more extreme (d = 1.11) than FFM neuroticism. This finding provides further evidence for dimensional understanding of personality pathology and suggests that a trait model in DSM-5 should span normal and abnormal personality functioning, but focus on the extremes of these common traits.

  1. Associations linking parenting styles and offspring personality disorder are moderated by parental personality disorder, evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui Green; Huang, Yueqin; Liu, Zhaorui; Liu, Baohua

    2011-08-30

    The aim of the study is to examine the association linking parenting and personality disorder controlling for parental personality disorder, and whether this association is moderated by parental PD. Data were from community-dwelling high school students aged 18 and above and their parents living in Beijing, China. A total of 181 cases and 2,605 controls were included in this study. Personality disorder in students was assessed via a two-stage approach, Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire as a screening tool and International Personality Disorder Examination as the diagnostic tool. Information about parenting was collected from students using Egna Minnen av. Betraffande Uppfostran. Negative parenting styles, e.g. rejective or over-protective parenting, were found to be associated with the occurrence of personality disorder. Conflictive parenting styles were also found to be associated with personality disorder. Generally stronger associations were found for students with parental personality disorder as compared to students without parental personality disorder. Findings from this study support the role of parenting in the occurrence of PD, especially for children with family history of personality disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Case report of a person with Down's syndrome and multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, J B; Thompson, F

    1994-03-01

    A case is presented of an individual with Down's syndrome and multiple personality disorder. No such cases were found in a review of the literature. Three other individuals with Down's syndrome are also discussed whose symptoms range from experiencing imaginary friends to experiencing borderline multiple personality disorder. In all these cases the imaginary friends became more evident and resistive of diversion as the levels of stress increased. We speculate that experiencing imaginary friends progresses to experiencing multiple personality disorder in some individuals as personal stress increases. These cases also indicate that limited cognitive development does not preclude individuals from presenting with imaginary friends or multiple personality disorder.

  3. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Modica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders according to the two models of DSM-5 is reported. The first model is included in the Section II of DSM-5; while in the Section III there exists a proposal for a so-called alternate model. The first one suggests a qualitative or categorical kind of approach to personality disorders, whereas the alternate model proposes a dimensional or quantitative kind of approach and aims to formulate, as well as a diagnosis for general alterations of the personological functioning, even a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, which can be formulated when a personality disorder is there but doesn't fit criteria for a specific disorder. Ultimately, it can be so claimed: 1 diagnostic criteria of the first model are similar to those of DSM-IV with its respective strenghts and weaknesses, and namely high probability in diagnosis, where  there, of personality disorder, yet insufficient sensitivity in the specification of the disorder; 2 the alternate model, despite criticism, thanks to the possibility of delivering a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, seems to be more equipped both in the identification of the personality disorder and further specifications.

  4. The Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO: Construction and preleminary research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of the self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO, which was constructed on the basis of DSM-IV classification for personality disorders(American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Beck's theory of dysfunctional cognitive schemas (Beck in Freeman, 1990 and psychoanalytic theories of basic personality structures. We focused on the basic experiencing of self and others, which is characteristic of specific personality type. In regard to these theories we believe that personality disorder is a broader term; the disorders within it are not limited to existing DSM-IV axis II categories. The personality disorders are complex phenomenon, which are better described on dimensional then categorical scales as well. The questionnaire consists of 213 items, which correspond to 12 clinical scales (for histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, avoidant, dependent, depressive, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders and a lie scale. According to the personality organization theory (Kernberg, 1986 and other psychoanalytic theories it is divided into four parts: for neurotic (histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive and avoidant disorders, depressive (dependent and depressive disorders, borderline (narcissistic, borderline and antisocial disorders and psychotic disorders (paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders. The questionnaire was administered to 415 adult psychiatric patients and 215 health persons of both sexes. They were compared according to the responses of the questionnaire. The internal reliability of scales is sufficient, but correlation between scales is quite strong. The validity was tested with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4, Hyler, 1994 and through comparing of the results of healthy individuals and psychiatric patients with different diagnosis. The results are generally in accordance with the

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder: Why 'fast and furious'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin

    2016-02-28

    The term 'Borderline Personality Disorder' (BPD) refers to a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, irritability, feelings of emptiness, self-injury and fear of abandonment, as well as unstable interpersonal relationships. BPD is not only common in psychiatric populations but also more prevalent in the general community than previously thought, and thus represents an important public health issue. In contrast to most psychiatric disorders, some symptoms associated with BPD may improve over time, even without therapy, though impaired social functioning and interpersonal disturbances in close relationships often persist. Another counterintuitive and insufficiently resolved question is why depressive symptoms and risk-taking behaviors can occur simultaneously in the same individual. Moreover, there is an ongoing debate about the nosological position of BPD, which impacts on research regarding sex differences in clinical presentation and patterns of comorbidity.In this review, it is argued that many features of BPD may be conceptualized within an evolutionary framework, namely behavioral ecology. According to Life History Theory, BPD reflects a pathological extreme or distortion of a behavioral 'strategy' which unconsciously aims at immediate exploitation of resources, both interpersonal and material, based on predictions shaped by early developmental experiences. Such a view is consistent with standard medical conceptualizations of BPD, but goes beyond classic 'deficit'-oriented models, which may have profound implications for therapeutic approaches.

  6. Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Pedone, Roberto; Popolo, Raffaele; Conti, Laura; Fiore, Donatella; Procacci, Michele; Semerari, Antonio; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-30

    Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.

  7. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. Methods We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Meas...

  8. Borderline personality disorder and aesthetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Daichi; Ohkubo, Fumio

    2014-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common axis II disorder associated with a high risk of impulsivity and self-injury. Several authors have suggested that individuals with BPD are poor candidates for plastic surgery. Recent changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for BPD may be confusing to surgeons. This article reviews the literature on BPD and discusses how important it is to recognize this condition and how difficult it is to treat patients, highlighting features and signs of this condition in plastic surgery settings. Illustrative case examples from our experience are also described. Our careful search of the literature revealed that individuals with BPD may seek treatment from plastic surgeons in two different patterns: as treatment for self-injury or as insatiable requests for aesthetic procedures. Individuals with BPD tend to request corrections of multiple body parts to avoid abandonment by the surgeon or due to their impulsivity, but such preoccupation with appearance is less profound and shifts from one body part to another over time. While flexible and individualized psychological approaches are required to minimize the patient's impulsivity and abandonment fears, surgeons should be inflexible to any unrealistic requests. It is best to avoid surgery on patients with BPD. Surgeons should be aware of the nuances of this condition so as not to miss the proper timing for a psychiatric referral. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  9. A synopsis of the WPA Educational Program on Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Ronningstam, Elsa; Millon, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    florid and distinct forms of psychopathology. Personality disorders affect at least 10% of the population, and the direct and indirect social costs associated with crime, substance abuse, increased need for medical care, family disruption, delayed recovery from clinical syndromes and medical diseases......This article describes the headlines of the Educational Program on Personality Disorders produced by the WPA Section on Personality Disorders and the International Society on the Study of Personality Disorders. Lifelong personality traits serve as a substrate and a context for understanding more...... is substantial. Numerous theories, models and methods have been proposed to describe and to understand personality and its disorders: descriptive, statistical, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, neurobiologic. Classification has either taken a prototypical or a polythetic approach, but in recent years dimensional...

  10. [Etiological and therapeutic aspects of schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, H; Jünemann, K

    2001-09-01

    Following the introduction to the history of the concepts of abnormal personality, with regard to the schizoid and schizotypal forms, we present their systematic assessment in the modern classification systems.Both, the schizoid and schizotypal forms, are usually considered as schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Biological and clinical data indicate relations to other axis-I disorders as well. However there are few systematic and strictly controlled studies on the psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment of schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. Basic theoretic assumptions concerning both treatment concepts - for personality disorders in general, and especially in schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder - are given. Finally the role of neuroleptics and antidepressants for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is discussed. New possibilities may emerge from the use of the recently developed atypical drugs, but further research in randomised studies is needed. Current prospective studies on early detected schizophrenia-spectrum disorders will broaden our knowledge about prevention and therapy.

  11. Substance abusers' personality disorders and staff members' emotional reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substance abusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis......Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from...... was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant...

  12. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  13. A parallel process growth model of avoidant personality disorder symptoms and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Pincus, Aaron L; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD), like other personality disorders, has historically been construed as a highly stable disorder. However, results from a number of longitudinal studies have found that the symptoms of AVPD demonstrate marked change over time. Little is known about which other psychological systems are related to this change. Although cross-sectional research suggests a strong relationship between AVPD and personality traits, no work has examined the relationship of their change trajectories. The current study sought to establish the longitudinal relationship between AVPD and basic personality traits using parallel process growth curve modeling. Parallel process growth curve modeling was applied to the trajectories of AVPD and basic personality traits from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders (Lenzenweger, M. F., 2006, The longitudinal study of personality disorders: History, design considerations, and initial findings. Journal of Personality Disorders, 20, 645-670. doi:10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.645), a naturalistic, prospective, multiwave, longitudinal study of personality disorder, temperament, and normal personality. The focus of these analyses is on the relationship between the rates of change in both AVPD symptoms and basic personality traits. AVPD symptom trajectories demonstrated significant negative relationships with the trajectories of interpersonal dominance and affiliation, and a significant positive relationship to rates of change in neuroticism. These results provide some of the first compelling evidence that trajectories of change in PD symptoms and personality traits are linked. These results have important implications for the ways in which temporal stability is conceptualized in AVPD specifically, and PD in general.

  14. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains.

  15. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; Fruyt, Filip De

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  16. Understanding obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in adolescence: a dimensional personality perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the Axis II Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) category and its position within the Cluster C personality disorder (PDs) section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, APA, 2000) continues to be a source of much debate. The present study examines the associations between general and maladaptive personality traits and OCPD symptoms, prior to and after controlling for co-occurring PD variance, in a general population sample of 274 Fle...

  17. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, I...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  18. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  19. Personality disorder in childhood and adolescence comes of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey T; Chanen, Andrew M; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a narrative review of the mounting evidence base on personality disorder in childhood and adolescence. Topics covered include diagnostic validity, prevalence, developmental issues, comorbidity, risk and protective factors, and treatment. Novel indicated...... prevention and early intervention programs for borderline personality disorder in adolescence are given special priority. To conclude, directions for future research are provided....

  20. The social-cognitive basis of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The review summarizes recent results on abnormalities in social cognition in patients with personality disorders that predispose them to develop dysfunctional interaction with others. The review starts with more basic social cognition processes, such as emotion recognition and reactions to social exclusion that are followed by more complex processes such as cognitive and affective empathy. The deficits in social cognition depend on the particular function that is investigated and is strongly associated with characteristic symptoms of particular personality disorders. Thus, patients with borderline personality disorder are hypersensitive for social threat, they show deficits in cognitive empathy and high emotion contagion, that is, they share emotions of others without properly discriminating between one's own feelings and those of others. Psychopaths are characterized by deficiency in facial fear recognition and emotional empathy similar to patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Studies on social cognition in cluster A and C personality disorders are sparse. Research indicates deficits in social cognition in patients with personality disorders, but more research is needed to investigate social cognition in cluster A and C personality disorders and to compare deficits in social cognitive functions across personality disorders.

  1. Reflections on multiple personality disorder as a developmentally complex adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J G

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of multiple personality disorder provide the groundwork for its creative reconciliation with psychoanalysis. This paper uses psychoanalytic, modern developmental, and psychological assessment perspectives to conceptualize multiple personality disorder as a developmentally protective response to chronic childhood trauma. Implications of this theory for clinical work with these patients are discussed.

  2. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  3. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  4. Attachment Styles and Personality Disorders of A and B clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Khanjani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorder is one of the most important social and medical problems. Cause cognitive of personality disorders gradually oriented from almost exclusively focus on intrapersonal traits to greater emphasis on the influence of interpersonal variables [1]. Bowlby suggested that psychopathology appears due to

  5. Defense mechanisms in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Presniak, Michelle D; Olson, Trevor R

    2013-01-01

    Numerous authors have theorized that defense mechanisms play a role in personality disorders. We reviewed theoretical writings and empirical studies about defenses in schizotypal, borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders, developing hypotheses about these differential relationships. We then examined these hypotheses using dynamic interview data rated for defenses in a study of participants (n = 107) diagnosed with these four personality disorder types. Overall, the prevalence of immature defenses was substantial, and all four disorders fit within the broad borderline personality organization construct. Defenses predicted the most variance in borderline and the least variance in schizotypal personality disorder, suggesting that dynamic factors played the largest role in borderline and the least in schizotypal personality. Central to borderline personality were strong associations with major image-distorting defenses, primarily splitting of self and other's images, and the hysterical level defenses, dissociation and repression. Narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders shared minor image-distorting defenses, such as omnipotence or devaluation, while narcissistic also used splitting of self-images and antisocial used disavowal defenses like denial. Overall, differential relationships between specific defenses and personality disorder types were largely consistent with the literature, and consistent with the importance that the treatment literature ascribes to working with defenses.

  6. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  7. Enuresis as a premorbid developmental marker of schizophrenia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Iglesias, Bianca; Callicott, Joseph H.; Gold, James M.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Honea, Robyn A.; Bigelow, Llewellyn B.; Egan, Michael F.; Emsellem, Esther M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    There is comparatively little information about premorbid maturational brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ). We investigated whether a history of childhood enuresis, a well-established marker of neurodevelopmental delay, is associated with SCZ and with measures of brain abnormalities also associated with SCZ. A Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) based history of enuresis, volumetric brain MRI scans and neuropsychological testing were obtained in patients with SCZ, their non-psychotic siblings (SIB) and non-psychiatric controls (NC). The subjects were 211 patients (79.6% male), 234 of their SIB (43.2% male) and 355 controls (39.2% male). Frequency of enuresis was compared across groups and correlated with cognitive measures. Total and regional brain volumes were determined using voxel-based morphometry on matched subsets of probands (n = 82) with or without enuresis (n = 16, n = 66, respectively) and controls (n = 102) with or without enuresis (n = 11, n = 91, respectively). Patients with SCZ had higher rates of childhood enuresis (21%) compared with SIB (11%; χ2 = 6.42, P = 0.01) or controls (7%; χ2 = 23.65, P 3.57, all P < 0.001). The high frequency of childhood enuresis associated with SCZ and abnormalities in prefrontal function and structure in patients with a childhood history of enuresis suggest that childhood enuresis may be a premorbid marker for neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to SCZ. These findings add to the evidence implicating prefrontal dysmaturation in this disorder, potentially related to genetic risk factors. PMID:18669483

  8. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Ghaderi.; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...

  9. Coprophagia in a patient with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human coprophagia is a rare phenomenon with severe medical and social consequences. So far, coprophagia has mainly been associated with severe mental retardation, schizophrenia, dementia, and depression. We report a case of coprophagia in a 30-year-old woman with Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV. This case report illustrates the severity of symptoms and maladaptive social consequences of severe personality disorders, comparable to those of patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacological interventions and, particularly intensive psychotherapy might be effective for patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder displaying severe behavior disorders. The treatment of choice for coprophagia is aversive behavioral intervention.

  10. The prevalence of cyclothymia in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, A J; Joffe, R T; Ennis, J; MacDonald, C; Kutcher, S P

    1990-08-01

    Sixty patients with personality disorders were evaluated by several different diagnostic instruments to determine the prevalence of cyclothymia in borderline personality disorder (BPD) and in other personality disorders (OPD). Cyclothymia occurred more frequently in BPD than in OPD, regardless of which diagnostic system was used. In contrast, the prevalence of major, minor, and intermittent depression, hypomania, and bipolar disorder was not significantly different in BPD as compared with OPD. Cyclothymic borderlines and noncyclothymic borderlines could not be distinguished on behavioral or functional measures. These results have implications for the diagnostic validity of both BPD and cyclothymia.

  11. [Hysteria I. Histrionic personality disorder. A psychotherapeutic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulz, S

    2010-07-01

    What is left of Freud's hysteria in modern diagnostics is the histrionic personality. Psychological and somatic functional disorders, such as dissociative and somatoform disorders are freed from the label of being hysterical, but even the histrionic personality disorder does not enjoy professional agreement as far as diagnostics and therapy are concerned. This disorder is characterized by dramatization, suggestibility, superficial changing affects, impressionist cognitive style, preoccupation with outward appearance, seductive behavior and the wish to take centre stage, a compensatory attitude resulting from important childhood relationships. A comorbidity with narcissistic and antisocial personality exists and also with ADHS.

  12. Prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mazaheri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders among female prisoners of Zahedan prison. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive survey and the statistical sample constituted of 80 female prisoners in Zahedan prison. All participants were assessed by Millon’s multi-axis clinical questionnaire. Results: Our results indicated that prevalence of personality disorders in the study sample in question was 95%. Anti-social personality disorder with about 86.2% prevalence was the most common disorder. Drug-dependence and sadistic-aggressive personality with 60% and 56.2% prevalence, respectively, were in next places.Conclusion: The findings show that the statistical society in question represents high prevalence of personality disorders. This illustrates the need for broader investigations, preventive measures, and mental health-related cares

  13. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection.

  14. Social feedback processing in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, C W; La Rosée, L; Heekeren, H R; Roepke, S

    2016-02-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show negative and unstable self- and other-evaluations compared to healthy individuals. It is unclear, however, how they process self- and other-relevant social feedback. We have previously demonstrated a positive updating bias in healthy individuals: When receiving social feedback on character traits, healthy individuals integrate desirable more than undesirable feedback. Here, our aim was to test whether BPD patients exhibit a more negative pattern of social feedback processing. We employed a character trait task in which BPD patients interacted with four healthy participants in a real-life social interaction. Afterwards, all participants rated themselves and one other participant on 80 character traits before and after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. We compared how participants updated their ratings after receiving desirable and undesirable feedback. Our analyses included 22 BPD patients and 81 healthy controls. Healthy controls showed a positivity bias for self- and other-relevant feedback as previously demonstrated. Importantly, this pattern was altered in BPD patients: They integrated undesirable feedback for themselves to a greater degree than healthy controls did. Other-relevant feedback processing was unaltered in BPD patients. Our study demonstrates an alteration in self-relevant feedback processing in BPD patients that might contribute to unstable and negative self-evaluations.

