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Sample records for premorbid adjustment scale

  1. Premorbid adjustment and previous personality in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Rodríguez Solano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial adjustment and premorbid personality are two factors that are frequently studied in order to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Premorbid adjustment alterations and personality disorders (principally those of the schizophrenia spectrum have been considered vulnerability elements or have been linked with the early manifestations of a disease that is still underdeveloped (hypothesis of neurodevelopment. In this paper we review the literature. We also studied the relationship between premorbid adjustment (PAS scale and previous personality disorders (SCID-II in a sample of 40 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, CIE-10, and statistically correlated them. The results show that premorbid adjustment correlates with avoidant, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders: the more personality pathology found, the poorer is the premorbid psychosocial adjustment. Premorbid adjustment positively correlates with histrionic personality traits. The pathological traits of schizotypal and schizoid personalities account for up to 77% of the variance of the total premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The degrees of premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia are related to the different premorbid personality disorders of schizophrenic patients, which are mainly those most genetically related with schizophrenia, that is, the spectrum of the schizophrenia.

  2. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis research study (TOP were included at first treatment. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS was used to assess present symptoms. Premorbid adjustment was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS and self-esteem by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. Results Premorbid social adjustment was significantly related to lower self-esteem and explained a significant proportion of the variance in self-esteem. Self-esteem was significantly associated with the levels of persecutory delusions and hallucinations experienced by the patient and explained a significant proportion of the variance even after adjusting for premorbid functioning and depression. Conclusion There are reasons to suspect that premorbid functioning is an important aspect in the development of self- esteem, and, furthermore, that self-esteem is associated with the development of delusions and hallucinations.

  3. Significance of Premorbid Adjustment and Psychotherapy in Selected Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James T.; Christenson, Randall M.

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a model to help explain genesis of psychiatric symptoms in late life. Model (which is illustrated by case studies) suggests psychotherapeutic strategies and helps define methods of assessing therapeutic outcomes; it emphasizes importance of losses, premorbid adjustment, and mediating factors in determining whether stresses result in…

  4. Premorbid adjustment in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevang, Anders; Randers, Lasse; Gondan, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deterioration in premorbid adjustment is related to ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals developing psychosis, but it has not been examined how UHR individuals’ development differs compared to healthy controls. This study investigates differences in premorbid adjustment between UHR...

  5. Premorbid Adjustment Profiles in Psychosis and the Role of Familial Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J.; Meijer, Julia H.; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, Andre; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Meijer, Carin J.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  6. Premorbid adjustment profiles in psychosis and the role of familial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J; Meijer, Julia H; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, André; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Meijer, Carin J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  7. Premorbid adjustment in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Friis, Svein; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives.......Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives....

  8. Association of Premorbid Adjustment with Symptom Profile and Quality of Life in First Episode Psychosis in a Tertiary Hospital in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandad Sharifi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Poor premorbid adjustment has been reported to be a predictor of more severe psychotic symptoms and poor quality of life in such psychotic disorders as schizophrenia. However, most studies were performed on chronic schizophrenic patients, and proposed the likelihood of recall biases and the effect of chronicity. The aim of this study was to investigate these factors in a sample of first episode psychotic patients, as a part of Roozbeh first episode psychosis project (RooF. "n "n "nMethod: Premorbid adjustment was assessed using Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS in 48 patients with the first psychotic episode who were admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The severity of symptoms was measured using Positive and Negative Scale (PANSS in three subgroups of positive, negative and general subscales. Quality of life was measured using WHO QOL ,and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF was also measured. "nResults: The mean age was 24 years. Poor Premorbid adjustment in late adolescence was significantly associated with more severe symptoms according to PANSS negative symptoms (p=0.019, r=0.44. Furthermore, sociability and peer relationship domains had a positive correlation with PANSS negative subscale scores (r=0.531, p=0.002 and r=0.385, p=0.03, respectively. There were no significant differences between males and females in premorbid adjustment. Furthermore, this study failed to show any differences between affective and non-affective psychosis in premorbid functioning . "nConclusion: Our study confirms poor premorbid adjustment association with more severe negative symptoms and poor quality of life in a sample of Iranian first episode psychotic patients.

  9. The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P; Petersen, L; Thorup, A

    2008-01-01

    The association between the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and outcome of schizophrenia may be confounded by other factors such as poor pre-morbid adjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the independent contributions of DUP and of pre-morbid adjustment to the clinical...

  10. Self-esteem is associated with premorbid adjustment and positive psychotic symptoms in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Haug Elisabeth; Hansen Charlotte; Rossberg Jan; Romm Kristin; Andreassen Ole A; Melle Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Background Low levels of self-esteem have been implicated as both a cause and a consequence of severe mental disorders. The main aims of the study were to examine whether premorbid adjustment has an impact on the subject's self-esteem, and whether lowered self-esteem contributes to the development of delusions and hallucinations. Method A total of 113 patients from the Thematically Organized Psychosis...

  11. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev…

  12. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev Disord"…

  13. Adjustment of cognitive scores with a co-normed estimate of premorbid intelligence: implementation using mindstreams computerized testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doniger, Glen M; Simon, Ely S; Schweiger, Avraham

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critically dependent upon comparison to a standard normative database. While generally appropriate for individuals of near-average intelligence, high-intelligence individuals may be erroneously scored as unimpaired and low-intelligence individuals as impaired on cognitive measures. The current paper describes an approach for minimizing such misclassifications that is standardized and practical for clinical use. A computerized test of nonverbal reasoning co-normed with cognitive measures is used for automatic adjustment of normalized cognitive scores. This premorbid estimate showed good construct validity, and adjustment raised cognitive scores for low-intelligence individuals, and lowered cognitive scores for high-intelligence individuals similarly across demographic (age, education, computer experience) and clinical (cognitively healthy, mild cognitive impairment, dementia) subgroups. Adjustment was typically up to three normalized units for scores on the premorbid estimate of +/-1 SD and 6 normalized units for scores of +/-2 SD. The present approach shows promise as a practical solution for assessment of high- and low-intelligence individuals.

  14. The course of neurocognitive functioning in first-episode psychosis and its relation to premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and relapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to determine the post-onset longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in first-episode psychoses and to examine how premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and clinical variables such as relapse are associated with that course. Consecutive patients with a DSM...

  15. Characterization of premorbid functioning during childhood in patients with deficit vs. non-deficit schizophrenia and in their healthy siblings.

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    Bucci, Paola; Mucci, Armida; Piegari, Giuseppe; Nobile, Maria; Pini, Stefano; Rossi, Alessandro; Vita, Antonio; Galderisi, Silvana; Maj, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Impaired premorbid adjustment has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, generally in association with unfavorable aspects of the illness (e.g., poor outcome and severe negative symptoms). Several studies attempted to define the domains of premorbid dysfunction associated with negative symptoms and poor outcome; however, most of them assessed broadly defined negative symptoms. The present study was aimed to characterize premorbid functioning in a group of patients with deficit schizophrenia (DS), characterized by the presence of at least two primary and persistent negative symptoms (PPNS), and one of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who did not meet criteria for DS (NDS). The presence of emotional/behavioral problems during childhood was investigated using the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both patient groups and in their respective healthy siblings. The Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) was also used to assess premorbid functioning during childhood in the two patient groups. PPNS were also treated as a continuous variable and correlated with the indices of premorbid functioning regardless the DS/NDS categorization. DS patients, as compared to NDS, showed higher scores on the CBCL subscale "Withdrawn". Both DS and NDS patients showed, as compared to their healthy siblings, a greater impairment on almost all CBCL subscales. PAS findings revealed that DS patients had poorer premorbid adjustment than NDS. No significant correlation between premorbid functioning and PPNS was observed. These findings support the hypothesis that DS has a different developmental trajectory with respect to NDS, and that premorbid adjustment is one of the essential aspects of its characterization.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF PREMORBID SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC DETERIORATION IN DEFICIT AND NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Strauss, Gregory P.; Allen, Daniel N.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n=74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n=271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:22130110

  17. Differential patterns of premorbid social and academic deterioration in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.

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    Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n = 74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n = 271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia.

  18. The course of neurocognitive functioning in first-episode psychosis and its relation to premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, Tor K; Midbøe, Liv Jaeger; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    The aim was to determine the post-onset longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in first-episode psychoses and to examine how premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and clinical variables such as relapse are associated with that course. Consecutive patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of non-organic psychosis coming to their first treatment in the health care areas under study were included. Ultimately, 207 patients were assessed neuropsychologically at baseline, 138 were reassessed one year later, and 111 two years later. Five dimensions were identified through principal component analysis of eight neuropsychological (NP) test results: Working Memory (WM), Executive Function (EF), Verbal Learning (VL), Impulsivity (Im), and Motor Speed (MS). No major changes were found in the level of neurocognitive functioning from baseline to the 1-year and 2-year follow-ups. Patients with good initial levels of premorbid academic functioning had consistently better scores on WM at all three time points. No association was found between DUP and the longitudinal course of neurocognitive function. Significant associations occurred between better WM and VL at 1 and 2 years and fewer relapses during the first year, but not the second. Most NP deficits are in place by onset of psychosis and are stable over two years. Milder WM deficits are associated with higher premorbid academic functioning. More severe deficits in WM and VL are associated with more relapses during the first year. It is unclear whether NP deficits cause relapse, relapse causes NP deficits, or both are manifestations of a third deteriorative process.

  19. Relation between premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and close interpersonal trauma in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Interpersonal traumas are highly prevalent in patients with psychotic disorders. Trauma caused by those close to the patient might have a more profound impact than other types of trauma and may influence early life social functioning. The aim is to investigate the associations between...... different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients. METHODS: A total of 191 patients from the 'TIPS' cohort completed assessment with the Brief Betrayal...... Trauma Survey at their 5 years follow-up interview. RESULTS: Half of the patients reported that they had experienced interpersonal trauma and one-third reported having experienced close interpersonal trauma before the age of 18. Women reported more sexual abuse, physical attacks and emotional...

  20. The relationship of premorbid functioning to illness course in schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders during two years following first hospitalization.

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    Haim, Rachel; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn

    2006-10-01

    Studies suggest that better premorbid functioning is associated with better outcomes in chronic schizophrenia. Yet first admission studies, which are more appropriate to examine this, are less conclusive. Also, little attention has been given to whether these findings hold for other psychoses. We examined the relationship of premorbid functioning using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale and outcomes in first admission psychoses (schizophrenia, N = 177; bipolar disorder, N = 106; major depression, N = 68) in the Suffolk County-wide mental health project. Poor premorbid functioning was associated with worse outcomes in all three diagnostic groups. Specifically, it was associated with more negative symptoms early in the course of illness, less improvement in negative symptoms, poorer overall clinical functioning, and poorer social functioning. Consistent with new epidemiological research, early assessment of premorbid functioning could provide an avenue for targeted interventions that might improve outcomes.

  1. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  2. A retrospective study of the functional outcome of schizophrenia depending on premorbid personality at the time of diagnosis

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    Aruna D

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia constitutes a serious public health problem all over the world. It is one of the leading causes of disability among young adults and prevents them from leading normal productive lives. Methods: We retrospectively studied new cases diagnosed to have schizophrenia (n=211 seen during the period, March 1999 - February 2001. Their premorbid personality traits, socio-demographic parameters were recorded from the case records. Psychopathology was assessed by using positive and negative symptom scale for schizophrenia (PANSS; functional outcome was assessed by using Global Assessment Scale (GAS. Results: Socio-demographic variables did not have influence on outcome. Among patients with well adjusted personality 50% showed good to fair outcome. Patients with schizoid premorbid personality had a fair outcome. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that premorbid personality has a definite impact on outcome of schizophrenia.

  3. A proposed method to estimate premorbid full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) using demographic and combined estimation procedures.

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    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Saklofske, Donald H

    2007-11-01

    Establishing a comparison standard in neuropsychological assessment is crucial to determining change in function. There is no available method to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV provided normative data for both American and Canadian children aged 6 to 16 years old. This study developed regression algorithms as a proposed method to estimate full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian WISC-IV. Participants were the Canadian WISC-IV standardization sample (n = 1,100). The sample was randomly divided into two groups (development and validation groups). The development group was used to generate regression algorithms; 1 algorithm only included demographics, and 11 combined demographic variables with WISC-IV subtest raw scores. The algorithms accounted for 18% to 70% of the variance in FSIQ (standard error of estimate, SEE = 8.6 to 14.2). Estimated FSIQ significantly correlated with actual FSIQ (r = .30 to .80), and the majority of individual FSIQ estimates were within +/-10 points of actual FSIQ. The demographic-only algorithm was less accurate than algorithms combining demographic variables with subtest raw scores. The current algorithms yielded accurate estimates of current FSIQ for Canadian individuals aged 6-16 years old. The potential application of the algorithms to estimate premorbid FSIQ is reviewed. While promising, clinical validation of the algorithms in a sample of children and/or adolescents with known neurological dysfunction is needed to establish these algorithms as a premorbid estimation procedure.

  4. Metacognition, symptoms and premorbid functioning in a first episode psychosis sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Carcione, Antonino; Fisher, Rebecca; McLeod, Hamish J; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    Significant metacognitive impairments are observed in chronic psychosis samples but metacognition is less understood in first episode psychosis (FEP). The current study explored correlations between metacognition, symptoms and premorbid functioning in an FEP sample. In a cross-sectional cohort study, individuals in the first 12 months of treatment metacognition were assessed with the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Revised version (MAS-R). Psychotic symptomatology, premorbid adjustment, and clinician rated service engagement were also measured. Lower scores for metacognitive understanding of other's minds were significantly correlated with greater negative symptoms, poorer early adolescent social adjustment and poorer clinician rated help-seeking. Our findings suggest that FEP individuals with difficulties in understanding other's minds have more social deficits and may be less able to make effective use of treatment.

  5. Service engagement in first episode psychosis: clinical and premorbid correlates.

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    Macbeth, Angus; Gumley, Andrew; Schwannauer, Matthias; Fisher, Rebecca

    2013-05-01

    Engagement can be understood as a multifactorial process, incorporating acceptance of treatment, therapeutic rapport, and collaboration in a shared goal of clinical and functional recovery. Difficulties in engagement with clinical services represent a risk factor for treatment discontinuation in first episode psychosis. The current study explored the associations between engagement, clinical, and preonset variables. We report the cross-sectional data on a Scottish sample with first episode psychosis, characterized in terms of psychotic symptoms, premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinician-rated engagement. Poorer clinician-rated engagement was associated with greater positive and negative symptoms, greater general psychopathology, and poorer premorbid social adjustment. In a regression analysis, only severity of negative symptoms predicted engagement. The study highlights the role of negative symptoms and impairments in social functioning as factors associated with poorer engagement with clinical services. The value of detailed assessment of social and premorbid functioning is highlighted.

  6. Prevalence of premorbid personality disorder and its clinical correlates in patients with delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Portugal, Enrique; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; González-Molinier, Manuel; de Castro, María Jesús; del Amo, Victoria; Arango, Celso; Cervilla, Jorge A

    2013-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of premorbid Personality Disorder (PD) and its relationship with clinical correlates in patients with Delusional Disorder (DD). Eighty-six outpatients with DD whose diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I) Disorders (psychosis module) were evaluated for premorbid PD utilizing the Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP). Psychopathology was assessed using Module B of SCID-I and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); psychosocial functioning was evaluated with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Premorbid intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, vocabulary subtest. A sociodemographic-clinical questionnaire was completed. Sixty-four percent of the patients had at least one premorbid PD, the most common being paranoid PD (38.4%), followed by schizoid PD (12.8%). The presence of at least one premorbid PD was significantly associated with higher scores for psychopathology, in particular, on the affective dimension of DD symptoms. However, the presence of premorbid PD was not associated with psychosocial functioning. Each of the premorbid PD was associated with different psychopathological profiles. Premorbid PD is a relevant phenomenon in DD, given its high prevalence and comorbidity, its influence on clinical correlates and its potential ability to predict specific sub-syndromes.

  7. Estimating premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Apolinario

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop an informant-based instrument that would provide a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. METHODS: A questionnaire was drafted by focusing on the premorbid period with a 10-year time frame. The initial pool of items was submitted to classical test theory and a factorial analysis. The resulting instrument, named the Premorbid Cognitive Abilities Scale (PCAS, is composed of questions addressing educational attainment, major lifetime occupation, reading abilities, reading habits, writing abilities, calculation abilities, use of widely available technology, and the ability to search for specific information. The validation sample was composed of 132 older Brazilian adults from the following three demographically matched groups: normal cognitive aging (n = 72, mild cognitive impairment (n = 33, and mild dementia (n = 27. The scores of a reading test and a neuropsychological battery were adopted as construct criteria. Post-mortem inter-informant reliability was tested in a sub-study with two relatives from each deceased individual. RESULTS: All items presented good discriminative power, with corrected item-total correlation varying from 0.35 to 0.74. The summed score of the instrument presented high correlation coefficients with global cognitive function (r = 0.73 and reading skills (r = 0.82. Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, showing optimal internal consistency without redundancy. The scores did not decrease across the progressive levels of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the goal of evaluating the premorbid state was achieved. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.96, indicating excellent inter-informant reliability. CONCLUSION: The instrument developed in this study has shown good properties and can be used as a valid estimate of premorbid cognitive abilities in low-educated populations. The applicability of the PCAS, both as an estimate of premorbid intelligence and cognitive

  8. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

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    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  9. Premorbid Negative Symptoms in First-Episode Psychosis

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    Manuel J. Cuesta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative symptoms emerge in many patients with psychotic disorders long before the onset of the acute illness. These symptoms are often impossible to differentiate from certain Cluster A personality traits. Methods: The current study examines the extent to which premorbid negative symptoms are contributing factors to the development of primary and secondary negative symptomatology. Participants were 84 neuroleptic-naïve patients experiencing the occurrence of their first acute psychotic episode. Symptoms of psychopathology were assessed at two points: at admission and after remission of the acute episode. The Spanish version of the PANSS scale was administered. Premorbid personality assessment was considered as a proxy measure to evaluate each participant's negative symptomatology prior to the onset of the illness. Potential causes of secondary negative symptomatology, such as depression and extrapyramidal symptoms, were also examined. Results: 'Non-respondent' or 'residual' negative symptoms at discharge were significantly predicted by primary negative symptoms. To a lesser extent, disorganization and depressive symptoms at discharge and the Schizoid dimension of premorbid personality predicted residual negative symptoms. Conclusions: The severity of negative symptoms at the onset of the psychotic episode varied across patients. After controlling for 'respondent' and 'non-respondent' primary negative symptoms and other potential causes of negative symptoms, premorbid negative symptoms had a slight, but significant predictive relationship with residual negative symptoms.

  10. Interventions Using Scales Measuring Expected and Actual Adjustment to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert W.; Schultz, Kim L.

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of intervention, by interview, with 111 first-year college students identified as at risk in their adjustment to college. Effects were analyzed in terms of score change on scales of adjustment, first-year grade point average, first-year course credits earned, and continuance of enrollment. (Author/MSE)

  11. Estimation of Premorbid Intelligence Quotient of the Intelligence Scale for Chinese Adult%中华成人智力量表的事前智商估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐细容; 姚树桥

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore estimating IQ of the Intelligence Scale for Chinese Adult(ISCA). Methods: Standard-ized sample of the ISCA(n=2035) was roughly equally divided, at random, into two groups, one for development of the es-timating formulae and the other for validation. A series of hierarchical linear regression analyses were carried out to devel-op formulae for estimating intelligence quotient. In the procedure, demographic variables, including age, education, gender, vocation, ethnicity and region of the country, as well as performance of 'hold' subtests were predictors. To validate those formulae, comparison between the estimated IQ' s and actual IQ' s were executed. Results: There was no significant differ-ence between the demographic characteristics and test scores of the two groups. Ten estimating formulae were developed, of which adjusted R2 was 38.3%-86.6%, estimating standard error was 11.84-5.47. There was no significant difference be-tween the mean of estimated IQ' s and actual IQ' s, while ranges of estimated IQ' s were more limited than those of actual IQ's in different measures. Estimated and actual values showed high correlation of 0.62-0.93 and shared same IQ grades at ratio of 49.9%-67.8%. Estimation of combining performance of subtest and demographic variables showed more satis-factory validitied than that of demographic variables simply. However, the more subtests employed, the less each subtest contribute. Conclusion: Based on the data of the ISCA standardization sample, ten ISCA IQ estimating formulae were de-veloped, they all show satisfied validity of estimation in intact adults.%目的:探讨中华成人智力量表事前智商的估计方法.方法:中华成人智力量表(ISCA)标准化样本被随机分成人数大致相等的两组,分别用于建立智商估计公式和效度检验.公式建立经由一系列以全量表智商为因变量、保持测验成绩和人口统计学变量为自变量的分层线性回归而实现,效度检

  12. Rapid Adjustment across scales: From global to local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Christine; Quaas, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    An important, yet uncertain, component of the climate's total response to an increase in CO2 concentrations are rapid adjustments. Rapid adjustments to CO2 forcings vary considerably amongst general circulation models due to the fact clouds, turbulence, their coupling, and the resulting dynamical response are not calculated reliably by general circulation models [Gregory and Webb, 2008 & Sherwood et al., 2015]. This motivates the use of a cloud resolving model, which resolves clouds and turbulence, to better understand rapid adjustments. Cloud resolving models, however, can only be run over a limited area and so one must select an area which has the same magnitude of variability found in rapid adjustments globally. In this work, we ask "Are rapid adjustment to CO2 forcings over Central Europe in the ICON-GCM and ICON-LEM representative of global adjustment variability?" Using the newly developed ICON (Icosahedral non-hydrostatic) general circulation model (GCM) and large-eddy model (LEM) developed by the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI) and Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD), a study of rapid adjustments is performed across scales.

  13. Premorbid nutrition and short term outcome of stroke: a multicentre study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Jyotsna, Rashmi; Singh, Ruma; Sylaja, Padmavati N; Vijaya, Pamidimukkala; Padma, Madakasira Vasantha; Venkateswaralu, Kolichana; Sukumaran, Sajith; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Sarma, Prabhakaran S; Mathew, Robert; Singh, Yashpal

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about the impact of premorbid undernutrition on stroke outcome in developing countries. To study the impact of premorbid undernutrition status, measured by the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool, on short term stroke outcome. First ever stroke patients admitted to six major hospitals in North and South India participated in this study from 1 March 2008 to 30 September 2009. The SGA tool was administered within 48 h of stroke onset, and 6 months premorbid nutritional status was rated as well nourished (A rating) and undernourished (B and C ratings) using this tool. Stroke outcome was assessed after 30 days using the modified Rankin scale (mRs), and a mRs score >3 was defined as a poor outcome. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics V.17.0. Of 477 patients enrolled, 448 patients were included in the analyses. Mean age was 58.1±13.7 years (range 16-96) and 281 (62.7%) patients were men. At admission, premorbid undernutrition was found in 121 (27.2%) patients. Older age (OR 4.99, CI 1.26 to 19.64, p=0.021), hypertension (OR 1.99, CI 1.04 to 3.79, p=0.037) and patients from Andhra Pradesh State (OR 1.87, CI 1.05 to 3.32, p=0.032) were predictors of undernutrition in multiple logistic regression analysis. Premorbid undernutrition (OR 1.99, CI 1.20 to 3.31, p=0.007) and length of hospital stay (OR 3.41, CI 1.91 to 6.06, pstroke patients were found. Age, hypertension and patients from Andhra Pradesh State were predictors of premorbid undernutrition. Premorbid undernutrition was associated with poor stroke outcome. The results provide opportunities for primary prevention and improving stroke outcome.

  14. Dysbindin (DTNBP1, 6p22.3) is Associated with Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Endophenotypes Measured by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornick, M. C.; Addington, A. M.; Sporn, A.; Gogtay, N.; Greenstein, D.; Lenane, M.; Gochman, P.; Ordonez, A.; Balkissoon, R.; Vakkalanka, R.; Weinberger, D. R.; Rapoport, J. L.; Straub, R. E.

    2005-01-01

    Straub "et al." ("2002") recently identified the 6p22.3 gene dysbindin (DTNBP1) through positional cloning as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. We studied a rare cohort of 102 children with onset of psychosis before age 13. Standardized ratings of early development, medication response, neuropsychological and cognitive performance, premorbid…

  15. Estimation of K-WAIS-IV Premorbid Intelligence in South Korea: Development of the KPIE-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Geon; Lee, Eun-Ho; Hwang, Soon-Taeg; Park, Kwangbai; Chey, Jeanyung; Hong, Sang-Hwang; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2015-01-01

    The accurate estimation of premorbid intellectual functioning in patients with known or suspected cognitive impairment is crucial for clinicians. However, there is no reliable method for estimating premorbid intelligence in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korea Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (KPIE) as an estimate of the premorbid intellectual functioning. Data from the Korean WAIS-IV standardization sample were used to generate several Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) estimation formulas using demographic variables and current WAIS-IV subtest performance. The standardization sample (N = 1216) was randomly divided into two groups: the first group was used to develop the formulas and the second group was used to validate the prediction equations. Age, education, gender, region of the country, and select subtest raw scores (Vocabulary, Information, Matrix Reasoning, and Visual Puzzle) were used as predictor variables. Five KPIE-4 equations were generated. Estimated FSIQ derived from the KPIE-4 equation is highly correlated with K-WAIS-IV FSIQ. The resulting formulas for estimating premorbid FSIQ were highly significant and precise in predicting FSIQ scores of participants in the K-WAIS-IV normative sample. These equations provide a means for clinicians to estimate intellectual functioning in adults, and can be utilized as a method of estimating individuals premorbid functioning.

  16. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  17. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, I...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  18. Premorbid intelligence and educational level in bipolar and unipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Sæbye, Ditte; Urfer-Parnas, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups.......Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups....

  19. Premorbid IQ and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorder: Verbal and Performance subtests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 133 had no diagnosis (ND). The SSD group obtained lower scores than the ND group on all subtests and IQs, but when adjusted for sex and parental social status only significantly lower scores on similarities, object assembly, mazes, and total IQ. Compared with the ND group......, the OPD group obtained significantly lower scores on similarities, vocabulary, verbal IQ, and total IQ. The only significant difference between the SSD and OPD groups was on object assembly (OPD performed at the level of ND). The results suggest a premorbid deficit in general intelligence in individuals...... who later develop SSD. The results for the OPD group support recent studies demonstrating that premorbid IQ deficits may characterize a wide range of psychiatric disorders....

  20. The influence of obsessive-compulsive neurosis patients' premorbid personality on obsessive-compulsive symptoms and efficacy of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Hosoba, T; Ide, M; Seiwa, H

    1998-06-01

    We conducted a survey with the Lynfield obsessive-compulsive symptom questionnaire (revised version) on 48 obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients as the survey subjects. In the factor analysis five factors of obsessions, were identified: (i) the desire for perfection; (ii) compulsive checking; (iii) washing; (iv) feelings of uncleanliness; and (v) anthropophobia. High correlations were noted between these factors. We also investigated the premorbid personalities of obsessive-compulsive neurotic patients with a multidimensional personality scale and obtained an extroversion dimension and neuroticism dimension. The influence of these premorbid personality dimensions on obsessive-compulsive symptoms became clear; (i) neuroticism is related to the levels of obsession after onset, but not related to compulsive behaviors; and (ii) No differences in premorbid personality dimensions were noted between compulsive checking and compulsive washing behaviors. We also studied whether it was possible to predict the efficacy of pharmacotherapy upon obsessive-compulsive symptoms. It was elucidated that the obsessions of those whose premorbid personalities are emotionally stable and extroversive are susceptible to antidepressants. Based on these results, we discussed the usefulness of premorbid personalities in predicting diversity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, as well as in prediction the efficacy of medication.

  1. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD......-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...... of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia....

  2. Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Gale, C R; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......We examined the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence quotient (IQ) and the metabolic syndrome, and assessed the role of the metabolic syndrome as a mediating factor in the association of IQ with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  3. Adaptation of the Sexual Adjustment and Body Image Scale in Turkish Breast Cancer Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Ursavaş, Figen; Karayurt, Özgül

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Sexual Adjustment and Body Image Scale in Turkish breast cancer women. This is a methodological and cross-sectional study, and included 161 breast cancer women. The factor loadings in the exploratory factor analysis ranged from 0.83 to 0.90 for the sexual adjustment scales and ranged from 0.52 to 0.86 for the body image scale. The Cronbach's alpha values were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.89 for the subscales of sexual adjustment and 0.77 and 0.81 for the subscales of body image. The scale is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate sexual adjustment and body image in Turkish breast cancer women. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  4. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... in WISC IQ. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age at examination, gender, and social status yielded a significant, but relatively weak, association between low Coding test score and risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. For each unit increase in the Coding raw score, the adjusted odds ratio...

  5. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  6. Influence of premorbid psychopathology and lesion location on affective and behavioral disorders after ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Pinedo, Fernando; Hernández-Pérez, José María; Zurdo, Martín; Rodríguez-Fúnez, Beatriz; Hernández-Bayo, José María; García-Fernández, Ciara; Cueli-Rincón, Bernardo; Castro-Posada, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Early recognition of psychopathological symptoms (PSs) after stroke is important because they greatly influence the recovery of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors of PSs occurring in patients with ischemic stroke. Eighty-nine patients were prospectively evaluated upon admission and 4, 12, and 26 weeks later with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Hamilton's Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, and a battery of neuropsychological and functional scales. Depression and apathy were the most frequent PSs detected after stroke. Premorbid psychopathologies and right-hemisphere location were the main predictive indicators of early and long-term PSs.