  15. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eRoepke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent, the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010. A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions, the deficits in attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention.

  16. Social judgement in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common and serious mental illness, associated with a high risk of suicide and self harm. Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces. METHOD: 20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness. The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms were recorded for analysis. RESULTS: Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgements from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making appropriate social judgements about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.

  17. Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the specificity of schema domains in three personality disorder (PD) groups, namely borderline (BPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), and avoidant PD (AvPD), and to correctly identify the three PD groups on the basis of these schemas. The sample consisted of 48 clinical participants diagnosed with PDs and assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of their Axis II diagnoses (BPD: n = 13; OCPD: n = 13; AvPD: n = 22). High scores on Dependence/Incompetence, Defectiveness/ Shame and Abandonment were found for the BPD group. Such pattern appears to be most consistent with Young's theory of BPD. Consistent with the theory and empirical findings of Beck et al. (1990, 2001), OCPD was associated with elevations on the Unrelenting Standards schema domain, but not on Emotional Inhibition, which was found to be elevated for AvPD. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there are different patterns of schema domains across different PDs and that the Schema Questionnaire (SQ) is potentially useful in differentiating between these PDs.

  18. Assessment of Personality Problems among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

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    Lien Ingebjørg Aspeland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Several studies have shown that personality disorders (PDs are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. A development from research of co-occurrence estimates in this patient group investigates personality problems as dimensional constructs, which seek to capture the core of personality pathology. The aim of our study was to explore whether personality problems might be assessed among SUD patients in early stages of treatment. We also sought to investigate personality problem severity among Norwegian adult SUD patients.

  19. [Dispute over the multiple personality disorder: theoretical or practical dilemma?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Sylwia; Golczyńska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) could also be referred to as multiple personality disorder (MPD). Due to rare occurrence and difficulty in its' identification it is infrequently diagnosed in Poland. The indicated disorder has been portrayed by the authors throughout the historical context, referring to initial 18th century's references concerning dissociation. A typical dissociatively disordered person has been characterized along with his individual personality categories such as: original personality, altered personality, host and personality fragment. Moreover various diagnosis criterions of DID have been introduced. DID has also been differentiated with other disorders: PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and BPD (borderline personality disorder). A hypothesis has been set up, stating that DID is directly correlated with the trauma experienced during childhood, while PTSD is linked with traumatic lived-through events in the later period of ones' life. The most contemporary and frequently used research tools for DID have been indicated: dissociative experience scale (DES) and somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-20). Based upon the known literature, the authors have presented treatment methods such as hypnotherapy and recorded therapy sessions. It is the view of the authors that the switching in dissociative identity disorder is of adaptive character (it occurrs depending upon adaptive needs).

  20. [Minimal emotional dysfunction and first impression formation in personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Vilain, M

    2011-01-01

    "Minimal cerebral dysfunctions" are isolated impairments of basic mental functions, which are elements of complex functions like speech. The best described are cognitive dysfunctions such as reading and writing problems, dyscalculia, attention deficits, but also motor dysfunctions such as problems with articulation, hyperactivity or impulsivity. Personality disorders can be characterized by isolated emotional dysfunctions in relation to emotional adequacy, intensity and responsivity. For example, paranoid personality disorders can be characterized by continuous and inadequate distrust, as a disorder of emotional adequacy. Schizoid personality disorders can be characterized by low expressive emotionality, as a disorder of effect intensity, or dissocial personality disorders can be characterized by emotional non-responsivity. Minimal emotional dysfunctions cause interactional misunderstandings because of the psychology of "first impression formation". Studies have shown that in 100 ms persons build up complex and lasting emotional judgements about other persons. Therefore, minimal emotional dysfunctions result in interactional problems and adjustment disorders and in corresponding cognitive schemata.From the concept of minimal emotional dysfunctions specific psychotherapeutic interventions in respect to the patient-therapist relationship, the diagnostic process, the clarification of emotions and reality testing, and especially an understanding of personality disorders as impairment and "selection, optimization, and compensation" as a way of coping can be derived.

  1. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two tre

  2. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two tre

  3. The therapeutic alliance in the treatment of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Donna S

    2005-03-01

    Because personality disorders are associated with significant impairment in interpersonal relationships, special issues and problems arise in the formation of a therapeutic alliance in the treatment of patients with these disorders. In particular, patients with narcissistic, borderline, and paranoid personality traits are likely to have troubled interpersonal attitudes and behaviors that will complicate the patient's engagement with the therapist. While a strong positive therapeutic alliance is predictive of more successful treatment outcomes, strains and ruptures in the alliance may lead to premature termination of treatment. Therefore, clinicians need to consider the patient's characteristic way of relating in order to select appropriate interventions to effectively retain and involve the patient in treatment. Research has shown not only the importance of building an alliance but also that this alliance is vital in the earliest phase of treatment. The author first reviews several definitions of the therapeutic alliance with reference to how they apply to the treatment of patients with personality disorders. Issues relevant to forming a therapeutic alliance with patients with personality disorders are then discussed in terms of the three DSM-IV-TR personality disorder clusters. However, the author notes that these categories do not adequately capture the complexity of character pathology and that clinicians also need to consider which aspects of a patient's personality pathology are dominant at the moment in considering salient elements of the therapeutic alliance. In dealing with Cluster A personality disorders (schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorders), what is most relevant for alliance building is the profound impairment in interpersonal relationships. The Cluster B "dramatic" personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic) are all associated with pushing the limits. Consequently, clinicians need to exercise great

  4. The five-factor model of personality and borderline personality disorder: a genetic analysis of comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distel, Marijn A; Trull, Timothy J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M; Derom, Catherine A; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2009-12-15

    Recently, the nature of personality disorders and their relationship with normal personality traits has received extensive attention. The five-factor model (FFM) of personality, consisting of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, is one of the proposed models to conceptualize personality disorders as maladaptive variants of continuously distributed personality traits. The present study examined the phenotypic and genetic association between borderline personality and FFM personality traits. Data were available for 4403 monozygotic twins, 4425 dizygotic twins, and 1661 siblings from 6140 Dutch, Belgian, and Australian families. Broad-sense heritability estimates for neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience, and borderline personality were 43%, 36%, 43%, 47%, 54%, and 45%, respectively. Phenotypic correlations between borderline personality and the FFM personality traits ranged from .06 for openness to experience to .68 for neuroticism. Multiple regression analyses showed that a combination of high neuroticism and low agreeableness best predicted borderline personality. Multivariate genetic analyses showed the genetic factors that influence individual differences in neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion account for all genetic liability to borderline personality. Unique environmental effects on borderline personality, however, were not completely shared with those for the FFM traits (33% is unique to borderline personality). Borderline personality shares all genetic variation with neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion. The unique environmental influences specific to borderline personality may cause individuals with a specific pattern of personality traits to cross a threshold and develop borderline personality.

  5. Conceptualisation of mental disorder and its personal meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Derek

    2010-08-01

    Mental disorder has been conceptualised as a matter of objective scientific fact, in versions of so-called 'naturalism'. To elucidate the personal meanings involved in attribution of mental disorder. Critical review of literature on the definition of mental disorder, with reference to the context of personalised medicine and healthcare. Personal meanings are not brought into focus by naturalism, but the current genetics paradigm creates space for three kinds of process: natural, social and individual, with corresponding conceptions of dysfunction. The individual conception is broadly a matter of experience and behaviour not going as the person intends, manifesting as unmanageable distress and self-identified disability. On the other hand in the problems that give rise to diagnosis of mental disorder, more than one person and their personal meanings are involved, creating need for empathy and negotiation.

  6. The Association Between ADHD and Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD have an increased risk of later developing personality disorders and criminal behavior. The object of the present review is to analyze the associations between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Method: A review of literature was done using EMBASE, Psyc......INFO, and Medline databases. Results: Eighteen prospective studies (n = 5,501) showed that ADHD with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD) is a strong predictor for the risk of later development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Some of the 13 cross-sectional/retrospective studies (n = 2...... with or without comorbid CD to develop later onset of antisocial personality disorder. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX)....

  7. Associations between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbheiry, Abd-Elraqeep; Emam, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between psychosocial problems and personality disorders among a sample of 817 Egyptian adolescents (408 males and 409 females). Using 15 subscales from the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS-long form) we assessed prevalence rates of a number of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial disorders. Additionally, we investigated whether there are gender differences in psychopathology among Egyptian adolescents and to what extent can psychosocial problems predict specific personality disorders. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that the participants experienced higher levels of PD, AV, and BD. Gender differences were found in certain personality disorders as well as in externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems. A number of externalizing and internalizing psychosocial problems were highly predictive of specific personality disorders.

  8. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  9. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haug Elisabeth; Hansen Charlotte; Rossberg Jan; Romm Kristin; Andreassen Ole A; Melle Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis...

  10. DSM-5-classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen bij ouderen [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  11. DSM-5-classificatie van persoonlijkheidsstoornissen bij ouderen [DSM-5 classification of personality disorders in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5

  12. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; OLTMANNS, THOMAS F.

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression ...

  13. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression ...

  14. Mortality Among Persons With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Several mental disorders have consistently been found to be associated with decreased life expectancy, but little is known about whether this is also the case for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons who receive a diagnosis of OCD are at increased.......7 years. The risk of death by natural or unnatural causes was significantly higher among persons with OCD (MRR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.31-2.12] for natural causes; MRR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.91-3.47] for unnatural causes) than among the general population. After the exclusion of persons with comorbid anxiety disorders......, depression, or substance use disorders, OCD was still associated with increased mortality risk (MRR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.27-2.67]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The presence of OCD was associated with a significantly increased mortality risk. Comorbid anxiety disorders, depression, or substance use disorders...

  15. Premorbid adjustment in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Friis, Svein; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives.......Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives....

  16. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.Th.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  17. Social cognition in the differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijkers, J.C.L.M.; Vissers, C.Th.W.M.; Verbeeck, W.; Arntz, A.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Average intelligent patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and patients with personality disorders (PD) are expected to show different problems in social cognition. Consequently, measuring social cognition may contribute to a better understanding and differentiation of ASD and PD. Therefore,

  18. Patients with antisocial personality disorder. Are they bad or mad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, J R; Malaney, K R

    1992-03-01

    Antisocial personality disorder is the psychiatric diagnosis most closely linked to explosive and criminal behavior. This diagnosis is easily documented but challenges a clinician's diagnostic skill because of the patient's propensity for masquerade and pathologic lying. The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood. The differential diagnosis should include substance abuse, adult antisocial behavior, psychotic and organic illness, and other personality disorders. Suggested medical and psychiatric treatment includes rapidly establishing firm behavior limits and performing a mental status examination to evaluate thought processes and suicidal and homicidal intent.

  19. Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study versus Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pena-Garijo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for the relationship between personality disorders (PDs, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and other anxiety disorders different from OCD (non-OCD symptomatology. Method. The sample consisted of a group of 122 individuals divided into three groups (41 OCD; 40 non-OCD, and 41 controls matched by sex, age, and educational level. All the individuals answered the IPDE questionnaire and were evaluated by means of the SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. Results. Patients with OCD and non-OCD present a higher presence of PD. There was an increase in cluster C diagnoses in both groups, with no statistically significant differences between them. Conclusions. Presenting anxiety disorder seems to cause a specific vulnerability for PD. Most of the PDs that were presented belonged to cluster C. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD is the most common among OCD. However, it does not occur more frequently among OCD patients than among other anxious patients, which does not confirm the continuum between obsessive personality and OCD. Implications for categorical and dimensional diagnoses are discussed.

  20. Personality, temperament, and character dimensions and the DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S A; Tennen, H; Poling, J C; Kranzler, H R; Rounsaville, B J

    1997-11-01

    The authors evaluated the relationship between P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (1992) NEO 5-factor model, C. R. Cloninger's (1993) 7-factor Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the American Psychiatric Association's (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., personality disorders in 370 inpatient and outpatient alcohol, cocaine, and opiate abusers. NEO Neuroticism was associated with many disorders, and different patterns for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion emerged for the different disorders. Several TCI scales were associated with different personality disorders, although not as strongly as the NEO dimensions. Results did not support most predictions made for the TCI. Normal personality dimensions contributed significantly to the prediction of personality disorder severity above and beyond substance abuse and depression symptoms.

  1. The influence of comorbid personality disorders on recovery from depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai Wongpakaran, Vudhichai Boonyanaruthee, Manee Pinyopornpanish, Suthi Intaprasert Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Purpose: The impact of personality disorders on the treatment of and recovery from depression is still a controversial topic. The aim of this paper is to provide more information on what has led to this disagreement.Materials and methods: Clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD scores were assessed among 82 depressed outpatients who were receiving a routine treatment combination of antidepressant medication and psychosocial intervention. The participants were followed up over five visits at 3-month intervals: at the baseline, at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Personality disorders were assessed after the last visit in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. These repeated measures were used to explore the impact of personality disorders on HAMD scores by using a linear mixed model.Results: Among the four personality clusters that were used (A, B, C, and mixed, only those in cluster B and in the mixed cluster were found to take significantly longer than those without personality disorders, for reduction in HAMD scores over the course of treatment.Conclusion: In this study, the impact of personality disorders on treatment outcomes varied with the way that the personality disorder variables were described and used as independent predictors. This is because the outcomes were influenced by the impact weight of each personality disorder, even within the same cluster. Keywords: depressive disorder, mixed linear model, impact, multilevel analysis

  2. Convergent validity of alternative MMPI-2 personality disorder scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, J; Widiger, T A

    2000-12-01

    The Morey, Waugh, and Blashfield (1985) MMPI (Hathaway et al., 1989) personality disorder scales provided a significant contribution to personality disorder research and assessment. However, the subsequent revisions to the MMPI and the multiple revisions to the diagnostic criteria sets that have since occurred may have justified comparable revisions to these scales. Somwaru and Ben-Porath (1995) selected a substantially different set of items from the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) to assess Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorder diagnostic criteria. In our study, we compared the convergent validity of these alternative MMPI-2 personality disorder scales with respect to 3 self-report measures of personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 82 psychiatric outpatients. The results suggested that Somwaru and Ben-Porath's scales are as valid as the original Morey et al. scales and might be even more valid for the assessment of borderline, antisocial, and schizoid personality disorder symptomatology.

  3. Personality disorders and treatment drop out in the homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavera C

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Salavera,1 José M Tricás,2 Orosia Lucha21Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Physiotherapy Research Unit, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: The homeless drop out of treatment relatively frequently. Also, prevalence rates of personality disorders are much higher in the homeless group than in the general population. We hypothesize that when both variables coexist – homelessness and personality disorders – the possibility of treatment drop out grows. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypotheses, that is, to study how the existence of personality disorders affects the evolution of and permanence in treatment. One sample of homeless people in a therapeutic community (N = 89 was studied. The structured clinical interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR was administered and participants were asked to complete the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Cluster B personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic avoided permanence in the treatment process while cluster C disorders, as dependent, favored adhesion to the treatment and improved the prognosis. Knowledge of these personality characteristics should be used to advocate for better services to support homeless people and prevent their dropping out before completing treatment.Keywords: MCMI-II, abandonment, personality disorder, homeless

  4. DSM-5 section III personality traits and section II personality disorders in a Flemish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Tim; Smits, Dirk; De Hert, Marc; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Claes, Laurence

    2016-04-30

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization.

  5. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev Disord"…

  6. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  7. Milestones in the history of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2013-06-01

    This paper analyzes the major historical milestones in the study of normal and abnormal personality, from antiquity up until the 20th century. Special attention is paid to the interaction between dimensional and typological approaches, which was a major issue during the preparation of DSM-5. Theories of personality started with the humoral theory of Greek medicine. Pinel, and later Esquirol and Prichard, are credited with the first descriptions of abnormal personalities in textbooks of psychiatry. Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, elaborate systems of normal and abnormal personality, associating to some degree types and dimensions, were devised by a succession of European psychologists, such as Ribot, Heymans, and Lazursky. Emil Kraepelin and Kurt Schneider proposed classifications of abnormal personality types. In parallel, psychoanalysts stressed the role of early life experiences. Towards the mid-20th century, statistical methods were applied to the scientific validation of personality dimensions with pioneers such as Cattell, anticipating the five-factor model.

  8. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffers, Jutta; Völlm, Birgit A; Rücker, Gerta; Timmer, Antje; Huband, Nick; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Drugs are widely used in borderline personality disorder (BPD) treatment, chosen because of properties known from other psychiatric disorders (“off-label use”), mostly targeting affective or impulsive symptom clusters. Objectives To assess the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients. Search methods We searched bibliographic databases according to the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group strategy up to September 2009, reference lists of articles, and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised studies comparing drug versus placebo, or drug versus drug(s) in BPD patients. Outcomes included total BPD severity, distinct BPD symptom facets according to DSM-IV criteria, associated psychopathology not specific to BPD, attrition and adverse effects. Data collection and analysis Two authors selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data, independently. Main results Twenty-eight trials involving a total of 1742 trial participants were included. First-generation antipsychotics (flupenthixol decanoate, haloperidol, thiothixene); second-generation antipsychotics (aripirazole, olanzapine, ziprasidone), mood stabilisers (carbamazepine, valproate semisodium, lamotrigine, topiramate), antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, phenelzine sulfate, mianserin), and dietary supplementation (omega-3 fatty acid) were tested. First-generation antipsychotics were subject to older trials, whereas recent studies focussed on second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Data were sparse for individual comparisons, indicating marginal effects for first-generation antipsychotics and antidepressants. The findings were suggestive in supporting the use of second-generation antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and omega-3 fatty acids, but require replication, since most effect estimates were based on single studies. The long-term use of these drugs has not been assessed. Adverse event data were scarce

  9. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  10. An integrative perspective on psychotherapeutic treatments for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, E.R.; Verheul, R.; Trijsburg, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an abundance of literature on the psychotherapeutic treatment of borderline pathology, little is known about differences and similarities between treatments of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Potential differences and similarities are especially important in the absence of e

  11. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  12. Sex Bias in Classifying Borderline and Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braamhorst, Wouter; Lobbestael, Jill; Emons, Wilco H M; Arntz, Arnoud; Witteman, Cilia L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex stereotyping or to base rate variation, we used different case histories, respectively: (1) non-ambiguous case histories with enough criteria of either borderline or narcissistic personality disorder to meet the threshold for classification, and (2) an ambiguous case with subthreshold features of both borderline and narcissistic personality disorder. Results showed significant differences due to sex of the patient in the ambiguous condition. Thus, when the diagnosis is not straightforward, as in the case of mixed subthreshold features, sex bias is present and is influenced by base-rate variation. These findings emphasize the need for caution in classifying personality disorders, especially borderline or narcissistic traits.

  13. Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: missteps and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Vachon, David D

    2012-10-01

    This paper evaluates the proposal for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Some aspects of the proposal are appealing: personality disorders will be assessed using trait criteria, and these criteria are similar to trait descriptions of DSM-IV ASPD. Other aspects of the proposal are less appealing. First, the DSM-5 will depend on a newly constructed personality trait system rather than relying on a well validated, widely studied one. Second, the trait profile of ASPD is incomplete; although this profile reflects the traits included in DSM-IV, it maps poorly onto the full personality profile of ASPD. Third, the DSM Workgroup missed an opportunity to finally unify ASPD and psychopathy; history and research suggest that these disorders have diverged mistakenly. Fourth, the newly proposed criteria of impairments in self- and interpersonal functioning are of questionable derivation and utility.

  14. ICD-11 and DSM-5 personality trait domains capture categorical personality disorders: Finding a common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Sellbom, Martin; Skjernov, Mathias; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The five personality disorder trait domains in the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition are comparable in terms of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism/Dissociality and Disinhibition. However, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model includes a separate domain of Anankastia, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model includes an additional domain of Psychoticism. This study examined associations of International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domains, simultaneously, with categorical personality disorders. Psychiatric outpatients ( N = 226) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders Interview and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition trait domain scores were obtained using pertinent scoring algorithms for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Associations between categorical personality disorders and trait domains were examined using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Both the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition domain models showed relevant continuity with categorical personality disorders and captured a substantial amount of their information. As expected, the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition model was superior in capturing obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, whereas the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition model was superior in capturing schizotypal personality disorder. These preliminary findings suggest that little information is 'lost' in a transition to trait domain

  15. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  16. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Nicoletti; Antonina Luca; Loredana Raciti; Donatella Contrafatto; Elisa Bruno; Valeria Dibilio; Giorgia Sciacca; Giovanni Mostile; Antonio Petralia; Mario Zappia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of personality disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in a group of healthy controls. METHODS: Patients affected by PD diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Parkinson's disease Society Brain Bank diagnostic criteria and a group of healthy controls were enrolled in the study. PD patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from the study. Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders-II (SCID-II) has been performed to evaluate...

  18. Care plan for the patient with a dependent personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Ruiz Galán

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality is unique for each individual and can be defined as the dynamic collection of characteristics relative to emotions, thought and behaviour.Personality trout’s only mean a Personality Disorder (PD when they are inflexible and maladjusted and cause notable functional deterioration or uneasiness.According to Bermudez personality is “the enduring organization of structural and functional features, innate and acquired under the special conditions of each one’s development that shape the particular and specific collection of behaviour to face different situations”.According to the Diagnostic a Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, a Personality Disorder is “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the person’s culture is pervasive and an inflexible, is stable over time and leads to distress or impairment. The onset of these patterns of behaviour is the beginning of the adulthood and, in rare instances, early adolescence”.There are several types of Personality Disorders (paranoid, schizoid, borderline, antisocial, dependent…. Dependent Personality Disorder is one of the most frequent in the Mental Health Services.People who suffer from this disorder are unable to take a decision by themselves because they don’t have confidence in themselves. They need a lot of social support and affection until the point of deny their individuality by subordinating their desires to other person’s desires and permitting these persons to manage their lives. Maybe they feel desolated by separation and loss and can support any situation, even maltreatment to keep a relationship.As we a deduce this diagnosis is sensible to cultural influences. This work aims to elaborate an standarized plan of cares for the patient with Dependent Personality Disorder by using nursing Diagnosis of NANDA II, Outcomes Criteria (NOC and Interventions Criteria (NIC.

  19. Interpersonal dysfunction in personality disorders: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Stroud, Catherine B; Durbin, C Emily

    2017-07-01

    Personality disorders are defined in the current psychiatric diagnostic system as pervasive, inflexible, and stable patterns of thinking, feeling, behaving, and interacting with others. Questions regarding the validity and reliability of the current personality disorder diagnoses prompted a reconceptualization of personality pathology in the most recent edition of the psychiatric diagnostic manual, in an appendix of emerging models for future study. To evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of the current personality disorder diagnoses, we conducted a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical research on associations between personality disorders and interpersonal functioning, defined using the interpersonal circumplex model (comprising orthogonal dimensions of agency and communion), as well as functioning in specific relationship domains (parent-child, family, peer, romantic). A comprehensive literature search yielded 127 published and unpublished studies, comprising 2,579 effect sizes. Average effect sizes from 120 separate meta-analyses, corrected for sampling error and measurement unreliability, and aggregated using a random-effects model, indicated that each personality disorder showed a distinct profile of interpersonal style consistent with its characteristic pattern of symptomatic dysfunction; specific relationship domains affected and strength of associations varied for each personality disorder. Overall, results support the construct and discriminant validity of the personality disorders in the current diagnostic manual, as well as the proposed conceptualization that disturbances in self and interpersonal functioning constitute the core of personality pathology. Importantly, however, contradicting both the current and proposed conceptualizations, there was not evidence for pervasive dysfunction across interpersonal situations and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Personality Disorder Symptoms and Marital Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C.; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological personality is strongly linked with interpersonal impairment, yet no study to date has examined the relationship between concurrent personality pathology and dysfunction in marriage--a relationship that most people find central to their lives. In a cross-sectional study of a community sample of married couples (N = 82), the authors…

  1. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  2. Personality and Its Relationship with Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Individual factors are usually important as non-occupational parameters that participate in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Personality traits are one of the individual factors that affect physical illness, which are constant over time, thereby reflecting stable individual differences. Identifying the personality trait can be used to predict musculoskeletal disorders in workers and select individual with appropriate personality traits for different works. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the personality traits used to determine the relationship between different personality traits and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods 136 people of 2 different companies in Tabriz (in 2015 were selected as the study population. The first group was selected from the petrochemical repair workers and the second from a dairy factory. The 50-item version of Goldberg’s big five personality scale was used to assess the personality traits. Nordic questionnaire was employed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Chi-square test was incorporated for analyzing the data. Finally, logistic regression test was used to study the factors affecting upper and lower body pain. Results Results indicated that individual personality traits were associated with musculoskeletal disorder prevalence in some members of body: Extraversion with wrist (P-value = 0.013 and hip (P-value = 0.044, emotional stability with shoulder (P-value = 0.012, wrist (P-value = 0.043, back (P-value = 0.034, low back (P-value = 0.029 and ankle( P-value = 0.014, Conscientiousness with Hip ( P-value = 0.009, Agreeableness with shoulder (P-value = 0.004, back (P-value = 0.001, Hip ( P-value = 0.006 and ankle ( P-value = 0.019. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the personality traits can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, notice of personality traits can be used to predict individuals who

  3. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  4. Codependency in Women: Personality Disorder or Popular Descriptive Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. Lynne; Piazza, Nick J.

    1995-01-01

    Tests Cermak's diagnostic criteria for codependency against diagnostic criteria for odd, erratic, or fearful personality types. Results, based on 207 female clients, do not support a separate diagnosis of codependency. The presenting complaint of codependency may indicate a variety of other underlying personality disorders or a situationally…

  5. Codependency in Women: Personality Disorder or Popular Descriptive Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. Lynne; Piazza, Nick J.

    1995-01-01

    Tests Cermak's diagnostic criteria for codependency against diagnostic criteria for odd, erratic, or fearful personality types. Results, based on 207 female clients, do not support a separate diagnosis of codependency. The presenting complaint of codependency may indicate a variety of other underlying personality disorders or a situationally…

  6. The Pregnancy Obsession-Compulsion-Personality Disorder Symptom Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhoven, K.; Hartman, E.; Spek, V.; Bergink, V.; van Son, M.J.M.; Karreman, A.; Pop, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Up until now, very little research has been undertaken on the possible role of personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), on pregnancy distress. This is possibly due to the fact that no appropriate instruments are available for use dur

  7. Cataplexy and the switch process of multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Via, M C; Brewerton, T D

    1996-07-31

    A case history is presented of an 18-year-old male with dissociative disorder and polysubstance abuse. The patient was observed to switch between three personalities, and the personality changes were often associated with symptoms of cataplexy. Both dissociative episodes and cataplexy are associated with strong affective stimuli. Similar reports in the literature are briefly reviewed.

  8. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  9. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  10. Autonomic Impairment in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that emotional dysfunction in psychiatric disorders can be reflected in autonomic abnormalities. The present study examines sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) before, during, and following a social stressor task. Data were obtained…

  11. Personality Disorder among Male Prisoner in Erbil/ Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saman SH.; Ali, Sirwan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Personality disorders are enduring, persistent and pervasive disorders of inner experience and behavior that cause distress or significant impairment in social functioning. They have strong relationship to offending and violence; our aim in the study was to determine the prevalence rate of each specific types of…

  12. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  13. A personality and impairment approach to examine the similarities and differences between avoidant personality disorder and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Kieran L C; Sellbom, Martin; Liggett, Jacqueline; Smith, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined whether avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) should be considered distinct disorder constructs, which is a persistent and controversial issue in the clinical literature. We examined whether relative scores on SAD and AvPD were associated with the same personality profile and severity of impairment. The current research used a cross-sectional design and self-report inventories, including multiple measures of personality, impairment and psychopathology. Results from a mixed sample of 402 university and community participants found that scores on AvPD and SAD were similarly associated with personality traits and impairment indices. Moreover, a latent construct accounting for the shared variance for AvPD and SAD was associated with personality traits and impairment, whereas the residuals representing the uniquenesses of these disorder constructs were not. These findings support the view that AvPD and SAD are similar disorders from a phenotypic personality trait and impairment perspective. These findings are contrary to a prevalent view in the literature, known as severity continuum hypothesis, because the two disorders could not be meaningfully differentiated based on severity of impairment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Personality Disorders and the 3-Year Course of Alcohol, Drug, and Nicotine Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Fenton, Miriam C.; Skodol, Andrew; Krueger, Robert; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Greenstein, Eliana; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD), and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. Objective To determine the association between the ten DSM-IV personality disorders and the persistence of common SUDs in a 3-year prospective study of a national sample. Design Data were drawn from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had alcohol dependence (N=1,172), cannabis use disorder (N=454) or nicotine dependence (N=4,017) at baseline and who were re-interviewed three years later. Control variables included demographic characteristics, family history of substance disorders, baseline Axis I disorders and treatment status, and prior SUD duration. Main outcome measure Persistent SUD, defined as meeting full criteria for the relevant SUD throughout the 3-year follow-up period. Results Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with alcohol dependence, 30.8% with cannabis use disorder, and 56.6% with nicotine dependence at baseline. Axis I disorders did not have strong or consistent associations with persistent SUD. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder was significantly associated with persistent alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratios: 2.46-3.51), as was borderline personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 2.04-2.78) and schizotypal personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 1.65-5.90). Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were less consistently associated with SUD persistence. Conclusions The consistent findings on the association of antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders with persistent SUD indicates the importance of these personality disorders in understanding the course of SUD. Future studies should examine dimensional

  15. ANANKASTIK PERSONALITY DISORDER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA PARANOID PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

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    Damarnegara ..

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anankastik personality disorder is a health problem that can disturb the activities of person and can accompany a variety of other mental health problems. The patient in thiscase is a patient with an anankastik or obsessive compulsive personality disorder withthe axis I diagnoses is Paranoid Schizophrenia and was given haloperidol 2x5mg, buthave not done psychotherapy because the patient has not been cooperative. Theprognosis is dependent on patient compliance in taking medication and controls for thesetting of the dose, and the support of her family. 

  16. Co-occurrence of personality disorders in persons with kleptomania: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the co-occurrence of personality disorders in a group of persons with kleptomania. Twenty-eight subjects with DSM-IV kleptomania were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and a semistructured interview to assess demographics and clinical characteristics. Twelve subjects with kleptomania (42.9%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. The most common were: paranoid (n = 5; 17.9%), schizoid (n = 3; 10.7%), and borderline (n = 3; 10.7%). Subjects with kleptomania combined with personality disorders had an earlier age of onset of stealing behavior (13.4 +/- 5.6 years compared with 27.4 +/- 14.2 years in those who had kleptomania only; t = 3.225; df = 26; p = .006). Severity of kleptomania symptoms did not differ among the Axis II comorbidities. Persons with kleptomania appear to have a high prevalence of personality disorders. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship of kleptomania to personality.

  17. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  18. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  19. The General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD) as an Instrument for Assessing the Core Features of Personality Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.; Larstone, R.; Livesley, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a psychometric evaluation of the General Assessment of Personality Disorder (GAPD), a self-report questionnaire for assessing the core components of personality dysfunction on the basis of Livesley's (2003) adaptive failure model. Analysis of samples from a general (n = 196) and

  20. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phemenological aspects of personality disorders in adult psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedik, Emil; Dobnik, Sana Coderl

    2014-06-01

    Many empirical studies give evidence of co-occurrence of mental and personality disorders (PDs). On the other hand theoretical models explain the relationship between personality and mental disorders from different perspectives. This research studied the phemenological aspects of PDs in adult psychiatric patients with different mental disorders according to cognitive and psychoanalytic criteria for personality pathology. In order to study personality pathology in different diagnostic groups we constructed a self-report Questionnaire of Personality Disorders (VMO-2) on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR classification of PD (APA 2000), Beck's theory of dysfunctional beliefs (Beck et al. 2004) and psychoanalytic theories of personality (Kernberg 1986). The content of items in VMO-2 reflected the phenomenology of PDs and is focused on the basic experience of self and others in specific personality types. The questionnaire consists of 193 items which are divided into 11 clinical scales (Histrionic, Obsessive-compulsive, Avoidant, Dependent, Depressive, Narcissistic, Borderline, Antisocial, Paranoid, Schizoid and Schizotypal PD scale) and a validity (Lie) scale. The sample of 642 adult patients with different mental disorders and 477 healthy controls of both genders served as subjects in the study. All groups of patients reached higher scores on VMO-2 and revealed more personality pathology as compared to the control group. There were differences in specific personality scales between patients of different diagnostic groups. The schizotypal PD scale discriminated significantly between patients with schizophrenia and the majority of other diagnostic groups. The group of patients with opioid dependence disorder reached the highest mean score on the scale for antisocial PD. Our results on VMO-2 show partial support for psychodynamic and cognitive theories of personality pathology. Results are also in accordance with other empirical studies which show that some characteristics of

  2. Evaluating the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Impairment Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin

    2016-09-12

    The majority of research on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) Section III alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) has addressed the dimensional traits proposed in Criterion B, while limited research has evaluated Section III functional impairment criteria. The current study evaluated Section III impairment specific to the 6 personality disorder diagnoses included in the Section III model in a sample of 347 undergraduates. We evaluated the factor structure of disorder-specific impairment; their associations with other measures of impairment, Section III traits, and Section II PD symptoms; as well as the incremental utility of impairment above and beyond traits in predicting Section II PD symptoms. Factor analyses indicated limited support for the 2 domain and 4 subfacet levels of impairment, but showed some support for disorder-specific impairment. Furthermore, disorder-specific impairment was associated with other measures of functional impairment, Section II PD symptoms, and Section III traits with a generally good degree of convergence. However, these findings showed a lack of discriminant validity, suggesting a lack of utility in measuring disorder-specific impairment, as opposed to more broadly evaluating an individual's level of functional impairment. Finally, impairment only added incremental utility to traits in predicting Section II Avoidant PD. By and large, these findings suggested mixed support for disorder-specific impairment as presented in Criterion A and raised additional questions regarding the utility of impairment when paired with dimensional personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Some Personality Variables in Functional Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Robertson

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with spasmodic torticollis, writer's cramp and the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS were given rating scales to assess personality dimensions, especially hostility and obsessionality. The data have been compared with age and sex matched controls. Significant differences arose, especially for hostility for the GTS and writer's cramp patients, whereas those with spasmodic torticollis do not differ from controls.

  4. Attachment and social cognition in borderline personality disorder: Specificity in relation to antisocial and avoidant personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Hallquist, Michael N; Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Ellison, William D; Nolf, Kimberly A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-07-01

    Theory and research point to the role of attachment difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Attachment insecurity is believed to lead to chronic problems in social relationships, attributable, in part, to impairments in social cognition, which comprise maladaptive mental representations of self, others, and self in relation to others. However, few studies have attempted to identify social-cognitive mechanisms that link attachment insecurity to BPD and to assess whether such mechanisms are specific to the disorder. For the present study, empirically derived indices of mentalization, self-other boundaries, and identity diffusion were tested as mediators between attachment style and personality disorder symptoms. In a cross-sectional structural equation model, mentalization and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and BPD. Mentalization partially mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety and antisocial personality disorder (PD) symptoms, and self-other boundaries mediated the relationship between attachment anxiety.