  7. The Association between COMT, BDNF, and NRG1 and Premorbid Social Functioning in Patients with Psychosis, Their Relatives, and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Walshe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of putative candidate genes for psychosis on premorbid social adjustment and on premorbid schizoid-schizotypal traits. A family-based sample was used including 177 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder with a history of psychotic symptoms, 86 of their unaffected relatives, and 116 unrelated healthy controls. Association analyses on the combined sample were conducted using the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology software (SAGE and adjusting for age, sex, clinical group, and the family-based nature of the data. The COMT Val158Met and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms showed no evidence of association with either phenotype. The SNP rs221533 of the NRG1 gene was significantly associated with premorbid adjustment in adolescence with TT homozygous subjects having a poorer performance than C allele carriers. In the context of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and other psychoses, this finding is plausible; however, it is preliminary and requires replication in an independent sample. In a broader sense, the use of intermediate quantitative phenotypes such as the ones presented in this study may be of help to understand the mechanism of action of genetic risk factors.

  8. The assessment of premorbid intellectual ability following right-hemisphere stroke: reliability of a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Foster, Jonathan K

    2012-01-01

    Comparing current with estimated premorbid performance helps identify acquired cognitive deficits after brain injury. Tests of reading pronunciation, often used to measure premorbid ability, are inappropriate for stroke patients with motor speech problems. The Spot-the-Word Test (STWT), a measure of lexical decision, offers an alternative approach for estimating premorbid capacity in those with speech problems. However, little is known about the STWT's reliability. In the present study, a consecutive sample of right-hemisphere stroke (RHS) patients (n = 56) completed the STWT at 4 and 16 weeks poststroke. A control group, individually matched to the patients for age and initial STWT score, also completed the STWT on two occasions. More than 80% of patients had STWT scores at retest within 2 scaled score points of their initial score, suggesting that the STWT is a reliable measure for most individuals with RHS. However, RHS patients had significantly greater score change than controls. Limits of agreement analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 7 patients obtained abnormally large STWT score improvements at retest. It is concluded that although the STWT is a useful assessment tool for stroke clinicians, this instrument may significantly underestimate premorbid level of ability in approximately 14% of stroke patients.

  9. Variational assimilation of streamflow into operational distributed hydrologic models: effect of spatiotemporal adjustment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available State updating of distributed rainfall-runoff models via streamflow assimilation is subject to overfitting because large dimensionality of the state space of the model may render the assimilation problem seriously under-determined. To examine the issue in the context of operational hydrology, we carry out a set of real-world experiments in which streamflow data is assimilated into gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA and kinematic-wave routing models of the US National Weather Service (NWS Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM with the variational data assimilation technique. Study basins include four basins in Oklahoma and five basins in Texas. To assess the sensitivity of data assimilation performance to dimensionality reduction in the control vector, we used nine different spatiotemporal adjustment scales, where state variables are adjusted in a lumped, semi-distributed, or distributed fashion and biases in precipitation and potential evaporation (PE are adjusted hourly, 6-hourly, or kept time-invariant. For each adjustment scale, three different streamflow assimilation scenarios are explored, where streamflow observations at basin interior points, at the basin outlet, or at both interior points and the outlet are assimilated. The streamflow assimilation experiments with nine different basins show that the optimum spatiotemporal adjustment scale varies from one basin to another and may be different for streamflow analysis and prediction in all of the three streamflow assimilation scenarios. The most preferred adjustment scale for seven out of nine basins is found to be the distributed, hourly scale, despite the fact that several independent validation results at this adjustment scale indicated the occurrence of overfitting. Basins with highly correlated interior and outlet flows tend to be less sensitive to the adjustment scale and could benefit more from streamflow assimilation. In comparison to outlet flow assimilation

  10. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    to these three diagnostic categories. Twelve-year-old children destined to develop a disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum deviated significantly from healthy controls on a number of personality characteristics: they were rated significantly lower than controls on intelligence, concentration, maturity......Schizophrenia has been linked with premorbid character anomalies since it was first described. However, few prospective studies of premorbid personality characteristics in schizophrenia and related disorders have been conducted. This study evaluates premorbid personality in children who developed...... schizophrenia spectrum disorder in adult life. In 1972, 265 children at an average age of 12 (90 with at least one schizophrenic parent) from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort participated in a 1-day follow-up during which they were in contact with seven examiners who rated their personality by means...

  11. Poor premorbid school performance, but not severity of illness, predicts cognitive decline in schizophrenia in midlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Rannikko

    2015-09-01

    Premorbid school performance, but not later course of schizophrenia, related to change of cognition in midlife. Poor premorbid scholastic performance and post-onset cognitive decline may represent related processes as part of an endophenotype of schizophrenia.

  12. Evaluation of premorbid intelligence in patients with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang ZOU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The result of neuropsychological tests is crucial to confirm a diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment. It might be improper judging individuals with different basic cognitive function using the same standard. The evaluation of premorbid intelligence is an effective way for error correction, but not enough attention has been paid during clinical practice. Here we present a review of the existing methods of premorbid intelligence evaluation and their application in cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.09.016

  13. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  14. Dimensionality of the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Cheung, C. K.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the responses of 1,501 Chinese married adults to the Chinese version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (C-DAS), confirmatory factor analyses showed that four factors were abstracted from the C-DAS (Dyadic Consensus, Dyadic Cohesion, Dyadic Satisfaction and Affectional Expression) and these four primary factors were subsumed under a…

  15. Trinidad and Tobago National Standardization of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Rhoad, Anna M.; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Given relevant cultural distinctions across nations, it is important to determine the dimensional structure and normative characteristics of psychological assessment devices in each focal population. This article examines the national standardization and validation of the Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) with a nationally…

  16. Premorbid multivariate prediction of adult psychosis-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D.;

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children ...

  17. Enuresis as a Premorbid Developmental Marker of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Thomas M.; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Iglesias, Bianca; Callicott, Joseph H.; Gold, James M.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Honea, Robyn A.; Bigelow, Llewellyn B.; Egan, Michael F.; Emsellem, Esther M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    There is comparatively little information about premorbid maturational brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ). We investigated whether a history of childhood enuresis, a well-established marker of neurodevelopmental delay, is associated with SCZ and with measures of brain abnormalities also associated with SCZ. A Diagnostic and Statistical…

  18. The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels among Portuguese speakers: the Irregular Word Reading Test (TeLPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Information regarding cognitive abilities in earlier stages of life is essential to ascertain if and to what extent these may have declined. When unavailable, clinicians rely on estimate methods. One of the contemporary methods used worldwide combines performance on irregular word reading test with demographics since it has shown to provide reliable estimates of premorbid ability. Hence, a reading test portuguese irregular word reading test (TeLPI) was developed, filling an important gap in the neuropsychological evaluation of Portuguese speakers. Using 46 irregular, infrequent Portuguese words, TeLPI was validated against Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III (N = 124), and regression-based equations were determined to estimate premorbid IQ considering TeLPI scores and demographic variables. TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-Scale IQ, 62% of Verbal IQ, and 47% of Performance IQ and thus were considered valid for premorbid intelligence estimation. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

    2008-02-01

    Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently), these results endorse the use of the WTAR for patients with TBI.

  20. Premorbid personality and insight in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maria S; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K; David, Anthony S; Peralta, Victor M D; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2011-01-01

    Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital were included in the study. Eighty-one patients completed at 1 month a premorbid personality evaluation, plus baseline, and 6-month insight assessments. We used the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology inventory for assessing insight dimensions (not feeling ill, lack of insight, and refusal of treatment) and the Personality Assessment Schedule for ascertaining 5 dimensions of premorbid personality (schizoid, passive-dependent, anancastic, sociopathic, and schizotypy). At baseline, personality dimensions did not show any association with insight dimensions, with the exception of schizotypy traits. At 6 months, schizoid and sociopathic personality showed a significant association with not feeling ill (r = .30, P ≤ .007; r = .27, P = .01) and lack of insight (r = .36, P = .001; r = .41, P schizoid and sociopathic personality had moderate correlation with the lack of insight dimension (r = -.34, P = .002; r = .38, P schizoid personality significantly predicted lack of insight at 6 months and change from baseline to the 6 months assessment. Sociopathic and schizoid personality dimensions were not only significantly associated with lack of insight at 6 months but also predicted change on lack of insight over 6 months. Therefore, exploring premorbid personality traits at the beginning of a psychotic episode may be helpful in identifying patients at high risk for lack of insight during the initial course of the illness.

  1. Premorbid Personality and Insight in First-Episode Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maria S.; Garcia-Jalon, Elena; Gilleen, James K.; David, Anthony S.; Peralta MD, Victor; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insight in psychosis and schizophrenia is considered a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon. Premorbid personality is regarded by some authors as part of the substrate to many psychiatric phenomena, but it is not clear if this applies to insight. Aim: To examine longitudinal relationships between personality traits and insight dimensions in first-episode psychosis. Methods: One hundred consecutive antipsychotic-naïve first-episode nonaffective psychotic patients admitted to hospital...

  2. EVALUATION OF A NEW MEAN SCALED AND MOMENT ADJUSTED TEST STATISTIC FOR SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoxiao; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Recently a new mean scaled and skewness adjusted test statistic was developed for evaluating structural equation models in small samples and with potentially nonnormal data, but this statistic has received only limited evaluation. The performance of this statistic is compared to normal theory maximum likelihood and two well-known robust test statistics. A modification to the Satorra-Bentler scaled statistic is developed for the condition that sample size is smaller than degrees of freedom. The behavior of the four test statistics is evaluated with a Monte Carlo confirmatory factor analysis study that varies seven sample sizes and three distributional conditions obtained using Headrick's fifth-order transformation to nonnormality. The new statistic performs badly in most conditions except under the normal distribution. The goodness-of-fit χ(2) test based on maximum-likelihood estimation performed well under normal distributions as well as under a condition of asymptotic robustness. The Satorra-Bentler scaled test statistic performed best overall, while the mean scaled and variance adjusted test statistic outperformed the others at small and moderate sample sizes under certain distributional conditions.

  3. Retaining Large and Adjustable Elastic Strains of Kilogram-Scale Nb Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultralarge elastic strains of 4-7%. However, achieving and retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires are challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ∼ 5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a metallic matrix deforming by detwinning. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the external load was fully removed, and adjustable in magnitude by processing control. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires can increase their superconducting transition temperature and critical magnetic field, in comparison with the unstrained original material. This study opens new avenues for retaining large and tunable elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.

  4. Retaining Large and Adjustable Elastic Strains of Kilogram-Scale Nb Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E.; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultra-large elastic strains of 4-7%. However, achieving and retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires are challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ~5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a metallic matrix deforming by detwinning. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the external load was fully removed, and adjustable in magnitude by processing control. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires can increase their superconducting transition temperature and critical magnetic field, in comparison with the unstrained original material. This study opens new avenues for retaining large and tunable elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.

  5. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    offspring of parents with other non-psychotic disorder and no mental illness), although the results failed to reach statistical significance. Results from this study suggest a premorbid relation between ocular deficits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in childhood prior to onset of psychopathology......This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits...... non-psychotic psychopathology and children who did not develop a mental illness. The mean rank for children in the high-risk group (offspring of parents with schizophrenia) on the eye scale and the strabismus scale was greater than the mean rank for children in the matched control groups (both...

  6. Coarse-scaling adjustment of fine-group neutron spectra for epithermal neutron beams in BNCT using multiple activation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Hao; Nievaart, Sander; Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Hong-Ming; Moss, Ray; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide an improved and reliable neutron source description for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a spectrum adjustment procedure named coarse-scaling adjustment has been developed and applied to the neutron spectrum measurements of both the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) epithermal neutron beam in Taiwan and the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in The Netherlands, using multiple activation detectors. The coarse-scaling adjustment utilizes a similar idea as the well-known two-foil method, which adjusts the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes according to the Maxwellian distribution for thermal neutrons and 1/ E distribution over the epithermal neutron energy region. The coarse-scaling adjustment can effectively suppress the number of oscillations appearing in the adjusted spectrum and provide better smoothness. This paper also presents a sophisticated 9-step process utilizing twice the coarse-scaling adjustment which can adjust a given coarse-group spectrum into a fine-group structure, i.e. 640 groups, with satisfactory continuity and excellently matched reaction rates between measurements and calculation. The spectrum adjustment algorithm applied in this study is the same as the well-known SAND-II.

  7. Adjustment and Development of Health User’s Mental Model Completeness Scale in Search Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhoda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Users’ performance and their interaction with information retrieval systems can be observed in development of their mental models. Users, especially users of health, use mental models to facilitate their interactions with these systems and incomplete or incorrect models can cause problems for them . The aim of this study was the adjustment and development of health user’s mental model completeness scale in search engines. Method: This quantitative study uses Delphi method. Among various scales for users’ mental model completeness, Li’s scale was selected and some items were added to this scale based on previous valid literature. Delphi panel members were selected using purposeful sampling method, consisting of 20 and 18 participants in the first and second rounds, respectively. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance in SPSS version 16 was used as basis for agreement (95% confidence. Results:The Kendall coefficient of Concordance (W was calculated to be 0.261(P-value<0.001 for the first and 0.336 (P-value<0.001 for the second round. Therefore, the study was found to be statistically significant with 95% confidence. Since the increase in the coefficient in two consecutive rounds was very little (equal to 0.075, surveying the panel members were stopped based on second Schmidt criterion and Delphi method was stopped after the second round. Finally, the dimensions of Li’s scale (existence and nature, search characteristics and levels of interaction were confirmed again, but “indexing of pages or websites” was eliminated and “Difference between results of different search engines”, “possibility of access to similar or related webpages”, and “possibility of search for special formats and multimedia” were added to Li’s scale. Conclusion: In this study, the scale for mental model completeness of health users was adjusted and developed; it can help the designers of information retrieval systems in systematic

  8. Psychometric analysis of the Scale of Teacher´s Perception of School Adjustment (PROF-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Jesús Cava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teacher' perception of their students' school adjustment can be an important indicator of psychosocialwell-being and provide useful information for the development of interventions to improve theirpsychosocial adjustment. This is the reason why it is essential within the school adjustment to consider notonly students' academic achievement but also their level of social integration in the classroom, the qualityof their relationship with the teacher, and the level of family involvement in their education. The objectiveof this research is to provide a reliable instrument for measuring a full school adjustment and analyze itsrelationship with two important indicators of psychosocial adjustment, self-concept and attitudes towardauthority. This study involved 87 teachers who assessed the school adjustment of students (N = 2378adolescents using the PROF-A scale. Findings show that this scale consists of four factors, social integration,academic competence, family involvement, and teacher-student relationship, showing significant positivecorrelations with self-concept and positive attitudes toward authority.

  9. A scale on beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new instrument named Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment on Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF). The scale was developed to assess of the adults' beliefs about negative impacts on children who are raised by same-sex parents. An initial pool of 95 items was generated by the authors based on a review of the literature on homophobia and feedback from several focus groups. Research findings, based on a sample of 212 university students (mean age 22 years, SD = 8.28), supported the reliability and validity of the scale. The final versions of the SBCASSF included items reflecting the following two factors: individual opposition (α = .87) and normative opposition (α = .88). Convergent validity of the scale is demonstrated by predictable correlations with beliefs about the cause of same-sex sexual orientation and the support for gay and lesbian rights. Our study reveals a strong positive association between high scores on SBCASSF and beliefs that the origin of same-sex sexual orientation is learned and opposition to gay and lesbian rights.

  10. [Premorbid markers of cardiovascular diseases in mining industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, O Iu; Vlasova, E M; Luzhetskii, k P; Ivashova, Iu A; Belitskaia, V E

    2014-01-01

    Functional studies of cardiovascular system in mine cutting machine operators with 10 years of underground length of service under exposure to occupational hazards (air pollution with sylvinite dust, noise, general and local vibration, increased humidity, absent natural illumination, work hardiness and intensity), helped to establish premorbid markers of cardial diseases--labile arterial hypertension, disordered processes of myocardial excitability, conductivity and automatism, higher thickness of intima-media complex in extracranial branches of brachiocephalic arteries. To decrease cardiovascular morbidity in mine cutting machine operators, the authors recommend additional blood pressure monitoring and ultrasound study of intima-media complex of extracranial brachiocephalic arteries within periodic medical examinations.

  11. Development of the Korean Adult Reading Test (KART) to estimate premorbid intelligence in dementia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Han, Ji Young; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Byun, Min Soo; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Ahn, Suzy; Woo, Jong Inn; Jun, Jongho; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV). Among the 94 words, 50 words that did not show a significant difference between the CN and the AD group were selected and constituted the KART. Using the 30 CN calculation group (CNc), a linear regression equation was obtained in which the observed full-scale IQ (FSIQ) was regressed on the reading errors of the KART, where education was included as an additional variable. When the regressed equation computed from the CNc was applied to 30 CN individuals of the validation group (CNv), the predicted FSIQ adequately fit the observed FSIQ (R2 = 0.63). In addition, independent sample t-test showed that the KART-predicted IQs were not significantly different between the CNv and AD groups, whereas the performance of the AD group was significantly worse in the observed IQs. In addition, an extended validation of the KART was performed with a separate sample consisted of 84 CN, 56 elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 43 AD patients who were administered comprehensive neuropsychological assessments in addition to the KART. When the equation obtained from the CNc was applied to the extended validation sample, the KART-predicted IQs of the AD, MCI and the CN groups did not significantly differ, whereas their current global cognition scores significantly differed between the groups. In conclusion, the results support the validity of KART-predicted IQ as an index of premorbid IQ in individuals with AD. PMID:28723964

  12. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J;

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  13. Estimating Premorbid Intelligence among Older Adults: The Utility of the AMNART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Lowe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the utility of the American version of the National Adult Reading Test (AMNART as a measure of premorbid intelligence for older adults. In a sample of 130 older adults, aged 56 to 104, the AMNART was compared to other tests of premorbid intelligence. The results revealed that AMNART-estimated IQ was significantly higher than other premorbid estimates. Across specific educational groups (i.e., 0–12, 13–16, and 17 or more years of education, AMNART-estimated IQ was inflated relative to all other premorbid estimates. The AMNART also declined as cognitive impairment increased, and there was a significant interaction between aging-related diagnostic group and premorbid estimate. The AMNART may therefore overestimate premorbid ability relative to other premorbid measures, particularly among those with greater cognitive impairment and lower levels of education. These results suggest that the AMNART should be used cautiously among older adults and in conjunction with other estimates of premorbid ability.

  14. Does movement planning follow Fitts' law? Scaling anticipatory postural adjustments with movement speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucco, M; Cesari, P

    2010-11-24

    We wanted to determine whether movement planning followed Fitts' law by investigating the relationship between movement planning and movement performance in experienced dancers executing a typical classical ballet step in which the big toe was pointed to targets at different distances and of different widths so as to obtain several indices of difficulty (ID). Movement time, velocity and variability at the target were the variables of movement performance kinematics; movement planning was evaluated by analysis of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) to assess their modulation at different IDs. Movement time and peak of velocity were found to scale with the ID only when individual movement distance across target widths was entered into the analysis. APA magnitude and duration both scaled according to movement parameters but not in the same way. APA magnitude scaled with movement velocity, while APA duration was sensitive to the amplitude-to-accuracy ratio following the ID for movements performed in the shortest time interval when on-line feedback control is probably not available. Here we show that timing of muscle activation acts as an independent central command that triggers fine-tuning for speed-accuracy trade-off.

  15. Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A high-risk prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J.;

    2013-01-01

    who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker......Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants...

  16. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  17. Flexible sampling large-scale social networks by self-adjustable random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ke; Zhu, Jonathan J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have become an increasingly attractive gold mine for academic and commercial researchers. However, research on OSNs faces a number of difficult challenges. One bottleneck lies in the massive quantity and often unavailability of OSN population data. Sampling perhaps becomes the only feasible solution to the problems. How to draw samples that can represent the underlying OSNs has remained a formidable task because of a number of conceptual and methodological reasons. Especially, most of the empirically-driven studies on network sampling are confined to simulated data or sub-graph data, which are fundamentally different from real and complete-graph OSNs. In the current study, we propose a flexible sampling method, called Self-Adjustable Random Walk (SARW), and test it against with the population data of a real large-scale OSN. We evaluate the strengths of the sampling method in comparison with four prevailing methods, including uniform, breadth-first search (BFS), random walk (RW), and revised RW (i.e., MHRW) sampling. We try to mix both induced-edge and external-edge information of sampled nodes together in the same sampling process. Our results show that the SARW sampling method has been able to generate unbiased samples of OSNs with maximal precision and minimal cost. The study is helpful for the practice of OSN research by providing a highly needed sampling tools, for the methodological development of large-scale network sampling by comparative evaluations of existing sampling methods, and for the theoretical understanding of human networks by highlighting discrepancies and contradictions between existing knowledge/assumptions of large-scale real OSN data.

  18. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  19. Enuresis as a premorbid developmental marker of schizophrenia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Iglesias, Bianca; Callicott, Joseph H.; Gold, James M.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Honea, Robyn A.; Bigelow, Llewellyn B.; Egan, Michael F.; Emsellem, Esther M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    There is comparatively little information about premorbid maturational brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ). We investigated whether a history of childhood enuresis, a well-established marker of neurodevelopmental delay, is associated with SCZ and with measures of brain abnormalities also associated with SCZ. A Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) based history of enuresis, volumetric brain MRI scans and neuropsychological testing were obtained in patients with SCZ, their non-psychotic siblings (SIB) and non-psychiatric controls (NC). The subjects were 211 patients (79.6% male), 234 of their SIB (43.2% male) and 355 controls (39.2% male). Frequency of enuresis was compared across groups and correlated with cognitive measures. Total and regional brain volumes were determined using voxel-based morphometry on matched subsets of probands (n = 82) with or without enuresis (n = 16, n = 66, respectively) and controls (n = 102) with or without enuresis (n = 11, n = 91, respectively). Patients with SCZ had higher rates of childhood enuresis (21%) compared with SIB (11%; χ2 = 6.42, P = 0.01) or controls (7%; χ2 = 23.65, P 3.57, all P < 0.001). The high frequency of childhood enuresis associated with SCZ and abnormalities in prefrontal function and structure in patients with a childhood history of enuresis suggest that childhood enuresis may be a premorbid marker for neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to SCZ. These findings add to the evidence implicating prefrontal dysmaturation in this disorder, potentially related to genetic risk factors. PMID:18669483

  20. Predicting Estimates of Premorbid Memory Functioning: Validation in a Dementia Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Chelune, Gordon J.; Dennett, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Formulae to estimate premorbid memory functioning in a sample of cognitively intact older adults have been developed. These formulae were validated in a small sample of patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. However, further validation is clearly needed. The current study applied these formulae to a sample of 1,059 patients referred to a dementia clinic and compared the premorbid estimates of memory functioning with current memory abilities. Large and statistically significant differences were observed in the current sample, with premorbid memory scores exceeding current memory scores. Although some cautions should be observed when using these estimates clinically, growing support for these estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time in older patients. PMID:22024960

  1. Comparative analysis of relation between premorbid period and variants of endogenous mental disorders beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Krasnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the long-term observation period (1986 through 2012 the properties of endogenous mental disorders premorbid period in 107 persons (of mean age 21.5±1.5 years were studied. In 41.2% of the cases, premorbid period was characterized by premorbid disorders, which included disorders of development, deviation of behavior and motor skills, behavioral abnormalities, affective and somatic disorders combined with quantitative changes in personality, and decline of cognitive indicators. Premorbid disorders in 56.2% of cases were preceded by clinical features of endogenous mental disorders such as a progressive or continuous-attack-like progressive course, low severity of positive symptoms in period of manifestation.

  2. Premorbid Obesity and Mortality in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Kaustav; Gupta, Arjun; Arora, Nivedita; Singh, Preet Paul; Singh, Siddharth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer, but it is unclear whether it affects mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between premorbid obesity and mortality from pancreatic cancer. We performed a systematic search through January 2015 and identified studies of the association between premorbid obesity (at least 1 year prior to pancreatic cancer diagnosis) and pancreatic cancer-related mortality. We estimated summary adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), comparing data from obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)) and overweight subjects (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) with those from individuals with a normal BMI (controls) by using random-effects model. We identified 13 studies (including 3 studies that pooled multiple cohorts); 5 studies included only patients with pancreatic cancer, whereas 8 studies evaluated pancreatic cancer-related mortality in cancer-free individuals at inception. In the meta-analysis, we observed increase in pancreatic cancer-related mortality among overweight (aHR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; I(2) = 0) and obese individuals (aHR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.20-1.42; I(2) = 43%), compared with controls; the association remained when we analyzed data from only subjects with pancreatic cancer. Each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with 10% increase in mortality (aHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.15) with minimal heterogeneity (I(2) = 0). In the subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with increased mortality in Western populations (11 studies; aHR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.42) but not in Asia-Pacific populations (2 studies; aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.76-1.27). In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we associated increasing level of obesity with increased mortality in patients with pancreatic cancer in Western but not Asia-Pacific populations. Strategies to reduce obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities might be developed to treat patients with pancreatic cancer

  3. Premorbid Multivariate Prediction of Adult Psychosis-Spectrum Disorder: A High-Risk Prospective Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole; Sorensen, Holger J.; Dodge, Shana; Tsuji, Thomas; Mortensen, Erik L; Mednick, Sarnoff

    2015-01-01

    Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured...

  4. Effect of Adjusting Pseudo-Guessing Parameter Estimates on Test Scaling When Item Parameter Drift Is Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung T. Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In item response theory test scaling/equating with the three-parameter model, the scaling coefficients A and B have no impact on the c-parameter estimates of the test items since the c-parameter estimates are not adjusted in the scaling/equating procedure. The main research question in this study concerned how serious the consequences would be if c-parameter estimates are not adjusted in the test equating procedure when item-parameter drift (IPD is present. This drift is commonly observed in equating studies and hence, has been the source of considerable research. The results from a series of Monte-Carlo simulation studies conducted under 32 different combinations of conditions showed that some calibration strategies in the study, where the c-parameters were adjusted to be identical across two test forms, resulted in more robust equating performance in the presence of IPD. This paper discusses the practical effectiveness and the theoretical importance of appropriately adjusting c-parameter estimates in equating.

  5. Premorbid cognitive deficits in young relatives of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcheri S Keshavan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR for schizophrenia and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also provide some additional data pertaining to the relation of these deficits to psychopathology and brain structural alterations from the Pittsburgh Risk Evaluation Program (PREP. Cognitive deficits are noted in the HR population, which are more severe in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree relatives and primarily involve psychomotor speed, memory, attention, reasoning, and social-cognition. Reduced general intelligence is also noted, although its relationship to these specific domains is underexplored. Premorbid cognitive deficits may be related to brain structural and functional abnormalities, underlining the neurobiological basis of this illness. Cognitive impairments might predict later emergence of psychopathology in at-risk subjects and may be targets of early remediation and preventive strategies. Although evidence for neurocognitive deficits in young relatives abounds, further studies on their structural underpinnings and on their candidate status as endophenotypes are needed.

  6. Adjusted scaling of FDG positron emission tomography images for statistical evaluation in patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchert, Ralph; Wilke, Florian; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Martin, Brigitte; Brenner, Winfried; Mester, Janos; Clausen, Malte

    2005-10-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) gained increasing acceptance for the voxel-based statistical evaluation of brain positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease (AD). To increase the sensitivity for detection of local changes, individual differences of total brain FDG uptake are usually compensated for by proportional scaling. However, in cases of extensive hypometabolic areas, proportional scaling overestimates scaled uptake. This may cause significant underestimation of the extent of hypometabolic areas by the statistical test. To detect this problem, the authors tested for hypermetabolism. In patients with no visual evidence of true focal hypermetabolism, significant clusters of hypermetabolism in the presence of extended hypometabolism were interpreted as false-positive findings, indicating relevant overestimation of scaled uptake. In this case, scaled uptake was reduced step by step until there were no more significant clusters of hypermetabolism. In 22 consecutive patients with suspected AD, proportional scaling resulted in relevant overestimation of scaled uptake in 9 patients. Scaled uptake had to be reduced by 11.1% +/- 5.3% in these cases to eliminate the artifacts. Adjusted scaling resulted in extension of existing and appearance of new clusters of hypometabolism. Total volume of the additional voxels with significant hypometabolism depended linearly on the extent of the additional scaling and was 202 +/- 118 mL on average. Adjusted scaling helps to identify characteristic metabolic patterns in patients with suspected AD. It is expected to increase specificity of FDGPET in this group of patients.

  7. Estimation of premorbid intelligence in Spanish people with the Word Accentuation Test and its application to the diagnosis of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ser, T; González-Montalvo, J I; Martínez-Espinosa, S; Delgado-Villapalos, C; Bermejo, F

    1997-04-01

    The Word Accentuation Test assesses the accentuation of 30 infrequent Spanish words written without the accentuation mark and is an easy-to-use tool for estimating premorbid intelligence of Spanish-speaking people. Its intraobserver (0.97) and interobserver (0.93) reliabilities and its correlation with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (.837) and Raven's Progressive Matrices (.655) are high, offering a good prediction of general intelligence. It is resistant to mental deterioration; 20 demented and 40 controls matched by sex, age, and education obtained similar scores. The discrepancies between current and predicted scores in Raven's scale can diagnose mild-moderate dementia with 0.79 accuracy (sensitivity, 0.78; specificity, 0.82).

  8. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at paranoid schizophrenia.