  5. Cancer and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis which is used as synonym of “death”, “pain” and “sorrow” leads to a hard-coping period in these patients which requires a rapid intervention. Studies conducted in cancer patients regarding prevalance of psychiatric illnesses reported rates ranging from 9 % to 60%. In many cancer patients, psychiatric disorders can be seen as a reaction to disease or cancer tratment, while in ten precent of cases it can be seen as an aggrevation of premorbid personality disorders or anxiety disorders. Although psychiatric disorders in cancer patients can be treated and by this way, morbidity and mortality of these disorders can be prevented, these disorders are underdiagnosed and not properly treated in many patients. In this article, we briefly reviewed literature about psychiatric disorders and symptoms in cancer patients, their diagnosis and treatment suggestions.

  6. [Empirical evidence for the use of anticonvulsants in personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, M; Emrich, H M

    2009-03-01

    There is a common practice of polypharmacy and an increased use of mood stabilizers in personality disorders (PD). This paper reviews all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of anticonvulsants to evaluate the evidence base supporting their use in treatment of PD. German and English language literature cited in Medline and published between 1970 and 2008 was searched using the following terms: Borderline/personality disorder, anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer, carbamazepine, felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenytoine, pregabalin, tiagabine, topiramate, and valproate. Twelve RCTs were identified which included anticonvulsants in treatment of personality disorders. The anticonvulsants valproate and topiramate appeared to have the most empirical support for having a favorable effect on symptoms of borderline personality disorder. Evidence for the use of other anticonvulsants in patients with PD is sparse. Valproate and topiramate, probably also lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine as well, were useful in treating symptoms of affective dysregulation and impulsive aggression in PD. However, further RCTs of anticonvulsants are greatly needed as clinical use of these agents has risen without sufficient evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in personality disorders.

  7. Personality Disorders in Later Life: Questions about the Measurement, Course, and Impact of Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Balsis, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Lifespan perspectives have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of many forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to personality disorders in middle adulthood and later life. Several issues are responsible for this deficiency, including difficulty applying the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders to older people and challenges in identifying appropriate samples of older participants. The goal of this review is to explore the benefits of considering older adults in the study of personality disorders. Later life offers a unique opportunity for investigators to consider links between personality pathology and consequential outcomes in people’s lives. Many domains are relevant, including health, longevity, social adjustment, marital relationships, and the experience of major life events. We review each domain and consider ways in which the study of middle-aged and older adults challenges researchers to evaluate how personality disorders in general are defined and measured. PMID:21219195

  8. Correlates of DSM-III personality disorder in panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavissakalian, M; Hamann, M S

    1988-01-01

    One hundred eighty-seven patients meeting DSM-III criteria for panic disorder (n = 26) or agoraphobia with panic (n = 161) were assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ), a self-rating scale designed to assess Axis II personality disorders and traits. Results replicated our earlier findings of a preponderance of dependent, avoidant, and histrionic features and the finding that patients exhibiting a greater number of personality traits were also significantly more symptomatic. Patients with the diagnosis of panic disorder did not differ on any personality disorder variables from patients with the diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic. Furthermore, none of the specific symptom dimensions, i.e., panic, anxiety, or agoraphobia, was selected as a unique predictor of any personality variables in the regression analyses. Rather, the most important correlates of personality disorder in these patients consisted of general factors such as dysphoric mood, social phobia, or interpersonal sensitivity, and Eysenck's neuroticism dimension. The results are discussed in light of recent findings suggesting a nonspecific link between panic disorder or agoraphobia and personality disorder.

  9. Refining personality disorder subtypes and classification using finite mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Rebecca J; Stern, Barry L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Tiersky, Lana A

    2013-04-01

    The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic system for Axis II disorders continues to be characterized by considerable heterogeneity and poor discriminant validity. Such problems impede accurate personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. As a result, alternative assessment tools are often used in conjunction with the DSM. One popular framework is the object relational model developed by Kernberg and his colleagues (J. F. Clarkin, M. F. Lenzenweger, F. Yeomans, K. N. Levy, & O. F. Kernberg, 2007, An object relations model of borderline pathology, Journal of Personality Disorders, Vol. 21, pp. 474-499; O. F. Kernberg, 1984, Severe Personality Disorders, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; O. F. Kernberg & E. Caligor, 2005, A psychoanalytic theory of personality disorders, in M. F. Lenzenweger & J. F. Clarkin, Eds., Major Theories of Personality Disorder, New York, NY: Guilford Press). Drawing on this model and empirical studies thereof, the current study attempted to clarify Kernberg's (1984) PD taxonomy and identify subtypes within a sample with varying levels of personality pathology using finite mixture modeling. Subjects (N = 141) were recruited to represent a wide range of pathology. The finite mixture modeling results indicated that 3 components were harbored within the variables analyzed. Group 1 was characterized by low levels of antisocial, paranoid, and aggressive features, and Group 2 was characterized by elevated paranoid features. Group 3 revealed the highest levels across the 3 variables. The validity of the obtained solution was then evaluated by reference to a variety of external measures that supported the validity of the identified grouping structure. Findings generally appear congruent with previous research, which argued that a PD taxonomy based on paranoid, aggressive, and antisocial features is a viable supplement to current diagnostic systems. Our study suggests that Kernberg's object relational model offers a

  10. Trauma, genes, and the neurobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; New, Antonia; Siever, Larry

    2004-12-01

    A model for personality dysfunction posits an interaction between inherited susceptibility and environmental factors such as childhood trauma. Core biological vulnerabilities in personality include dimensions of affective instability, impulsive aggression, and cognition/perceptual domains. For the dimension of impulsive aggression, often seen in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the underlying neurobiology involves deficits in central serotonin function and alterations in specific brain regions in the cingulate and the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. The role of trauma in the development of personality disorder and especially for BPD remains unclear. Although recent studies suggest that BPD is not a trauma-spectrum disorder and that it is biologically distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder, high rates of childhood abuse and neglect do exist for individuals with personality dysfunction. Personality symptom clusters seem to be unrelated to specific abuses, but they may relate to more enduring aspects of interpersonal and family environments in childhood. Whereas twin and family studies indicate a partially heritable basis for impulsive aggression, studies of serotonin-related genes to date suggest only modest contributions to behavior. Gene-environment interactions involving childhood maltreatment are demonstrated in recent studies on antisocial behaviors and aggressive rhesus monkeys and highlight the need for further research in this important area.

  11. Contribution of Occupational Therapy to funcional approach in personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido Mainar, J R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders ( personality disorder F03.675 are defined by a rigid pattern of unadapting behaviours that, on the short and medium term generate a significant socio environmental deterioration. The level of psychosocial function or dysfunction is a first class indicator when assessing the extent and assessment of the personality disorder.Psychotherapy ( psychotherapy F04.754 intervenes in the psychosocial compounds of this disorder by designing specific programs for the training in psychosocial skills (conductual-dialectic therapy. Occupational Therapy ( occupational therapy E02.831.489 is a health science with a long history in socioenvironmental therapy of mental diseases F04.754.864 . The focal point is the assessment of the disease, disorder or social unadaptation impact in the individual's occupation functionality. This science puts forward a wide, integrating concept of functionality, which is divided into three occupation areas: productive occupational area, self maintenance area and leisure time area.In the first part of this paper, the extent and features of the occupational disfunction in the personality disorder are analysed employing the occupational therapy method.Based on our six-year experience, a method for socioenvironmental treatment based on two models of occupational therapy (human occupation model and Canadian model is suggested in the second part of the paper

  12. An approach to the psychobiology of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Vizueta, Nathalie; Thomas, Kathleen M; Levy, Kenneth N; Fossella, John; Silbersweig, David; Stern, Emily; Clarkin, John; Kernberg, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Human variability in temperament allows a unique natural experiment where reactivity, self-regulation, and experience combine in complex ways to produce an individual personality. Personality disorders may result from changes in the way past memories filter new information in situations of emotional involvement with others. According to this view, disorders are specific to their initiating circumstances rather than a general difficulty that might extend to classes of information processing remote from triggers for the disorder. A different view suggests a more general deficit in attentional control mechanisms that might extend to a wide range of situations far from those related to the core abnormality. This paper outlines methods for examining these views and presents data from the study of borderline personality disorder, arguing in favor of high negative emotionality being combined with a deficit in an executive attentional control network. Because this attentional network has already been well described in terms of anatomy, the cognitive operations involved, development, chemical modulators, and effects of lesions and candidate genes, these findings may have implications for understanding the disorder and its treatment. We consider these implications in terms of a general approach to the study of personality development and its disorders.

  13. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  14. Excessive decline from premorbid functioning: detecting performance invalidity with the WAIS-IV and demographic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip K; Hunter, Ben P; Rach, Amanda M; Heinrichs, Robin J; Schroeder, Ryan W

    2017-07-01

    Excessive Decline from Premorbid Functioning (EDPF) is presented as a construct and defined as a discrepancy between predicted premorbid ability and current test performance that is so atypical of individuals with true neurocognitive impairment that it is likely the product of performance invalidity. New embedded PVTs (EDPF-FSIQ, EDPF-VW, and EDPF-PP) were derived by comparing scores from the WAIS-IV to TOPF demographically predicted premorbid estimates and then examined for classification accuracy. After excluding for dementia, intellectual disability, and left-sided stroke, participants (n = 230) were grouped according to number of PVTs failed. ROC analyses were conducted to determine the accuracy of EDPF indices in classifying patients as failing 0 or ≥2 PVTs within both a mixed neuropsychological outpatient sample and according to specific diagnostic criterion groups. Significant group differences emerged for all EDPF indices (p < .001). EDPF-FSIQ resulted in an AUC of .837, classifying patients with 56% sensitivity at ≥90% specificity, and EDPF-VW resulted in an AUC of .850, classifying patients with 61% sensitivity at ≥90% specificity. Accuracy remained high across diagnostic groups (i.e. neurocognitive, moderate/severe TBI, and psychiatric) for EDPF-VW and EDPF-FSIQ, whereas specificity declined for EDPF-PP in patients with mixed neurocognitive disorders. Overall, classification accuracy rates exceeded those of Reliable Digit Span. Both EDPF-FSIQ and EDPF-VW demonstrated excellent discrimination between patients providing valid versus invalid test performance. Unique advantages of EDPF validity measures include incorporation of demographic estimates of premorbid ability and examination of performances on multiple tests spanning different cognitive domains.

  15. Personality features and personality disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nater, U.M.; Jones, J F; Lin, J-M S; Maloney, E; Reeves, W. C.; Heim, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. METHODS: 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorde...

  16. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  17. Some comments on nomology, diagnostic process, and narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-5 proposal for personality and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Aaron L

    2011-01-01

    I comment on the DSM-5 proposal for personality disorders (PDs), including discussion of the proposal's nomological revisions and their implications, the development and prioritization of a set of general criteria for PD, the shift to prototype matching of narrative descriptions for assessment of personality impairments and prominent PD types, and the recommendation to delete five PD diagnoses. Although the general criteria for PD are promising, implementation of prototype ratings for both functional impairments and PD types remains psychometrically questionable. In addition, revising the format and content of the diagnostic criteria while simultaneously deleting five diagnoses confounds evaluation of the revisions for the purposes indicated in the proposal. Finally, the performance of prior DSM criteria sets should not be the primary basis for considering the ontological status of prominent types because of construct definition problems with the criteria sets and criterion problems with DSM-based PD research. These concerns were highlighted in the case of Narcissistic PD-a diagnosis slated for deletion despite significant evidence for its clinical utility and validity when data beyond DSM criteria is considered. Changes of this magnitude are needed, but rigorous scientific evaluation is necessary before evolving from a proposal to the officially published DSM-5.

  18. Microgenetic styles in histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I A; Greco, E; Zanna, V; Pezzarossa, B

    1994-02-01

    Microgenetic styles of regulation of subjects with (n = 46) and without (n = 44) psychometric evidence of personality disorders were assessed by means of the Serial Color-Word Test. The disordered group were characterized by the primary Dissociative pattern and by very low values of the initial strategy called ITa. Subjects with psychometric evidence of Histrionic (n = 21) and Obsessive-Compulsive (n = 21) Personality Disorders were then compared. Histrionic personality corresponded most often to a primary Stabilized style, with a progressive slight increase of dissociation over time (Cv type). The compulsive trait was instead associated with high primary cumulation (and moderately elevated dissociation), concomitantly with secondary dissociative patterns (CDr and Dv/CDv). These results seem to encourage further clinical research with the Serial Color-Word Test.

  19. Attachment insecurity, personality, and body dissatisfaction in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Gramaglia, Carla; Amianto, Federico; Marzola, Enrica; Fassino, Secondo

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is assessing interactions between attachment style and personality in predicting body dissatisfaction (BD). A total of 586 outpatients with eating disorders (EDs) were recruited: 101 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; 52 with anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; 184 with bulimia nervosa, purging type; and 249 with an eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed Temperament and Character Inventory, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Attachment Style Questionnaire. An insecure attachment was found in all EDs, as well as in eating disorder not otherwise specified. In all diagnostic groups, need for approval, as measured by the Attachment Style Questionnaire and depressive symptomatology, was found to be the best predictor of BD. Personality traits are weaker predictors of BD. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment insecurity is directly correlated with BD, core element in predicting and perpetuating EDs, independently of personality. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  20. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  1. QEEG guided neurofeedback therapy in personality disorders: 13 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmeli, Tanju; Ertem, Ayben

    2009-01-01

    According to DSM-IV, personality disorder constitutes a class only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress. Classical treatment of choice for personality disorders has been psychotherapy and/or psychopharmacotherapy. Our study is to determine if subjects with antisocial personality disorders will benefit from quantitative EEG (qEEG) guided neurofeedback treatment. Thirteen subjects (9 male, 4 female) ranged in age from 19 to 48 years. All the subjects were free of medications and illicit drugs. We excluded subjects with other mental disorders by clinical assessment. Psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy or any other treatment model was not introduced to any of the subjects during or after neurofeedback treatment. For the subject who did not respond to neurofeedback, training was applied with 38 sessions of LORETA neurofeedback training without success. Evaluation measures included qEEG analysis with Nx Link data base, MMPI, T.O.V.A tests and SA-45 questionaries at baseline, and at the end of neurofeedback treatment. Lexicor qEEG signals were sampled at 128 Hz with 30 minutes-neurofeedback sessions completed between 80-120 sessions depending on the case, by Biolex neurofeedback system. At baseline and after every 20 sessions, patients were recorded with webcam during the interview. Twelve out of 13 subjects who received 80-120 sessions of neurofeedback training showed significant improvement based on SA-45 questionaries, MMPI, T.O.V.A. and qEEG/Nx Link data base (Neurometric analysis) results, and interviewing by parent/family members. Neurofeedback can change the view of psychiatrists and psychologists in the future regarding the treatment of personality disorders. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of neurofeedback treatment in antisocial personality disorders. Further study with controls is warranted.

  2. Toward a genetically-informed model of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, John

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual framework for describing borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on empirical studies of the phenotypic structure and genetic architecture of personality. The proposed phenotype has 2 components: (1) a description of core self and interpersonal pathology-the defining features of personality disorder-as these features are expressed in the disorder; and (2) a set of traits based on the anxious-dependent or emotional dysregulation factor of the four-factor model of PD. Four kinds of traits are described: emotional (anxiousness, emotional reactivity, emotional intensity, and pessimistic-anhedonia), interpersonal (submissiveness, insecure attachment, social apprehensiveness, and need for approval), cognitive (cognitive dysregulation), and self-harm (behaviors and ideas). Formulation of the phenotype was guided by the conceptualization of personality as a system of interrelated sub-systems. The psychopathology associated with BPD involves most components of the system. The trait structure of the disorder is assumed to reflect the genetic architecture of personality and individual traits are assumed to be based on adaptive mechanisms. It is suggested that borderline traits are organized around the trait of anxiousness and that an important feature of BPD is dysregulation of the threat management system leading to pervasive fearfulness and unstable emotions. The interpersonal traits are assumed to be heritable characteristics that evolved to deal with interpersonal threats that arose as a result of social living. The potential for unstable and conflicted interpersonal relationships that is inherent to the disorder is assumed to result from the interplay between the adaptive structure of personality and psychosocial adversity. The etiology of the disorder is discussed in terms of biological and environmental factors associated with each component of the phenotype.

  3. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  4. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  5. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC) and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26) and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23) were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25) but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23). Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions. PMID:21801440

  6. Personality features of patients with primary affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, M R; Stallone, F; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R F

    1979-08-01

    Personality variables were assessed in outpatients with primary affective disorder by use of the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and the Marke Nyman Temperament Scale (MNTS). Significant differences between diagnostic groups were initially noted for the extraversion and neuroticism scales of the MPI. However, when mood was more rigorously controlled for, these differences largely disappeared, while interdiagnostic differences for the solidity scale of the MNTS emerged. The findings suggest that these measured aspects of personality may be quite state (mood) dependent even when patients are given test instructions previously reported to minimize mood effects. This was born out in a follow-up study for the N scale, but not the E scale, of the MPI. These data indicate that assessment of neuroticism in affectively ill patients will be contaminated by the presence of even mild depressive symptoms, a finding that has important implications for studies of personality in affective disorder.

  7. Psycho-education for substance use and antisocial personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Schrøder, Sidsel; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antisocial personality disorder often co-exists with drug and alcohol use disorders. Methods: This trial examined the effectiveness of offering psycho-education for antisocial personality disorder in community substance use disorder treatment centers in Denmark. A total of 176 patients...... were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (TAU, n = 80) or TAU plus a psycho-educative program, Impulsive Lifestyle Counselling (ILC, n = 96) delivered by site clinicians (n = 39). Using follow-up interviews 3 and 9 months after randomization, we examined changes in drug and alcohol use (Addiction......%) of participants randomized to psycho-education attended at least one counselling session, and 21 (23%) attended all six sessions. The Median number of sessions was 2. All patients reduced drug and alcohol problems at 9 months with small within-group effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated significant...