  9. Neurodevelopmental liability to schizophrenia: the complex mediating role of age at onset and premorbid adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, X.; Fatjó-Vilas, M.; Penadés, M.; Miret, S.; Muñoz, M.J.; Vossen, H.; Fañanás, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large individual variation in the clinical presentation of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders raises key questions regarding their aetiological underpinnings. In this respect, age at onset of the disorder is a particularly interesting marker of liability, as it has been reported to be associated with

  10. Neurodevelopmental liability to schizophrenia: the complex mediating role of age at onset and premorbid adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, X.; Fatjó-Vilas, M.; Penadés, M.; Miret, S.; Muñoz, M.J.; Vossen, H.; Fañanás, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large individual variation in the clinical presentation of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders raises key questions regarding their aetiological underpinnings. In this respect, age at onset of the disorder is a particularly interesting marker of liability, as it has been reported to be associated with

  11. Least squares adjustment of large-scale geodetic networks by orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.A.; Golub, G.H.; Heath, M.T.; Plemmons, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    This article reviews some recent developments in the solution of large sparse least squares problems typical of those arising in geodetic adjustment problems. The new methods are distinguished by their use of orthogonal transformations which tend to improve numerical accuracy over the conventional approach based on the use of the normal equations. The adaptation of these new schemes to allow for the use of auxiliary storage and their extension to rank deficient problems are also described.

  12. Are abnormal premorbid personality traits associated with Alzheimer's disease? - A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Helen; Moran, Paul; Foy, Catherine; Brown, Richard G; Lovestone, Simon; Bryant, Stephanie; Boothby, Harry

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between premorbid personality traits, social networks and AD, using a case-control design, and two informant-based retrospective assessments of premorbid personality. Cases consisted of 217 Subjects diagnosed with probable late onset Alzheimer's disease (160 females and 57 males). Recruitment was from both community and nursing home settings. Controls consisted of 76 unaffected siblings (44 females and 32 males) of patients with AD. Both cases and controls received informant ratings of premorbid personality. A selection of abnormal personality traits were over represented in the AD group. AD was particularly associated with Cluster A personality disorder traits (Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal). AD cases had correspondingly sparser social networks. There is an association between abnormal personality traits and AD. Individuals with AD also appear to have had lower levels of social interactivity.

  13. Scale-Adjusted Metrics for Predicting the Evolution of Urban Indicators and Quantifying the Performance of Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G A Alves

    Full Text Available More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and several academic works still ignore these nonlinearities by often analyzing the raw or the per capita value of urban indicators, a practice that actually makes the urban metrics biased towards small or large cities depending on whether we have super or sublinear allometries. By following the ideas of Bettencourt et al. [PLoS ONE 5 (2010 e13541], we account for this bias by evaluating the difference between the actual value of an urban indicator and the value expected by the allometry with the population size. We show that this scale-adjusted metric provides a more appropriate/informative summary of the evolution of urban indicators and reveals patterns that do not appear in the evolution of per capita values of indicators obtained from Brazilian cities. We also show that these scale-adjusted metrics are strongly correlated with their past values by a linear correspondence and that they also display crosscorrelations among themselves. Simple linear models account for 31%-97% of the observed variance in data and correctly reproduce the average of the scale-adjusted metric when grouping the cities in above and below the allometric laws. We further employ these models to forecast future values of urban indicators and, by visualizing the predicted changes, we verify the emergence of spatial clusters characterized by regions of the Brazilian territory where we expect an increase or a decrease in the values of urban indicators.

  14. Self-efficacy among university faculty: how to develop an adjusted scale

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Perea, María; Salanova Soria, Marisa; Martín del Río, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the procedure carried out to develop a scale to measure specific self-efficacy in one particular do-main, i.e. university faculty, following the recommendations from Social Cognitive Theory by Albert Bandura. The scale that was created considers the triple work profile of university faculty (i.e. teaching, research and management). By using confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 166 university faculty members, we found a superior fit for the three-fa...

  15. Within-Semester Stability and Adjustment Correlates of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Dellwo, Jacqueline P.

    2001-01-01

    Subscale scores from R.O. Frost, P. Marten, C. Lahart, and R. Rosenblate's (1990) Mulitdimensional Perfectionism Scale were found to be moderately stable over a 10-week period. Associations between perfectionism and self-esteem, depression, and academic integration yielded mixed support for the criterion-related validity of the scores from this…

  16. Scale Adjustments to Facilitate Two-Dimensional Measurements in OCT Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Garcia Garrido

    Full Text Available To address the problem of unequal scales for the measurement of two-dimensional structures in OCT images, and demonstrate the use of intra¬ocular objects of known dimensions in the murine eye for the equal calibration of axes.The first part of this work describes the mathematical foundation of major distortion effects introduced by X-Y scaling differences. Illustrations were generated with CorelGraph X3 software. The second part bases on image data obtained with a HRA2 Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering in SV129 wild-type mice. Subretinally and intravitreally implanted microbeads, alginate capsules with a diameter of 154±5 μm containing GFP-marked mesenchymal stem cells (CellBeads, were used as intraocular objects for calibration.The problems encountered with two-dimensional measurements in cases of unequal scales are demonstrated and an estimation of the resulting errors is provided. Commonly, the Y axis is reliably calibrated using outside standards like histology or manufacturer data. We show here that intraocular objects like dimensionally stable spherical alginate capsules allow for a two-dimensional calibration of the acquired OCT raw images by establishing a relation between X and Y axis data. For our setup, a correction factor of about 3.3 was determined using both epiretinally and subretinally positioned beads (3.350 ± 0.104 and 3.324 ± 0.083, respectively.In this work, we highlight the distortion-related problems in OCT image analysis induced by unequal X and Y scales. As an exemplary case, we provide data for a two-dimensional in vivo OCT image calibration in mice using intraocular alginate capsules. Our results demonstrate the need for a proper two-dimensional calibration of OCT data, and we believe that equal scaling will certainly improve the efficiency of OCT image analysis.

  17. Thoughts on Structure Adjustment of China's Refining Industry and Recommendations on Improving Economy of Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong

    2002-01-01

    @@By the end of 1998 China boasted 220 refineries with a totalcrude processing capacity of 262 Mt/a. The average refinerysize at that time was 1.194 Mt/a. Refineries with processingcapacity exceeding 5.0 Mt/a accounted for only 21.26%,while the capacity of single refining units were also smallthat could not conform with the economy of scale. China'srefining industry is faced with a tough task of structureadjustment.   

  18. Thoughts on Structure Adjustment of China's Refining Industry and Recommendations on Improving Economy of Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1998 China boasted 220 refineries with a totalcrude processing capacity of 262 Mt/a. The average refinerysize at that time was 1.194 Mt/a. Refineries with processingcapacity exceeding 5.0 Mt/a accounted for only 21.26%,while the capacity of single refining units were also smallthat could not conform with the economy of scale. China'srefining industry is faced with a tough task of structureadjustment.

  19. Testing the Short and Screener versions of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameroff, Marc J; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2012-03-01

    The 54-item Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR) is a measure of social functioning used in research studies and clinical practice. Two shortened versions were recently developed: the 24-item SAS-SR: Short and the 14-item SAS-SR: Screener. We briefly describe the development of the shortened scales and then assess their reliability and validity in comparison to the full SAS-SR in new analyses from two separate samples of convenience from a family study and from a primary care clinic. Compared to the full SAS-SR, the shortened scales performed well, exhibiting high correlations with full SAS-SR scores (r values between 0.81 and 0.95); significant correlations with health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form 36 Health Survey; the ability to distinguish subjects with major depression versus other psychiatric disorders versus no mental disorders; and sensitivity to change in clinical status as measured longitudinally with the Symptom Checklist-90 and Global Assessment Scale. The SAS-SR: Short and SAS-SR: Screener retained the areas assessed by the full SAS-SR with fewer items in each area, and appear to be promising replacements for the full scale when a shorter administration time is desired and detailed information on performance in different areas is not required. Further work is needed to test the validity of the shortened measures.

  20. Millenial scale changes in flood magnitude and frequency and the role of changes in channel adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, Jacky; Thompson, Christopher; Denham, Robert; Haines, Heather; Sharma, Ashneel; Pietsch, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    With access to only limited gauging records (~ 37 years in eastern Australia), Australia like many parts of the globe is heavily constrained in its ability to meaningfully predict the magnitude and frequency of extreme flood events. Flood inundation data gathered during recent floods (2011 and 213) now forms an essential insight into how landscapes may respond to future floods and to guide planning and policy. This study presents the first singe-catchment flood reconstruction analyses in a region of recognised hydrological variability, as characterised by alternating extremes of floods and droughts. The resultant 'Big Flood' data set consists of a unique combination of high-resolution topographic data on landscape changes during recent floods, and a detailed reconstruction of both the timing and estimated magnitude of past food events derived using OSL dating of flood deposits from a range of sedimentary environments. While distinct flood and drought 'phases' are recognisable over the timescale of several thousand years, the extent to which these reflect changes in flood magnitude and/or frequency remains complicated by catchment-specific geomorphology. Issues of flood sample preservation are discussed in this talk within the context of geomorphic setting and notably non-linear variations in the capacity for channel adjustment. This talk outlines the key factors which must be considered in evaluating the role of climate, landuse change and geomorphology in informing flood risk management in Queensland.

  1. Adjusting mobility scales of ion mobility spectrometers using 2,6-DtBP as a reference compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, A-K; Mauriala, T; Mattila, T; Adamov, A; Pedersen, C S; Mäkelä, J M; Marjamäki, M; Sysoev, A; Keskinen, J; Kotiaho, T

    2008-09-15

    Performance of several time-of-flight (TOF) type ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) was compared in a joint measurement campaign and their mobility scales were adjusted based on the measurements. A standard reference compound 2,6-di-tert butylpyridine (2,6-DtBP) was used to create a single peak ion mobility distribution with a known mobility value. The effective length of the drift tube of each device, considered here as an instrument constant, was determined based on the measurements. Sequentially, two multi-peaked test compounds, DMMP and DIMP, were used to verify the performance of the adjustment procedure in a wider mobility scale. By determining the effective drift tube lengths using 2,6-DtBP, agreement between the devices was achieved. The determination of effective drift tube lengths according to standard reference compound was found to be a good method for instrument inter-comparison. The comparison procedure, its benefits and shortcomings as well as dependency on accuracy of literature value are discussed along with the results.

  2. Amyloid Deposition and Cognition in Older Adults: The Effects of Premorbid Intellect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin; Foster, Norman L.; Dennett, Kathryn; Hammers, Dustin B.; Zollinger, Lauren V.; Christian, Paul E.; Butterfield, Regan I.; Beardmore, Britney E.; Wang, Angela Y.; Morton, Kathryn A.; Hoffman, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although amyloid deposition remains a marker of the development of Alzheimer's disease, results linking amyloid and cognition have been equivocal. Twenty-five community-dwelling non-demented older adults were examined with 18F-flutemetamol, an amyloid imaging agent, and a cognitive battery, including an estimate of premorbid intellect and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). In the first model, 18F-flutemetamol uptake significantly correlated with the Delayed Memory Index of the RBANS (r = −.51, p = .02) and premorbid intellect (r = .43, p = .03). In the second model, the relationship between 18F-flutemetamol and cognition was notably stronger when controlling for premorbid intellect (e.g., three of the five RBANS Indexes and its Total score significantly correlated with 18F-flutemetamol, r's = −.41 to −.58). Associations were found between amyloid-binding 18F-flutemetamol and cognitive functioning in non-demented older adults. These associations were greatest with delayed memory and stronger when premorbid intellect was considered, suggesting that cognitive reserve partly compensates for the symptomatic expression of amyloid pathology in community-dwelling elderly. PMID:23817438

  3. Premorbid intelligence of inpatients with different psychiatric diagnoses does not differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Stratta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Stratta1, Ilaria Riccardi2, Annarita Tomassini2, Maria Marronaro2, Roberta Pacifico2, Alessandro Rossi2,31Department of Mental Health, A.U.S.L. 4 L’Aquila, Italy; 2Department of Experimental Medicine, University of L’Aquila, Italy; 3Clinical Psychology Unit at Villa Serena, c/o ‘Casa di Cura Villa Serena’, Viale L. Petruzzi, 19, Città S.Angelo, Pescara, ItalyAbstract: The diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid intelligence is controversial. We explored premorbid intelligence level in psychiatric patients with personality disorders, depressive disorders, bipolar disorders and schizophrenic disorders. 273 consecutively admitted patients and 81 controls were included in the study and tested with the ‘Test di Intelligenza Breve’, an Italian adaptation of the National Adult Reading Test. Significant differences between the clinical samples and the control subjects were found but not among the 4 clinical groups. The observation of premorbid IQ deficits in subjects with diagnoses other than schizophrenia suggests a common vulnerability diathesis, which is most likely to have a neurodevelopmental basis.Keywords: premorbid intelligence, psychiatric disorders, specificity

  4. [Premorbid personality and aggressive behavior: a study with residents of psychogeriatric nursing homes].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.; Ekkerink, J.L.P.; Mahler, M.M.; Kuin, Y.; Wetzels, R.B.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    From experimental research it appears that personality plays a role in causes and onset of aggressive behavior in adults. However, studies about the influence of premorbid personality on aggressive behavior of older persons with dementia show contradictory results. In this study we gathered data on

  5. Convective moisture adjustment time scale as a key factor in regulating model amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianan; Zhao, Ming; Maloney, Eric D.; Waliser, Duane E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pronounced impacts on weather extremes worldwide, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in climate models. Here we present findings that point to some necessary ingredients to produce a strong MJO amplitude in a large set of model simulations from a recent model intercomparison project. While surface flux and radiative heating anomalies are considered important for amplifying the MJO, their strength per unit MJO precipitation anomaly is found to be negatively correlated to MJO amplitude across these multimodel simulations. However, model MJO amplitude is found to be closely tied to a model's convective moisture adjustment time scale, a measure of how rapidly precipitation must increase to remove excess column water vapor, or alternately the efficiency of surface precipitation generation per unit column water vapor anomaly. These findings provide critical insights into key model processes for the MJO and pinpoint a direction for improved model representation of the MJO.

  6. Factorial Invariance of the Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families in Spanish, Chilean, and Hispanic University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…

  7. Estimating Premorbid Functioning in Huntington's Disease: The Relationship between Disease Progression and the Wide Range Achievement Test Reading Subtest

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861

  8. Measuring awareness in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: development of the Memory Awareness Rating Scale--adjusted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rachel M; Oyebode, Jan R; Clare, Linda

    2006-04-01

    Variations in level of awareness among people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may impact on well-being for the person with dementia and their carer, and may influence outcomes of cognitive rehabilitation interventions. Awareness has often been assessed using discrepancies between self and proxy rating or between self-rating and objective task performance, with the latter considered to be preferable. Measures are available that are suitable for people with mild AD, for example the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS). However, these may be less appropriate for people whose impairments are more advanced and who consequently have more difficulty with the objective task component. In order to provide a measure suitable for people with moderate AD, an adjusted Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARSA) was developed by altering the objective task component of the MARS. The MARSA was piloted with 41 participants with mild to moderate AD. It was found to be suitable for use with a broader group of participants than the MARS. The component ratings were found to have good internal consistency. The component ratings and the two indices of awareness had high test-retest reliability. The extension of the original measure offers the opportunity to consider awareness throughout the course of the disease and provides a basis for longitudinal investigations of awareness.

  9. Scale-adjusted metrics for predicting the evolution of urban indicators and quantifying the performance of cities

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Luiz G A; Lenzi, Ervin K; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2015-01-01

    More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and several academic works still ignore these nonlinearities by often analyzing the raw or the per capita value of urban indicators, a practice that actually makes the urban metrics biased towards small or large cities depending on whether we have super or sublinear allometries. By following the ideas of Bettencourt et al., we account for this bias by evaluating the difference between the actual value of an urban indicator and the value expected by the allometry with the population size. We show that this scale-adjusted metri...

  10. Excessive decline from premorbid functioning: detecting performance invalidity with the WAIS-IV and demographic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip K; Hunter, Ben P; Rach, Amanda M; Heinrichs, Robin J; Schroeder, Ryan W

    2017-07-01

    Excessive Decline from Premorbid Functioning (EDPF) is presented as a construct and defined as a discrepancy between predicted premorbid ability and current test performance that is so atypical of individuals with true neurocognitive impairment that it is likely the product of performance invalidity. New embedded PVTs (EDPF-FSIQ, EDPF-VW, and EDPF-PP) were derived by comparing scores from the WAIS-IV to TOPF demographically predicted premorbid estimates and then examined for classification accuracy. After excluding for dementia, intellectual disability, and left-sided stroke, participants (n = 230) were grouped according to number of PVTs failed. ROC analyses were conducted to determine the accuracy of EDPF indices in classifying patients as failing 0 or ≥2 PVTs within both a mixed neuropsychological outpatient sample and according to specific diagnostic criterion groups. Significant group differences emerged for all EDPF indices (p < .001). EDPF-FSIQ resulted in an AUC of .837, classifying patients with 56% sensitivity at ≥90% specificity, and EDPF-VW resulted in an AUC of .850, classifying patients with 61% sensitivity at ≥90% specificity. Accuracy remained high across diagnostic groups (i.e. neurocognitive, moderate/severe TBI, and psychiatric) for EDPF-VW and EDPF-FSIQ, whereas specificity declined for EDPF-PP in patients with mixed neurocognitive disorders. Overall, classification accuracy rates exceeded those of Reliable Digit Span. Both EDPF-FSIQ and EDPF-VW demonstrated excellent discrimination between patients providing valid versus invalid test performance. Unique advantages of EDPF validity measures include incorporation of demographic estimates of premorbid ability and examination of performances on multiple tests spanning different cognitive domains.

  11. Sex, Symptom, and Premorbid Social Functioning Associated with Perceptual Organization Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eJoseph

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in visual perceptual organization abilities are a repeatedly observed cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. These impairments have been found to be most prominent among patients with histories of poor premorbid social functioning, disorganized symptoms, and poor clinical outcomes. Despite the demonstration of significant sex differences for these clinical factors in schizophrenia, the extent of sex differences for visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the extent to which previously known correlates (premorbid social sexual functioning and disorganized symptoms and a novel factor (participant sex accounted for performance on two perceptual organization tasks (contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion that have previously demonstrated sensitivity to schizophrenia. We also determined the relative degree to which each of these factors predicted task scores over and above the others. Schizophrenia patients (N = 109, 43 female from different levels of care were ascertained. Female patients demonstrated higher contour integration scores, but lower performance on the context sensitivity index of the Ebbinghaus illusion, compared to males. Contour integration performance was significantly associated with poorer premorbid adolescent social sexual functioning and higher levels of disorganized symptoms, supporting past results that indicate a relationship among poor premorbid social sexual functioning, disorganized symptoms, and visual perceptual abnormalities in schizophrenia. However, analyses of Ebbinghaus illusion performance suggests there is a complex relationship among patient sex, clinical factors and perceptual abilities with relatively intact bottom-up grouping processes in females, but greater problems, compared to males with more top-down mediated context sensitivity. Therefore, sex differences may be an important consideration for future studies of visual perceptual organization in

  12. Depressive symptoms in elderly patients predict poor adjustment after somatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Ormel, J; Slaets, JPJ; Kempen, GIJM; Ranchor, AV; van Jaarsveld, CHM; Scaf-Klomp, W; Sanderman, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The authors tested the hypothesis that elderly subjects with premorbid depressive symptoms are at increased risk of poor adjustment after a somatic event. Methods: The GLAS study contains a baseline assessment and a follow-up of subjects who experienced post-baseline acute myocardial infa

  13. The British Sign Language versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.

  14. How Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina) Adjust Their Fine Scale Horizontal Movement and Diving Behaviour in Relation to Prey Encounter Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouma’a, Joffrey; Picard, Baptiste; Guinet, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diving behaviour of diving predators in relation to concomitant prey distribution could have major practical applications in conservation biology by allowing the assessment of how changes in fine scale prey distribution impact foraging efficiency and ultimately population dynamics. The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina, hereafter SES), the largest phocid, is a major predator of the southern ocean feeding on myctophids and cephalopods. Because of its large size it can carry bio-loggers with minimal disturbance. Moreover, it has great diving abilities and a wide foraging habitat. Thus, the SES is a well suited model species to study predator diving behaviour and the distribution of ecologically important prey species in the Southern Ocean. In this study, we examined how SESs adjust their diving behaviour and horizontal movements in response to fine scale prey encounter densities using high resolution accelerometers, magnetometers, pressure sensors and GPS loggers. When high prey encounter rates were encountered, animals responded by (1) diving and returning to the surface with steeper angles, reducing the duration of transit dive phases (thus improving dive efficiency), and (2) exhibiting more horizontally and vertically sinuous bottom phases. In these cases, the distance travelled horizontally at the surface was reduced. This behaviour is likely to counteract horizontal displacement from water currents, as they try to remain within favourable prey patches. The prey encounter rate at the bottom of dives decreased with increasing diving depth, suggesting a combined effect of decreased accessibility and prey density with increasing depth. Prey encounter rate also decreased when the bottom phases of dives were spread across larger vertical extents of the water column. This result suggests that the vertical aggregation of prey can regulate prey density, and as a consequence impact the foraging success of SESs. To our knowledge, this is one of

  15. The brief self-control scale predicts jail inmates' recidivism, substance dependence, and post-release adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Elizabeth T; Schaefer, Karen E; Witt, Edward A; Moore, Kelly E; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P

    2014-03-01

    Previous research finds that self-control is positively associated with adaptive and negatively associated with maladaptive behavior. However, most previous studies use cross-sectional designs, low-risk samples, and limited assessments of self-control. This study of 553 jail inmates examined the relationship of a valid measure of self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale) completed on incarceration with behavior before, during, and 1 year after incarceration. After controlling for positive impression management (PIM), self-control was negatively related to substance misuse, suicidality, risky sex, and criminal history prior to incarceration and post-release illegal substance misuse, recidivism, and positive adjustment. Lower self-control predicted increases in substance dependence at post-release compared with pre-incarceration. Self-control was not related to misbehavior during incarceration, nor alcohol use or HIV-risk behavior 1 year post-release. Results were consistent as a function of age, race, and gender. This study supports self-control as an important risk and protective factor in a sample of criminal offenders.

  16. The Brief Self-Control Scale Predicts Jail Inmates’ Recidivism, Substance Dependence, and Post-Release Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Previous research finds that self-control is positively associated with adaptive and negatively associated with maladaptive behavior. However, most previous studies employ cross-sectional designs, low-risk samples, and limited assessments of self-control. This study of 553 jail inmates examined the relationship of a valid measure of self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale; BSCS) completed upon incarceration with behavior before, during, and one year after incarceration. After controlling for positive impression management (PIM), self-control was negatively related to substance misuse, suicidality, risky sex, and criminal history prior to incarceration and post-release illegal substance misuse, recidivism, and positive adjustment. Lower self-control predicted increases in substance dependence at post-release compared to pre-incarceration. Self-control was not related to misbehavior during incarceration, nor alcohol use or HIV-risk behavior one year post-release. Results were consistent as a function of age, race, and gender. This study supports self-control as an important risk and protective factor in a sample of criminal offenders. PMID:24345712

  17. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  18. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  19. Risk Syndromes and Scales Determining Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder leading to lifelong deterioration of social and vocational functioning. Prodromal period, designates the time interval starting with emerging nonspecific signs and deficits and extending up to presentation of distinct and ongoing schizophrenic symptoms, is observed in most of schizophrenia patients. In schizophrenia, poor premorbid adjustment leads to a worse prognosis and thus early detection and intervention is required in prodromal period. To this end, under the heading of risk factors for schizophrenia and psychosis, classification and scales to determine the risk are being utilized. Most frequently used scales are; Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS, Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS, Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS. Through the light of these latest developments, recent edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 added psychosis risk syndrome or attenuated psychosis syndrome to indicate risk of transition to psychosis. These approaches revealed that the risk of progression to psychosis was not reliably correlated with fulfilled criteria, but abscence of criteria credibly predicted the unlikelihood of psychosis emergence. Evidently, concomitant premorbid features and prodromal symptoms significantly increase the risk of progression to psychosis and schizophrenia in comparison to normal population. Nevertheless, specification and elaboration of risk criteria will enhance reliability of risk determination. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 494-508

  20. Prevalence of premorbid metabolic syndrome in Spanish adult workers using IDF and ATPIII diagnostic criteria: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tauler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII. The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European adult workers (20-65 years randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria. Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS. CONCLUSIONS: PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular

  1. Prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Pooled analyses of individual patient data in the SAHIT repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Schweizer, Tom A.; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Noble, Adam; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Lo, Benjamin; Johnston, Clay; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Wong, George K C; Torner, James; Singh, Jeff; Spears, Julian; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Cusimano, Michael D.; Todd, Michael; Tseng, Ming; Etminan, Nima; Le, Peter; Mayer, Stephan; Schenk, Thomas; Van, William

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT The literature has conflicting reports about the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in the SAH Internati

  2. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic...... diagnoses [schizophrenia (Sz), non-schizophrenic, non-affective psychoses (NSAP), affective (AD), personality (PD) and neurotic/stress disorders (ND)] were followed up to ages 43-54 years. Individuals hospitalized 1 year after appearing before the draft board were excluded. RESULTS: All future patients...

  3. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Resilience Scale adapted to chronic pain (RS-18): new empirical evidence of the protective role of resilience on pain adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Wagnild, Gail

    2015-05-01

    Recent attention has focused on resilience as an important process in the experience and management of chronic pain. In this context, resilience is considered as a psychological factor that promotes adaptive responses to pain and pain-related life adversities. Current research suggests that it is a relevant variable in the prediction of pain adjustment among chronic pain patients. Recently, it was adapted the Resilience Scale to patients suffering chronic musculoskeletal pain (RS-18). The aims of this study were to confirm the internal structure of the RS-18 and to present new empirical evidence regarding its validity. A sample of 592 patients with chronic musculoskeletal back pain completed a battery of instruments to assess resilience, anxiety sensitivity, catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, hypervigilance, pain acceptance, and pain adjustment variables (pain intensity, emotional distress, functional impairment, and daily functioning). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the RS-18 and a single-factor solution. A series of moderated multiple regression analysis showed that resilience is a relevant psychological variable that not only independently predicts better pain adjustment, but also moderates the relationships between several psychological pain-related variables and pain adjustment variables. These findings give empirical support to the consideration of resilience as a protective variable in chronic pain adjustment and highlight the consideration that improving resilient behaviour could be an important target for the treatment of pain patients.

  4. Bundle block adjustment of large-scale remote sensing data with Block-based Sparse Matrix Compression combined with Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maoteng; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Shunping; Zhu, Junfeng; Xiong, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, new platforms and sensors in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision areas have become available, such as Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAV), oblique camera systems, common digital cameras and even mobile phone cameras. Images collected by all these kinds of sensors could be used as remote sensing data sources. These sensors can obtain large-scale remote sensing data which consist of a great number of images. Bundle block adjustment of large-scale data with conventional algorithm is very time and space (memory) consuming due to the super large normal matrix arising from large-scale data. In this paper, an efficient Block-based Sparse Matrix Compression (BSMC) method combined with the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithm is chosen to develop a stable and efficient bundle block adjustment system in order to deal with the large-scale remote sensing data. The main contribution of this work is the BSMC-based PCG algorithm which is more efficient in time and memory than the traditional algorithm without compromising the accuracy. Totally 8 datasets of real data are used to test our proposed method. Preliminary results have shown that the BSMC method can efficiently decrease the time and memory requirement of large-scale data.

  5. A biogenic CO2 flux adjustment scheme for the mitigation of large-scale biases in global atmospheric CO2 analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí-Panareda, Anna; Massart, Sébastien; Chevallier, Frédéric; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boussetta, Souhail; Dutra, Emanuel; Beljaars, Anton

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting atmospheric CO2 daily at the global scale with a good accuracy like it is done for the weather is a challenging task. However, it is also one of the key areas of development to bridge the gaps between weather, air quality and climate models. The challenge stems from the fact that atmospheric CO2 is largely controlled by the CO2 fluxes at the surface, which are difficult to constrain with observations. In particular, the biogenic fluxes simulated by land surface models show skill in detecting synoptic and regional-scale disturbances up to sub-seasonal time-scales, but they are subject to large seasonal and annual budget errors at global scale, usually requiring a posteriori adjustment. This paper presents a scheme to diagnose and mitigate model errors associated with biogenic fluxes within an atmospheric CO2 forecasting system. The scheme is an adaptive scaling procedure referred to as a biogenic flux adjustment scheme (BFAS), and it can be applied automatically in real time throughout the forecast. The BFAS method generally improves the continental budget of CO2 fluxes in the model by combining information from three sources: (1) retrospective fluxes estimated by a global flux inversion system, (2) land-use information, (3) simulated fluxes from the model. The method is shown to produce enhanced skill in the daily CO2 10-day forecasts without requiring continuous manual intervention. Therefore, it is particularly suitable for near-real-time CO2 analysis and forecasting systems.

  6. Public Land Conveyance Records, Published in Not Provided, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Insurance Adjuster.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Public Land Conveyance Records dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of Not...

  7. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  8. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    of particular importance to practitioners: yield convexity adjustments, forward versus futures convexity adjustments, timing and quanto convexity adjustments. We claim that the appropriate way to look into any of these adjustments is as a side effect of a measure change, as proposed by Pelsser (2003...

  9. Multi-scale calculation of settling speed of coarse particles by accelerated Stokesian dynamics without adjustable parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Wang; Jiachun Li; Jifu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The calculation of settling speed of coarse parti-cles is firstly addressed, with accelerated Stokesian dynamics without adjustable parameters, in which far field force act-ing on the particle instead of particle velocity is chosen as dependent variables to consider inter-particle hydrodynamic interactions. The sedimentation of a simple cubic array of spherical particles is simulated and compared to the results available to verify and validate the numerical code and computational scheme. The improved method keeps the same computational cost of the order O(Nlog N) as usual accelerated Stokesian dynamics does. Then, more realistic random suspension sedimentation is investigated with the help of Mont Carlo method. The computational results agree well with experimental fitting. Finally, the sedimentation of finer cohesive particle, which is often observed in estuary environment, is presented as a further application in coastal engineering.

  10. Estimating the biomass of unevenly distributed aquatic vegetation in a lake using the normalized water-adjusted vegetation index and scale transformation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuangshuang; Li, Qin; Zhai, Shuhua; Zhou, Ya

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is advantageous for the mapping and monitoring of aquatic vegetation biomass at large spatial scales. We proposed a scale transformation (CT) method of converting the field sampling-site biomass from the quadrat to pixel scale and a new normalized water-adjusted vegetation index (NWAVI) based on remotely sensed imagery for the biomass estimation of aquatic vegetation (excluding emergent vegetation). We used a modeling approach based on the proposed CT method and NWAVI as well as statistical analyses including linear, quadratic, logarithmic, cubic, exponential, inverse and power regression to estimate the aquatic vegetation biomass, and we evaluated the performance of the biomass estimation. We mapped the spatial distribution and temporal change of the aquatic vegetation biomass using a geographic information system in a test lake in different months. The exponential regression models based on CT and the NWAVI had optimal adjusted R(2), F and Sig. values in both May and August 2013. The scatter plots of the observed versus the predicted biomass showed that most of the validated field sites were near the 1:1 line. The RMSE, ARE and RE values were small. The spatial distribution and change of the aquatic vegetation biomass in the study area showed clear variability. Among the NWAVI-based and other vegetation index-based models, the CT and NWAVI-based models had the largest adjusted R(2), F and the smallest ARE values in both tests. The proposed modeling scheme is effective for the biomass estimation of aquatic vegetation in lakes. It indicated that the proposed method can provide a most accurate spatial distribution map of aquatic vegetation biomass for lake ecological management. More accurate biomass maps of aquatic vegetation are essential for implementing conservation policy and for reducing uncertainties in our understanding of the lake carbon cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On the validity of self-report assessment of cognitive abilities: Attentional control scale associations with cognitive performance, emotional adjustment, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paula G; Rau, Holly K; Suchy, Yana; Thorgusen, Sommer R; Smith, Timothy W

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in attentional control involve the ability to voluntarily direct, shift, and sustain attention. In studies of the role of attentional control in emotional adjustment, social relationships, and vulnerability to the effects of stress, self-report questionnaires are commonly used to measure this construct. Yet, convincing evidence of the association between self-report scales and actual cognitive performance has not been demonstrated. Across 2 independent samples, we examined associations between self-reported attentional control (Attentional Control Scale; ACS), self-reported emotional adjustment, Five-Factor Model personality traits (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) and performance measures of attentional control. Study 1 examined behavioral performance on the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) and the Modified Switching Task (MST; Suchy & Kosson, 2006) in a large sample (n = 315) of healthy young adults. Study 2 (n = 78) examined behavioral performance on standardized neuropsychological tests of attention, including Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II and subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Third Edition (WAIS-III; Psychological Corporation, 1997) and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). Results indicated that the ACS was largely unrelated to behavioral performance measures of attentional control but was significantly associated with emotional adjustment, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. These findings suggest that although self-reported attentional control may be a useful construct, researchers using the ACS should exercise caution in interpreting it as a proxy for actual cognitive ability or performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Examining the relationship between WAIS-III premorbid intellectual functioning and WMS-III memory ability to evaluate memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous research by Lange and Chelune (2006) by evaluating the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to detect memory impairment using estimated premorbid GAI scores (i.e., GAI-E) rather than obtained GAI scores. Participants were 34 patients with Alzheimer's-type dementia and a sub-sample of 34 demographically matched participants from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. GAI-memory discrepancy scores were more effective at differentiating Alzheimer's patients versus healthy controls when using estimated premorbid GAI scores than obtained GAI scores. However, GAI(E)-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from interpretation of the memory index scores alone. This was most likely due to the prevalence of obvious memory impairment in this patient population. Future research directions are discussed.

  13. An operationalized procedure for the recognition of premorbid personality types in biographical case notes on psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Pössl, J; Gruben, S; Tauscher, R; Barthelmes, H

    1994-01-01

    A method for the assessment of six premorbid personality types from biographical data in psychiatric case histories is described. Trained raters have to fill in a list comprising 106 items as descriptors of a patient's premorbid behavioural development. The assignment to the types in question (the "manic type" and its rare variant, the "happy-go-lucky type", the "melancholic type", the "anxious insecure type" and its rare variant, the "unrealistic dreamy type", and finally, the "nervous tense type") is computed on the basis of the item scores by forming type scores and comparing their height intraindividually. The subject under study is assigned to the type reaching the comparatively highest value. Two raters independently analyzed 261 records from which all information on mental disorders in family members and the patient himself/herself as well as all biographical data from the first manifestation of a symptom disorder onwards had been erased by technical assistants. In 106 of the records, a global assignment to the types of premorbid personality had already been performed by one of the authors of the typology. The scores for the same type assessed by the two ratings correlated highly with each other (0.77 to 0.80), the concordance of types reached a kappa-value of 0.55 (P < 0.001), and the results of the operationalized typing agreed in the same order with the result of global typing in the subsample of n = 106.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Premorbid obesity and metabolic disturbances as promising clinical targets for the prevention and early screening of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Juan F; Sanches, Marsal; Bauer, Isabelle E; Sharma, Ajaykumar N; Hamilton, Jane; Mwangi, Benson; Quevedo, Joao; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2015-04-01

    Recent evidence shows an important relationship between metabolic disturbances and bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is still unclear whether such metabolic disturbances are only a consequence or to some extent the precipitating factors for health problems and maladaptive behaviors observed in BD. Because both metabolic disturbances and BD are medical conditions sharing common alterations in multiple biomarkers, it is plausible to hypothesize that metabolic disturbances may be considered to some extent as a major vulnerability factor in the latent phase of BD for some young adults. In line with this hypothesis, obesity may be regarded as a major driving force for prevalent cardio-metabolic disorders encountered within the early stages of BD. Likewise, premorbid metabolic disturbances as a whole may be considered as a potential source for vulnerability to develop BD. In addition, a synergistic relationship between obesity and metabolic disturbances associated with a premorbid disruption of biological rhythms may also lead to BD. Therefore, we postulate that metabolic disturbances may serve as a specific marker of premorbid illness activity in some people at risk for BD. Future prospective studies should focus on validating metabolic disturbances as vulnerability factors within the staging model of BD.

  15. The role of pre-morbid intelligence and cognitive reserve in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of Italian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffò, Alessandro O; Lopez, Antonella; Spano, Giuseppina; Saracino, Giuseppe; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Ciriello, Giuseppe; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lancioni, Giulio E; Bosco, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Models of cognitive reserve in aging suggest that individual's life experience (education, working activity, and leisure) can exert a neuroprotective effect against cognitive decline and may represent an important contribution to successful aging. The objective of the present study is to investigate the role of cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, age, and education level, in predicting cognitive efficiency in a sample of healthy aged individuals and with probable mild cognitive impairment. Two hundred and eight aging participants recruited from the provincial region of Bari (Apulia, Italy) took part in the study. A battery of standardized tests was administered to them to measure cognitive reserve, pre-morbid intelligence, and cognitive efficiency. Protocols for 10 participants were excluded since they did not meet inclusion criteria, and statistical analyses were conducted on data from the remaining 198 participants. A path analysis was used to test the following model: age, education level, and intelligence directly influence cognitive reserve and cognitive efficiency; cognitive reserve mediates the influence of age, education level, and intelligence on cognitive efficiency. Cognitive reserve fully mediates the relationship between pre-morbid intelligence and education level and cognitive efficiency, while age maintains a direct effect on cognitive efficiency. Cognitive reserve appears to exert a protective effect regarding cognitive decline in normal and pathological populations, thus masking, at least in the early phases of neurodegeneration, the decline of memory, orientation, attention, language, and reasoning skills. The assessment of cognitive reserve may represent a useful evaluation supplement in neuropsychological screening protocols of cognitive decline.

  16. Premorbid risk factors for major depressive disorder: are they associated with early onset and recurrent course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age 11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual single nucleotide polymorphism based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset.

  17. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C; Hillman, David; Eastwood, Peter E; Bucks, Romola S

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation and hypoxia, this study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation and hypoxia on cognition in OSA, while controlling for potentially confounding variables including sleepiness, age and premorbid intelligence. Participants with and without OSA (N = 150) were recruited from the general community and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model to examine the relationships between hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, and cognitive function. Although after controlling for IQ, increased sleep disturbance was a significant predictor of decreased attention (p = 0.04) and decreased executive function (p = 0.05), controlling for age removes these significant relationships. No significant predictors of memory function were found. The mechanisms underlying the effects of OSA on cognition remain to be defined. Implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  18. 病前抗血小板治疗对急性缺血性脑卒中静脉溶栓效果的影响%Effect of Premorbid Antiplatelet Therapy on Travenous Thrombolysis for A-cute Ischemic Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程锐

    2015-01-01

    [Abtract] Objective To analyze and study the impact of premorbid antiplatelet therapy on the efficacy and safety of travenous thrombolysis for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods The clinical data of 258 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted and treated with travenous thrombolysis within 6 hours after the onset in our hospital during September 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. 125 patients who were given premorbid antiplatelet therapy and the other 133 who were not given were assigned to observation group and control group, respectively. The recovery of neurological function was eval-uated by using modified Rankin scale. Results Within 90 days after travenous thrombolysis, the rate of intracranial hemorrhage, mortality and good prognosis of the observation group and those of the control groups were 11.2%, 5.6%, 5.52% and 8.27%, 4.51%, 5.93%, respectively, and the differences between the indicators above of the two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Premorbid antiplatelet therapy, which has little effect on the efficacy of travenous thrombolysis for patients with acute ischemic stroke, is not the reference index which must be considered for intravenous thrombolysis.

  19. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  20. Premorbid body mass index and mortality in patients with lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arjun; Majumder, Kaustav; Arora, Nivedita; Mayo, Helen G; Singh, Preet Paul; Beg, Muhammad S; Hughes, Randall; Singh, Siddharth; Johnson, David H

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the association between premorbid obesity, measured using body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer-related mortality, through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Observational studies reporting statistical measures of association between premorbid BMI categories and lung cancer-related mortality were included in our study. We estimated hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), comparing lung cancer-related mortality across BMI categories. The main outcome measure was lung cancer-related mortality in obese (BMI≥30kg/m(2)) and overweight participants (BMI 25.0-29.9kg/m(2)), compared with normal BMI participants. We included 14 studies (including 2 pooled cohort studies) comprising 3,008,137 cancer-free participants at inception, reporting 28,592 lung cancer-related deaths. On meta-analysis, we observed a significantly lower lung cancer-related mortality in overweight (aHR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.68-0.85) and obese (aHR, 0.68, 95% CI; 0.57-0.81) participants as compared to participants with normal BMI, with considerable heterogeneity; after excluding one study with large effect size, a more conservative and consistent association was observed between BMI and lung cancer-related mortality (overweight vs. normal BMI: aHR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.90; obese vs. normal BMI: aHR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75-0.87), with moderate heterogeneity. Were similar in men vs. women, non-smokers vs. smokers, and Western vs Asia-Pacific populations. Based on meta-analysis, we observed an independent protective association between premorbid obesity and lung cancer-related mortality. This association was observed across sex, smoking status and geographic region. Further studies are needed to prospectively study this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening premorbid metabolic syndrome in community pharmacies: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via-Sosa, Maria Angeles; Toro, Cristina; Travé, Pere; March, Marian A

    2014-05-22

    Premorbid metabolic syndrome (pre-MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors characterised by central obesity, elevated fasting glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and hypertension without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Community pharmacies are in an excellent position to develop screening programmes because of their direct contact with the population.The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pre-MetS in people who visited community pharmacies for measurement of any of its five risk factors to detect the presence of other risk factors. The secondary aims were to study the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors and determine patients' cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study. Patients meeting selection criteria aged between 18 and 65 years who visited participating community pharmacies to check any of five pre-MetS diagnostic factors were included.The study involved 23 community pharmacies in Catalonia (Spain). Detection criteria for pre-MetS were based on the WHO proposal following IDF and AHA/NHBI consensus. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) was calculated by Regicor and Score methods. Other variables studied were smoking habit, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The data were collected and analysed with the SPSS programme. Comparisons of variables were carried out using the Student's T-test, Chi-Squared test or ANOVA test. Level of significance was 5% (0.05). The overall prevalence of pre-MetS was 21.9% [95% CI 18.7-25.2]. It was more prevalent in men, 25.5% [95% CI 22.1-28.9], than in women, 18.6% [95% CI 15.5-21.7], and distribution increased with age. The most common risk factors were high blood pressure and abdominal obesity. About 70% of people with pre-MetS were sedentary and over 85% had a BMI ≥25 Kg/m2. Some 22.4% had two metabolic criteria and 27.2% of patients with pre-MetS had no previous diagnosis. The

  2. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  3. Mini-mac - escala de ajustamento mental para o câncer: estrutura fatorial Mini-mac - the mental adjustment to cancer scale: factorial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gandini

    2008-03-01

    psicométrica del instrumento. Las diferencias entre las estructuras factoriales del instrumento original y de este estudio pueden ser atribuidas a las diferencias cultural y educacional entre las muestras.The factorial validation of the Mini MAC - The Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, that measures mental adjustment to cancer, is investigated. After semantic validation, the scale was applied to a sample of 283 patients, average age 54 years old, suffering from cancer of different types and in various stages of the disease, and attended to at a university hospital. The factorability of the sample was appropriate (The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.88; data were submitted to principal components analysis, oblique rotation, due to interdependence of factors. Seven factors attained eigenvalue greater than 1.0. Two factors showed good reliability ("Anxious Preoccupation" with Cronbach's Alpha = 0.87 and "Helpless/Hopeless" with Cronbach's Alpha = 0.74, with 13 items with loadings 0.40 or more, which explained 30% of total variance. Results suggested good psychometric quality. Difference between the factor structure of the original scale and that in current study explains the cultural and educational differences among samples.

  4. Vocabulary is an appropriate measure of premorbid intelligence in a sample with heterogeneous educational level in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2014-01-01

    Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education.

  5. Vocabulary Is an Appropriate Measure of Premorbid Intelligence in a Sample with Heterogeneous Educational Level in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Okada de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystallized intelligence refers to one’s knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM. Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ refers to one’s intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n=38, AD (n=45, and healthy controls (n=61 were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM. There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education.

  6. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapara, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge.

  7. Functional dyspepsia in adolescents: particulars of its etiology, premorbid background, and a comprehensive treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Pechkurov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adolescence is characterized by high rates of gastroenterological morbidity due to physiological characteristics of the body and social and psychological status of the teenager. Dyspepsia takes the leading position in the structure of functional pathology. Studies have shown the role of family, unhealthy habits and addictions in the development of this disorder. One should also bear in mind that the adolescence is characterized by an increase in organic pathology. There is a  close association of the functional dyspepsia and the premorbid background, such as autonomous dysfunction and vertebral abnormalities. The use of cholinolytics, prokinetics, opioid receptor antagonists, antacids and anti-secretory agents seems rational for treatment of dyspepsia. If the above mentioned groups of agents lack efficacy, the second line therapy is proposed, which includes tricyclic antidepressants.

  8. Neuropsychological Decline in Schizophrenia from the Premorbid to Post-Onset Period: Evidence from a Population-Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Reichenberg, Abraham; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Fisher, Helen; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite widespread belief that neuropsychological decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the premorbid to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few longitudinal studies have examined change in neuropsychological functioning from before to after the onset of schizophrenia. We addressed the following unresolved questions: Is neuropsychological decline generalized versus confined to particular mental functions? Is neuropsychological decline unique to schizophrenia? Do individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive problems in everyday life? Method Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand between 1972-73 and followed prospectively to age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and other specific neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7-13, before the onset of schizophrenia, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on cognitive problems at age 38. Results Individuals with schizophrenia showed decline in IQ as well as a range of different mental functions, particularly those tapping processing speed, learning, executive functioning, and motor functioning. There was little evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory, however, and the developmental progression of deficits in schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early but remained static through midlife. Neuropsychological decline was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was apparent among individuals with persistent depression, children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also reported cognitive problems for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Conclusion There is substantial neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to

  9. Risk-adjusted morbidity in teaching hospitals correlates with reported levels of communication and collaboration on surgical teams but not with scale measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, or working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Daniel L; Henderson, William G; Mosca, Cecilia L; Khuri, Shukri F; Mentzer, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    Since the Institute of Medicine patient safety reports, a number of survey-based measures of organizational climate safety factors (OCSFs) have been developed. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of OCSFs on risk-adjusted surgical morbidity and mortality. Surveys were administered to staff on general/vascular surgery services during a year. Surveys included multiitem scales measuring OCSFs. Additionally, perceived levels of communication and collaboration with coworkers were assessed. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to assess risk-adjusted morbidity and mortality. Correlations between outcomes and OCSFs were calculated and between outcomes and communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors, nurses, and other providers. Fifty-two sites participated in the survey: 44 Veterans Affairs and 8 academic medical centers. A total of 6,083 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 52%. The OCSF measures of teamwork climate, safety climate, working conditions, recognition of stress effects, job satisfaction, and burnout demonstrated internal validity but did not correlate with risk-adjusted outcomes. Reported levels of communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors correlated with risk-adjusted morbidity. Survey-based teamwork, safety climate, and working conditions scales are not confirmed to measure organizational factors that influence risk-adjusted surgical outcomes. Reported communication/collaboration with attending and resident doctors on surgical services influenced patient morbidity. This suggests the importance of doctors' coordination and decision-making roles on surgical teams in providing high-quality and safe care. We propose risk-adjusted morbidity as an effective measure of surgical patient safety.

  10. Executive Functioning as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Premorbid Verbal Intelligence and Health Risk Behaviors in a Rural-Dwelling Cohort: A Project FRONTIER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Chloe V.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Mauer, Cortney B.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

    2013-01-01

    Limited research is available regarding the impact of neuropsychological functioning on health risk behaviors in rural-dwelling elderly populations. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between estimated premorbid verbal IQ (AMNART), executive functioning impairment (EXIT25), and health risk behaviors including alcohol use (AUDIT), smoking, compliance with recommended cancer screenings, and obesity (BMI). The total sample included 456 English-speaking adults and older adults of non-Hispanic White and Hispanic origin seen as part of an ongoing study of rural cognitive aging, Project FRONTIER. Regression analyses revealed significant independent effects of AMNART and EXIT25 on most health risk behaviors, and supported the hypothesized mediating role of EXIT25 on the relationships between AMNART and smoking, cancer screenings, and BMI in both cognitively impaired and healthy subgroups. This study clarifies the relationships between executive functioning, premorbid IQ, and health risk behaviors in diverse groups, and confirms that premorbid IQ represents an important determinant of health behaviors and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:23192834

  11. The role of premorbid personality and social cognition in suicidal behaviour in first-episode psychosis: A one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Lopez-Moriñigo, J D; Barrigón, M L; Perona-Garcelán, S; Jimenez-Casado, C; David, A S; Obiols-Llandrich, J E; Ruiz-Veguilla, M

    2017-10-01

    High suicide attempt (SA) rates have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, particularly during the first year after the illness onset. Despite previous studies establishing several risk factors for suicidal behaviour in FEP, premorbid personality and social cognition have not been sufficiently investigated to date. To test whether personality traits and social cognition are associated with SAs in FEP over a 12-month follow-up. Sixty-five FEP patients were evaluated at first contact with mental health services. The presence of SAs was recorded at six and twelve months after first presentation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses explored the influence of a range of sociodemographic and clinical variables, including premorbid personality and social cognition-related Theory of Mind (ToM) measures, on SAs. SAs were associated with greater severity of symptoms at first hospitalization with psychotic symptoms (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.25-3.82), schizoid personality traits (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02-2.57) and impairment in a first-order false belief task (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 1.05-17.31) in the multivariate models. Symptom severity at illness onset, premorbid schizoid personality traits and ToM impairment emerged as predictors of SA in this FEP sample, which, if replicated, may be useful in identifying high-risk groups and implementing more targeted suicide prevention programs in FEP. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Premorbid Personality Characteristics in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Exploratory Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malinchoc

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking data from a case–control study of Alzheimer’s disease with data from a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI outpatient study, we identified 13 Alzheimer's disease cases and 16 controls for case–control comparison. The mean time between personality testing and onset of Alzheimer's disease (or corresponding age for controls was 13 years in cases and 14 years in controls. Alzheimer's disease cases, but not the controls, had scores significantly greater than the normative reference on MMPI scales measuring Social Introversion (p = 0.05, and Pessimism (p = 0.01. When compared to controls, Alzheimer's disease cases had significantly greater scores on the Social Introversion scale (p = 0.03. Despite the small sample size and some design limitations of this exploratory study, our findings may suggest that subjects who score higher on these personality scales have a greater risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Testing for reach-scale adjustments of hydraulic variables to soluble and insoluble strata: Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Gregory S.; Wohl, Ellen E.; Foster, Julie A.; Boyer, Douglas G.

    2003-11-01

    An open question exists as to whether channel geometries and hydraulics are adjusted in bedrock streams with stable, concave profiles in a manner analogous to alluvial rivers. As a test of this problem, a comparison was undertaken of channel geometries and hydraulics among reaches with substrates that are of high mechanical resistance, but of variable chemical resistance. Reaches were selected from Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia, USA because these streams flow over sandstones, limestones, and shales. The limestones have Selby rock resistance scores similar to those of the sandstones. A total of 13 reaches consisting of between 6 and 26 cross sections were surveyed in the streams. HEC-RAS was used to estimate unit stream power ( ω) and shear stress ( τ) for each reach. The reaches were selected to evaluate the null hypothesis that that ω and τ are equal atop soluble versus insoluble bedrock. Hypothesis tests consisted of paired t-tests and simultaneous, multiple comparisons. Geomorphic setting was included for Greenbrier River because previous studies have suggested that bedrock streams are intimately coupled with hillslopes. Holding geomorphic setting constant, three separate comparisons of ω and τ reveal that these variables are lowest atop soluble substrates in Greenbrier River (significance ≤0.05) and that changes in ω and τ are mediated by changes in channel geometry. Similarly, headwater reaches of Buckeye Creek developed atop shale and sandstone boulders are statistically distinguishable from downstream reaches wherein corrosion of limestone is the primary means of incision. However, comparisons in each stream reveal that channel geometries, ω and τ, are not strictly controlled by bed solubility. For constant substrate solubility along the Greenbrier River, ω and τ are consistently higher where a bedrock cutbank is present or coarse, insoluble sediment enters the channel. The latter is also associated with locally high values

  14. Effect of cervical dystonia on employment: A retrospective analysis of the ability of treatment to restore premorbid employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molho, Eric S; Agarwal, Nitendra; Regan, Katy; Higgins, Donald S; Factor, Stewart A

    2009-07-15

    Using a structured interview method, we sought to address the following questions regarding cervical dystonia (CD) and employment: (1) what is the frequency and severity of job impairment in CD; (2) what are the clinical features that contribute to job impairment; (3) how does the effectiveness of botulinum toxin (BTx) compare to oral medications in restoring employment status. In our population of 155 CD patients, employment was affected by CD in 53.3% (31.2% reduced hours or responsibilities, 3.3% changed to different job, 18.9% loss of employment) and 68.9% of patients reported reduced overall productivity. The likelihood of altered employment (P productivity (P BTx. Treatment with BTx was more likely to improve employment status than oral medications (66.1 vs. 18.5%) and much more likely to restore full employment with normal productivity (12.9 vs. 0.0%). These findings suggest that employment status is frequently affected by CD, particularly in patients withneck pain. BTx is significantly more effective than oral medications in restoring premorbid employment status. 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Premorbid childhood ocular alignment abnormalities and adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Maeda, Justin A; Hayashi, Kentaro;

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between childhood ocular alignment deficits and adult psychiatric outcomes among children at high-risk for schizophrenia and controls. A sample of 265 Danish children was administered a standardized eye exam assessing strabismus and related ocular alignment deficits...... with no parental diagnoses (N=82). In 1992, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 242 of the original subjects. It was found that children who later developed a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder had significantly higher eye exam scale and strabismus scale scores compared to children who developed other....... All children whose mothers or fathers had a psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised the first group (N=90). Children who had at least one parent with a diagnosis other than schizophrenia comprised the first matched control group (N=93). The second control group consisted of children...

  16. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics...

  17. Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (S.A.F.E.) Acculturation Stress Scale to Assess the Adjustment Needs of Hispanic College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.

    1996-01-01

    Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)

  18. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing

    2017-02-01

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  19. Neophobia, NQO1 and SIRT1 as premorbid and prodromal indicators of AD in 3xTg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Lista, Virginia; Parrado-Fernández, Cristina; Alvarez-Montón, Ismael; Frontiñán-Rubio, Javier; Durán-Prado, Mario; Peinado, Juan Ramón; Johansson, Björn; Alcaín, Francisco Javier; Giménez-Llort, Lydia

    2014-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress seems to be a key factor underlying natural processes of aging, but also to occur prior to neuropathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. The present work studied the temporal variation of three key antioxidant enzymes in cortex and hippocampus during the development of behavioral and cognitive symptoms in 3xTg-AD mice, and as compared to age-matched controls. At 2 months of age, when no intraneuronal Aβ immunoreactivity has been reported, increased neophobia shown as a delayed and reduced rearing, evidenced the onset of BPSD-like symptoms at premorbid stages of disease. In these animals, NQO1 was found increased in both the hippocampus (800%) and cortex (400%) and progressively diminished at older ages. SOD1 was increased in the hippocampus at 4 months of age, when neuronal Aβ accumulation has been established. These hippocampal increases of antioxidants before the prodromal emergence of cognitive symptoms support their role as defense mechanisms. SIRT1 levels showed opposite age-dependent changes in cortex (increase) and hippocampus (decrease) relative to controls. Prodromal cognitive deficits emerged at 6 months of age, concomitantly to cortical overexpression of SIRT1 but down-regulation of NQO1 and SIRT1 in the hippocampus, suggesting inadequate antioxidative protection to prevent or delay the subjacent neuronal damage. The present data further support the link between oxidative status and the anxious profile. Their crosstalk may underline AD-pathological mechanisms that may lead to deranged physiology and selective neuronal degeneration. It also points out increased neophobia and high expression of NQO1 among the first indicators of disease in the 3xTg-AD mice.

  20. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed.

  1. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  2. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  3. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  4. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  5. Adjustments in reach-scale bankfull channel geometry of Jingjiang reach after operation of Three Gorges Project%三峡工程运用后荆江河段平滩河槽形态调整特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军强; 宗全利; 邓珊珊; 许全喜; 张翼

    2015-01-01

    为确定三峡水库蓄水后荆江河段平滩河槽形态调整特点,提出基于河段尺度的平滩河槽形态参数的计算方法,计算上、下荆江段2002—2013年汛后河段平均的平滩河槽形态参数.结果表明:三峡工程运用后,坝下游河床冲刷加剧,个别河段河势变化剧烈,但总体河势仍基本稳定;尽管局部河段的崩岸现象较为突出,但河段平滩宽度总体变化不大,上、下荆江平均河宽分别为1388及1305m,而河段平滩水深平均增加1.6及1.0m,故荆江河段的平滩面积在持续增加.最后建立河段尺度的平滩河槽形态参数与前期5a平均的汛期水流冲刷强度之间的计算关系,用于预测该河段平滩河槽形态随水沙条件的变化趋势.%In order to determine the recent adjustments in the reach‐scale bankfull channel geometry of the Jingjiang Reach after the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) ,an integrated approach to calculating reach‐scale bankfull channel dimensions was then proposed ,based on the measured section‐scale bankfull geometry in the reach .The bankfull channel dimensions of the Upper and Lower Jingjiang Reaches (UJR and LJR) were calculated using the proposed method and the surveyed post‐flood profiles during the period from 2002 to 2013 .Calculated results indicate that :the channel evolution in the UJR and LJR occurred mainly in the component of bankfull depth after the TGP operation ,although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions ;the bankfull widths in the UJR and LJR slightly changed ,with the mean values of 1388 and 1305 m ,respectively ;the reach‐scale bankfull depth increased respectively by 1 .6 m in the UJR and 1 .0 m in the LJR ,which caused to the reach‐scale bankfull area to increase gradually . Finally ,empirical relationships for the UJR and LJR were developed between the reach‐scale bankfull channel dimensions and the previous five

  6. Research on Strategy Adjustment for Large-scale Real Estate Enterprise in New Situation%新形势下大型房地产企业战略调整研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金鹏

    2013-01-01

    Real estate industry has come to be a traditional pillar industry since it began opening up 30 years ago, which promote the economic development. However, in the course of the transformation of the economy and after WTO accession, real estate market in China shows more uncertainty. Furthermore, since the financial crisis in 2008, the large-scale real estate enterprise should take a keen awareness of the survival environment in the new situation and should take appropriate strategy adjustment, which can be the definitive factors to win the future development.%改革开放30年,房地产行业成为我国的支柱产业,成功拉动了我国经济的发展。但是随着我国经济体制的转变及加入WTO,中国房地产市场具有更多的不确定性。特别是自2008年金融危机以来,大型房地产企业能否对当前新形势下的生存发展环境加以深刻的认识,并采取相应的战略调整,这将决定其能否赢得未来的发展。

  7. Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Mood, D; Templin, T; Mellon, S; George, T

    2000-01-01

    The objectives for this longitudinal study were to: (a) compare colon cancer patients' and their spouses' appraisal of illness, resources, concurrent stress, and adjustment during the first year following surgery; (b) examine the influence of gender (male vs female) and role (patient vs spouse caregiver) on study variables; (c) assess the degree of correlation between patients' and spouses' adjustments; and (d) identify factors that affect adjustment to the illness. Fifty-six couples were interviewed at one week post diagnosis, and at 60 days and one year post surgery. Based on a cognitive-appraisal model of stress, the Smilkstein Stress Scale was used to measure concurrent stress; the Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure social resources; the Beck Hopelessness Scale and Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scales were used to measure appraisal of illness; and the Brief Symptom Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to measure psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance indicated that spouses reported significantly more emotional distress and less social support than patients. Gender differences were found, with women reporting more distress, more role problems, and less marital satisfaction, regardless of whether they were patient or spouse. Both patients and spouses reported decreases in their family functioning and social support, but also decreases in emotional distress over time. Moderately high autocorrelations and modest intercorrelations were found among and between patients' and spouses' adjustment scores over time. The strongest predictors of patients' role adjustment problems were hopelessness and spouses' role problems. The strongest predictors of spouses' role problems were spouses' own baseline role problems and level of marital satisfaction. Interventions need to start early in the course of illness, be family-focused, and identify the couples at risk of

  8. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  9. Benchmarking Judgmentally Adjusted Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice, usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights given

  10. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights

  11. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  12. Loneliness, Self-Concept, and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswick, Ruth Ann; Jones, Warren H.