  8. Paraphilia-related disorders and personality disorders in sexual homicide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Kafka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between paraphilias (PA, paraphilia-related disorders (PRD, and personality disorders retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: (1 sexual murderers without a PA or a PRD diagnosis (n=47, (2 sexual murderers with at least one PRD but no PA (n=29, (3 murderers with at least one PA but no PRDs (n=29, and finally, (4 those with a combination of both (PA + PRD, n=56. The PA + PRD group showed a significantly higher prevalence for antisocial (42.9% and sadistic (32.1% personality disorders compared to the three other groups. Schizoid personality disorder was more often diagnosed in the two paraphilic diagnosed subgroups (PA = 24.1%; PA + PRD = 24.9%. Our data suggests that PRDs and personality disorders should be systematically assessed in sexual offenders, and that the combination of PAs and PRDs in sexual offenders may characterize a group who are more impulsive, consistent with personality disorders such as antisocial personality disorder.

  9. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  10. Schizoid personality disorder linked to unbearable and inescapable loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H.J. Martens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: More insight is needed into the link between loneliness and schizoid personality disorder in order to construct more adequate diagnostic tools and therapeutic programs. Methods: A computer-based search of literature (Medline and PsycInfo between 1970 and 2009. Results: A combination of intrapsychic, psychosocial, cultural, ethnic, religious, and/or neurobiological factors determine loneliness and associated schizoid etiology. Furthermore, a complex interaction between these influences is prevalent in schizoid etiology. Conclusion: Loneliness appears to be a crucial factor in the etiology of schizoid personality disorder.

  11. Commonly studied comorbid psychopathologies among persons with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Cervantes, Paige E

    2014-05-01

    The study of comorbid psychopathology among persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is picking up steam. The purpose of this paper was to review and describe important characteristics of existing studies. Among the current crop of papers, depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been frequently evaluated. Groups studied have most frequently been children. Persons with ASD and normal intelligence quotient (IQ) scores have been studied more often than individuals with ASD and intellectual disability. Additional characteristics are discussed, and the implications of these data for future developments in the field are reviewed.

  12. Dracula. Disorders of the self and borderline personality organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J M; Raines, L C; Singer, M

    1994-12-01

    It has been proposed that Bram Stoker's novel Dracula can best be understood as a dramatic, hyperbolic, and fantastic expression of themes consistent with contemporary psychoanalytic conceptions of borderline personality disorder organization. Such an understanding may, in turn, shed further light on the nature of the intrapsychic world and experiences of borderline patients. Excerpts from the novel can be used to support the conceptualization of recent contributions to object relations theory and the understanding of borderline personality organization. It is uncanny how consistent Dracula's characteristics are to the generally seen complaints of patients suffering from this disorder.

  13. Relationship between alexithymia and dependent personality disorder: a dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Baelde, Olympe; Verrier, Annie

    2015-02-28

    The present study had two aims and used two different samples. The first aim was to determine if alexithymia and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are distinct or overlapping constructs. The second aim was to determine the specificity and the stability of the relationship between alexithymia and DPD. The first study used exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) in a sample of 477 non-clinical subjects who completed three questionnaires measuring alexithymia (Twenty item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, i.e. TAS-20), dependent personality disorder (Dependent Personality Questionnaire, i.e. DPQ) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, i.e. BDI-II). The second study used a sample of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine. The subjects completed (at admission and 3 months later) the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the TAS-20 and the BDI. Multiple regressions were done. For the first study, the PCA yielded a four-factor solution with no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale and with the factors corresponding to their respective construct. For the second study, multiple regressions showed that only avoidant personality disorder was an independent predictor of the TAS-20 scores. Alexithymia is a construct that is distinct and separate from DPD and depression. Alexithymia is not a stable feature of DPD while it is a core feature of avoidant personality disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality disorder in DSM-5: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, P; Krueger, R F; Kendler, K S

    2016-01-01

    As the revision process leading to DSM-5 began, the domain of personality disorder embodied the highest aspirations for major change. After an initial prototype-based proposal failed to gain acceptance, the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (P&PDWG) developed a hybrid model containing categorical and dimensional components. A clash of perspectives both within the P&PDWG and between the P&PDWG and DSM-5 oversight committees led to the rejection of this proposal from the main body of DSM-5. Major issues included conflicting ways of conceptualizing validation, differences of opinion from personality disorder experts outside the P&PDWG, divergent concepts of the magnitude of evidence needed to support substantial changes, and the disagreements about clinical utility of the hybrid model. Despite these setbacks, the 'Alternative DSM-5 Model of Personality Disorder' is presented in Section III of the DSM-5. Further research should clarify its performance relative to the DSM-IV criteria reprinted in the main DSM-5 text.

  15. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, Marleen; Barendregt, Marko; Haan, Bernadette; Nijman, Henk; de Beurs, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders and psychopathy can be held fully responsible for crimes has been questioned on theoretical bases. According to some interpretations, these disorders are due to cognitive, biological and developmental deficits that diminish the individual's accountability. The current article presents two studies among suspects of serious crimes under forensic evaluation in a Dutch forensic psychiatric observation clinic. The first study examined how experts weigh personality disorders in their conclusions as far as the degree of criminal responsibility and the need for enforced forensic psychiatric treatment are concerned (n=843). The second study investigated associations between PCL-R scores and experts' responsibility and treatment advisements (n=108). The results suggest that in Dutch forensic practice, the presence of a personality disorder decreased responsibility and led to an advice for enforced forensic treatment. Experts also take characteristics of psychopathy concerning impulsivity and (ir)responsibility into consideration when judging criminal accountability. Furthermore, they deem affective deficiencies sufficiently important to indicate suspects' threat to society or dangerousness and warrant a need for forensic treatment.

  16. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Senija Tahirovic; Adela Bajric

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992). Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) describe th...

  17. Toward a psychoanalytic understanding of multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, B E

    1993-01-01

    The author suggests a developmental psychoanalytic frame from which to understand the clinical phenomenology of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Annihilation anxiety and fears of nonbeing are understood as central; they are seen as resulting from actual early traumatic impingements at key developmental periods. Alter "personalities" are conceptualized as functional delusional processes that serve to maintain self-cohesion. The alters are brought about through the subject's lack of capacity for illusion. Some therapeutic implications regarding a psychoanalytic stance are discussed.

  18. Implicit self-esteem in borderline personality and depersonalization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measure...

  19. Comorbidity of psychiatric and personality disorders in first suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Nagaraja Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempted suicide is a common clinical problem in a general hospital setting. It has a serious clinical and socio-economical impact too. Aims: To study the psychosocial, psychiatric, and personality profile of the first suicide attempters in a general hospital. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, hospital-based, descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive cases of first suicide attempt ( n=100 treated in a general hospital were studied to know the clinical profile. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, suicide characteristics, psychiatric morbidity, and comorbidity were analyzed. Risk-Rescue rating was applied to know the medical seriousness of the suicide attempt. Presumptive stressful life event scale was utilized to calculate life events score. Structured clinical interview (MINI Plus and semi-structured clinical interview (IPDE were used for axis-I and axis-II (personality diagnoses. The results were analyzed using appropriate statistical measures. Results: Family history of psychiatric illnesses (31% and suicide (11% were noted. Insecticides and pesticides were the most common agents (71% employed to attempt suicide. Interpersonal difficulties (46% were the most frequent stressor. Overall medical seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality. 93% of the suicide attempters had at least one axis-I and/or axis-II psychiatric disorder. Most common diagnostic categories were mood disorders, adjustment disorders, and substance-related disorders, with axis-I disorders (89%, personality disorders (52%, and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders (51.6%. Conclusion: Individuals who made first suicide attempt were young adults, had lower educational achievement; overall seriousness of the suicide attempt was of moderate lethality, high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, personality disorders, and comorbidity, and had sought medical help from general practitioners.

  20. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire predicts functioning styles of personality disorder: a trial in healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyi; He, Wei; Chen, Wanzhen; Yu, Wenjun; Chen, Wei; Shen, Mowei; Wang, Wei

    2011-04-30

    Normal personality traits, as measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), predicted some personality disorders in a sample of healthy volunteers. Whether these predictions could be more pronounced in patients with personality disorders remains unknown. We administered the ZKPQ and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), which describes the functioning styles of personality disorder, in 134 patients with a range of personality disorders and in 268 age-, gender- and education level-matched healthy volunteers. Cluster A patients scored lowest on Sociability, cluster B highest on Impulsive Sensation Seeking and Aggression-Hostility, cluster C1 (Avoidant and Dependent types) highest on Neuroticism-Anxiety, and cluster C2 (Obsessive-Compulsive type) highest on Activity. Most of the predictors were consistent across both the healthy and patient groups. The variances that accounted for predicting most PERM styles by the ZKPQ traits in the patient group were higher than those in the healthy group. Our results showed that the ZKPQ traits could specifically predict the PERM styles in both healthy subjects and personality-disorder patients. This result was more pronounced in the latter group. The most powerful predictions were obtained for Antisocial, Dependent, Borderline and Avoidant styles, and the weakest for the Schizotypal and Schizoid styles in the patient group.

  1. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  2. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  3. Temperament and the structure of personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R T; Joyce, P R

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct a simplified system for the classification of personality disorders, and relates this system to normally distributed human personality characteristics. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the SCID-II structured clinical interview for personality disorders. A four-factor solution of personality disorder symptoms was obtained and we labelled these factors 'the four As': antisocial, asocial, asthenic and anankastic. The factors related to the four temperament dimensions of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), but less closely to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) dimensions. The four factors were similar to those identified in a number of studies using a variety of assessment methods and this lends some credibility to our findings. It suggests that a more parsimonious set of trait descriptors could be used to provide simpler, less overlapping categories that retain links with current clinical practice. In addition, these factors can be seen as extremes of normally distributed behaviours obtained using the TPQ questionnaire.

  4. [Epistemic and historical elucidation of the borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño Paredes, Diego Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The particularities of those that have been considered "hard cases" in the clinical field, and their relationship with personality disorders, are discussed together with their quintessential conceptual and diagnostic model: the borderline personalities. The aim of the study is to historically and epistemologically rebuild their origins within psychiatry and psychoanalysis. From a classical epistemological and historical study, a brief tour is made through the nineteenth century alienism and the postulate of "partial insanity". Next, a passage is spawned through the concepts that emerged from this postulate: "monomania" and "moral insanity", up to mid-century Kraepelin and the "fundamental states" of manic-depressive insanity as pathological constitutional forms or characters, and reaching the twentieth century with characterology and psychopathic personalities. Finally, psychoanalysis is analyzed as the main source of borderline personality disorders arising from the problems encountered in analytical treatments and the development of the notion of "character neurosis". Borderline personality disorders are the result of the conjunction of a number of factors, heirs of the notion of "partial insanity", of the fundamental states of manic-depression insanity, of characterology, of the idea of constitutions and pathological personalities, together with the emerging concerns of psychoanalysis in the early twentieth century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  6. Personal neglect-a disorder of body representation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Ulrike; de Haan, Bianca; Grässli, Tanja; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mueri, René; Perrig, Walter J; Wurtz, Pascal; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    The cognitive mechanisms underlying personal neglect are not well known. One theory postulates that personal neglect is due to a disorder of contralesional body representation. In the present study, we have investigated whether personal neglect is best explained by impairments in the representation of the contralesional side of the body, in particular, or a dysfunction of the mental representation of the contralesional space in general. For this, 22 patients with right hemisphere cerebral lesions (7 with personal neglect, 15 without personal neglect) and 13 healthy controls have been studied using two experimental tasks measuring representation of the body and extrapersonal space. In the tasks, photographs of left and right hands as well as left and right rear-view mirrors presented from the front and the back had to be judged as left or right. Our results show that patients with personal neglect made more errors when asked to judge stimuli of left hands and left rear-view mirrors than either patients without personal neglect or healthy controls. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that errors in interpreting left hands were the best predictor of personal neglect, while other variables such as extrapersonal neglect, somatosensory or motor impairments, or deficits in left extrapersonal space representation had no predictive value of personal neglect. These findings suggest that deficient body representation is the major mechanism underlying personal neglect.

  7. Personality Features and Personality Disorders in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; Jones, James F.; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Maloney, Elizabeth; Reeves, William C.; Heim, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. Methods 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorders. We used the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality features (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness). The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory measured 5 dimensions of fatigue, and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 measured 8 dimensions of functional impairment. Results Twenty-nine percent of the CFS cases had at least 1 personality disorder, compared to 28% of the ISF cases and 7% of the well controls. The prevalence of paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and depressive personality disorders were significantly higher in CFS and ISF compared to the well controls. The CFS cases had significantly higher scores on neuroticism, and significantly lower scores on extraversion than those with ISF or the well controls. Personality features were correlated with selected composite characteristics of fatigue. Conclusions Our results suggest that CFS is associated with an increased prevalence of maladaptive personality features and personality disorders. This might be associated with being noncompliant with treatment suggestions, displaying unhealthy behavioral strategies and lacking a stable social environment. Since maladaptive personality is not specific to CFS, it might be associated with illness per se rather than with a specific condition. PMID:20664306

  8. Personality features and personality disorders in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Jones, James F; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Maloney, Elizabeth; Reeves, William C; Heim, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents unique diagnostic and management challenges. Personality may be a risk factor for CFS and may contribute to the maintenance of the illness. 501 study participants were identified from the general population of Georgia: 113 people with CFS, 264 with unexplained unwellness but not CFS (insufficient fatigue, ISF) and 124 well controls. We used the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, 4th edition, to evaluate DSM-IV personality disorders. We used the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality features (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness). The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory measured 5 dimensions of fatigue, and the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 measured 8 dimensions of functional impairment. Twenty-nine percent of the CFS cases had at least 1 personality disorder, compared to 28% of the ISF cases and 7% of the well controls. The prevalence of paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and depressive personality disorders were significantly higher in CFS and ISF compared to the well controls. The CFS cases had significantly higher scores on neuroticism, and significantly lower scores on extraversion than those with ISF or the well controls. Personality features were correlated with selected composite characteristics of fatigue. Our results suggest that CFS is associated with an increased prevalence of maladaptive personality features and personality disorders. This might be associated with being noncompliant with treatment suggestions, displaying unhealthy behavioral strategies and lacking a stable social environment. Since maladaptive personality is not specific to CFS, it might be associated with illness per se rather than with a specific condition. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Personal observation of skin disorders in malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Y; Hogan, Daniel J; Ursine, Susonne; Yanamandra, Krishne; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    This is a description of some unknown skin disorders found by a physician inmate in a concentration camp, 1958 to 1962. After prolonged semistarvation and ultraheavy physical labor, skin lesions developed among the inmates including cutaneous pigmentation overlying bony prominence, buccal membrane pigmentation, palmoplantar keratoderma with fissures, palmar crease clefts, nail layering, intra-nail hemorrhage, and so on. These lesions responded dramatically to nutrition therapy, including dietary improvement, yeast administration, or thiamin injection. Thiamin deficiency was confirmed to be one of major etiologic factors, whereas the deficiency of niacin or riboflavin also played a part. In the pediatric case with palmar crease clefts, both thiamin and niacin were dramatically effective. No laboratory data could be provided.

  10. Cluster A personality pathology in social anxiety disorder: a comparison with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Arendt, Mikkel; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Hougaard, Esben; Rosenberg, Nicole K

    2014-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been associated with cluster A personality disorder (PD) traits, mainly paranoid and schizoid traits. The aim of the study was to further investigate cluster A personality pathology in patients with SAD. Self-reported PD traits were investigated in a clinical sample of 161 participants with SAD and in a clinical comparison group of 145 participants with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PAD). A diagnosis of SAD was associated with more paranoid and schizotypal PD traits, and an association between depression and personality pathology could indicate a state-effect of depression on PD traits. Patients with SAD had more cluster A personality pathology than patients with PAD, with the most solid indication for paranoid personality pathology.

  11. Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder/Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder and Emerging Personality Disorder: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Khadija; Mwimba, Gracia; Pritchett, Rachel; Davidson, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retainin...

  12. Personality Disorders in DSM-5: A Commentary on the Perceived Process and Outcome of the Proposal of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    There has been much discussion and controversy concerning the process undertaken and the decisions made with respect to the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (PPDWG) proposal for DSM-5, as well as the rejection of the work group's final proposal, by the American Psychiatric Association Board of Trustees. This commentary suggests that the way the PPDWG members were selected and the perceived secrecy associated with the PPDWG's deliberations almost assured that, despite the hard work and good intentions of the group members, the proposal would raise controversy and could ultimately fail. This commentary provides a personal perspective on some of the issues, assumptions, and preconceptions that arose between members of different theoretical and conceptual camps within the field of personality disorders. It concludes with suggestions as to how we might avoid these mistakes in the future and also how we might take advantage of the PPDWG's substantive work as we make future attempts to improve diagnosis in the area of personality disorders.

  13. Histrionic personality disorder as pseudo-learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S A; Collacott, R A

    1995-10-01

    The case of a 20-year-old woman with a histrionic personality disorder is described. She claims to have a mild learning disability, and indeed, is receiving special college education for people with learning disabilities and has a specialist learning disability social worker, despite being of above average intelligence. Aetiologically, her persona is viewed as a psychological defence, rather than a deliberate attempt at deception. A process of 'institutionalization' appears to have occurred and compounded the problems with further regression. Psychiatrists and professionals in allied disciplines should not accept that a person has a learning disability purely because that person tells you that he or she has one.