    1981-01-01

    In two studies, college students completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and an inventory which assessed the degree of other-focused attention. Results indicated that loneliness was related to more negative self-concepts, possibly less adjustment, and more self-focus. (Author/MP)

  13. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  14. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  15. 三峡工程运用后宜枝河段平滩流量调整特点%Characteristics of Adjustment in Reach-scale Bankfull Discharge of Yichang-Zhicheng Reach after the TGP Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美蓉; 夏军强; 邓珊珊; 许全喜

    2016-01-01

    三峡水库蓄水运用后,清水下泄使得坝下游宜枝河段发生显著冲刷,河道过流能力也相应调整。宜枝河段(包括宜昌及宜都两河段)断面形态复杂,且过流能力沿程差异较大,河段平均的平滩流量更能反映其综合过流能力。采用基于对数转换的几何平均与断面间距加权平均相结合的方法,分别计算了宜昌及宜都河段2002—2013年各年汛后的平滩流量,分析了河床冲淤变化对河段平滩流量的影响,同时还建立了两河段平滩流量与前5 a 汛期平均水流冲刷强度的经验关系。结果表明:当河段冲刷时,平滩流量增大,反之则减小;宜昌河段平滩流量与水流强度相关性系数较低,为0.64,而在宜都河段为0.94,表明宜都河段对上游水沙条件变化的响应较宜昌河段更为显著。%A sharp reduction in sediment load has caused a significant process of channel degradation along the Yichang-Zhicheng Reach after the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), especially in the adjustment of flood discharging capacity.In view of the complicated cross-sectional profiles and the great longitudinal variability in flood discharging capacity, the reach-scale bankfull discharges in the reaches of Yichang and Yidu from 2002 to 2013 were estimated using a combination of geometric average and weighted average method .The effect of channel erosion and deposition on the reach -scale bankfull discharge in each reach was investigated .In addition, empirical relationships were established between the reach -scale bankfull discharge and the previous five -year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons for these two reaches , and it was found that bankful discharge increased with erosion, and decreased with deposition; the correlation between bankful discharge and flow intensity in Yichang was 0.64, whereas in Yidu it was 0.94, indicating that the response of bankfull discharge to

  16. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  17. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  18. Avaliação estrutural da escala de ajustamento diádico Evaluacíon de la escala de ajuste conyugal Structural assessment of the dyadic adjustment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Evangelho Hernandez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a Escala de Ajustamento Diádico respondida por uma amostra não-probabilística de homens e mulheres brasileiros que estavam em relacionamento amoroso de diversos tipos. Os 542 sujeitos foram recrutados em diversos locais de Porto Alegre/RS e região metropolitana. Através da técnica estatística Análise Fatorial, este estudo realizou um exame da estrutura da escala. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com o estudo original de construção do instrumento e outras confirmações subseqüentes. Através da comparação dos escores médios dos diferentes tipos de casais da amostra atual se pôde verificar o poder discriminativo do instrumento e, além disso, foi examinada sua fidedignidade. Apareceram evidências que dão razoável suporte à versão brasileira do instrumento para sua utilização na pesquisa e na clínica psicológica.El propósito del estudio presente fue evaluar la Escala de Ajuste Conyugal contestada por una muestra non-probabilistic de hombres y mujeres brasileños que estuvieron implicados con relaciones de amor de varias clases. Los 542 sujetos fueron reclutados en varios sitios en Porto Alegre/RS y su área metropolitana. Con la técnica de estadística del análisis factorial, este estudio examinó la estructura de la escala. Los resultados fueron comparados a la construcción original del instrumento y de otras confirmaciones subsecuentes. Comparando las puntuaciones promedio de las clases diferentes de parejas de la muestra presente, podemos verificar el poder discriminatorio del instrumento, además de esto, su fiabilidad fue examinada también. Pruebas mostradas, del apoyo razonable a la versión brasileña del instrumento para su uso en la investigación y en clínica de psicología.The Dyadic Adjustment Scale answered by a non-probabilistic sample of Brazilian males and females involved in different types of love relationships is assessed. The 542 subjects were recruited in

  19. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  20. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  1. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  2. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  3. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  4. Parental rearing style, premorbid personality, mental health, and quality of life in chronic regional pain: A causal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Yi-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Fei-Yin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the causal model among parental bonding, personality characteristics, mental health, quality of life, and chronic regional pain (CRP). Thirty CRP patients and 56 mental illness patients were compared using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Tawain Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW), and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). There were significant differences in mental health, personality characteristics, and quality of life between the CRP and mental illness groups. Structural equation modeling showed that parental bonding could directly affect personality characteristics, and, hence, directly impact disease and quality of life. CRP is different from mental illness in many dimensions. In this study, CRP appeared to be caused by actual physical dysfunction rather than mental dysfunction.

  5. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  6. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  7. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  8. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...

  9. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  11. The assessment of social adjustment. A review of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, M M

    1975-03-01

    Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales.

  12. Predicting changes in adaptive functioning and behavioral adjustment following treatment for a pediatric brain tumor: A report from the Brain Radiation Investigative Study Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Kristen R; Wolfe, Kelly R; Yeates, Keith Owen; Mahone, E Mark; Cecil, Kim M; Ris, M Douglas

    2017-02-07

    Children are at risk for behavioral and adaptive difficulties following pediatric brain tumor. This study explored whether familial/demographic, developmental, diagnostic, or treatment-related variables best predict posttreatment behavioral and adaptive functioning. Participants included 40 children (mean age = 12.76 years, SD = 4.01) posttreatment (mean time since diagnosis = 1.99 years, SD = 0.21) for pediatric brain tumor. Parents rated children's behavioral adjustment and adaptive functioning and provided demographic and developmental histories. Diagnostic and treatment-related information was abstracted from medical records. Ratings of adaptive and behavioral functioning approximately 2 years postdiagnosis were within the average range, although the percentage of children exceeding clinical cutoffs for impairment in adaptive skills exceeded expectation, particularly practical skills. Premorbid behavior problems and tumor size predicted posttreatment adaptive functioning. After accounting for adaptive functioning near diagnosis, premorbid behavior problems predicted declines in adaptive functioning 2 years postdiagnosis. After accounting for adjustment near diagnosis, no variables predicted declines in behavioral adjustment. Children may be vulnerable to reduced adaptive functioning following pediatric brain tumor treatment, especially in practical skills. Assessing prediagnosis functioning and diagnostic and treatment-related variables may improve our ability to predict those at greatest risk, although those factors may be less helpful in identifying children likely to develop behavioral difficulties. Screening of these factors in tertiary care and long-term follow-up settings may improve identification of those at greatest need for support services. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  14. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  15. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  16. 精神分裂症患者的病前适应能力与攻击行为的关系%PREMORBID ADJUSTMENT AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝昀; 张晓斌; 沙维伟

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨精神分裂症患者的病前适应能力与攻击行为的关系.方法对133名精神分裂症患者给予攻击行为量表(OAS)、病前适应能力量表(PAS, 儿童期)测定.结果伴攻击行为精神分裂症患者儿童期整体病前适应能力较不伴攻击行为精神分裂症患者差,在"社交和退缩"、"朋友关系"方面功能明显降低.结论精神分裂症患者儿童期病前适应困难可能增高未来攻击行为发生的风险.

  17. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  18. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  19. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS. A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  1. Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26° N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the Rapid array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cunningham

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from surface to bottom. Bottom pressure measurements show a zonally uniform rise (and fall of bottom pressure of 0.015 dbar on a 5 to 10 day time scale, suggesting that the Atlantic basin is filling and draining on a short time scale. After removing the zonally uniform bottom pressure fluctuations, bottom pressure variations at 4000 m depth against the western boundary compensate instantaneously for baroclinic fluctuations in the strength and structure of the deep western boundary current so there is no basin-scale mass imbalance resulting from variations in the deep western boundary current. After removing the mass compensating bottom pressure, residual bottom pressure fluctuations at the western boundary just east of the Bahamas balance variations in Gulf Stream transport. Again the compensation appears to be especially confined close to the western boundary. Thus, fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a depth independent (barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. In contrast, compensation for variations in wind-driven surface Ekman transport appears to involve fluctuations in both western basin and eastern basin bottom pressures, though the bottom pressure difference fluctuations appear to be a factor of 3 too large, perhaps due to an inability to resolve small bottom pressure fluctuations after removal of larger zonal average, baroclinic, and Gulf Stream pressure components. For 4 tall moorings where time series dynamic height (geostrophic pressure profiles can be estimated from

  2. Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26° N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the Rapid array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cunningham

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from surface to bottom. Bottom pressure measurements show a zonally uniform rise (and fall of bottom pressure of 0.015 dbar on a 5 to 10 day time scale, suggesting that the Atlantic basin is filling and draining on a short time scale. After removing the zonally uniform bottom pressure fluctuations, bottom pressure variations at 4000 m depth against the western boundary compensate instantaneously for baroclinic fluctuations in the strength and structure of the deep western boundary current so there is no basin-scale mass imbalance resulting from variations in the deep western boundary current. After removing the mass compensating bottom pressure, residual bottom pressure fluctuations at the western boundary just east of the Bahamas balance variations in Gulf Stream transport. Again the compensation appears to be especially confined close to the western boundary. Thus, fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a depth independent (barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. In contrast, compensation for variations in wind-driven surface Ekman transport appears to involve fluctuations in both western basin and eastern basin bottom pressures, though the bottom pressure difference fluctuations appear to be a factor of 3 too large, perhaps due to an inability to resolve small bottom pressure fluctuations after removal of larger zonal average, baroclinic, and Gulf Stream pressure components. For 4 tall moorings where time series dynamic height (geostrophic pressure profiles can be estimated from

  3. Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten

    In stratified waters like those around Denmark there is a close correlation between the biology of the water masses and their structure and currents; this is known as dynamic biologicaloceanography. The currents are particularly strong near the fronts, which can be seen in several places throughout...... the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...

  4. 大规模光伏电站接入电网可调节鲁棒优化调度%Adjustable Robust Optimal Dispatch of Power System With Large-scale Photovoltaic Power Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春华; 谢鹏; 陈臣

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:With the increase of penetration of photovoltaic power, the randomness and volatility of photovoltaic power output would have a greater impact on power system optimization scheduling. To ensure the reliability of optimal scheduling, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory into power system optimization scheduling. To coordinate the contradiction between the reliability and economy of system scheduling, the concept of uncertainty budget was applied to achieve robust optimization in adjustable uncertain intervals, and to make up for the conservation deficiencies which box set robust optimization method has. The robust optimization model in adjustable uncertain intervals was established for power system to achieve coordination between reliability and economy. Based on the constructed optimization model, this paper derived an uncertainty budget decision- making method, which can effectively reduce the blindness in the uncertainty budgetary decision-making. Finally, differential evolution algorithm was employed to solve the dynamic optimization dispatch problems. The feasibility and rationality of the constituted model is verified by a testing example.%随着光伏电站接入电网的比例不断提高,光伏电站出力的随机性和波动性给电力系统优化调度带来较大影响。为保证优化调度的可靠性,提出将盒式集合鲁棒优化理论引入到含大规模光伏电站的电力系统优化调度中。同时为了协调系统调度中可靠性与经济性之间的矛盾,提出引入不确定性预算的概念以实现不确定区间可调节鲁棒优化,弥补盒式集合鲁棒优化偏于保守的不足,构建可靠性与经济性相协调的含光伏电站的电力系统不确定区间可调节鲁棒优化调度模型。并根据所构建的优化调度模型推导出一个不确定性预算决策方法,从而降低不确定性预算决策的盲目性。最后采用微分进化算法对提出的动态优

  5. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  6. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a bipa......We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...

  7. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  8. Child adjustment in high conflict families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Berthelsen, D; O'Connor, I

    1997-03-01

    Children exposed to spousal violence are at risk for social-emotional problems. This research investigated a number of family and child factors which might influence the effects of witnessing spousal violence on young children. Fifty-four mothers who had at least one child in the age range of 3 to 6 years participated in the study. These women had left a violent relationship 12 to 24 months prior to their participation in the study and were not in a new relationship. Information was collected through a structured interview which included the administration of a standardized family violence measure (conflict tactics scale) and child adjustment profile (child behaviour checklist). Forty-two per cent of the children exhibited a level of behavioural problems which would warrant clinical intervention. The amount of violence that the children witnessed, the children's responses when the violence occurred and whether the child copied the violent partner's behaviour, were associated with the children's behavioural adjustment scores. Maternal parenting style was not found to have a significant effect on behavioural adjustment. The study provided important quantitative and qualitative data on the nature of parent-child relationships and children's adjustment in families where there is spousal violence.

  9. 我国商业银行信用风险转移及贷款规模动态调整的实证分析%The Empirical Analysis on Credit Risk Transfer and Dynamic Adjustment of the Loan Scale of Commercial Banks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭琦; 高洁

    2012-01-01

    The credit risk transfer has a great effect on commercial banks. Based on the data of 28 commercial banks in China from 2003 to 2010, the paper sets up dynamic panel econometric model of credit scale adjustment of commercial banks, makes an empirical analysis on the effect of a commercial bank's participation in CRM market transaction on itself The study finds that the participation of a commercial bank in the credit risk transfer can promote the expansion of asset scale of the bank, and the elasticity of CRM market transaction on credit scale of the commercial bank is about 3 percent. Because of the imperfect financial market and effects of non-market factors, the cycle of adjusting the credit scale of commercial banks in China is around 2.4 years on the average. Therefore, the capital scale and average return on assets have a positive effect on credit scale, while a weak effect on liquid assets and loan interest rate of the commercial banks.%信贷风险转移对商业银行影响很大。本文基于2003-2010年我国28家商业银行的基本数据,构建了我国商业银行信贷规模调整的动态面板计量模型,实证分析了商业银行参与CRM(信用风险缓释工具)市场工具交易对商业银行的影响。实证研究发现,商业银行参与信用风险转移能够促进商业银行资产规模扩大,CRM市场交易对商业银行信贷规模的弹性大约在3%左右。因为金融市场的不完善和非市场化因素影响,我国商业银行调整信贷规模的时间周期平均为2.4年左右。因此,商业银行的资本金水平和平均资产回报率对商业银行的信贷规模有正向影响,但对商业银行流动资产和贷款利率影响效果微弱。

  10. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2008, certain financial and social benefits will be adjusted with effect from 1st January 2009. An increase of 2.7% will be applied to the scale of basic salaries and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, the following financial elements will increase by 3.2%: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) b) Payment of education fees: payment ceilings (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) for the academic year 2008/2009. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, adjustments will be applied to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students. The adjusted amounts are available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 70674

  11. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  12. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  13. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  14. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  15. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  16. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer's Disease (AD and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Trunkl Serrao

    Full Text Available Objective:The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI and patients with AD on a lexical decision test.Methods:The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT, subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary to determine estimated IQ, the Boston naming test (BNT and Lexical Decision Test (LDT.Results:All groups differed on the MMSE, as expected according to their pathologies, memory tests, naming and estimated IQ. For the vocabulary and the LDT - measures of crystalized intelligence no differences were found.Conclusion:The LDT demonstrated that lexical decision can be used as a measure of pre-morbid IQ among the individuals assessed in a Brazilian sample.

  17. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  18. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  19. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  20. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  1. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  2. Orthodontic post-adjustment pain control with acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Cassia Faglioni Boleta-Ceranto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of systemic acupuncture therapy on the pain caused after orthodontic adjustments. METHODS: An initial sample of 30 orthodontic patients with fixed appliances monthly adjusted was selected; however, only 11 participants completed the study. For this reason, final sample comprised these patients' data only. Initially, average pain levels were assessed at different periods by means of an analogue visual scale (VAS for three months without acupuncture. In the following three months, the volunteers were submitted to systemic acupuncture sessions on Hegu (LI4 and Jiache (St6 points,before orthodontic adjustments were carried out. RESULTS: Results revealed statistically significant reduction in pain level indexes both for men (P = 0.030 and women (P = 0.028 when acupuncture therapy was performed prior to orthodontic adjustment. Patients did not present any side effects. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture is a safe and effective method in reducing orthodontic post-adjustment pain.

  3. The Relationship Between Self-Concept and Marital Adjustment for Commuter College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William M.; Valine, Warren J.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was made of the relationship between self-concept and the adjustment of commuter college students. Instruments used were the Tennessee Self Concept Scale and the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test. There was a significant relationship between self-concept and marital adjustment. (Author)

  4. The National Adult Reading Test: restandardisation against the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Peter; Hale, Emily; Gooch, Vikki Jayne; Myhill, Thomas; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-09-14

    Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982 ; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991 ) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997 , and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.

  5. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  6. Fitts' Law in early postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucco, M; Cesari, P; Latash, M L

    2013-02-12

    We tested a hypothesis that the classical relation between movement time and index of difficulty (ID) in quick pointing action (Fitts' Law) reflects processes at the level of motor planning. Healthy subjects stood on a force platform and performed quick and accurate hand movements into targets of different size located at two distances. The movements were associated with early postural adjustments that are assumed to reflect motor planning processes. The short distance did not require trunk rotation, while the long distance did. As a result, movements over the long distance were associated with substantial Coriolis forces. Movement kinematics and contact forces and moments recorded by the platform were studied. Movement time scaled with ID for both movements. However, the data could not be fitted with a single regression: Movements over the long distance had a larger intercept corresponding to movement times about 140 ms longer than movements over the shorter distance. The magnitude of postural adjustments prior to movement initiation scaled with ID for both short and long distances. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that Fitts' Law emerges at the level of motor planning, not at the level of corrections of ongoing movements. They show that, during natural movements, changes in movement distance may lead to changes in the relation between movement time and ID, for example when the contribution of different body segments to the movement varies and when the action of Coriolis force may require an additional correction of the movement trajectory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  8. Preschool Children's School Adjustment: Indicators of Behaviour Problems, Gender, and Peer Victimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among school adjustment, victimisation, and gender were investigated with 284 Turkish children aged between five and six years. Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment, The Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire, and Peer Victimisation Scale were used in this study. Analyses indicated that children's behaviour problems and…

  9. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  10. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  11. An adjustable contracted CI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  12. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  13. Scales, scales and more scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  14. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  15. Relationships between Facial Discrimination and Social Adjustment in Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.; Hoch, Theodore A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two adults with mental retardation of heterogeneous etiology performed four facial emotion discrimination tasks and two facial nonemotion tasks. Staff members familiar with the participants completed measures of social adjustment (the Socialization and Communication domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and the Social Performance…

  16. [Causal relationship between assertiveness and adjustment in children: A short-term longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the causal relationships between assertiveness and both internal and external adjustment in children. Elementary school children in grades four through six (N = 284) participated in the study, which used a short-term longitudinal design. The children completed questionnaires twice during a 6-months period. They responded to assertiveness questionnaires that included two components: "self-expression" and "consideration of others". They also completed a self-esteem scale as an index of internal adjustment, and the Class Life Satisfaction scale as an index of external adjustment. There was a positive causative relationship between "self-expression" and internal adjustment and between "consideration for others" and external adjustment. In addition, the effects on adjustment varied according to the type of assertiveness. Cluster analysis and MANOVA indicated that the group with high "self-expression" and "consideration for others" had high internal and external adjustment, while the children with poor assertiveness showed the lowest degree of adaptivity.

  17. Correlative study of the relationship between hemorrhagic transformation and premorbid antithrombotic therapy after acute cerebral infarction%急性脑梗死后出血转化与病前抗栓治疗的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳超; 雷春艳; 刘鸣

    2015-01-01

    死后出血转化独立相关,其与急性脑梗死远期预后的关系有待进一步研究。%Objective To investigate the impact of using antithrombotic drugs (anticoagulants or antiplatelet aggregation drugs)before the onset of cerebral infarction on hemorrhagic transformation after acute cerebral infarction. Methods The consecutive patients with acute cerebral infarction from Chengdu Stroke Registry Project admitted to the Department of Neurology,West China Hospital,Sichuan University from January 1,2004 to January 1,2014 were enrolled. The baseline data on admission,previous usage of anticoagulants and anti-platelet aggregation drugs,as well as CT/ MRI and other imaging data of all patients were collected. According to the results of CT/ MRI reexamined at 72 h after admission,the patients with hemorrhagic transformation were enrolled into a hemorrhagic transformation group;the patients with non-hemorrhagic transformation were enrolled into a non-hemorrhagic transformation group according to the ratio of 1 ∶ 1. Their gender and age were matched with the hemorrhagic transformation group. The baseline data and drug used of the patients in both groups were compared. The differences of risk factors between the two groups were analyzed with multivariate Logistic regression analysis. The relationship between hemorrhagic transformation and premorbid use of antithrombotic drugs were observed. Results A total of 6 916 patients with acute cerebral infarction were enrolled,including 433 (6. 3%)hemorrhagic transformation (hemorrhagic transformation group)and 433 non-hemorrhagic transformation. (1)There were significant differences between the patients of the two groups on admission in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)score,atrial fibrillation,previous cerebral infarction,and blood glucose levels on admission (all P < 0. 05). (2)The proportions of using anticoagulants and antiplatelet aggregation agents in the hemorrhagic transformation group were

  18. Adjusting the IP $\\beta$ Functions in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Van Zeijts, J

    2004-01-01

    The beta functions at the IP can be adjusted without perturbation of other optics functions via several approaches. In this paper we describe a scheme based on a vector knob, which assigns fixed values to the different tuning quadrupoles and scales them by a common multiplier. The values for the knob vector were calculated for a lattice without any errors using MADX. Previous studies for the LHC [1] have shown that this approach can meet the design goals. A specific feature of the RHIC lattice is the nested power supply system. To cope with the resulting problems a detailed response matrix analysis has been carried out and different sets of knobs were calculated and compared. The knobs were tested at RHIC during the 2004 run and preliminary results are discussed. Simultaneously a new approach to measure the beam sizes of both colliding beams at the IP, based on the tunability provided by the knobs, was developed and tested.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON GEOSTROPHIC ADJUSTMENT,FRONTOGENESIS AND OSCILLATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘益农; 伍荣生

    2001-01-01

    Geostrophic adjustment and frontogenesis are examined by means of the 2-D ARPS model.The simulation shows that, without the large-scale forcing, both the frontogenesis and frontolysis are observed during the geostrophic adjustment process and the intensity of the front oscillates in the case of no discontinuity. The convergence (divergence) induced by the secondary circulation is the most important factor for frontogenesis (frontolysis) at the top and bottom boundaries. The amplitude and period of oscillation are dependent on the initial atmospheric stratification and the Coriolis frequency, and they are related to the inertio-gravity wave.

  20. A Single-inductor Dual-output Buck DC-DC Converter with Adaptive Dead Time Adjustment and Dynamic Voltage Scaling%可实现DVS的单电感双输出降压型直流-直流转换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管璐璐; 许伟伟; 李叶; 洪志良

    2013-01-01

    设计了一款单电感双输出(SIDO)的降压型直流-直流转换器,一个输出电压可以进行动态电压转换,在0.725—1.2V直接变化,另一输出电压可实现1.2V和1.8V,两路输出最大可实现500 mA负载电流.转换器根据负载的不同在脉冲宽度调制(PWM)和脉冲频率调制(PFM)之间自动切换.采用死区时间自适应调整的技术来提高系统的转换效率,分段开关则用来降低输出端毛刺.基于TSMC0.25μm CMOS工艺,测试结果证明该系统输出电压纹波低、毛刺小,系统峰值效率可达90%.%A single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) DC-DC converter having one output of 0. 725-1. 2 V with dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) and another output of 1. 2 V/1. 8 V is presented. Both channels can have the maximal load current of 500 mA. The converter can switch between the pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) mode and the pulse-width modulation (PWM) mode automatically according to load condition. Adaptive dead time adjustment is introduced in the system to improve efficiency and the segment driving for the power switches is implemented to reduce spikes. This converter has been fabricated in 0. 25 μn CMOS mixed signal process. The peak conversion efficiency can reach 90%.

  1. Analysis of Pre-morbid Personality and Correlative Factors in Patient with Post-stroke Depression%卒中后抑郁病人的病前人格及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宗新; 涂江龙; 熊友生

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨卒中病人的病前人格及相关因素与卒中后抑郁(PSD)发生的相关性.方法 对PSD病人(病例组)29例和脑卒中病人(对照组)32例进行艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)调查,并记录每位病例的相关资料.结果 男、女性病例组N值均较对照组大(均P0和优势比为1.504;而E值均较对照组小(均P0.05).结论 PSD病人的病前人格中有更多的情绪不稳定和性格内向,情绪不稳定和性格内向与PSD有相关性,是其危险因素.%Objective To explore the occurrenced correlation between pre-morbid personality and correlative factors in patient with post-stroke depression (PSD) and stoke.Methods Twenty-nine patients with PSD (case group) and 32 patients with subacute stroke (control group) investigated of eysenck personality questionnaire(EPQ).The recording information of each case was correlative.Results N value of male and female case group was higher than those in control group(P0 and odds ratio was 1.504;while E value was reversed(P0.05,respectively).Conclusion Unstable emotion and introverted personality show more frequently in patient with PSD,which maybe correlative in the occurrence of depression in patient with stroke.They are risk factors of PSD.

  2. Survival and psychosocial adjustment to stoma surgery and nonstoma bowel resection: a 4-year follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Dulmen, A.M. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    1997-01-01

    A prospective 4-year follow-up study was conducted to compare the psychosocial adjustment process and survival rate of 59 stoma patients with 64 bowel-resected nonstoma patients. Adjustment was assessed at 4 months, 1 year, and 4 years after surgery by the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale

  3. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  4. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  5. The dyadic adjustment of female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; MacGowan, B; Costos, D

    1985-02-01

    Dyadic adjustment, sexual activities, and marital stability in the relationships of female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses were examined. Participants were 22 female-to-male transsexuals who had undergone some form of surgery to alter their anatomical sex, their spouses, and a control group of married or cohabitating nontranssexual men and women. Participants were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and additional items to assess quantitatively their marital relationships. The transsexuals and their spouses were also asked open-ended interview questions concerning marital and life adjustments. Generally, the transsexuals and their spouses reported good and mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships that are in many ways comparable to those of the matched control group. These findings lend support to the previous clinical interview studies that have reported that female-to-male transsexuals form stable and enduring intimate relationships.

  6. 脑梗死患者病前智力的估计方法及其应用%Premorbid intelligence of patients with cerebral infarction:estimation and utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐细容; 曾慧; 姚树桥

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨脑梗死患者的病前智力估计方法.方法 使用10个回归公式估计74名脑梗死患者及其健康配对者的智商,选出脑梗死病人的智商估计方法.将优选出的估计智商转换为标准分,考察它们与“不保持”分测验的标准分的差距.结果 健康组的估计智商与实测智商均数差距都小于1,相关系数为0.755~ 0.956;脑梗死组估计智商平均高于实测智商3.20~10.67.脑梗死组估计智商低于健康组0.83~8.28,但其中单用人口统计变量、联合人口统计变量与常识测验或图形推理的测验成绩的估计智商只有0.26、0.24、0.38等小的组间效应.病人组采用后两种方法估计的标准分形式的病前智力水平分别高于数字符号标准分0.70、0.63分,高于积木构图0.67、0.61分,而对照组的对应值为0.21、0.21、0.12、0.12,差值的组间差异有统计学意义.结论 建议联合人口统计变量与常识测验或图形推论的测验成绩估计脑梗死患者的病前智力水平.%Objective To explore the methods for estimating premorbid intelligence of patients with cerebral infarction.Methods Ten regression equations were employed to estimate intelligence quotients (IQs) of 74 patients and 74 demographically matched,healthy adults.Those valid estimated IQs were transformed into standard scores and adopted to evaluate the difference with don' t hold' subtests.Results In the healthy group,there were trivial difference between the estimated IQs and obtained IQs with mean discrepancy less than one and the correlation coefficients between them ranged from 0.755 to 0.956.However in the patients group,the estimated IQs were significantly higher than obtained IQs with mean discrepancy of 3.20-10.67.Mean estimated IQs of the patient group were lower than those of healthy group to varing degrees with mean discrepancy of 0.83-8.28,in which the mean IQs estimated just with demographic variables showed small between group

  7. Agreeableness and neuroticism as predictors of relapse after first-episode psychosis: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, John F; Rawlings, David; Jackson, Henry J; McGorry, Patrick D

    2005-03-01

    Cross-sectional investigations, using the five-factor model of personality have evinced relationships among neuroticism, agreeableness, and psychotic symptoms. The current study examined these relationships via a prospective follow-up study with remitted first-episode psychosis patients. Baseline five-factor model personality profiles, diagnoses, symptom ratings, and premorbid adjustment ratings were followed by nine monthly ratings on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale psychosis items in 60 first-episode patients. Valid baseline personality profiles were completed by 40 patients. Patients who had a return of symptoms scored higher on baseline neuroticism and agreeableness than those who remained in remission. Premorbid adjustment also predicted return of symptoms. After premorbid adjustment was controlled for, the agreeableness differences remained significant, but the neuroticism scores were no longer significantly different. It is concluded that lower agreeableness acts as a mediating variable in relapse. Further studies should clarify whether agreeableness is associated with specific biases in processing interpersonal information, and interpersonal behaviors.

  8. Work adjustments among the chronically ill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baanders, A.N.; Andries, F.; Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.

    2001-01-01

    Work(place) adjustments can help the work capacity of persons with a chronic disease. This study aims to to quantify the presence of work adjustments among chronically ill workers in the Netherlands, and to investigate the extent to which the presence of work adjustments are related to the

  9. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However, posi

  10. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  11. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  12. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  13. Adjustment Differences Between Counseled and Noncounseled Students at a University Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.; Bishop, John B.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if college students who seek counseling differ in their psychological adjustment from those who do not seek counseling. Students seeking counseling for help with personal problems differed significantly on the social and emotional adjustment scales from those who did not seek counseling. (Author)

  14. Validity of a brief measure of post-hospital adjustment for psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, E A; Botticello, A L; Goethe, J W; Fischer, E H

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a 14-item self-administered outcome measure of post-hospital adjustment for former psychiatric inpatients. Such scales are frequently used in follow-up assessment, often without knowledge of scale reliability or validity. Responses to the scale items were factor analyzed for two samples, former patients and their therapists, each group rating the patient's post-hospital adjustment. Two strong factors emerged and were consistent across both samples: an anxiety-depression (intrapsychic) dimension and a functioning/productivity (external adjustment) dimension. Both scales showed good convergent validity with longer, standardized measures. Agreement between patients and therapists was adequate for anxiety-depression, indicating good consensual validity, but poor for functional adjustment. For the expatients, discriminant validity was not evident.

  15. Exploring Scaling: From Concept to Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of scaling and its biological and engineering applications. Scaling, in a scientific context, means proportional adjustment of the dimensions of an object so that the adjusted and original objects have similar shapes yet different dimensions. The paper provides an example of a hands-on, minds-on activity on scaling…

  16. The connection between dysfunctional relationship beliefs and dyadic adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Severina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the connection between dyadic adjustment and dysfunctional relationship beliefsthat are discussed in the contemporary cognitive-behavioural perspective. Given the nature of personal relationships, the study included intrapersonal and interpersonal approach. The intrapersonal approach suggests that one's perception of dyadic adjustment is determined by one's own personality characteristics, while the interpersonal approach suggests that one's partner's characteristics have influence, too. Accordingly, it was assumed that people perceive their marriages as less adjusted if they themselves and their partner have more pronounced dysfunctional beliefs. The sample consisted of 100 married couples from Serbia aged 20-64 years (M=41.8. The participants completed the Relationship Beliefs Questionnaire and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Significant intrapersonal effects of relationship beliefs on theperceived dyadic adjustment were found for both genders. Expected intrapersonal effects were found only in the female sample. Additionally, unexpected positive effects of certain groups of relationship beliefs(e.g. romantic idealism were found.

  17. 首发儿童精神分裂症患者病前行为特征与事件相关电位的关系%The relationship between event related potentials and the premorbid behavior of the first-episode child schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳; 郭素芹; 朱俊敬

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between event related potentials and the premorbid behavior of the first-episode child schizophrenia.We reviewed the behavior characteristics of the first-episode child schizophrenia when they were 6 to 11 years old,who were detected by Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist.We assessed the cognitive function of patients by the event-related potential P300.We used t test to compare the difference of each P300 data before and after the treatment between the group with the CBCL scale high achievers and low achievers.Results:The difference of social competence scores,the total score of cbcl,the score of depression factor,the score of social withdrawal factor,the score of aggressive factor of the CBCL scale between the study group and the control group were statistically significant(Z=-2.820,-2.325,-2.561,-2.837,-2.759;P<0.05).The total score of social capacity and the P300 latency before the treatment was negatively correlated(r=-0.231,P<0.05).Conclusion:There are some correlation between the social abilities and cognitive function of the first-episode child schizophrenia.The lower of social ability,the more serious damage of cognitive.%目的:研究儿童精神分裂症首发患者病前行为特征与事件相关电位的关系。方法:采用Achenbach儿童行为量表,回顾性调查儿童精神分裂症首发患者在6~11岁时的行为特征。采用事件相关电位P300对患者的认知功能进行评估。用t检验比较CBCL量表高分组与低分组患者治疗前后P300各数据间的差别。结果:研究组与对照组CBCL量表社会能力总分、行为问题总分、抑郁因子分、社会退缩因子分、攻击性因子分之间差异具有统计学意义(Z=-2.820,-2.325,-2.561,-2.837,-2.759;P<0.05),社会能力总分与治疗前 P300潜伏期呈负相关(r=-0.231, P<0.05)。结论:首发儿童精神分裂症患者病前社会能力与认知功能存在相关关系,社会能力较

  18. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  19. 癌症患者心理适应问卷中文版的初步修订及信效度检验%Revision of the Chinese Version of Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale and the examination of its reliability and validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯新玮; 吴瑛

    2010-01-01

    目的 修订癌症患者心理适应问卷(MAC)为中文版本并测量其心理学性质.方法 选取242例癌症患者填写中文版MAC,其中34例在2~4周内接受重测.结果 探索性因子分析得到消极情感、积极面对、认知逃避3个因子,共解释了40.126%的方差.各因子的Cmnbach's α系数分别为0.87,0.71,0.74,分半信度分别为0.87,0.69,0.76,重测信度分别为0.86,0.67,0.55.用HADS作为效标检验中文版MAC的效标效度,显示消极情感与焦虑、抑郁呈正相关(P<0.01).结论 中文版MAC具有较好的信度和效度,可用于我国癌症患者心理适应状态的研究.%Objective To revise the Chinese Version of Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MAC) and examine the psychometric properties of it. Methods A total of 242 cancer patients completed the Chinese MAC, 34 of which received retest after 2 ~ 4 weeks. Results Principal component analysis with varimax rotation confirmed 3 factors (Cmnbach' sct ranged from 0.71 to 0.87 ; split-half reliability ranged from 0.69 to 0.87 ; test-retest reliability ranged from 0. 55 to 0. 86), and accumulatively accounted for 40. 126% of the total variance. The negative emotion was positively correlated with both HADS Depression (r = 0. 626) and Anxiety (r =0. 666). Conclusions An acceptable reliability and validity of the Chinese version of MAC was indicated, and MAC may be used for clinical study.

  20. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  1. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  2. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  3. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  5. A Quantitative Appraisal of Adjustment Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Bela Balassa

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of adjustment programmes. This is done by charting changes in various performance indicators following the receipt of the first adjustment loan, and by further contrasting the results with those for the comparator group of countries that did not receive adjustment loans. It is found that the average decline in the GDP growth rate in the loan-recipient countries was less than in the comparator groups. Similar results were obtained in regard to per ca...

  6. The organization of anticipatory postural adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Aruin Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Central control of posture is expressed through anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) precede planned postural perturbations and minimize them with anticipatory corrections, while compensatory postural adjustments deal with actual perturbations of balance that occur as a result of suboptimal efficiency of anticipatory corrections. The process of generation of APAs is affected by three major factors: expected magnitude and direction of the...

  7. Validity of a pediatric version of the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Sue R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Tian, Ye; Hahner, Thomas; Berger, Rachel P; Bell, Michael J; Adelson, P David

    2012-04-10

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and its most recent revision, the GOS-Extended (GOS-E), provide the gold standard for measuring traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcome. The GOS-E exhibits validity when used with adults and some adolescents, but validity with younger children is not established. Because the GOS-E lacks the developmental specificity necessary to evaluate children, toddlers, and infants, we modified the original version to create the GOS-E Pediatric Revision (GOS-E Peds), a developmentally appropriate structured interview, to classify younger patients. The criterion, predictive, and discriminant validity of the GOS-E Peds was measured in 159 subjects following TBI (mild: 36%; moderate: 12%; severe: 50%) at 3 and 6 months after injury. Participants were included from two studies completed at the Pediatric Neurotrauma Center at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. We assessed the relationship among GOS-E Peds, the GOS, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as well as other standardized measures of functional, behavioral, intellectual, and neuropsychological outcome. Premorbid function was assessed 24-36 h after injury. The GOS-E Peds showed a strong correlation with the GOS at 3 and 6 month time points. Criterion-related validity was also indicated by GOS-E Peds' association with most measures at both time points and at injury severity levels. The 3 month GOS-E Peds was associated with the 6 month GOS-E Peds, everyday function, behavior, and most cognitive abilities. Discriminant validity is suggested by weak correlations between both 3 and 6 month GOS-E Peds and premorbid measures. The GOS-E Peds is sensitive to severity of injury and is associated with changes in TBI sequelae over time. This pediatric revision provides a valid outcome measure in infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents through age 16. Findings support using the GOS-E Peds as the primary outcome variable in pediatric clinical trials.

  8. USING R TO TEACH SEASONAL ADJUSTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Costa Ferreira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article shows, using R software, how to seasonally adjust a time series using the X13-ARIMA-SEATS program and the seasonal package developed by Christoph Sax. In addition to presenting step-by-step seasonal adjustment, the article also explores how to analyze the program output and how to forecast the original and seasonally adjusted time series. A case study was proposed using the Brazilian industrial production. It was verified that the effect of Carnival, Easter and working days improved the seasonal adjustment when treated by the model.

  9. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  10. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  11. Locus of control and its relationship with mental health and adjustment among adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There exists a plethora of researches which have identified the role of Locus of Control in maintaining sound mental health and adjustment. The present study examined the relationship of Locus of Control with Mental Health & overall Adjustment among adolescent females. Method: The participants consisted of 50 adolescent females. Mental Health Battery designed by Singh, Gupta (2000, Rotter′s Locus of Control Scale (1966 & Adjustment Inventory for College Students by Sinha & Singh (1995 were administered. Findings: The findings of the study revealed that adolescent females who possess internal locus of control showed better mental health & overall adjustment pattern which includes home, social, emotional, educational domains and health adjustment domain than those who possess external locus of control. Conclusion: The study highlights the pervasive influence of internal & external locus of control on mental health & adjustment among adolescent females.

  12. Couples' adjustment to breast cancer and benign breast disease: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Templin, T; Mood, D; Oberst, M

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of couples' adjustment to benign (n = 73 couples) and malignant breast disease (n = 58 couples) at the time of diagnosis and at two follow-up assessments at 60 days and 1 year is reported. Specific objectives were to: (a) compare the concurrent stress, resources, appraisal, and patterns of adjustment of couples in the benign and malignant groups; (b) compare the psychosocial responses of patients versus spouses; and (c) determine the amount of correspondence in levels of adjustment reported by patients and their husbands over time. Multiple instruments with reported reliability and validity were used to measure study variables: Smilkstein Stress Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Mixed design analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to assess differences between and among couples and examine changes in study variables over time. Significant differences were found in the resources, appraisal, and patterns of adjustment reported by couples in the benign and malignant groups. Couples facing breast cancer reported greater decreases in their marital and family functioning, more uncertain appraisals, and more adjustment problems associated with the illness. In addition, there was a high degree of correspondence between the levels of adjustment reported by women with breast cancer and their husbands over time. Couples who reported high distress or a high number of role problems at diagnosis were likely to remain highly distressed at 60 days and 1 year. Study findings underscore the importance of assisting couples, not just patients, to manage the adjustment difficulties associated with breast cancer.

  13. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  14. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  15. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  16. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  17. Policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekman, Bernard; Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska

    2004-01-01

    The authors focus on policies facilitating firm adjustment to globalization. They briefly review the effects of trade and investment liberalization on firms, focusing on within-industry effects. They postulate that governments' role in supporting the process is to (1) ensure that firms face "right" incentives to adjust, and (2) intervene in areas where market failures are present. Their ma...

  18. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  19. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurd...

  20. Adjustment, Pollyannaism, and Attraction to Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William A.; Peterson, Christopher

    1975-01-01

    The following two main hypotheses were tested: a) personal adjustment is associated with liking for close, personal relationships; and b) apparent adjustment is a manifestation of a test-taking style of favorable self-presentation. Data obtained from college students in three cultures tended to support the first interpretation best and the second…

  1. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... the plain meaning of the words ``due to'' in section 3622(d)(1)(E) requires a causal relationship... causal relationship between the amount of a requested adjustment and the exigent circumstances' impact on...'' phrase does not adequately express how close the relationship between the proposed adjustment and...

  2. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18.444 Section 18.444 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications...

  3. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    , but a brief discussion of cross-country differences and similarities in firmlevel labor adjustment is also provided. For Denmark, remarkable long-term stability in firms’ labor adjustment technologies is observed and the cross-country comparisons reveal striking similarities between countries with very...... diverse labor market institutions....

  4. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  5. Judgment Pitfalls in Estimating Premorbid Intellectual Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kareken, David A

    1997-01-01

    ... on their judgment. Lezak (1983) proposes that clinicians render an estimate synthesized from interview, anecdotal information, demographic characteristics, and patients' patterns of test performance. Similarly, Vanderploeg (1994) recommends integrating estimates from a number of formulas with past academic performance, occupational success, and con...

  6. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  7. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal...

  8. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  9. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    of the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that German...... expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  10. Curvilinear associations between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment in treatment-seeking couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daspe, Marie-Ève; Sabourin, Stéphane; Péloquin, Katherine; Lussier, Yvan; Wright, John

    2013-04-01

    Among personality traits, neuroticism has been shown to be the most significant predictor of dyadic adjustment. Despite some propositions arguing that low, as well as high levels of personality traits are maladaptive tendencies, only the negative linear relationship between neuroticism and couple satisfaction has been addressed in past research. The aim of this study was to examine the nonlinear association between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment for both partners of a clinically distressed sample of couples. The sample included 472 couples seeking couple therapy who completed the NEO-FFI (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992, NEO PI-R professional manual, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources) and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (G. B. Spanier, 1976, Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, pp. 15-28). Results showed, for actor and partner effects, a significant nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relationship between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment. In particular, both very low levels and high levels of neuroticism were associated with lower dyadic adjustment for both the individual and his or her partner. This finding is in contrast with the traditional negative linear association between neuroticism and dyadic adjustment observed in previous research. Openness and agreeableness also positively predicted self and partner dyadic adjustment. Findings bear important clinical implications for therapists assessing and working with distressed couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  12. A note on how to iterate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagschal, Jehudah J.; Yeivin, Yehuda [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2002-08-01

    We study the elementary problem of adjusting a given parameter library by one measured response so that calculating the response with the adjusted library reproduces the measured value. We formulate the problem of the least-squares adjustment for non-linear responses, and offer a reasoned iteration scheme to solve it. A numerical example illustrates the success of the proposed procedure. Our scheme is identical to that suggested by Perey, and thus adds insight, offers justification, and also serves as a formal proof of the latter. (author)

  13. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  14. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  15. Density and morphology adjustments of gallium nitride nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teker, Kasif

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the morphology and density adjustments of GaN nanostructures via CVD process. GaN nanostructure growth has been carried out using Ga and NH3 as source materials with various catalyst materials, such as Au, Ni, Ag, and Fe between 800 and 1100 °C. The investigation has focused on the effects of process parameters, such as growth temperature and catalyst materials on the GaN nanowire morphology and density. Low temperature (contamination and produces high density of long nanowires, which is very crucial for scale-up manufacturing opportunities.

  16. Neither here, nor there: impression management does not predict expatriate adjustment and job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNAH JACKSON FOLDES

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Social desirability scale scores reflect substantive individual differences related to personality. The objective of the current study was to examine whether social desirability, and impression management specifically (a component of social desirability, is predictive of adjustment and job performance for expatriates. Based on theoretical considerations, it was proposed that impression management might be linked to expatriate job performance in a predictive and mediated relationship through adjustment. Job performance ratings provided by host country national co-workers were obtained for 308 expatriates on assignment in Turkey. Expatriates responded to a measure of personality and cross cultural adjustment. It was found that impression management scale scores were not related to either adjustment or job performance. These results are discussed in the broader context of research on social desirability, expatriate job performance, and expatriate research in general.

  17. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  18. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  19. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  20. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  1. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao

    2003-01-01

    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  2. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  3. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of expa

  4. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  5. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  6. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  7. Adjustable Fiber Optic Microwave Transversal Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaram, Mehdi; Lutes, George F.; Logan, Ronald T.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1994-01-01

    Microwave transversal filters implemented as adjustable tapped fiber optic delay lines developed. Main advantages of these filters (in comparison with conventional microwave transversal filters) are small size, light weight, no need for matching of radio-frequency impedances, no need for shielding against electromagnetic radiation at suboptical frequencies, no need for mechanical tuning, high stability of amplitude and phase, and active control of transfer functions. Weights of taps in fiber optic delay lines adjusted.

  8. Industrial Forecasts after Export Rebates Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On June 19, 2007, the Circular of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation concerning Lowering the Export Rebate Rates for Some Commodities was published, which finally proved the early rumor of tax rebate adjustment to be true.According to the Circular, the export rebate rates for some commodities have been adjusted upon approval of the State Council and the new rates have become in force since July 1, 2007.

  9. Lower extremity EMG-driven modeling of walking with automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andrew J; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2017-01-01

    Neuromusculoskeletal disorders affecting walking ability are often difficult to manage, in part due to limited understanding of how a patient's lower extremity muscle excitations contribute to the patient's lower extremity joint moments. To assist in the study of these disorders, researchers have developed electromyography (EMG) driven neuromusculoskeletal models utilizing scaled generic musculoskeletal geometry. While these models can predict individual muscle contributions to lower extremity joint moments during walking, the accuracy of the predictions can be hindered by errors in the scaled geometry. This study presents a novel EMG-driven modeling method that automatically adjusts surrogate representations of the patient's musculoskeletal geometry to improve prediction of lower extremity joint moments during walking. In addition to commonly adjusted neuromusculoskeletal model parameters, the proposed method adjusts model parameters defining muscle-tendon lengths, velocities, and moment arms. We evaluated our EMG-driven modeling method using data collected from a high-functioning hemiparetic subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 m/s. EMG-driven model parameter values were calibrated to match inverse dynamic moments for five degrees of freedom in each leg while keeping musculoskeletal geometry close to that of an initial scaled musculoskeletal model. We found that our EMG-driven modeling method incorporating automated adjustment of musculoskeletal geometry predicted net joint moments during walking more accurately than did the same method without geometric adjustments. Geometric adjustments improved moment prediction errors by 25% on average and up to 52%, with the largest improvements occurring at the hip. Predicted adjustments to musculoskeletal geometry were comparable to errors reported in the literature between scaled generic geometric models and measurements made from imaging data. Our results demonstrate that with

  10. Emotional engagement and school adjustment in late childhood: the relationship between school liking and school belonging in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Yuko; Uchiyama, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between school adjustment and emotional engagement in late childhood. Participants were Grade 5 and 6 Japanese children (N = 304; 164 boys, 200 girls). The School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire (SLAQ) was used to measure children's emotional adjustment to school. The School Adjustment Scale, which was used to assess emotional engagement, consists of four factors: "friendships," "school work," "teacher-child relationships," and "school in general." The last factor was used to measure school belonging.

  11. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  12. Adjustable versus non-adjustable suture techniques for concomitant horizontal strabismus: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galton C. Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the surgical results of adjustable and non-adjustable horizontal strabismus surgery for concomitant horizontal strabismus. Methods: The charts of 231 patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery, selected using probabilistic sampling, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique used and strabismus type. The adjustable suture technique was used for 107 patients (Group 1, and non-adjustable or conventional surgery was performed in the remaining 124 patients (Group 2. Patients with esotropia (ET or exotropia (XT of 5 PD, syndromes, restrictive or paretic strabismus, reoperations, botulinum toxin injection, and patients postoperatively followed up for 50% was present in all subgroups. Significant differences between strabismus groups submitted to adjustable technique and non-adjustable on postoperative day 1 were observed (p=0.00 for ET and p=0.01 for XT and at the last visit for the XT group with a follow-up of at least 1 year (p=0.05. Conclusion: The adjustable suture technique produced a higher success rate than non-adjustable strabismus surgery for both ET and XT groups on postoperative day 1. For XT patients, the adjustable suture technique appears to produce better surgical results than non-adjustable surgery, when the surgical goal is long-lasting maintenance of a small hypercorrection.

  13. Adjustment of patients and husbands to the initial impact of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Swain, M A

    1987-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial adjustment of 50 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and their husbands at two points in time. Time 1 interviews were conducted approximately 3 days after surgery; Time 2 interviews were conducted 30 days later. Psychosocial adjustment was measured as a multidimensional construct using the Affects Balance Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Repeated measures analysis indicated that husbands' scores did not differ significantly from patients' scores on the adjustment measures that assessed level of mood and amount of symptom distress. Both patients and husbands reported levels of distress significantly above the level reported for the normal population. Patients and husbands differed only on the adjustment measure that assessed problems in carrying out various psychosocial roles, with patients reporting more role adjustment problems than husbands. Although both patients and husbands reported dramatic improvement in their levels of mood from Time 1 to Time 2, no significant change occurred in their levels of distress. Medical and demographic factors had little relationship to subjects' levels of adjustments at either time.

  14. A longitudinal study of the adjustment of patients and husbands to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L

    1989-01-01

    Although adjustment to breast cancer is an ongoing process, few studies have assessed the psychosocial adjustment of patients and husbands over an extended period of time. The purpose of this descriptive study was to compare the psychosocial adjustment of mastectomy patients and their husbands at three points in time: 3 days, 30 days, and 18 months post-surgery. Data were obtained from 41 mastectomy patients and their husbands (n = 82 subjects) at each time point. Three instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure three components of psychosocial adjustment: the Affects Balance Scale (mood), the Brief Symptom Inventory (symptom distress), and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (role functioning). Repeated measures Analysis of Variance was used to compare changes in subjects' adjustment levels over time. Results indicated that while subjects' levels of mood and levels of role functioning improved over time, subjects' levels of distress did not improve over time. Distress levels reported by patients and husbands at 18 months were similar to levels reported at 3 days and 30 days post-surgery. The findings suggest that difficulties in psychosocial adjustment are not confined to the early phase of illness but persist over time for both patients and husbands. Nursing implications center on the importance of long-term, ongoing assessment.

  15. Adjustment of geochemical background by robust multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional analyses of exploration geochemical data assume that the background is a constant or slowly changing value, equivalent to a plane or a smoothly curved surface. However, it is better to regard the geochemical background as a rugged surface, varying with changes in geology and environment. This rugged surface can be estimated from observed geological, geochemical and environmental properties by using multivariate statistics. A method of background adjustment was developed and applied to groundwater and stream sediment reconnaissance data collected from the Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota, as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Source-rock lithology appears to be a dominant factor controlling the chemical composition of groundwater or stream sediments. The most efficacious adjustment procedure is to regress uranium concentration on selected geochemical and environmental variables for each lithologic unit, and then to delineate anomalies by a common threshold set as a multiple of the standard deviation of the combined residuals. Robust versions of regression and RQ-mode principal components analysis techniques were used rather than ordinary techniques to guard against distortion caused by outliers Anomalies delineated by this background adjustment procedure correspond with uranium prospects much better than do anomalies delineated by conventional procedures. The procedure should be applicable to geochemical exploration at different scales for other metals. ?? 1985.

  16. Perceived nativeness and sensitivity to temporal adjustments in speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-04-01

    Native Mandarin Chinese speakers productions of English consonant-vowel (CV) syllables have shown syllable-internal temporal adjustments in the direction of native (English)-like CVs (Wang and Behne, 2004). The current study presents two experiments investigating whether these temporal adjustments affect perceived nativeness. For three production types (native-English, Chinese productions of English, native-Chinese), three syllable-internal timing patterns (English-like, Chinese-English-like, Chinese-like) were applied, resulting in nine stimuli types. Native English listeners judged how English-like each stimulus was on a 7-point scale. In the first experiment, production-types and timing patterns were randomized. Results show that listeners can reliably identify nativeness of the three productions, with Chinese productions of English perceived as intermediate to the native Chinese and native American English productions. Listeners also showed a tendency toward using timing within the CV to identify nativeness. In the second experiment the same materials were therefore blocked by production type. Results reveal the perceptual saliency of the temporal adjustments in nonnative productions. These findings support a view of L2 acquisition as a gradual process toward the target L2 (e.g., Caramazza et al., 1973). The current study extends this view, showing evidence that listeners can perceive the inter-language system, bearing the nature of both L1 and L2.

  17. Establishment and adjustment of monsoon-driven circulation in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东晓; 王卫强; 施平; 郭佩芳; 甘子钧

    2003-01-01

    The mechanisms of establishment and adjustment of the basin-scale circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) during the monsoon-forced spin-up are investigated using a high resolution circulation model in this paper. The process, in which the upper layer in the SCS evolved from the motionless state to the one when the basin-scale circulation initially established, was described, and the participation of various Kelvin and Rossby waves and their traveling time scales in different stages was revealed. It shows that the coastal trapped Kelvin waves and the westward propagating Rossby waves play important roles in the adjustment of the basin-scale circulation. Furthermore, the characteristic timescale of establishment for the basin-scale circulation in the upper layer of the SCS was obtained.

  18. The Adjustment of New Recruits to Military Life in the Chinese Army: The Longitudinal Predictive Power of MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lijun; Han, Jing; Han, Jian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the findings of two studies analyzing new recruits' adjustment to army life in the Chinese military. In the first exploratory study, we developed a scale to measure new recruits' adjustment to military life, and found that new soldiers' adaptation could be divided into two distinct types: interpersonal…

  19. The relationship between dyadic adjustment with demographic and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren Bodur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of dyadic adjustment in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 51-62

  20. Semi-Global Matching with Self-Adjusting Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkalou, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Karras, G.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for 3D models of various scales and precisions is strong for a wide range of applications, among which cultural heritage recording is particularly important and challenging. In this context, dense image matching is a fundamental task for processes which involve image-based reconstruction of 3D models. Despite the existence of commercial software, the need for complete and accurate results under different conditions, as well as for computational efficiency under a variety of hardware, has kept image-matching algorithms as one of the most active research topics. Semi-global matching (SGM) is among the most popular optimization algorithms due to its accuracy, computational efficiency, and simplicity. A challenging aspect in SGM implementation is the determination of smoothness constraints, i.e. penalties P1, P2 for disparity changes and discontinuities. In fact, penalty adjustment is needed for every particular stereo-pair and cost computation. In this work, a novel formulation of self-adjusting penalties is proposed: SGM penalties can be estimated solely from the statistical properties of the initial disparity space image. The proposed method of self-adjusting penalties (SGM-SAP) is evaluated using typical cost functions on stereo-pairs from the recent Middlebury dataset of interior scenes, as well as from the EPFL Herz-Jesu architectural scenes. Results are competitive against the original SGM estimates. The significant aspects of self-adjusting penalties are: (i) the time-consuming tuning process is avoided; (ii) SGM can be used in image collections with limited number of stereo-pairs; and (iii) no heuristic user intervention is needed.

  1. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  2. Separate adjustment in close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Clarke, T. A.

    Industrial manufacturing processes will increasingly require high-speed 3D measurement. If a photogrammetric measurement system is used, cameras will typically be pre-calibrated for interior orientation parameters. The conventional bundle adjustment may be computationally too expensive and other algorithms such as DLT or direct intersection can be used. However, these methods do not provide optimum solutions. In this paper, the separate adjustment method is introduced. This method is based on the separate least squares estimation (LSE) of both the camera exterior orientation parameters and the 3D co-ordinates of the object points. The same results as the bundle adjustment are produced but with a significantly lower computational load. This method is analogous to iterative solution algorithms such as Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel; however, the implementation is different. It is also similar to the successive application of resection and intersection under certain circumstances. The separate adjustment algorithm is described and compared with the bundle adjustment in terms of results, speed and memory requirements.

  3. Salary adjustments and other changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2005, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2006. Information on these decisions and other important changes relating to the Staff Rules and Regulations are summarised below: Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.2% with effect from 1 January 2006. Elements increased by 1.2%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index : a) Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2006. b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2005/2006 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2005. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. Contributions to the Pension Fund: Contributions of the Organization and active members increased by a total of 0.63% of basic salary from 1 January 2006, shared as ...