  14. Personality traits in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, M; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Mortensen, E L

    2007-01-01

    ) and without (the control group/low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified. Personality traits were compared for a total of 211 high-risk and low-risk twins. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, the high-risk twins had a higher level of neuroticism than the control twins (P = 0.......03). In multivariate analyses, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was not significantly associated with neuroticism but correlated to sex, minor psychopathology and recent life events. CONCLUSION: A high genetic liability to affective disorder showed an association with neuroticism, but the association...

  15. Paranoid personality disorder in the United States: the role of race, illicit drug use, and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Gina T; DeMarce, Josephine M; Lash, Steven J; Parker, Jefferson D

    2014-01-01

    Differential rates of schizophrenia and paranoia symptoms have been found for Black and White individuals. Paranoid personality disorder shares symptoms with schizophrenia, yet has received minimal attention with regard to potential racial differences. In a sample consisting of 180 substance use disorder treatment-seeking individuals, the association between the diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder and the variables of race, cannabis use disorder, and income were examined. Results extended previous findings to paranoid personality disorder, supporting the hypothesis that Black individuals would be diagnosed with higher rates of paranoid personality disorder. Cannabis use disorder status and income did not predict paranoid personality disorder diagnoses.

  16. Do people with borderline personality disorder complicated by antisocial personality disorder benefit from the STEPPS treatment program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Simsek-Duran, Fatma; Blum, Nancee; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) is a group treatment for persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We describe results from two data sets on outcome in persons who participated in STEPPS with BPD alone or BPD plus antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In Study 1, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 65 persons with BPD who participated in a randomized controlled trial at an academic medical centre. In Study 2, we examined the effect of comorbid ASPD on outcome in 64 offenders with BPD who participated in STEPPS in correctional settings. All subjects were assessed for the presence of BPD and ASPD. In Study 1, subjects with ASPD experienced greater improvement in BPD symptoms, impulsiveness and global symptoms. In Study 2, offenders with ASPD experienced greater improvement in positive and negative behaviours and positive affectivity. We conclude that persons with BPD plus ASPD benefit from STEPPS in community and correctional settings. The findings suggest that persons with BPD plus ASPD show greater improvement in some domains than persons with BPD only. People with ASPD should not be automatically excluded from participation in the program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  18. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasko, Jan; Grambal, Ales; Kasalova, Petra; Kamardova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Vrbova, Kristyna; Sigmundova, Zuzana; Latalova, Klara; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders. The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program - Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86%) patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the questionnaires). The patients' mean ratings on all measurements were significantly reduced during the treatment. Also, 67.5% reached at least minimal improvement (42.4% showed moderate and more improvement, 35.3% of the patients reached remission). The patients without comorbid personality disorder improved more significantly in the reduction of depressive symptoms than those with comorbid personality disorder. However, there were no significant differences in change in anxiety levels and severity of the mental issues between the patients with and without personality disorders. Higher

  19. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  20. Role of biological factors in etiopathogenesis of borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally labile personality of borderline type (borderline personality occurs in 1-2% of individuals from general population; 75% of this group are women. Similarly to most of the other mental disorders, the borderline personality results from a combination of biological, social and psychological factors. The subject of this study is a survey of the current knowledge on biological factors of borderline personality. Most researchers are of the opinion that these personality disorders are determined genetically, with such inherited temperamental traits as: dysregulation, impulsivity, and hypersensitivity. Perhaps hereditary is also a defect within the serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system and/or dopaminergic system related to the reward system. Many researchers have recently perceived the dysfunction of endogenous opioid system as an integral component of borderline personality. There is now a lot of evidence showing that this dysfunction as well as that of the reward system may account for most of the borderline personality symptoms which constitute an involuntary attempt of stimulating the inefficient systems. This is how e.g. the presence of reckless sexual behaviours, unstable interpersonal relationships and inability to delay the reward in borderline personality is accounted for. Such observations may in the future constitute an important indication for seeking a more effective pharmacotherapy for patients with borderline personality. It is possible that in some patients the described dysfunctions may be alleviated with time. This is implied by the results of comprehensive prospective studies which show a significant regression of symptoms and improvement in functioning of most patients with borderline personality after at least several years.

  1. Confounding of Big Five Personality Assessments in Emotional Disorders by Comorbidity and Current Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; van der Does, Willem; Ormel, Johan; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Foremost cross-sectional studies of personality in common mental disorders show similar Big Five trait profiles [i.e. high neuroticism (N), low conscientiousness (C) and low extraversion (E)]. It remains undecided whether this lack of distinct personality profiles is partly due to comorbidity among

  2. Is Anakin Skywalker suffering from borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent

    2011-01-30

    Anakin Skywalker, one of the main characters in the "Star Wars" films, meets the criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD). This finding is interesting for it may partly explain the commercial success of these movies among adolescents and be useful in educating the general public and medical students about BPD symptoms.

  3. Borderline Personality Traits and Disorder: Predicting Prospective Patient Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Decisions about the composition of personality assessment in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (5th ed.; DSM-V) will be heavily influenced by the clinical utility of candidate constructs. In this study, we addressed 1 aspect of clinical utility by testing the incremental validity of 5-factor model (FFM)…

  4. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Keulen-de Vos; D.P. Bernstein; A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  5. Service Delivery to Persons with Communication Disorders in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jean L.; Martinez, Velma A.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes factors which make delivery of human services extremely difficult in Micronesia, noting problems of geographic distance and isolation and cultural and linguistic diversity. Presents a plan for providing services to persons with communication disorders using a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist with doctorates to supervise…

  6. Personality in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a Rorschach study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; Cohen, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we tested several hypotheses derived from self psychology (Diamond, 1987) regarding personality features of patients suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia (PDA). PDA patients are thought to suffer from a deficit in negative affect-regulating capacity, surrounded by defenses su

  7. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  8. Personality disorder research agenda for the DSM-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik; Krueger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association is sponsoring a series of international conferences to set a research agenda for the development of the next edition of the diagnostic manual. The first conference in this series, "Dimensional Models of Personality Disorder: Etiology, Pathology, Phenomenology,...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  10. A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

  11. Interpersonal Precipitants and Suicide Attempts in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S.; Groves, Shelly A.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John; Stanley, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often characterized by multiple low lethality suicide attempts triggered by seemingly minor incidents, and less commonly by high lethality attempts that are attributed to impulsiveness or comorbid major depression. The relationships among life events, impulsiveness, and type of suicidal behavior has hardly…

  12. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  13. Multidimensional Model of Trauma and Correlated Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have revealed an important relationship between psychosocial trauma and antisocial personality disorder. A multidimensional model is presented which describes the psychopathological route from trauma to antisocial development. A case report is also included that can illustrate the etiological process from trauma to severe antisocial…

  14. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  15. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, W.H.M.; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex s

  16. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB.

  17. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, W.H.M.; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex s

  18. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Nancy H; Daumit, Gail L; Dua, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders (SMD) is a major public health challenge that warrants action. The number and scope of truly tested interventions in this area remain limited, and strategies for implementation and scaling up of programmes with a strong evidence base are sc...

  19. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  20. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Arntz, A.; Tafrate, R.C.; Mitchell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  1. A More Unified View of the Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ronald L.; Kodman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Offers perspective of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) phenomenon based on current clinical experience. Asserts that the Jmind is polypsychic with multitude of psychological systems and processes existing in conjunction with one another, that MPD individuals have fragmented or dissociated ego states due to stress on unity of sense of self, and…

  2. Sex bias in classifying borderline and narcissistic personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braamhorst, W.; Lobbestael, J.; Emons, Wilco; Arntz, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sex bias in the classification of borderline and narcissistic personality disorders. A sample of psychologists in training for a post-master degree (N = 180) read brief case histories (male or female version) and made DSM classification. To differentiate sex bias due to sex

  3. Development and Validation of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Hicks, Brian M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Although large epidemiological data sets can inform research on the etiology and development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), they rarely include BPD measures. In some cases, however, proxy measures can be constructed using instruments already in these data sets. In this study, the authors developed and validated a self-report measure of…

  4. Motivation for treatment in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Beek; R. Verheul

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is to investigate the association between DSM-IV personality disorders and motivation for treatment in a large sample of patients admitting for a variety of psychotherapeutic programs (n = 1083). Second, we examine whether and to what extent this associatio

  5. Personality Disorders and Clinical Syndromes in ADHD Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Wells, June; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this article is to investigate the type of personality disorders and clinical syndromes (CSs) that were best related to ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Method: The authors screened for childhood and adult ADHD symptoms and administered the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) to 196 serving prisoners.…

  6. Further Comments toward a Dimensional Classification of Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A.; Trull, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Responds to the comments by H. N. Garb (2007) and A. M. Ruscio (2007) on the current authors' original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model" (2007). Unable to respond to all of Garb's and Ruscio's concerns given space limitations, the current authors attempt to respond to key…

  7. Antisocial personality disorder, sexual sadism, malignant narcissism, and serial murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, V J; Turco, R N

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the research on serial murder and its relationship to antisocial personality disorder and sexual sadism. The concept of malignant narcissism is also discussed. Case studies of serial killers are examined regarding the nature of sexual violation and crime scene behavior.

  8. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  9. Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits in combined antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.

  10. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, M.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Schmidt, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without

  11. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Telch; J.H. Kamphuis; N.B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without a

  12. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  13. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  14. Are alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder synonymous diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Estey, Alisa J; Segal, Daniel L; Marle, Peter D

    2013-02-01

    Relationships among alexithymia, personality disorders, and higher-order psychopathological and interpersonal dimensions were examined in 199 college students and a close relative of each. Alexithymia, the difficulty to express and identify emotions, was measured by the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS; [Haviland, M. G., Warren, W. L., & Riggs, M. L. (2000). An observer scale to measure alexithymia. Psychosomatics, 41, 385-392]), which was completed by each student's relative. Each student completed three self-report measures: the Coolidge Axis II Inventory (CATI; [Coolidge, F. L. (2000). Coolidge Axis II Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author.), the Five Dimensional Personality Test (5DPT; [van Kampen, D. (2009). Personality and psychopathology: A theory-based revision of Eysenck's PEN model. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 9-21]), and the Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory (HCTI; [Coolidge, F. L. (1998). Horney-Coolidge Tridimensional Inventory: Manual. Colorado Springs, CO: Author]). Results indicated that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with personality disorders and their traits, such as schizoid, avoidant, and paranoid. With regard to the issue of the similarity and difference between alexithymia and schizoid personality disorder, there was sufficient evidence across all of the measures to suggest that they are not synonymous entities. Finally, alexithymic traits were associated with concurrent depressive traits even in a non-clinical sample.

  15. Smaller superior temporal gyrus volume specificity in schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kim E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; New, Antonia S.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Newmark, Randall E.; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Passarelli, Vincent; Weinstein, Shauna R.; Canfield, Emily L.; Meyerson, David A.; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.; Siever, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia-spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SPD is characterized by social withdrawal/anhedonia, BPD is marked by hyper-reactivity to interpersonal stimuli and hyper-emotionality. This is the first morphometric study to directly compare SPD and BPD patients in temporal volume. Methods We compared three age-gender- and education-matched groups: 27 unmedicated SPD individuals with no BPD traits, 52 unmedicated BPD individuals with no SPD traits, and 45 healthy controls. We examined gray matter volume of frontal and temporal lobe Brodmann areas (BAs), and dorsal/ventral amygdala from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Results In the STG, an auditory association area reported to be dysfunctional in SPD and BPD, the SPD patients had significantly smaller volume than healthy controls and BPD patients. No group differences were found between BPD patients and controls. Smaller BA22 volume was associated with greater symptom severity in SPD patients. Reduced STG volume may be an important endophenotype for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. SPD is distinct from BPD in terms of STG volume abnormalities which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and could help discriminate between them. PMID:19473820

  16. Vocational functioning in schizotypal and paranoid personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Mueser, Kim T; Mischel, Rebecca; Adams, Rebecca; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret M; Look, Amy E; Leung, Winnie W; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-15

    Impaired vocational functioning is a hallmark of schizophrenia, but limited research has evaluated the relationships between work and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders, including schizotypal (SPD) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD). This study compared employment history and job characteristics of 174 individuals drawn from the community or clinic, based on four personality disorder groups: SPD Only, PPD Only, SPD+PPD, and No SPD or PPD. Symptoms and cognitive functioning were also assessed. Both PPD and/or SPD were associated with lower rates of current employment, and a history of having worked at less cognitively complex jobs than people without these disorders. Participants with PPD were less likely to have a history of competitive work for one year, whereas those with SPD tended to have worked at jobs involving lower levels of social contact, compared with those without these disorders. When the effects of symptoms and cognitive functioning were statistically controlled, PPD remained a significant predictor of work history, and SPD remained a significant predictor of social contact on the job. The findings suggest that impaired vocational functioning is an important characteristic of SPD and PPD.

  17. The DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning and Severity of Iranian Patients With Antisocial and Borderline Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mehdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Khodaie Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Lotfi, Mozhgan

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental problems with Personality Disorders (PD) diagnostic system in the previous version of DSM, led to the revision of DSM. Therefore, a multidimensional system has been proposed for diagnosis of personality disorder features in DSM-5. In the dimensional approach of DSM-5, personality disorders diagnosis is based on levels of personality functioning (Criteria A) and personality trait domains (Criteria B). The purpose of this study was firstly, to examine the DSM-5 levels of personality functioning in antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and second, to explore which levels of personality functioning in patients with antisocial and borderline personality disorders can better predicted severity than others. This study had a cross sectional design. The participants consisted of 252 individuals with antisocial (n = 122) and borderline personality disorders (n = 130). They were recruited from Tehran prisoners, and clinical psychology and psychiatry centers of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran. The sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The SCID-II-PQ, SCID-II and DSM-5 levels of personality functioning were used to diagnose and assess personality disorders. The data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Firstly, it was found that DSM-5 levels of personality functioning have a strong correlation with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms, specially intimacy and self-directedness (P < 0.001). Secondly, the findings showed that identity, intimacy and self-directedness significantly predicted antisocial personality disorder severity (P < 0.0001). The results showed that intimacy and empathy were good predictors of borderline personality disorder severity, as well (P < 0.0001). Overall, our findings showed that levels of personality functioning are a significant predictor of personality disorders severity. The results partially confirm

  18. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  19. Dimensions of personality pathology in adolescents: relations to DSM-IV personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor B; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate and compare two approaches to personality pathology in adolescents. Dimensions of personality pathology, assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire for Adolescents (DAPP-BQ-A; Tromp & Koot, 2008), were related to DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred for mental health services. Correlational analyses revealed that the DAPP-BQ-A higher- and lower-order dimensions were related to PD symptoms in predictable ways. Regression analyses showed that for all but three PDs (Schizoid, Schizotypal, and Passive-Aggressive), lower-order dimensions accounted for unique variance, after controlling for gender, age, and co-occurring PD symptoms. It is concluded that dimensional assessment may provide valuable information on adolescent personality pathology, and facilitate the study of developmental antecedents of adult personality pathology.

  20. Discrete subgroups of adolescents diagnosed with borderline personality disorder: a latent class analysis of personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    Research suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be diagnosed in adolescents and is marked by considerable heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify personality features characterizing adolescents with BPD and possible meaningful patterns of heterogeneity that could lead to personality subgroups. The authors analyzed data on 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, who met DSM criteria for a BPD diagnosis. The authors used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups based on the personality pattern scales from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). LCA indicated that the best-fitting solution was a two-class model, identifying two discrete subgroups of BPD adolescents that were described as internalizing and externalizing. The subgroups were then compared on clinical and sociodemographic variables, measures of personality dimensions, DSM BPD criteria, and perception of attachment styles. Adolescents with a BPD diagnosis constitute a heterogeneous group and vary meaningfully on personality features that can have clinical implications for treatment.

  1. [A case of major depressive disorder barely distinguishable from narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of depression with a narcissistic tendency, especially among young individuals, has been pointed out. When the narcissistic tendency is conspicuous, patients may be treated for a personality disorder or pervasive developmental disorder, and not for a mood disorder. A case is described of a man in his late twenties who developed depression due to his failure in research work and job hunting, and, after a time, due to the break off of his engagement with his fiancée, manifested with narcissistic symptoms including an exaggerated opinion of himself, a sense of entitlement, interpersonal exploitation, lack of empathy, strong feelings of envy, and an extrapunitive tendency. He was regarded at the start of treatment as having narcissistic personality disorder. However, persevering treatment, mainly with supportive psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy including antidepressants (high dose of maprotiline combined with low dose of mirtazapine), sodium valprote and aripiprazole, finally improved not only his depressive symptoms, but also the symptoms regarded as a deriving from a personality disorder. He presented fierce anger and aggression regarded as a mixed state, and showed the rapid improvement in his depressive state after hospitalization, which we considered to show potential bipolarity. We diagnosed the patient with narcissistic depression, emphasizing the aspect which suggested a mood disorder, such as the episodic presence of narcissistic symptoms as long as a depressive state resided, his circular, recursive discourse, and his potential bipolarity. To accurately evaluate the aspect of mood disorders which patients appearing to show personality disorders have, it is considered useful to grasp a patient's condition from the viewpoint of a personality structure and viable dynamics. From a therapeutic standpoint, we suggest the importance of simple but persevering psychotherapy and a sufficient quantity of antidepressant medication for

  2. The alternative DSM-5 personality disorder traits criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Bo, Sune

    2016-01-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a) offers an alternative model for Personality Disorders (PDs) in Section III, which consists in part of a pathological personality traits criterion measured...... with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The PID-5 selfreport instrument currently exists in the original 220-item form, a short 100-item form, and a brief 25-item form. For clinicians and researchers, the choice of a particular PID- 5 form depends on feasibility, but also reliability and validity. The goal...... of the present study was to examine the psychometric qualities of all 3 PID-5 forms, simultaneously, based on a Danish sample (N = 1376) of 451 psychiatric outpatients and 925 community-dwelling participants. Scale reliability and factorial validity were satisfactory across all 3 PID-5 forms. The correlational...