  4. Salary adjustments and other changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2004, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2005. Information on these decisions and other main changes concerning the Staff Rules & Regulations is summarised below: Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 1 and R A 2 respectively): increased by 1.3% with effect from 1 January 2005. Elements increased by 1.7%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index : Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4), with effect from 1 January 2005. Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2004/2005 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2004. Related adjustments will be implemented wherever applicable to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, variations occur in the actual percentage increases quoted, due to the ...

  5. A Micro Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope with Adjustable Static Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Kong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  6. A micro dynamically tuned gyroscope with adjustable static capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents a novel micro dynamically tuned gyroscope (MDTG) with adjustable static capacitance. First, the principle of MDTG is theoretically analyzed. Next, some simulations under the optimized structure parameters are given as a reference for the mask design of the rotor wafer and electrode plates. As two key components, the process flows of the rotor wafer and electrode plates are described in detail. All the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos show that the fabrication process is effective and optimized. Then, an assembly model is designed for the static capacitance adjustable MDTG, whose static capacitance can be changed by rotating the lower electrode plate support and substituting gasket rings of different thicknesses. Thus, the scale factor is easily changeable. Afterwards, the digitalized closed-loop measurement circuit is simulated. The discrete correction and decoupling modules are designed to make the closed-loop stable and cross-coupling effect small. The dual axis closed-loop system bandwidths can reach more than 60 Hz and the dual axis scale factors are completely symmetrical. All the simulation results demonstrate the proposed fabrication of the MDTG can meet the application requirements. Finally, the paper presents the test results of static and dynamic capacitance values which are consistent with the simulation values.

  7. Salary adjustments and changes to the Staff Rules & Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2006, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2007. Council has also approved the conclusions of the 2005 Five-Yearly Review and a new (11th) of the Staff Rules and Regulations edition comes into force on 1 January 2007. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively in the 11th edition, R A 1 and R A 2 in the 10th edition): increased by 1.6% with effect from 1 January 2007. Elements increased by 1.4%, following the movement of the Geneva consumer price index: a) Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 3 in the 11th edition), with effect from 1 January 2007; b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01 in the 11th edition, R A 8.01 in the 10th edition) for the academic year 2006/2007 i.e. with effect from 1 September 2006. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Stud...

  8. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  9. Probability distribution of surface wind speed induced by convective adjustment on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaru

    2017-03-01

    The influence of convective adjustment on the spatial structure of Venusian surface wind and probability distribution of its wind speed is investigated using an idealized weather research and forecasting model. When the initially uniform wind is much weaker than the convective wind, patches of both prograde and retrograde winds with scales of a few kilometers are formed during active convective adjustment. After the active convective adjustment, because the small-scale convective cells and their related vertical momentum fluxes dissipate quickly, the large-scale (>4 km) prograde and retrograde wind patches remain on the surface and in the longitude-height cross-section. This suggests the coexistence of local prograde and retrograde flows, which may correspond to those observed by Pioneer Venus below 10 km altitude. The probability distributions of surface wind speed V during the convective adjustment have a similar form in different simulations, with a sharp peak around ∼0.1 m s-1 and a bulge developing on the flank of the probability distribution. This flank bulge is associated with the most active convection, which has a probability distribution with a peak at the wind speed 1.5-times greater than the Weibull fitting parameter c during the convective adjustment. The Weibull distribution P(> V) (= exp[-(V/c)k]) with best-estimate coefficients of Lorenz (2016) is reproduced during convective adjustments induced by a potential energy of ∼7 × 107 J m-2, which is calculated from the difference in total potential energy between initially unstable and neutral states. The maximum vertical convective heat flux magnitude is proportional to the potential energy of the convective adjustment in the experiments with the initial unstable-layer thickness altered. The present work suggests that convective adjustment is a promising process for producing the wind structure with occasionally generating surface winds of ∼1 m s-1 and retrograde wind patches.

  10. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  11. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...

  12. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that expatriates’ host country language ability is positively associated with their adjustment. But does the advantage of expatriates’ language ability depend on the difficulty of the host language? To examine this issue, data were collected from expatriates in two European...... countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...... as opposed to the host country with an easy language....

  13. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives...... are specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive....

  14. The Kenyan political conflict and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M; Myers, Sonya S

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an important protective factor postdisaster. Specifically, severity of the disaster experience was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior. Emotion regulation was associated with less aggression and more prosocial behavior postconflict. Findings are discussed in the context of a developmental, systems-oriented perspective of the impact of disasters on child adjustment.

  15. Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Cassandra J; Hart, Tae L

    2017-07-12

    Couples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict. The study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS. Participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor-partner interdependence model for data analysis. There were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict. Findings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined

  16. 39 CFR 3010.25 - Limitation on unused rate adjustment authority rate adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATION OF RATES FOR MARKET DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Applying the Price Cap § 3010.25 Limitation on... only be applied together with inflation-based limitation rate adjustments or when inflation-based... used in lieu of an inflation-based limitation rate adjustment. ...

  17. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  18. Social Phobia and Difficulties in Occupational Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Monroe A.; Fallon, Melissa; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether social phobics differ from nonanxious controls in occupational adjustment. Results indicated that social phobics were underemployed and believed that their supervisor would rate them as less dependable. Social phobics were more anxious when starting their current job but did not differ in job satisfaction. Discusses results…

  19. When is fiscal adjustment an illusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easterly, W; de Haan, J; Gali, G

    1999-01-01

    Fiscal adjustment is an illusion when it lowers the budget deficit or public debt but leaves government net worth unchanged. Conventional measures of the budget deficit largely show the change in public sector debt. Ideally, the measured deficit would reflect the change in Public sector net worth. M

  20. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  1. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spat

  2. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  3. Social Adjustment and Personality Development in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Merrill; And Others

    This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…

  4. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  5. Postshelter Adjustment of Children from Violent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Kelly L.; Novaco, Raymond W.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined the adjustment of battered women and their children after exiting domestic violence shelters. Participants were 62 women who had endured severe partner abuse, completed a shelter program with their children, and resided in the community for at least 6 months. Field interviews concerned mothers' and children's abuse…

  6. Anchoring and Adjustment during Social Inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Diana I.; Mitchell, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation theories of social cognition suggest that people use their own mental states to understand those of others--particularly similar others. However, perceivers cannot rely solely on self-knowledge to understand another person; they must also correct for differences between the self and others. Here we investigated serial adjustment as a…

  7. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  8. Associations between faith, distress and mental adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind

    2013-01-01

    ), specific aspects of faith ('belief in a god', 'belief in a god with whom I can talk' and 'experiences of god or a higher power'), religious community and church attendance (DUREL), distress (POMS-SF), adjustment to cancer (Mini-MAC) and sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were used...

  9. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Keywords: Adjustment, blindness, Nigeria, psychological and social. Résumé. Background: ... clés de l'interaction sociale, mariage et famille. Majorité devaient être ..... unable to play a useful role in life,' 'feel nervous, tense, and worried,' ... findings in mothers with sickle cell disease children. (28%)[34] and ...

  10. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious that these res...

  11. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  12. PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT TO EPILEPSY AMONG NIGERIANS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second asserts that disabling effects are mediated by other individual and ... based in Nigeria. METHODS ... consequence of a pre-testing exercise of the original WPSI version described in the ... format of certainly, somehow, don't know, rarely and not at all .... In this study, psychosocial adjustment scores were examined.

  13. Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

  14. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  15. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-01-01

    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  16. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  17. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  18. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses some recent research which aims at producing evidence on how firms adjust their employment in response to output shocks using micro-level data and with a particular focus on the relationship between worker and job flows. The evidence presented is mainly based on Danish data...

  19. When is fiscal adjustment an illusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easterly, W; de Haan, J; Gali, G

    Fiscal adjustment is an illusion when it lowers the budget deficit or public debt but leaves government net worth unchanged. Conventional measures of the budget deficit largely show the change in public sector debt. Ideally, the measured deficit would reflect the change in Public sector net worth.

  20. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34...

  1. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  3. Spurious multiple equilibria introduced by convective adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Toom, M.; Dijkstra, H.A.; Wubs, F.W.

    2011-01-01

    The application of bifurcation analysis to ocean climate models is substantially hampered by difficulties associated with the use of convective adjustment, i.e. a parameterisation of convection in which the vertical diffusion of heat and salt is greatly enhanced whenever the water column becomes sta

  4. Chinese Foreign Funds Absorbing Strategy Faces Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Commerce released that during the 11th Fiveyear Plan, China will make major adjustment in the strategy of using foreign funds and make efforts to promote the transfer of foreign trade increase measures. The major changes are as follows:

  5. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  6. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... handicapped students other rules, such as the prohibition of tape recorders in classrooms or of dog guides...

  7. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-02

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction.

  8. Theatre Practice and Social Adjustment in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    adjustments in favour of local processes to drive social and economic development. ... The high rate of unemployment and massive city-drifts are consequences of untenable ... Theatre practice provides social, cultural and material history .... Ofonagoro (1995) explained the role of tourism and culture to national development.

  9. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  10. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144).

  11. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  12. Comparison and analysis on premorbid adjustment state and clinical features of first-episode schizophrenia between adolescence and adulthood%青少年期与成年期首发精神分裂症病前适应状态及临床症状的对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印海翔; 张晨; 王晓良; 田涛; 江文庆

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨早发型精神分裂症的病前适应状态及临床特征.方法 按照中国精神障碍分类与诊断标准(第3版),调查住我院的19例首发早发型精神分裂症患者与20例成年期首发精神分裂症患者的病前适应状态及临床特征,并时行对照分析.结果 在病前适应状态方面,早发组在孤僻、同伴关系、学校适应性方面明显差于成年组.临床特征方面,早发组的焦虑抑郁和满打满算性评分明显高于成年组;敌对猜疑评分,成年组则明显高于早发组;早发组的病前适应状态与临床症状具有显著相关性.结论 病前适应不良与精神分裂症的起病年龄、临床特征呈相关性.

  13. Interrelations of stress, optimism and control in older people's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Susan Jane; McLean, Louise Anne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of perceived stress, optimism and perceived control of internal states on the psychological adjustment of older adults. The sample consisted of 212 older adults, aged between 58 and 103 (M = 80.42 years, SD = 7.31 years), living primarily in retirement villages in Melbourne, Victoria. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Perceived Control of Internal States Scale and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life-Bref. Optimism significantly mediated the relationship between older people's perceived stress and psychological health, and perceived control of internal states mediated the relationships among stress, optimism and psychological health. The variables explained 49% of the variance in older people's psychological adjustment. It is suggested that strategies to improve optimism and perceived control may improve the psychological adjustment of older people struggling to adapt to life's stressors. © 2014 ACOTA.

  14. Predictors of Marital Adjustment: Are There Any Differences Between Women and Men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta Andreea Muraru

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore if there are differences between women and men in relationships among family-of-origin, romantic attachment, and marital adjustment. Two hundred and forty-nine participants filled out four self-reported measures: The Differentiation in the Family System Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, Experiences in Close Relationship Scale, and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. In order to analyze the data, multiple-group analysis with AMOS 16.0 was used. There was no difference between women and men in all observed variables. Regardless of gender, only the romantic attachment was a significant predictor of marital adjustment. Only in women, family-of-origin significantly predicted their romantic attachment. Across gender groups, the configural model fitted satisfactorily the observed data. When measurement and structural weights, as well as residuals were constrained to be equal across gender groups, the invariance of the model was also supported. The results suggest women and men could be similar when it comes to the relationships among constructions they both have regarding family-of-origin experiences, romantic attachment patterns, and marital adjustment. Some implications for research and clinical practice with marital couples are briefly discussed.

  15. Quality Adjusted Life Years and Trade Off Exercises : exploring methodology and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Marieke

    2006-01-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) are a popular outcome measure in cost-effectiveness analyses. QALYs are computed by multiplying follow-up or survival by a scaling factor reflecting health related quality of life, and as such capture quantity and quality gains simultaneously. Issues with regard t

  16. Effects of Forgiveness of Perpetrators on Marital Adjustment for Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, Virginia Todd; Myers, Rita W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forgiveness on survivors' marital adjustment and the effects of childhood sexual abuse on forgiveness were examined. Self-report scales regarding abuse and forgiveness and demographic information were collected from clients (N=63). ANOVA produced significant main effects; forgiveness was negatively correlated with perceived…

  17. Comparison of multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment models for genetic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márkus, Sz; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Eriksson, J-Å; Lidauer, M H

    2014-06-01

    Two heterogeneous variance adjustment methods and two variance models were compared in a simulation study. The method used for heterogeneous variance adjustment in the Nordic test-day model, which is a multiplicative method based on Meuwissen (J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 310), was compared with a restricted multiplicative method where the fixed effects were not scaled. Both methods were tested with two different variance models, one with a herd-year and the other with a herd-year-month random effect. The simulation study was built on two field data sets from Swedish Red dairy cattle herds. For both data sets, 200 herds with test-day observations over a 12-year period were sampled. For one data set, herds were sampled randomly, while for the other, each herd was required to have at least 10 first-calving cows per year. The simulations supported the applicability of both methods and models, but the multiplicative mixed model was more sensitive in the case of small strata sizes. Estimation of variance components for the variance models resulted in different parameter estimates, depending on the applied heterogeneous variance adjustment method and variance model combination. Our analyses showed that the assumption of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure between random-effect levels is reasonable when within-herd heterogeneity is modelled by year classes, but less appropriate for within-herd heterogeneity by month classes. Of the studied alternatives, the multiplicative method and a variance model with a random herd-year effect were found most suitable for the Nordic test-day model for dairy cattle evaluation.

  18. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  19. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees.

  20. Disposition and adjustment to chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes.

  1. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  2. Scale and scaling in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  3. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Polak; Lukas Langhammer; Jan Jerabek

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA) and its analog behavioral model (ABM), which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators). Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equat...

  4. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Viganó; Giovanni Toso; Gerard Caille; Cyril Mangenot; Lager, Ioan E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spatial density fits a Taylor amplitude tapering law which guarantees the pattern requirements in terms of beamwidth and sidelobe level. Different configurations, based on a Voronoi cell spatial tessel...

  5. New Round of Petroleum Products Price Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Background On December 18,2008,a new petroleum products pricing mechanism was carried out in China.According to the Procedure for the Administration of Oil Price(Trial)issued last month by National Development and Reform Commission,if the moving average price for crude oil in international market changes more than4% in 22 consecutive working days,the prices for gasoline and diesel in domestic market can be adjusted accordingly.

  6. Transnational Corporations Adjust Investment Strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After becoming one of the main countries absorbing foreign direct-investment, China is no longer a sole manufacturing base in transnational corporations' eyes, but a big market which they must pay high attention on and use. Transnational corporations have adjusted their investment strategy in china accordingly. Professor Xi Guoming, Director of Nankai University Transnational Research Center, issued his many years' following research result in a international forum during this period.

  7. Transnational Corporations Adjust Investment Strategy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      After becoming one of the main countries absorbing foreign direct-investment, China is no longer a sole manufacturing base in transnational corporations' eyes, but a big market which they must pay high attention on and use. Transnational corporations have adjusted their investment strategy in china accordingly. Professor Xi Guoming, Director of Nankai University Transnational Research Center, issued his many years' following research result in a international forum during this period.……

  8. New adjustable suture technique for trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vespasiano Rebouças-Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an adjustable suture (AS experimental model that allows for tightening, loosening and retightening of the suture tension in trabeculectomy. METHODS: Standard trabeculectomy was performed in fifteen pig eyeballs. All pig eyes were tested twice: one test with conventional suture in both flap's corners (conventional suture group and another test with a conventional suture at one corner and an adjustable suture in the other corner (AS group. The order in which each test was performed was defined by randomization. Intraocular pressure was measured at three time points: T1 when the knots were tightened; T2 when the AS was loosened or the conventional knot was removed; and T3 when the AS was retightened in the AS group or five minutes after the knot removal in the conventional suture group. RESULTS: The mean Intraocular pressure was similar between the two groups at time point 1 (p=0.97. However, significant Intraocular pressure differences were found between eyes in the conventional and adjustable suture groups at time points 2 (12.6 ± 4.2 vs 16.3 ± 2.3 cmH2O, respectively, p=0.006 and 3 (12.2 ± 4.0 vs 26.4 ± 1.7cmH2O, respectively; p=0.001. While the conventional technique allowed only Intraocular pressure reduction (following the knot removal; T2 and T3, the AS technique allowed both Intraocular pressure reduction (T2 and elevation (T3 through the management (loosening and retightening of the suture. CONCLUSION: This experimental model provides an effective noninvasive postoperative mechanism of suture tension adjustment.

  9. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  10. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  11. Bayes linear adjustment for variance matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    2008-01-01

    We examine the problem of covariance belief revision using a geometric approach. We exhibit an inner-product space where covariance matrices live naturally --- a space of random real symmetric matrices. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability specifications.

  12. Multiplicity adjustments in testing for bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Steven Y; Xu, Siyan; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2015-01-30

    Bioequivalence of two drugs is usually demonstrated by rejecting two one-sided null hypotheses using the two one-sided tests for pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). By virtue of the intersection-union test, there is no need for multiplicity adjustment in testing the two one-sided null hypotheses within each parameter. However, the decision rule for bioequivalence often requires equivalence to be achieved simultaneously on both parameters that contain four one-sided null hypotheses together; without adjusting for multiplicity, the family wise error rate (FWER) could fail to be controlled at the nominal type-I error rate α. The multiplicity issue for bioequivalence in this regard is scarcely discussed in the literature. To address this issue, we propose two approaches including a closed test procedure that controls FWER for the simultaneous AUC and Cmax bioequivalence and requires no adjustment of the type-I error, and an alpha-adaptive sequential testing (AAST) that controls FWER by pre-specifying the significance level on AUC (α1) and obtaining it for Cmax (α2) adaptively after testing of AUC. While both methods control FWER, the closed test requires testing of eight intersection null hypotheses each at α, and AAST is at times accomplished through a slight deduction in α1 and no deduction in α2 relative to α. The latter considers equivalence reached in AUC a higher importance than that in Cmax. Illustrated with published data, the two approaches, although operate differently, can lead to the same substantive conclusion and are better than a traditional method like Bonferroni adjustment.

  13. Mortality tempo-adjustment: An empirical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Luy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of scholars following the tempo approach in fertility continues to grow, whereas tempo-adjustment in mortality generally still is rejected. This rejection is irrational in principle, as the basic idea behind the tempo approach is independent of the kind of demographic event. Providing the first empirical application to a substantial problem, this paper shows that mortality tempo-adjustment can paint a different picture of current mortality conditions compared to conventional life expectancy. An application of the Bongaarts and Feeney method to the analysis of mortality differences between western and eastern Germany shows that the eastern German disadvantages still are considerably higher and that the mortality gap between the two entities began to narrow some years later than trends in conventional life expectancy suggest. Thus, the picture drawn by tempo-adjusted life expectancy fits the expected trends of changing mortality and also the self-reported health conditions of eastern and western Germans better than that painted by conventional life expectancy.

  14. Jump Testing and the Speed of Market Adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben B.

    Asymptotic properties of jump tests rely on the property that any jump occurs within a single time interval no matter what the observation frequency is. Market microstructure effects in relation to news-induced revaluation of the underlying variable is likely to make this an unrealistic assumption...... for high-frequency transaction data. To capture these microstructure effects, this paper suggests a model in which market prices adjust gradually to jumps in the underlying effcient price. A case study illustrates the empirical relevance of the model, and the performance of different jump tests...... is investigated here and in a simulation study. Evidence indicates that tests based on the largest of scaled price increments perform better than tests comparing measures of variability. Resolving the matter by testing at lower frequencies turns out to be less straightforward....

  15. 24 CFR 891.645 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.645 Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with adjustments of contract rents as provided in § 891.640(a), the requirements for the adjustment of utility...

  16. Office chairs are often not adjusted by end-users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Porcar-Seder, R.; Pozo, Á.P. de; Krause, F.

    2007-01-01

    To find out how many office workers adjust their chairs, 350 office workers in Spain and the Netherlands are observed and questioned on whether they adjust their chairs. It appears that 24% of 236 Spanish office workers and 61% of 100 Dutch subjects never adjust their chair. If the chair is adjusted

  17. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  18. 台湾农业政策的调整及其对大陆农地规模化经营的启示%Adjustment of Taiwan agricultural policy and its implications to rural land scale operation in China Mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄延廷; 武玉

    2014-01-01

    中国台湾为了摆脱农业危机,从20世纪70年代开始就实施了一系列农业政策,但先期措施不得要领,只得于70年代末80年代初改弦更张:重点发展农地规模化经营,终于取得了显著的效果。其后期措施主要包括:扶助农民购买耕地;推进共同经营、合作经营及委托经营;实施农地重划政策;激励农地租借;等等。其发展农地规模化经营有着较为深厚的理论基础。台湾地区的农业政策调整可为大陆农地规模化经营提供借鉴。%In order to get rid of the agricultural crisis , Taiwan had implemented a series of agricultural policy from the 1970s.But the primary measures failed to grasp the main point , so policy changed its course in the late 1970s and early 1980 s as developing scale management of farmland in focus , which finally achieved remarkable results . The following measures included helping farmers to purchase farmland , promoting the common management , coopera-tion management and commission management , implementing land consolidation policy , stimulating land lease and so on.These policies have a profound theoretical basis and , therefore have an important referential significance to rural land scale operation in China Mainland .

  19. Factors influencing adjustment of high school students in an international exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Shibayama, T

    1994-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate which psychosocial factors measured before departure are predictive of various aspects of intercultural adjustment among Japanese teenagers enrolled in a foreign exchange student program. A cohort of 188 Japanese high school students, who had been selected to spend 1 year in various countries of the world under the aegis of an international exchange student program, was administered the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the Parental Bonding Instrument, the General Health Questionnaire and the People in Your Life Scale before their departure from Japan. Six months after arrival in the host community, they were again asked to complete the General Health Questionnaire and relevant sections of the People in Your Life Scale. The students showed highly significant and substantial deterioration in all three areas of psychosocial adjustment: they reported more psychiatric symptoms, less availability of social relationships, and less satisfaction with them in their host community than at home. Psychiatric symptoms were best predicted by perceived adequacy of intimate attachments and neuroticism measured before departure, availability of social relationships abroad by availability and adequacy of social relationships and adequacy of attachments at home, and satisfaction with social relationships abroad by satisfaction with attachments at home and by paternal care before age 16. This study thus demonstrates that studying abroad entails deterioration in psychosocial adjustment of the adolescents studied and that different factors are influential in different aspects of adjustment. The importance of a prospective and multifaceted study of intercultural adjustment process is emphasized.

  20. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  1. MOEA/D with adaptive weight adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yutao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Licheng; Sun, Jianyong; Wu, Jianshe

    2014-01-01

    Recently, MOEA/D (multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition) has achieved great success in the field of evolutionary multi-objective optimization and has attracted a lot of attention. It decomposes a multi-objective optimization problem (MOP) into a set of scalar subproblems using uniformly distributed aggregation weight vectors and provides an excellent general algorithmic framework of evolutionary multi-objective optimization. Generally, the uniformity of weight vectors in MOEA/D can ensure the diversity of the Pareto optimal solutions, however, it cannot work as well when the target MOP has a complex Pareto front (PF; i.e., discontinuous PF or PF with sharp peak or low tail). To remedy this, we propose an improved MOEA/D with adaptive weight vector adjustment (MOEA/D-AWA). According to the analysis of the geometric relationship between the weight vectors and the optimal solutions under the Chebyshev decomposition scheme, a new weight vector initialization method and an adaptive weight vector adjustment strategy are introduced in MOEA/D-AWA. The weights are adjusted periodically so that the weights of subproblems can be redistributed adaptively to obtain better uniformity of solutions. Meanwhile, computing efforts devoted to subproblems with duplicate optimal solution can be saved. Moreover, an external elite population is introduced to help adding new subproblems into real sparse regions rather than pseudo sparse regions of the complex PF, that is, discontinuous regions of the PF. MOEA/D-AWA has been compared with four state of the art MOEAs, namely the original MOEA/D, Adaptive-MOEA/D, [Formula: see text]-MOEA/D, and NSGA-II on 10 widely used test problems, two newly constructed complex problems, and two many-objective problems. Experimental results indicate that MOEA/D-AWA outperforms the benchmark algorithms in terms of the IGD metric, particularly when the PF of the MOP is complex.

  2. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    -phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress......The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three...

  3. Adjusting benefits transfer values for inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiswerth, Mark E.; Douglass Shaw, W.

    This paper analyzes assumptions that are implicitly made in updating estimates of nominal values for environmental goods produced by previous valuation studies, especially adjustments made through use of the consumer price index (CPI). The paper illustrates that the underlying form of preferences for the selected values from a past study may have a significant influence on the updated environmental values. We show why care is necessary in updating past welfare or value estimates in the face of changes in the demand and supply for environmental amenities when using the CPI.

  4. Adjustment index pont for women and men

    OpenAIRE

    Nava–Salcedo, Paula María; Gutiérrez–Rojo, Jaime Fabián; Rojas–García, Alma Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Arch of men and women is different, in men the dental arch is wide and in women of parabolic shape. There are indexes and methods for the prediction of the width and shape of the ideal arch in orthodontics; one of these indices is that of Pont whichdoes not take into account the differences between the sexes. Objectives: determine the effectiveness of the Pont index to employ men and women, adjust if necessary to the formulas of the Pont index to be able to apply to men and women. Materialsan...

  5. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2009-02-15

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between -20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism.

  6. An Integrative Psychotherapy of Postpartum Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merle-Fishman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a mother is a time of transition, transformation and sometimes trauma. The immediacy of meeting the needs of an infant, combined with the immediacy of becoming a mother, often collide to produce depression, anxiety and stress. Shame, confusion, isolation and cultural expectations often prevent women from seeking the postpartum support they need, which may result in long lasting depression, anxiety and unresolved trauma. Integrative Psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis and Attachment Theory offer ways to understand postpartum adjustment as well as methodologies for addressing this unique developmental event in the life of women.

  7. Stabilization and structural adjustment in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp

    2000-01-01

    a suppressed outset. Yet, easy import substitution has now been used up, and structural transformation on the export side remains to be addressed. Moreover, a coherent development strategy geared towards poverty reduction is still to be implemented. The government budget also remains problematic, and aid......This paper outlines the complex historical legacy and structural adjustment efforts in Mozambique in addition to reviewing recent economic developments. An in-depth analysis of new and more reliable national accounts data show that macroeconomic stabilization has occurred through recovery from...... dependency continues. Accordingly, fundamental development challenges lie ahead...

  8. Trend in Bush's China Strategy Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Since the beginning of the year, a debate has been set off on China's rise and China Threat theory is prevailing again in America. Under this background, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Zoellick delivered a speech on September 21 entitled "Whither China: From Membership to Responsibility?" which systematically elaborated U.S. strategy on China. ① Before and after this speech, many other U.S. politicians and scholars have similar views. This article aims to analyze these relevant expositions in order to explain Bush's China strategy adjustments.

  9. ANTENNAS ARRAY ADJUST WITH ADAPTIVE NEURONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padrón

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work an array failure correction for Linear Antenna Array (LAA is presented. This is carried out by means ofan Adaptive Artificial Neural Network (AANN that adjusts the amplitude and phase at beamforming. Theappropriated corrections are given, when one, or two, or three elements have a failure in the antenna linear array.The AANN corrects the corresponding parameters in the radiation pattern obtained due to the failure, when weknow the coefficients of the array factor (AF. This yields a reduction of side lobe level and some interferencesdisappear.

  10. Helping survivors to adjust after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    The concept of "cancer survivorship" has received considerable attention over the past three years as increasing numbers of people live with and beyond cancer. Previously, attention may have focused more on treatments for cancer and the likelihood of their success. In recent years, interest has moved to the after-effects of treatment, and how people can return to their lives while recovering. This article discusses the various ways in which cancer and its treatment may affect survivors, and how nurses, in both hospital and the community, can help them to adjust and recover.