  3. Eating disorder detection through personality traits and self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Guarnido, A J; Herruzo Cabrera, F J; Pino Osuna, M J

    2012-12-01

    The current scientific evidence suggests that certain dimensions of the personality and self-concept act as risk factors of eating disorder (ED). However, there is little investigation that explores the different elements involved in both groups of variables together and in an exhaustive way. Our aim is to be able to discriminate between individuals diagnosed with ED and controls free of symptoms according to these personality traits and selfconcept. To accomplish our objective, the Inventory of Eating Disorders 2 (EDI-2), Inventory of Personality NEO Revised (NEO-PI-R) and Self-Concept Form-5 (AF-5) were administered to a sample composed of 69 cases of ED and 89 controls, and an analysis of logistic regression was carried out. The pattern obtained could correctly classify 96.2% of the people diagnosed with ED and, consistent with the previous research, it should work in the same way to detect people at risk of developing ED in the future.

  4. Adolescent multiple personality disorder: a preliminary study of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, P F; Eisenhower, J W

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic features and treatment histories of 11 adolescents with multiple personality disorder (MPD) are presented. Clinical evaluation revealed that the majority of these adolescents manifested extremely variable school performance, disruptive behavior, trances, amnesias, mood swings, sharp changes in personality, apparent lying, voices heard in the head, and depression. All had a history of childhood trauma: Sexual abuse (73%), physical abuse (73%), and emotional abuse (82%). Seventy-three percent had a parent with a diagnosable dissociative disorder; 36% of the mothers had MPD. These adolescents had a mean number of 24.1 alter personalities and appear to have become multiple at a mean age of 3 years, 1 month. All patients had angry protector alters, depressed alters, scared alters, and child alters. Fifty-four percent of these cases have integrated during treatment or are progressing toward integration. The remaining cases dropped out of therapy.

  5. Antisocial personality disorder--stable and unstable subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

  6. The heritability of Cluster B personality disorders assessed both by personal interview and questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-12-01

    Whereas the heritability of common personality traits has been firmly established, the results of the few published studies on personality disorders (PDs) are highly divergent, with some studies finding high heredity and others very low. A problem with assessing personality disorders by means of interview is errors connected with interviewer bias. A way to overcome the problem is to use self-report questionnaires in addition to interviews. This study used both interview and questionnaire for assessing DSM-IV Cluster B personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder (APD), borderline (BPD), narcissistic (NPD), and histrionic (HPD). We assessed close to 2,800 twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel using a self-report questionnaire and, a few years later, the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV). Items from the self-report questionnaire that best predicted the PDs captured by the interview were then selected. Measurement models combining questionnaire and interview information were applied and were fitted using Mx. Whereas the heritability of Cluster B PDs assessed by interview was around .30, and around .40-.50 when assessed by self-report questionnaire, the heritability of the convergent latent factor, including information from both interview and self-report questionnaire was .69 for APD, .67 for BPD, .71 for NPD, and .63 for HPD. As is usually found for personality, the effect of shared-in families (familial) environment was zero. In conclusion, when both interview and self-report questionnaire are taken into account, the heritability of Cluster B PD appears to be in the upper range of previous findings for mental disorders.

  7. The ironic fate of the personality disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Oldham, John M

    2013-10-01

    An alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), based on assessments of impairments in personality functioning and of pathological personality traits, was intended for the official classification in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5), but was instead placed in Section III, "Emerging Measures and Models." This article attempts to describe forces in play during the development of DSM-5 that may have contributed to this outcome, from the perspectives of the Chair of the Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group (PPDWG) and three of its members. These include a failed imperative to shift away from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) categories toward a dimensional perspective on psychopathology, dynamics within the American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Task Force and PPDWG and the roles and impact of individuals and groups in the PD community. From these considerations, we present some suggestions for how the field might move forward in the future. A new opportunity exists to use the proposed alternative model as a foundation for research. In the immediate future, with the existence of two different models of PDs in DSM-5, studies can be done comparing the models to each other and to other models with respect to reliability and antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validity. If the Section III model continues to perform as early studies suggest, it may migrate into Section II of a planned DSM-5.1. This valuable research, already underway, will shape future editions of the DSM, by providing data to articulate a clearer vision, with broader representation of reliable and valid models. Going forward, personal investments must be put aside for the benefit of the greater good.

  8. Personality disorder models and their coverage of interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor F; Simms, Leonard J

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction is a defining feature of personality disorders (PDs) and can serve as a criterion for comparing PD models. In this study, the interpersonal coverage of 4 competing PD models was examined using a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric patients who completed the NEO Personality Inventory-3 First Half (NEO-PI-3FH; McCrae & Costa, 2007), Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012), Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Questionnaire (SCID-II PQ; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995). Participants also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-SC; Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) to assess interpersonal dysfunction. Analyses compared the severity and style of interpersonal problems that characterize PD models. Previous research with DSM-5 Section II and III models was generally replicated. Extraversion and Agreeableness facets related to the most well defined interpersonal problems across normal-range and pathological traits. Pathological trait models provided more coverage of dominance problems, whereas normal-range traits covered nonassertiveness better. These results suggest that more work may be needed to reconcile descriptions of personality pathology at the level of specific constructs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Recovery, as Experienced by Women with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Nadine; Couture, Élise; Blackburn, Catherine; Carbonneau, Manon; Lacombe, Christophe; Schinck, Shella-Ann; David, Pierre; St-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

    2015-12-01

    Studies examining recovery through the service users' perspectives have mainly included persons with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Giving voice to those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would enrich our understanding of recovery, as their specific experiences may bring new dimensions, obstacles and facilitators. The objective of this study was to qualitatively capture the experience of recovery in women with BPD. Participants were women between 18 and 65 years old who had a diagnosis of BPD and completed at least 2 years in a program for persons with BPD. During the first meeting, they produced a picture collage, followed by an interview on their experience of recovery. The second meeting was a phone interview to discuss new thoughts. In addition, their medical records were reviewed. A thematic analysis of the interviews was conducted and organized with the Person-Environment-Occupation model. Although recovery was not the best term to name their experience, they all talked about a process towards stability and wellbeing (n = 12). Dimensions of recovery included, for example, letting go of the past (person), being involved in meaningful activities (occupation) and having healthy relationships (environment). Facilitators included social support and participation in a specialized therapy program. The main obstacle was unstable family relationships. The findings from this study showed similar dimensions to previous recovery studies, new perspectives on certain dimensions, as well as new ones. They also reinforced the importance to incorporate intervention outcomes that target the person with BPD, their social environment and meaningful occupations.

  10. Screening of personality disorders among chinese college students by Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiting; Ling, Hui; Yang, Bingjun; Dou, Gang

    2007-08-01

    Four thousand eight hundred and eleven students were sampled from 26 universities in 21 cities of China and evaluated using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+). Results showed that male students obtained significantly higher scores than female students on paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, narcissistic, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower scores on the borderline scale. Students from rural areas scored higher than those from urban areas on the schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorder scales, and lower on the paranoid and dependent scales. Singleton students obtained significantly higher scores than nonsingletons on paranoid, antisocial and dependent scales, and lower on schizoid, avoidant, compulsive-obsessive, passive-aggressive, depressive scales. Students from single-parent families scored significantly higher on the schizotypal scales; and students from foster families scored significantly higher on the antisocial, passive-aggressive, and depressive scales. Students from poor families scored significantly higher than those from average or wealthy families on schizoid, schizotyal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. The results suggest that low family income, low social status, and parental style contribute to the development of personality disorders.

  11. ADULT ATTACHMENT, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER FEATURES IN YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lori N.; Levy, Kenneth N.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that insecure attachment patterns and a trait disposition toward negative affect and impulsivity are both associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. According to attachment theory, insecure attachment patterns impart greater risk for the maladaptive personality traits underlying BPD. Hence, insecure attachment might be indirectly related to BPD through its association with these traits. The current cross-sectional study used structural e...

  12. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unrema...

  13. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  15. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  17. Association of Premorbid Adjustment with Symptom Profile and Quality of Life in First Episode Psychosis in a Tertiary Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandad Sharifi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Poor premorbid adjustment has been reported to be a predictor of more severe psychotic symptoms and poor quality of life in such psychotic disorders as schizophrenia. However, most studies were performed on chronic schizophrenic patients, and proposed the likelihood of recall biases and the effect of chronicity. The aim of this study was to investigate these factors in a sample of first episode psychotic patients, as a part of Roozbeh first episode psychosis project (RooF. "n "n "nMethod: Premorbid adjustment was assessed using Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS in 48 patients with the first psychotic episode who were admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The severity of symptoms was measured using Positive and Negative Scale (PANSS in three subgroups of positive, negative and general subscales. Quality of life was measured using WHO QOL ,and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF was also measured. "nResults: The mean age was 24 years. Poor Premorbid adjustment in late adolescence was significantly associated with more severe symptoms according to PANSS negative symptoms (p=0.019, r=0.44. Furthermore, sociability and peer relationship domains had a positive correlation with PANSS negative subscale scores (r=0.531, p=0.002 and r=0.385, p=0.03, respectively. There were no significant differences between males and females in premorbid adjustment. Furthermore, this study failed to show any differences between affective and non-affective psychosis in premorbid functioning . "nConclusion: Our study confirms poor premorbid adjustment association with more severe negative symptoms and poor quality of life in a sample of Iranian first episode psychotic patients.

  18. Personality and substance use disorders: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Bartholow, B D; Wood, M D

    2000-10-01

    The personality systems of Cloninger (as measured by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire [TPQ]) and Eysenck (as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire [EPQ]) both have been linked to substance use and abuse. The current study examined the predictive utility of both systems for substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Participants (N = 489 at baseline) completed the EPQ and TPQ and were assessed via structured diagnostic interview at baseline and 6 years later (N = 457 at follow-up). Both the EPQ and TPQ scales demonstrated bivariate cross-sectional and prospective associations with SUDs. Within each system, those dimensions marking a broad impulsive sensation-seeking or behavioral disinhibition trait were the best predictors prospectively, although the 2 systems were differentially sensitive to specific diagnoses. These relations remained significant even with autoregressivity, other concurrent SUD diagnoses, and multiple personality dimensions statistically controlled.

  19. Therapeutic interaction with an older personality disordered patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Lawrence; Sanders, Avihay; Gorman, Bernard S

    2014-06-01

    This study reflects an assessment of the relationship between change in defensive functioning and change in the therapeutic interaction during an eight-year treatment episode of an older personality disordered woman. The patient, Ms. Q, possessed schizoid, avoidant, and depressive personality disorders as well as major depression as assessed by the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). At the end of the treatment episode, Ms. Q still possessed an avoidant personality disorder and significant depressive personality traits but no longer possessed clinically significant schizoid traits or major depression. Ms. Q made significant positive change in her adaptive defensive functioning as assessed by the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Through time-series analysis it was discovered that positive change in adaptive defenses was predicted by increases in a specific type of therapeutic interaction as assessed by the Psychotherapy Q Sort (PQS). In this therapeutic interaction the therapist in a didactic and advice-giving manner highlighted the patient's role in a problem in a clear and coherent way that could be perceived as tactless. Time-series analysis revealed a reciprocal relationship in which positive changes in adaptive defenses predicted further increases in that particular quality of therapeutic interaction.

  20. Taxometric analyses of paranoid and schizoid personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anthony Olufemi; Green, Bradley Andrew; Buckley, Peter Francis; McFarland, Megan Elizabeth

    2012-03-30

    There remains debate about whether personality disorders (PDs) are better conceptualized as categorical, reflecting discontinuity from normal personality; or dimensional, existing on a continuum of severity with normal personality traits. Evidence suggests that most PDs are dimensional but there is a lack of consensus about the structure of Cluster A disorders. Taxometric methods are adaptable to investigating the taxonic status of psychiatric disorders. The current study investigated the latent structure of paranoid and schizoid PDs in an epidemiological sample (N=43,093) drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) using taxometric analyses. The current study used taxometric methods to analyze three indicators of paranoid PD - mistrust, resentment, and functional disturbance - and three indicators of schizoid PD - emotional detachment, social withdrawal, and functional disturbance - derived factor analytically. Overall, taxometrics supported a dimensional rather than taxonic structure for paranoid and schizoid PDs through examination of taxometric graphs and comparative curve fit indices. Dimensional models of paranoid and schizoid PDs better predicted social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health scales in the survey than categorical models. Evidence from the current study supports recent efforts to represent paranoid and schizoid PDs as well as other PDs along broad personality dimensions.

  1. [Organic personality disorder: conceptual review and research strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, J I; Sánchez-Cubillo, I; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    2007-01-01

    The historical review of "psychiatric personality disorders" reveals the lack of convergence of those disorders with the organic personality disorder (OPD). Only the psychopathy concept has been used as a psychopathological phenotype for one of the groups of OPD, the so-called "pseudopsychopaths". These patients have been described from the beginning of the XXth century under the heading of "frontal lobe syndrome". It was only with the development of the psychiatric nosologies, towards the middle of the XXth century, that the term "organic personality disorder" started to be used. The accumulation of knowledge about the different prefrontal areas and the development of neuropsychological models that try to explain social behavior have opened new ways of understanding this syndrome. The orbitofrontal cortex has been identified as one of the key structures in behavioral and emotional regulation. Recognition of emotions in voices and faces, empathy, appreciation of humor, tasks that show "theory of mind" are some of the dimensions included in the examination of the non-cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex

  2. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (Pschizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  3. Ethnicity in trauma and psychiatric disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal study of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M Tracie; Edelen, Maria O; Markowitz, John C; McGlashan, Thomas H; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; Skodol, Andrew E; Gunderson, John G; Morey, Leslie C

    2010-06-01

    The study's aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders.

  4. Eating disorder therapists' personal eating disorder history and professional ethics: an interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Meris; Haverkamp, Beth E

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore and understand eating disorder (ED) therapists' perceptions of whether and how their personal ED histories had professional ethical relevance. Analysis of multiple interviews with 11 therapist-participants indicated that they perceived their personal ED histories as having substantial ethical relevance in their day-to-day practice with ED clients. The major categories of ethics experiences that emerged were: boundaries, therapist wellness, helpfulness of personal ED history, and openness regarding therapists' personal ED histories. The findings have practical utility for the education, training, and continuing education of ED-historied practitioners.

  5. Karen Horney's "resigned person" heralds DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R J

    1993-01-01

    It is shown here that what Karen Horney called the resignation solution to the problem of basic anxiety leads to psychopathology very similar to DSM-III-R's borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both the "resigned person" and the borderline personality show instability of self-image, social relationships, and mood, and live out the associated deficits with similar styles. While not specifically using the term "splitting", Horney showed how alternating expansive and self-effacing trends can coexist in the resigned person, and how these oscillations in self-other-world constitution influence the resigned person's behavior in a way similar to borderline splitting. Horney's descriptive and psychodynamic analysis of the resignation phenomenon elaborates and gives additional credibility to DSM-III-R's BPD as a diagnostic category.

  6. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  7. Service engagement in first episode psychosis: clinical and premorbid correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Fisher, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Engagement can be understood as a multifactorial process, incorporating acceptance of treatment, therapeutic rapport, and collaboration in a shared goal of clinical and functional recovery. Difficulties in engagement with clinical services represent a risk factor for treatment discontinuation in first episode psychosis. The current study explored the associations between engagement, clinical, and preonset variables. We report the cross-sectional data on a Scottish sample with first episode psychosis, characterized in terms of psychotic symptoms, premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinician-rated engagement. Poorer clinician-rated engagement was associated with greater positive and negative symptoms, greater general psychopathology, and poorer premorbid social adjustment. In a regression analysis, only severity of negative symptoms predicted engagement. The study highlights the role of negative symptoms and impairments in social functioning as factors associated with poorer engagement with clinical services. The value of detailed assessment of social and premorbid functioning is highlighted.

  8. Attachment in eating-disordered outpatients with and without borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Guiducci, Valentina; Cavanna, Donatella

    2016-03-18

    This study aims at examining the attachment states of mind in 50 female outpatients with eating disorders compared with 50 matched control participants using the Adult Attachment Interview. Moreover, the differences in attachment states of mind among eating-disordered women with and without borderline personality disorders' diagnosis were explored. The results showed an over-representation of insecure-dismissing and unresolved states of mind in clinical group compared to controls. Patients with both diagnosis showed higher scores on involving anger and unresolved loss compared with those with only eating disorder. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Personality prototype as a risk factor for eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Guarnido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To establish whether the risk of suffering from an eating disorder (ED is associated with the high-functioning, undercontrolled, or overcontrolled personality prototype groups.Method:The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 were administered to 69 patients diagnosed as suffering from EDs (cases and 89 people free of any ED symptoms (control group. A cluster analysis was carried out to divide the participants into three groups based on their scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. A logistic regression model was then created.Results:Participants in the undercontrolled group had a risk of suffering from an ED 6.517 times higher than those in the high-functioning group (p = 0.019; odds ratio [OR] = 6.517, while those in the overcontrolled subgroup had a risk of ED 15.972 times higher than those in the high-functioning group.Conclusions:Two personality subtypes were identified in which the risk of EDs was six times higher (the undercontrolled group and almost 16 times higher (the overcontrolled group. Prevention and treatment programs for ED could benefit from focusing on the abovementioned personality profiles.

  10. Personality Trait Differences in Boys and Girls with Clinical or Sub-Clinical Diagnoses of Conduct Disorder versus Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Iacono, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested differences in personality traits measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) in a community sample of adolescents with definite or probable conduct disorder (CD) diagnoses that did not progress to a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) by early adulthood (n=43), those with definite or probable…

  11. Impact of dissociation on treatment of depressive and anxiety spectrum disorders with and without personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasko J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jan Prasko,1 Ales Grambal,1 Petra Kasalova,1 Dana Kamardova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Zuzana Sigmundova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Psychiatric Department, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic Objective: The central goal of the study was to analyze the impact of dissociation on the treatment effectiveness in patients with anxiety/neurotic spectrum and depressive disorders with or without comorbid personality disorders.Methods: The research sample consisted of inpatients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric department and met the ICD-10 criteria for diagnosis of depressive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety–depressive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorders, dissociative/conversion disorders, somatoform disorder, or other anxiety/neurotic spectrum disorder. The participants completed these measures at the start and end of the therapeutic program – Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, a subjective version of Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Sheehan Patient-Related Anxiety Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale.Results: A total of 840 patients with anxiety or depressive spectrum disorders, who were resistant to pharmacological treatment on an outpatient basis and were referred for hospitalization for the 6-week complex therapeutic program, were enrolled in this study. Of them, 606 were statistically analyzed. Data from the remaining 234 (27.86% patients were not used because of various reasons (103 prematurely finished the program, 131 did not fill in most of the

  12. General Personality Disorder: A study into the core components of personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure of various models of General Personality Disorder (PD) and severity levels of PD. In the first part of this thesis, a model of functional impairment, i.e. Livesley's adaptive failure model, as a definition of General PD, and a model of structural impairment, i.e. K

  13. General Personality Disorder: A study into the core components of personality pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure of various models of General Personality Disorder (PD) and severity levels of PD. In the first part of this thesis, a model of functional impairment, i.e. Livesley's adaptive failure model, as a definition of General PD, and a model of structural impairment, i.e.

  14. Application of the Rasch model in measuring personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho; Ricardo Primi; Gregory J. Meyer

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe item and person parameters obtained with the Rasch model, one of the item response theory models, in the assessment of personality disorders based on Millon's theory. METHOD: A total of 350 people participated in the study. Age ranged from 18 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation = 27.02±10.13), and 71.7% of the participants (n = 251) were female. Of the 350 individuals, 21.1% (n = 74) answered affirmatively about being under psychiatric treatment and taking psychiatri...

  15. Premorbid adjustment in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevang, Anders; Randers, Lasse; Gondan, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deterioration in premorbid adjustment is related to ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals developing psychosis, but it has not been examined how UHR individuals’ development differs compared to healthy controls. This study investigates differences in premorbid adjustment between UHR...

  16. Poor premorbid school performance, but not severity of illness, predicts cognitive decline in schizophrenia in midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rannikko

    2015-09-01

    Premorbid school performance, but not later course of schizophrenia, related to change of cognition in midlife. Poor premorbid scholastic performance and post-onset cognitive decline may represent related processes as part of an endophenotype of schizophrenia.

  17. Treatment for multiple personality disorder: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, A

    1994-01-01

    The material presented in this paper suggests that before mental health practitioners ask of society the resources to treat those thousands of patients diagnosed with MPD in the past few years, a critical attempt should be made to evaluate the efficacy of the type of treatment currently recommended for the condition. Proponents of the disorder claim its treatment is cost-effective, but this article's analysis indicates that it is simply premature to make claims about the treatability or prognosis of multiple personality disorder.

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnoses From the Perspective of the DSM-5 Personality Traits: A Study on Italian Clinical Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the associations between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder traits and domains and categorically diagnosed narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), respectively, 238 inpatient and outpatient participants who were consecutively admitted to the Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy Unit of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Based on SCID-II, the participants were assigned to the following groups: a) NPD (n = 49), b) BPD (n = 32), c) any other PD (n = 91), and d) no PD (n = 63). Emotional lability, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility were significantly associated with BPD diagnosis. Attention seeking significantly discriminated participants who received an SCID-II categorical NPD diagnosis. Separation insecurity, impulsivity, distractibility, and perceptual dysregulation were the DSM-5 traits that significantly discriminated BPD participants. Domain-level analyses confirmed and extended trait-level findings.

  19. Estimating premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Apolinario

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop an informant-based instrument that would provide a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. METHODS: A questionnaire was drafted by focusing on the premorbid period with a 10-year time frame. The initial pool of items was submitted to classical test theory and a factorial analysis. The resulting instrument, named the Premorbid Cognitive Abilities Scale (PCAS, is composed of questions addressing educational attainment, major lifetime occupation, reading abilities, reading habits, writing abilities, calculation abilities, use of widely available technology, and the ability to search for specific information. The validation sample was composed of 132 older Brazilian adults from the following three demographically matched groups: normal cognitive aging (n = 72, mild cognitive impairment (n = 33, and mild dementia (n = 27. The scores of a reading test and a neuropsychological battery were adopted as construct criteria. Post-mortem inter-informant reliability was tested in a sub-study with two relatives from each deceased individual. RESULTS: All items presented good discriminative power, with corrected item-total correlation varying from 0.35 to 0.74. The summed score of the instrument presented high correlation coefficients with global cognitive function (r = 0.73 and reading skills (r = 0.82. Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, showing optimal internal consistency without redundancy. The scores did not decrease across the progressive levels of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the goal of evaluating the premorbid state was achieved. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.96, indicating excellent inter-informant reliability. CONCLUSION: The instrument developed in this study has shown good properties and can be used as a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. The applicability of the PCAS, both as an estimate of premorbid intelligence and cognitive

  20. Questioning the coherence of histrionic personality disorder: borderline and hysterical personality subtypes in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, Pavel S; Westen, Drew

    2008-11-01

    After the introduction of histrionic personality disorder (HPD), nosologists struggled to reduce its overlap with borderline personality disorder and other PDs. We studied the coherence of HPD in adults and adolescents as part of 2 larger studies. Clinicians described a random patient with personality pathology using rigorous psychometrics, including the SWAP-II (a Q-sort that captures personality and its pathology in adults) in study 1 and the SWAP-II-A (the adolescent version) in study 2. Using DSM-IV-based measures, we identified patients who met HPD criteria with varying degrees of diagnostic confidence. Central tendencies in the SWAP-II and SWAP-II-A profiles revealed that both the most descriptive and most distinctive features of the patients included some features of HPD but also many features of borderline personality disorder. Q-factor analyses of the SWAP data yielded 3 types of patients in each of the 2 samples. The HPD diagnosis may not be sufficiently coherent or valid.

  1. Evaluation of premorbid intelligence in patients with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang ZOU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of neuropsychological tests is crucial to confirm a diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment. It might be improper judging individuals with different basic cognitive function using the same standard. The evaluation of premorbid intelligence is an effective way for error correction, but not enough attention has been paid during clinical practice. Here we present a review of the existing methods of premorbid intelligence evaluation and their application in cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.09.016

  2. Personality and personality disorders in the DSM-5: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Levy, Kenneth N

    2011-01-01

    In this introduction to the special section on Personality and Personality Disorders in DSM-5, the editors briefly describe the major changes proposed by the Work Group on Personality Disorders for DSM-5. They then introduce and describe the key points in the target articles by the Work Group as well as in the commentaries. The aim of this section is to present an arena for the articulation and discussion of the rationale of the proposed changes and the logic and evidence for these proposed changes. Special attention is paid to points of contention, debate, and controversy with regard to the proposed changes. It is the editors' goal to facilitate an open discussion of these issues in an effort to promote a scientifically based and clinically useful product.

  3. Personality disorders in the DSM-5: current status, lessons learned, and future challenges. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Krueger, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Provides an introduction to a special section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. The purpose of this special section is to provide a discussion of the current status, lessons learned, and future challenges for the classification of personality disorders.

  4. Genetic and environmental contributions to the co-occurrence of depressive personality disorder and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Kendler, Kenneth S; Røysamb, Espen; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-06-01

    One of the main controversies with regard to depressive personality disorder (DPD) concerns the co-occurrence with the established DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The main aim of this study was to examine to what extent DPD and the DSM-IV PDs share genetic and environmental risk factors, using multivariate twin modeling. The DSM-IV Structured Interview for Personality was applied to 2,794 young adult twins. Paranoid PD from Cluster A, borderline PD from Cluster B, and all three PDs from Cluster C were independently and significantly associated with DPD in multiple regression analysis. The genetic correlations between DPD and the other PDs were strong (.53-.83), while the environmental correlations were moderate (.36-.40). Close to 50% of the total variance in DPD was disorder specific. However, only 5% was due to disorder-specific genetic factors, indicating that a substantial part of the genetic vulnerability to DPD also increases the vulnerability to other PDs.

  5. Personality disorders at the interface of psychiatry and the law: legal use and clinical classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Personality disorders have a complex relationship with the law that in many ways reflects their complexity within the clinical and research communities. This paper addresses expert testimony about personality disorders, outlines how personality disorders are assessed in forensic cases, and describes how personality disorders are viewed in different legal contexts. Reasons are identified why personality disorders are not generally accepted as significant mental illness within the legal system, including high incidence of personality dysfunction in criminal populations, frequent comorbidity of personality disorders making it difficult to determine direct causation, and difficulty determining where on a continuum personality traits should be defined as illness (or not). In summary, the legal system, to a significant degree, mirrors the clinical conception of personality disorders as not severe mental diseases or defects, not likely to change, and most often, under volitional control. PMID:24174894

  6. Personality disorders at the interface of psychiatry and the law: legal use and clinical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C; Elbogen, Eric B

    2013-06-01

    Personality disorders have a complex relationship with the law that in many ways reflects their complexity within the clinical and research communities. This paper addresses expert testimony about personality disorders, outlines how personality disorders are assessed in forensic cases, and describes how personality disorders are viewed in different legal contexts. Reasons are identified why personality disorders are not generally accepted as significant mental illness within the legal system, including high incidence of personality dysfunction in criminal populations, frequent comorbidity of personality disorders making it difficult to determine direct causation, and difficulty determining where on a continuum personality traits should be defined as illness (or not). In summary, the legal system, to a significant degree, mirrors the clinical conception of personality disorders as not severe mental diseases or defects, not likely to change, and most often, under volitional control.

  7. Personality disorder traits as predictors of subsequent first-onset panic disorder or agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, O Joseph; Stein, Murray B; Samuels, Jack F; Onyike, Chiadi U; Eaton, William W; Nestadt, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Determining how personality disorder traits and panic disorder and/or agoraphobia relate longitudinally is an important step in developing a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of panic/agoraphobia. In 1981, a probabilistic sample of adult (> or =18 years old) residents of east Baltimore were assessed for Axis I symptoms and disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); psychiatrists reevaluated a subsample of these participants and made Axis I diagnoses, as well as ratings of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition personality disorder traits. Of the participants psychiatrists examined in 1981, 432 were assessed again in 1993 to 1996 using the DIS. Excluding participants who had baseline panic attacks or panic-like spells from the risk groups, baseline timidity (avoidant, dependent, and related traits) predicted first-onset DIS panic disorder or agoraphobia over the follow-up period. These results suggest that avoidant and dependent personality traits are predisposing factors, or at least markers of risk, for panic disorder and agoraphobia-not simply epiphenomena.

  8. [Emotional and impulsive dimensions in bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, A; Jarroir, M; Vorspan, F; Bellivier, F; Leveillee, S; Romo, L

    2017-05-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder are often misdiagnosed to have bipolar disorder and conversely. Indeed, a number of characteristics common to both disorders could explain this problem: emotional instability as well as impulsivity represent confounding factors and contribute to the risk of misdiagnosis. However, it appears that these characteristics manifest themselves in different ways according to the pathology. The aim of the study is to show differences between affective lability, emotional intensity and impulsivity dimensions. The clinical aim is to refine bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder diagnosis, to improve psychological care for these patients in the long-term. We compared the emotional and impulsive dimensions in two groups of patients: a group of 21 patients with bipolar disorder and a group of 19 patients with borderline personality disorder. Tools: ALS, a self-report questionnaire to evaluate affective lability, AIM, a self-report questionnaire to see affective intensity, and UPPS, a self-report questionnaire to measure impulsivity according to several dimensions. The results indicate that borderline patients scored significantly higher than bipolar patients at the ALS and AIM scales. Regarding the UPPS, borderline patients scored significantly higher than bipolar patients for the dimensions "lack of premeditation" and "lack of perseverance"; however, bipolar patients had significantly higher scores than borderline patients for the dimension "negative emergency". This study shows that bipolar disorder and borderline personality can be differentiated thanks to emotional dimensions as well as different dimensions of impulsivity: borderline patients appear to have an affective lability and intensity more important than bipolar patients; it also appears that impulsivity manifests itself differently according to the disorder. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  9. [Treatment of schizoid personality disorder: Reflections of a cinephile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamache, Dominick; Diguer, Louis

    2012-01-01

    While treatment of personality disorders in general is often described as difficult and filled with many obstacles, knowledge is still limited regarding the specific treatment challenges for DSM's Cluster A individuals. The purpose of this paper is to explore these challenges, as illustrated by the case study of a schizoid patient who underwent psychodynamic therapy for over a year. Deep and unconscious interpersonal fears that complicated treatment, and how these fears had to be taken into account in therapeutic interventions, will be explored. Strong countertransference reactions, especially those evoked by long silences and constant management of optimal therapeutic distance, will also be discussed. This paper also proposes some reflections on the limitations of DSM's conceptualization of the schizoid personality disorder, and how a dynamic understanding of relational fears and ambivalence in these patients may be crucial to treatment.

  10. Applying principles of intercultural communication to personality disorder therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Psychotherapy with patients who were diagnosed with a personality disorder bears a strong resemblance to intercultural communication. I suggest conceptualizing the situation of a patient with a personality disorder as being similar to that of an overseas traveller. Like the traveller, the patient faces the task of getting along in a social environment that does not share many of his or her ingrained values regarding 'appropriate' interpersonal behaviour. In order to reduce the potential for misunderstandings and interpersonal problems, the patient would benefit from (a) learning about the culturally accepted rules of interacting and (b) partly adopting those rules. Borrowing from training manuals for intercultural communication, I suggest a number of therapeutic principles that specifically address the discrepancies between the patient's habits and internalized values, and the cultural conventions that govern the social environment in which the patient lives.

  11. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin G; Paquin, Nina Leventhal

    2011-08-01

    Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  12. Personality disorders, depression, and coping styles in Argentinean bulimic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.

  13. Schemas and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Chapman, Alex; Cellucci, Tony

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing interest regarding the role of maladaptive cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains and BPD symptoms as well as whether schema domains account for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and BPD severity. Incarcerated women (N=105) were assessed for BPD symptoms via semi-structured diagnostic interview. Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Limits were associated with BPD pathology although these domains shared variance with depression and antisocial personality disorder pathology, respectively. In addition, the relationship between childhood abuse and BPD severity was non-significant after controlling for schema domains. Related findings and the implications for cognitive treatment of BPD are discussed.

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Aggression: A Within-Person Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Pilkonis, Paul A; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2017-04-06

    Theoretical and empirical work suggests that aggression in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) occurs primarily in the context of emotional reactivity, especially anger and shame, in response to perceived rejection. Using intensive repeated measures, we examined a within-person process model in which perceived rejection predicts increases in aggressive urges and behaviors via increases in negative affect (indirect effect) and in which BPD symptoms exacerbate this process (moderated mediation). Participants were 117 emerging adult women (ages 18-24) with recent histories of aggressive behavior who were recruited from a community-based longitudinal study of at-risk youth. Personality disorder symptoms were assessed by semistructured clinical interview, and aggressive urges, threats, and behaviors were measured in daily life during a 3-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Multilevel path models revealed that within-person increases in perceived rejection predicted increases in negative affect, especially in women with greater BPD symptoms. In turn, increases in negative affect predicted increased likelihood of aggressive urges or behaviors. Further analysis revealed that BPD symptoms predicted greater anger and shame reactivity to perceived rejection, but not to criticism or insult. Additionally, only anger was associated with increases in aggression after controlling for other negative emotions. Whereas BPD symptoms exacerbated the link between perceived rejection and aggression via increases in negative affect (particularly anger), this process was attenuated in women with greater antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These findings suggest that anger reactivity to perceived rejection is one unique pathway, distinct from antisocial personality disorder, by which BPD symptoms increase risk for aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Schizoid personality disorder linked to unbearable and inescapable loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Willem H.J. Martens

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: More insight is needed into the link between loneliness and schizoid personality disorder in order to construct more adequate diagnostic tools and therapeutic programs. Methods: A computer-based search of literature (Medline and PsycInfo) between 1970 and 2009. Results: A combination of intrapsychic, psychosocial, cultural, ethnic, religious, and/or neurobiological factors determine loneliness and associated schizoid etiology. Furthermore, a complex interaction betw...

  16. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  17. The narcissism epidemic: commentary on modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith

    2014-04-01

    Comments on the original article by Paris (see record 2012-18549-001) regarding narcissistic personality disorder. The current authors agree with Paris that modern life is making people more narcissistic. In fact, the authors demonstrate with this commentary, the case for increasing narcissism is even stronger than presented in his article. An explain that expressing individualism and lack of social support play key roles in this increase. However, the current authors question the idea that therapy is building narcissism.

  18. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  19. Schizoid personality disorder linked to unbearable and inescapable loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Willem H.J. Martens

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: More insight is needed into the link between loneliness and schizoid personality disorder in order to construct more adequate diagnostic tools and therapeutic programs. Methods: A computer-based search of literature (Medline and PsycInfo) between 1970 and 2009. Results: A combination of intrapsychic, psychosocial, cultural, ethnic, religious, and/or neurobiological factors determine loneliness and associated schizoid etiology. Furthermore, a complex interaction betw...

  20. Multiple personality disorder manifesting itself under the mask of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestin, J; Ebner, G

    1995-01-01

    The case of a young female patient is described who presented symptoms of transsexualism; surgical intervention was considered. Admitted to the hospital after having become depressed and suicidal, a thorough examination and observation revealed the presence of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Even though transsexualism and MPD represent two different conditions, there are many similarities between them. The possibility of MPD should be considered in every case of transsexualism.