  11. Helicity scalings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plunian, F [ISTerre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Lessinnes, T; Carati, D [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Stepanov, R, E-mail: Franck.Plunian@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-22

    Using a helical shell model of turbulence, Chen et al. (2003) showed that both helicity and energy dissipate at the Kolmogorov scale, independently from any helicity input. This is in contradiction with a previous paper by Ditlevsen and Giuliani (2001) in which, using a GOY shell model of turbulence, they found that helicity dissipates at a scale larger than the Kolmogorov scale, and does depend on the helicity input. In a recent paper by Lessinnes et al. (2011), we showed that this discrepancy is due to the fact that in the GOY shell model only one helical mode (+ or -) is present at each scale instead of both modes in the helical shell model. Then, using the GOY model, the near cancellation of the helicity flux between the + and - modes cannot occur at small scales, as it should be in true turbulence. We review the main results with a focus on the numerical procedure needed to obtain accurate statistics.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIFE BUILDING SKILLS AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. ADENIYI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing impairment contributes greatly to social and psychological deficits of the affected individuals, which can affect their interpersonal relation. The inability to hear and communicate effectively results in adjustment problem that leads to social isolation. Objectives: The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. Methods: The study employed descriptive survey research design. The samples consisted of 150 students with hearing impairment purposively selected from two inclusive schools in Lagos state, Nigeria. The samples comprised of 65 boys and 85 girls with age range between 15 and 18 years in the Senior Secondary School. The instruments used for data collection were Life building skills inventory (adapted with reliability of 0.80 and Social adjustment scale (Self developed. The instruments consisted of two sections namely: A&B. Section A of Life building skills contained bio- data of the respondents, while B contained 3 subscales: Self-efficacy inventory adapted from Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995 with reliability of 0.85, Decision-making inventory adapted from Rowe 1997 with reliability of 0.75, Assertiveness inventory adapted from Aberti and Emmons 1995 with reliability of 0.80. The self-constructed Social Adjustment scale contained 10 items probing questions with reliability of 0.69. Data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. Results: The results revealed relative contributions of some life building skills to social adjustment of students with hearing impairment. There were joint contributions of the independent variables to dependent variable, while decision-making contributed mostly. Conclusion: This study examined relationship between life building skills and social adjustment of students with hearing impairment with a bid to provide adequate counseling services. It was

  13. Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-P. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment techniques have been widely used to improve the applicability of radar rainfall estimates to large-scale hydrological modelling. However, their use for urban hydrological applications is limited as they were mostly developed based upon Gaussian approximations and therefore tend to smooth off so-called "singularities" (features of a non-Gaussian field that can be observed in the fine-scale rainfall structure. Overlooking the singularities could be critical, given that their distribution is highly consistent with that of local extreme magnitudes. This deficiency may cause large errors in the subsequent urban hydrological modelling. To address this limitation and improve the applicability of adjustment techniques at urban scales, a method is proposed herein which incorporates a local singularity analysis into existing adjustment techniques and allows the preservation of the singularity structures throughout the adjustment process. In this paper the proposed singularity analysis is incorporated into the Bayesian merging technique and the performance of the resulting singularity-sensitive method is compared with that of the original Bayesian (non singularity-sensitive technique and the commonly-used mean field bias adjustment. This test is conducted using as case study four storm events observed in the Portobello catchment (53 km2 (Edinburgh, UK during 2011 and for which radar estimates, dense rain gauge and sewer flow records, as well as a recently-calibrated urban drainage model were available. The results suggest that, in general, the proposed singularity-sensitive method can effectively preserve the non-normality in local rainfall structure, while retaining the ability of the original adjustment techniques to generate nearly unbiased estimates. Moreover, the ability of the singularity-sensitive technique to preserve the non-normality in rainfall estimates often leads to better reproduction of the urban

  14. Study of Association between Social Adjustment and Spiritual Health in Qom University of Medical Sciences Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Aliakbarzade arani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Admission to university is considered an opportunity to learn more and mentally grow further. At the same time, it is considered a stressor by some students and causes maladaptive reactions in them. This study was conducted to investigate the association between social adjustment and spiritual health in university students. Methods: Two hundred and fifty students were enrolled in this descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional study according to random, systematic sampling. The used instruments were Bell Adjustment Inventory, consisting of 32 items, with 89% reliability coefficient and Paloutzian & Ellison Spiritual Well-Being Scale, consisting of 20 items, with validity and reliability of 79% and 82%, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and univariate and multivariate linear regression in SPSS 16. Results: Women comprised 50.2% of the participants. The mean (SD age of the participants was 21.72 (5.02 and only 18.4% were married. Social adjustment was significantly correlated with total score of spiritual health and scores of the subscales religious health and existential health (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because social adjustment was moderate among Qom University of Medical Sciences students, and in the light of the association between spiritual health and social adjustment, group and individual counseling services can be delivered to students with low levels of social adjustment in universities to help them improve their social and spiritual health. Keywords:

  15. Evaluation and Selection of the Optimal Scheme of Industrial Structure Adjustment Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Lifang; GE Jiaqi; MENG Jun

    2006-01-01

    In the paper, the advanced assessment method of DEA (Date Envelopment Analysis) had been used to evaluate relative efficiency and select the optimal scheme of agricultural industrial structure adjustment. According to the results of DEA models, we analyzed scale benefits of every optional schemes, probed deeply the ultimate reason for not DEA efficient, which clarified the method and approach to improve these optional schemes. Finally, a new method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research is significant to direct the practice of the adjustment of agricultural industrial structure.

  16. Adjustment of Romanian Immigrant Students in a New Educational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniella Mihaela VIERIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the adjustment of Romanian immigrant students in emigration schools. The sample was comprised of 102 Romanian immigrant students, 40 male and 62 female, between the ages of 11 and 18, attending different schools in countries such as Spain, Italy and Belgium. Students’ adjustment was investigated by means of a questionnaire consisting of four subscales: linguistic adaptation, cultural adaptation, school adjustment and teacher-student relationship. Results indicate that while immigrant students have a satisfactory level of educational and linguistic adjustment, the social adjustment is less satisfactory. We also obtained correlations between linguistic adaptation and school adjustment, linguistic adaptation and social adaptation, linguistic adaptation and teacher-student relationship, school adjustment and social adaptation, school adjustment and teacher-student relationship, social adaptation and teacher-student relationship. Other correlations were found between the number of years that Romanian immigrant students spent in the host country and linguistic adaptation, school adjustment and teacher-student relationship.

  17. Adjustable Membrane Mirrors Incorporating G-Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zensheu; Morgan, Rhonda M.; Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Hishinuma, Yoshikazu; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible, large-aperture mirrors of a type being developed for use in outer space have unimorph structures that enable precise adjustment of their surface figures. A mirror of this type includes a reflective membrane layer bonded with an electrostrictive grafted elastomer (G-elastomer) layer, plus electrodes suitably positioned with respect to these layers. By virtue of the electrostrictive effect, an electric field applied to the G-elastomer membrane induces a strain along the membrane and thus causes a deflection of the mirror surface. Utilizing this effect, the mirror surface figure can be adjusted locally by individually addressing pairs of electrodes. G-elastomers, which were developed at NASA Langley Research Center, were chosen for this development in preference to other electroactive polymers partly because they offer superior electromechanical performance. Whereas other electroactive polymers offer, variously, large strains with low moduli of elasticity or small strains with high moduli of elasticity, G-elastomers offer both large strains (as large as 4 percent) and high moduli of elasticity (about 580 MPa). In addition, G-elastomer layers can be made by standard melt pressing or room-temperature solution casting.

  18. The Customs Adjusted Certain Import Duties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to adapt to market development, the General Administration of Customs recently has revised the “Classification Table for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China” and “Duty-Paid Price List for Imported Articles of the People's Republic of China”, and the new standard was put into practice on April 15th, 2012. According to the Announcement No.15, 2012, of the General Administration of Customs, the rate of duty on imports of clothing, accessories, home textiles, and others whose duty paragraph is 04000000 is adjusted to 20%, and the leather clothing and its accessories (including all kinds of leather garments and leather accessories) of duty paragraph 05000000 see the adjustment to 10%. As for the former one, the clothing includes coat, trousers, underwear, shirt/T-shirt, and other clothing; accessories include hats, scarves, headcloth, neckerchief, ties, belts, gloves, socks, handkerchiefs and so on; home textiles refer to blankets, quilts, pillows, bedspreads, sleeping bags, screens, etc.; the others are towels, bath towels, tablecloths, curtains, and carpets.

  19. Automatic burner adjustment in a singeing oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabo, P.

    1984-07-01

    The expected energy savings of 10-15% of the actual fuel consumption in the singeing oven was reduced because of the change in the design of the singeing oven itself. The socalled optimized singeing oven hereafter includes: ceramic fibres, combustion air from the ceiling, fireproof oven bottom, automatic adjustment of air and fuel, rapid opening and closing, change over to pilot flame during stops and the slaughter line, and sealing between the oven's two parts and bottom. This optimization of the design of the singeing oven reduces the oil consumption from 0.8 litre to 0.45 litre fuel per pig carcass. The described optimization of the oven is partly carried out during this project. Thus the starting point for further reduction of the energy consumption is changed rather much. Neverthless a calculation of prospective profits proves that it is still profitable to invest in equipment for adjusting the burner in the singeing oven. It has been proved that the degree of singeing can be controlled by the parameters singeing period and oven temperature. A control device for controlling of the oil consumption on the basis of the temperature of the waste gas has succesfully been installed and it has been proved that the pay back period for this control device is approximately 2 years.

  20. Operational amplifier with adjustable frequency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisek, D; Hencek, M

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe an operational amplifier with an adjustable frequency response and its use in membrane physiology, using the voltage clamp and current clamp method. The amplifier eliminates feedback poles causing oscillation. It consists of a follower with a high input resistance in the form of a tube and of an actual amplifier with an adjustable frequency response allowing the abolition of clicks by one pole and of oscillation by two poles in the 500 Hz divided by infinity range. Further properties of the amplifier: a long-term voltage drift of 1 mv, a temperature voltage drift of 0.5 mv/degrees K, input resistance greater than 1 GOhm, amplification greater than 80 dB, output +/- 12 v, 25 ma, noise, measured from the width of the oscilloscope track in the presence of a ray of normal brightness, not exceeding 50 muv in the 0-250 kHz band, f1 = 1 MHz. A short report on the amplifier was published a few years ago (Gulísek and Hencek 1973).

  1. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment o

  2. Adjusting for covariate effects on classification accuracy using the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Holly; Pepe, Margaret S

    2009-06-01

    Recent scientific and technological innovations have produced an abundance of potential markers that are being investigated for their use in disease screening and diagnosis. In evaluating these markers, it is often necessary to account for covariates associated with the marker of interest. Covariates may include subject characteristics, expertise of the test operator, test procedures or aspects of specimen handling. In this paper, we propose the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of covariate-adjusted classification accuracy. Nonparametric and semiparametric estimators are proposed, asymptotic distribution theory is provided and finite sample performance is investigated. For illustration we characterize the age-adjusted discriminatory accuracy of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

  3. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  4. Medical signs and symptoms associated with disability, pain, and psychosocial adjustment in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Vanessa L; Hansdottir, Ingunn; McKinney, Ann; Upchurch, Renn; Greenbergs, Helen L; Henstorf, Gretchen H; Furst, Daniel E; Clements, Philip J; Weisman, Michael H

    2007-02-01

    To examine physician-assessed medical signs and patient-reported medical symptoms as correlates of 3 quality of life (QOL) outcomes in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc): disability, pain, and psychosocial adjustment. One hundred fourteen patients with SSc underwent a comprehensive clinical examination including determination of skin thickening [Modified Rodnan Skin Score (MRSS)]. Patients reported current symptoms and completed standardized questionnaires assessing disability and pain (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale). Regression analysis was used to examine physician-determined and patient-reported correlates of the 3 outcomes. MRSS was a significant correlate of all outcomes, although it explained only a small amount of the variance in psychosocial adjustment. Patient-reported postprandial bloating was the strongest correlate of psychosocial adjustment, explaining more than twice as much variance as MRSS. After accounting for MRSS, patient-reported dependent edema significantly correlated with all outcomes. For disability, significant correlates were physician-determined joint tenderness and number of tender points, and patient-reported joint pain on motion, joint contracture, extremity ulcers other than digital, and dyspnea. Patient-reported joint tenderness was significantly associated with pain. Regression analysis supported a model in which disability and pain mediated the relationship between MRSS and psychosocial adjustment. Skin score is strongly associated with disability and pain, but only weakly associated with psychosocial adjustment. Dependent edema has negative implications across quality-of-life outcomes. Disability and pain mediate the relationship between disease severity and psychosocial adjustment to disease. Assessment (including self-report of patient symptoms) of specific medical signs and symptoms may indicate SSc patients experiencing diminished QOL.

  5. Posttraumatic symptoms, marital intimacy, dyadic adjustment, and sexual satisfaction among ex-prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Anat, Ben-David; Solomon, Zahava; Heruti, Rafi

    2010-08-01

    The aversive impact of combat and combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on marital intimacy and sexual satisfaction has been examined in several studies. Nevertheless, the toll of war captivity on marital intimacy in relation to dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction remains unknown. In particular, the mediating role of marital intimacy in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and dyadic adjustment and between PTSD symptoms and sexual satisfaction has not yet been systematically explored thus far. Aims.  This study aimed to examine the interrelationships of PTSD symptoms, dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy among ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs). A sample of Israeli veterans ex-POWs (ex-POWs: N = 105) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War and a matched comparison group of veterans who participated in the same war but were not held captive (control: N = 94) were compared in the study variables. The PTSD inventory, dyadic adjustment scale, index of sexual satisfaction, and capacity for intimacy questionnaire. Results.  Findings revealed that ex-POWs reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms and lower levels of dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction than comparable controls. There were also differences between the groups in the pattern of relations between PTSD symptoms, dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy. Finally, for ex-POWs, marital intimacy partially mediated the relationships between PTSD symptoms and dyadic adjustment and sexual satisfaction outcome measures. PTSD symptoms are implicated in marital problems of ex-POWs. A significant relationship was found between the traumatized ex-POW's capacity for intimacy and both their sexual satisfaction and dyadic adjustment. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Adjusting to change: linking family structure transitions with parenting and boys' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Charles R; Forgatch, Marion S

    2002-06-01

    This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.

  7. Structural adjustment: the wrong prescription for Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, D E; Woodroffe, J

    1993-07-03

    The medical and social consequences and the wide effects of the African structural adjustment program (SAP), specifically for women and children, and examples of the impact in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Senegal, are discussed. Structural adjustment is defined and the history of its inception is provided. Significant economic and social welfare improvement occurred during the 1960s and 1970s, and considerable decline occurred during the 1980s. The present reality is that Africa,m contrary to popular myths about being a "bottomless pit of Western charity," transfers $10 billion/year to the rich North. Debtor countries are 61% more indebted in 1990 than they were in 1982. During the 1980s, oil prices and interest rates rose dramatically, African export prices dropped, and industrialized countries set up protectionist policies. In addition, there was civil war, drought, poor leadership which put military spending before poverty reduction, and the AIDS epidemic. The Western response was to restructure debt payments in return for implementation of SAPs. Structural adjustment involved a package of trade liberalization, devaluation, removal of government subsidies and price controls, privatization, credit shortages, higher interest rates, and "cost recovery" in health and education. The theory is that economic growth will "ultimately" lead to poverty reduction. A critical view is that SAP insures debt repayment, export of cheap raw materials to the North, and may not sustain longterm economic growth. The results for the poor have been high prices for food, transportation, school and medical fees, and a decline in wages and unemployment. Land is used for exports. A solution is to reduce the debt burden, to place the needs of the poor as a top priority in SAPs, and to put pressure on the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and governments to consider health outcomes. Other alternatives noted in the African Framework to SAPs are to place well being and self-reliance as

  8. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-03-11

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m; the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  9. Dynamic channel adjustments in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Deng, Shanshan; Lu, Jinyou; Xu, Quanxi; Zong, Quanli; Tan, Guangming

    2016-03-01

    Significant channel adjustments have occurred in the Jingjiang Reach of the Middle Yangtze River, because of the operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP). The Jingjiang Reach is selected as the study area, covering the Upper Jingjiang Reach (UJR) and Lower Jingjiang Reach (LJR). The reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in the study reach were calculated annually from 2002 to 2013 by means of a reach-averaged approach and surveyed post-flood profiles at 171 sections. We find from the calculated results that: the reach-scale bankfull widths changed slightly in the UJR and LJR, with the corresponding depths increasing by 1.6 m and 1.0 m the channel adjustments occurred mainly with respect to bankfull depth because of the construction of large-scale bank revetment works, although there were significant bank erosion processes in local regions without the bank protection engineering. The reach-scale bankfull dimensions in the UJR and LJR generally responded to the previous five-year average fluvial erosion intensity during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained for the depth and cross-sectional area. It is concluded that these dynamic adjustments of the channel geometry are a direct result of recent human activities such as the TGP operation.

  10. Nomenclatural adjustments in African plants 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Manning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ongoing systematic studies in the African flora necessitate periodic nomenclatural adjustments and corrections. Objectives: To effect requisite nomenclatural changes. Method: Relevant literature was surveyed and type material located and examined. Results: Nomenclatural corrections are published in Mairia Nees (Asteraceae and Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, nom illeg. (Iridaceae. Conclusions: Cineraria purpurata L. (1771 (Asteraceae is recognised as the earliest name for Mairia hirsuta DC. (1836 and the new combination M. purpurata (L. J.C.Manning is provided for the species. Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (2015 (Iridaceae is a later homonym for Psilosiphon Entwisle (1989. The replacement name Afrosolen Goldblatt & J.C.Manning is proposed and the necessary new combinations for the 16 taxa currently recognised in the genus are provided.

  11. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Polak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA and its analog behavioral model (ABM, which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators. Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equations representing specific functions in the given level of the simulation model. The design of individual levels is always verified using PSpice simulations. The ABM model has been developed based on practically measured values of a number of DACA amplifier samples. The simulation results for proposed levels of the ABM model are shown and compared with the results of the real easurements of the active element DACA.

  12. Sliding Adjustment for 3D Video Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Franck

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with video coding of static scenes viewed by a moving camera. We propose an automatic way to encode such video sequences using several 3D models. Contrary to prior art in model-based coding where 3D models have to be known, the 3D models are automatically computed from the original video sequence. We show that several independent 3D models provide the same functionalities as one single 3D model, and avoid some drawbacks of the previous approaches. To achieve this goal we propose a novel algorithm of sliding adjustment, which ensures consistency of successive 3D models. The paper presents a method to automatically extract the set of 3D models and associate camera positions. The obtained representation can be used for reconstructing the original sequence, or virtual ones. It also enables 3D functionalities such as synthetic object insertion, lightning modification, or stereoscopic visualization. Results on real video sequences are presented.

  13. Risk-Adjusted Mortality: Problems and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of observed-to-expected deaths is considered a measure of hospital quality and for this reason will soon become a basis for payment. However, there are drivers of that metric more potent than quality: most important are medical documentation and patient acuity. If hositals underdocument and therefore do not capture the full “expected mortality” they may be tempted to lower their observed/expected ratio by reducing “observed mortality” through limiting access to the very ill. Underdocumentation occurs because hospitals do not recognize, and therefore cannot seek to confirm, specific comorbidities conferring high mortality risk. To help hospitals identify these comorbidities, this paper describes an easily implemented spread-sheet for evaluating comorbid conditions associated, in any particular hospital, with each discharge. This method identifies comorbidities that increase in frequency as mortality risk increases within each diagnostic grouping. The method is inductive and therefore independent of any particular risk-adjustment technique.

  14. Inflation adjustment in the open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Bowdler, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a cointegrated vector autoregressive (VAR) model for UK data on consumer prices, unit labour costs, import prices and real consumption growth. The estimated VAR indicates that the nominal variables are characterised by I(2) trends, and that a linear combination of these proce......This paper estimates a cointegrated vector autoregressive (VAR) model for UK data on consumer prices, unit labour costs, import prices and real consumption growth. The estimated VAR indicates that the nominal variables are characterised by I(2) trends, and that a linear combination...... of these processes cointegrate to I(1). This supports an analysis in which I(1) and I(2) restrictions are imposed. A key finding is that an increase in real import prices reduces productivity adjusted real wages, such that the change in domestic inflation is moderated. This may explain why the depreciation...

  15. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment...... provisions’ which empower the municipalities to later ruling. This way of making plans postpones the actual regulation of an area (i.e. the planning permission) making it an individual ruling for instance at the application of building permits. Case studies show examples of this way of regulating an area......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...

  16. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  17. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  18. European refiners re-adjust margins strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Refiners in Europe are adjusting operating strategies to reflect the volatilities of tight operating margins. From the unexpected availability of quality crudes (e.g., Brent, 0.3% sulfur), to the role of government in refinery planning, the European refining industry is positioning itself to reverse the past few years of steadily declining profitability. Unlike expected increases in US gasoline demand, European gasoline consumption is not expected to increase, and heavy fuel oil consumption is also declining. However, diesel fuel consumption is expected to increase, even though diesel processing capacity has recently decreased (i.e., more imports). Some of the possible strategies that Europeans may adapt to improve margins and reduce volatility include: Increase conversion capacity to supply growing demand for middle distillates and LPG; alleviate refinery cash flow problems with alliances; and direct discretionary investment toward retail merchandising (unless there is a clear trend toward a widening of the sweet-sour crude price differential).

  19. Uncertainty in Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, G. A.; Lecavalier, B.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    It is well known that the interpretation of geodetic data in Greenland to constrain recent ice mass changes requires knowledge of isostatic land motion associated with past changes in the ice sheet. In this talk we will consider a variety of factors that limit how well the signal due to past mass...... changes (commonly referred to as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)) can be defined. Predictions based on a new model of Greenland GIA will be shown. Using these predictions as a reference, we will consider the influence of plausible variations in some key aspects of both the Earth and ice load components...... of the GIA model on predictions of land motion and gravity changes. The sensitivity of model output to plausible variations in both depth-dependent and lateral viscosity structure will be considered. With respect to the ice model, we will compare the relative contributions of loading during key periods...

  20. The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or

  1. Phenytoin dose adjustment in epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, G E; Mullen, P W; Rodgers, M; Robins, A J; Lucas, S B

    1974-04-01

    1 A preliminary survey showed that many outpatients with partially controlled epilepsy had serum concentrations of phenytoin below the recommended therapeutic range (10-20 μg/ml). A phenytoin tolerance test was devised with the intention of predicting a more adequate daily dose for such a patient. 2 Fifteen patients were each given an oral test dose of 600 mg phenytoin sodium and the serum concentration of phenytoin was measured at intervals over 48 h; the concentration rose during the first 4 h and decayed between 12-48 h as an almost linear function of time. 3 The serum concentration/time curves were fitted by an interative computer program based on the Michaelis-Menten equation. The mean saturated rate of elimination of phenytoin was 435 mg/day and the serum concentration (K(m)) corresponding with 50% saturation was 3.8 μg/ml. The mean calculated dose of phenytoin sodium required for a steady state serum concentration of 10-20 μg/ml was 345-400 mg/day. 4 The Michaelis-Menten principle was used to predict steady state serum phenytoin concentrations in individual patients receiving daily doses of phenytoin sodium adjusted by steps of 100 mg. The serum concentrations tended to be either too low or too high. The steep relationship between phenytoin concentration and dose indicates that when the concentration reaches 5-10 μg/ml it is then appropriate to adjust dose by small steps of about 25 mg.

  2. Performance of an adjustable, threaded inertance tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.; Liu, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler depends strongly on the design of the inertance tube. The phase angle produced by the inertance tube is very sensitive to its diameter and length. Recent developments are reported here regarding an adjustable inertance device that can be adjusted in real time. The inertance passage is formed by the root of a concentric cylindrical threaded device. The depth of the threads installed on the outer screw varies. In this device, the outer screw can be rotated four and half turns. At the zero turn position the length of the passage is 1.74 m and the hydraulic diameter is 7 mm. By rotating the outer screw, the inner threaded rod engages with additional, larger depth threads. Therefore, at its upper limit of rotation, the inertance passage includes both the original 1.74 m length with 7mm hydraulic diameter plus an additional 1.86 m length with a 10 mm hydraulic diameter. A phase shift change of 24° has been experimentally measured by changing the position of outer screw while operating the device at a frequency of 60 Hz. This phase angle shift is less than the theoretically predicted value due to the presence of a relatively large leak through the thread clearance. Therefore, the distributed component model of the inertance tube was modified to account for the leak path causing the data to agree with the model. Further, the application of vacuum grease to the threads causes the performance of the device to improve substantially.

  3. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, R

    1991-12-01

    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  4. Personal Fables, Narcissism, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship among three personal fables ("omnipotence," "invulnerability," "personal uniqueness"), narcissism, and mental health variables was assessed in a large, cross-sectional sample of adolescents drawn from Grades 6 (n = 94), 8 (n = 223), 10 (n = 142), and 12 (n = 102). Participants responded to the New Personal Fable Scale, the…

  5. Planck Scale to Hubble Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    1998-01-01

    Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.

  6. Marital Adjustments and Values Systems in Student Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Janet A.; Sharpley, Chris F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of married student couples found significant relationships between marital adjustment and people-oriented and success-oriented values systems for individual spouses. Congruency of values systems and marital adjustment for couple units was not found. (Author)

  7. Automatic Convergence Adjustment for Stereoscopy using Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Martin; Gram, Kristoffer; Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper

    When using stereoscopic displays, decoupling between convergence and accommodation can cause eyestrain. This paper proposes an adjustment method to automatically fit convergence at user fixation depth to accommodation by using eye tracking. Two different adjustment methods are proposed: one...

  8. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... site for the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers program. The URL is...

  9. 75 FR 63437 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA,...

  10. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers...

  11. Adjustable hinge permits movement of knee in plaster cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Metal knee hinge with an adjustable sleeve worn on the outside of a leg cast facilitates movement of the knee joint. This helps eliminate stiffness of the knee and eliminates bulkiness and adjustment difficulty.

  12. Parental Divorce during Adolescence and Adjustment in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stacey; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of parental divorce during adolescence, interparental conflict, and intimacy with parents on young adult adjustment. High levels of interparental conflict were found to be negatively associated with adjustment and current intimacy of parents. (Author)

  13. 19 CFR 351.413 - Disregarding insignificant adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351..., constructed export price, or normal value, as the case may be. Groups of adjustments are adjustments for...

  14. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  15. The Prediction of Social Adjustment Based on Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Geram

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on emotional and spiritual intelligence of male teachers in Arak City, this correlational study attempts to shed light upon the prediction of social adjustment. The statistical population consists of all 650 male teachers of high schools in Arak city. The sampling method was conducted through cluster random sampling among 300 participants. Three instruments of Social Adjustment Scale (SAS, BarOn Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence (EQ-i and spiritual intelligence questionnaire by Badii et al., are used. To investigate the hypotheses, we used Pearson Correlation Coefficient and to homogeneity of variance, the Levene's test was utilized. By SPSS Software through Pearson correlation analysis, the collected data were analyzed. The results show that the relation of social adjustment with emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence is significant.

  16. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  17. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  18. The role of emotion awareness and mood: somatic complaints and social adjustment in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Lidón; Górriz, Ana Belén; Prado-Gascó, Vicente; González, Remedios

    2015-01-01

    Emotion awareness is a key concept related to different child adjustment outcomes. This relationship, influenced by mood, has been found in the preadolescent and adolescent population for somatic complaints. However, little is known in the case of younger children and when other adjustment outcomes are included. The objective of this work is to analyze the contribution of emotion awareness and mood upon different adjustment outcomes (somatic complaints, maladjustment, and peer sociometric status), in children aged 8-12 years old. Self-reported questionnaires and peer-nomination scales were administered to 1423 children (mean age = 9.8 years old). Results support the influence of emotion awareness reinforced by mood, not only upon somatic complaints, but also upon new indicators of personal and social maladjustment, within an age bracket that has not been considered previously. These results stress the importance of emotional abilities and the corresponding affective moods in children's daily life.

  19. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  20. Relation of self-concept in kindergarten and first grade to school adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulou, Maria; Sotiriou, Apostolos; Mitsiouli, Vasiliki

    2007-06-01

    The present aim was to investigate changes in self-concept and self-concept stability during children's transition from kindergarten to primary school, and the relationship between children's self-concept and their adjustment to elementary school. 346 children took part in this 2-yr. longitudinal study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children was used to assess children's self-concept. Children's school adjustment was assessed using the schools' academic, behavioral, and social-emotional procedures. Children's self-concept appeared relatively stable and the decline in scores appeared to be practically unimportant. Analysis showed that children's school adjustment mainly affects the academic dimension of self-concept.

  1. The relationship between spiritual well-being and psychosocial adjustment in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer and a colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Hwang, Shiow-Li

    2012-01-01

    We examined relationships among demographic and clinical characteristics, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adjustment in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer and a colostomy. A descriptive, cross-sectional, exploratory study design was used to answer research questions. Participants were recruited from the outpatient ambulatory clinic in the gastrointestinal surgical department at the medical center of National Taiwan University. Forty-five Taiwanese patients aged 42 to 83 years who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and underwent colostomy surgery participated in the study. Participants completed a personal data questionnaire designed for this study, along with 2 validated instruments, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report. Forty-five persons participated in the study; 69% reported a moderate level of spiritual well-being. Participants reported strong adjustment to extended family relationships, but poor adjustment in sexual relationships. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with psychosocial adjustment (r = -0.52, P psychosocial adjustment. Spiritual well-being plays an important role for Taiwanese patients when faced with psychosocial adjustment related to life with colorectal cancer and a colostomy.

  2. Disclosure-Derived Financial Statement Adjustments in Equity Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    George Batta; Ananda Ganguly; Joshua George Rosett

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the equity value relevance of disclosure-derived financial statement adjustments. In price levels and returns tests, we find that reported financial numbers have relatively superior explanatory power over adjusted numbers. Only when adjustments are included along with reported numbers in pricing regressions do adjustments retain significant explanatory power. Our results suggest that for summary valuation inputs like operating profitability, assets, and liabilities, a...

  3. Cultural Novelty and Adjustment: Western Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...... showed that there was no significant association between them. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that it is as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a very similar culture as to a very dissimilar culture, is fundamental. Implications of this potentially crucial finding are discussed...

  4. Scaling down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Breiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While “scaling up” is a lively topic in network science and Big Data analysis today, my purpose in this essay is to articulate an alternative problem, that of “scaling down,” which I believe will also require increased attention in coming years. “Scaling down” is the problem of how macro-level features of Big Data affect, shape, and evoke lower-level features and processes. I identify four aspects of this problem: the extent to which findings from studies of Facebook and other Big-Data platforms apply to human behavior at the scale of church suppers and department politics where we spend much of our lives; the extent to which the mathematics of scaling might be consistent with behavioral principles, moving beyond a “universal” theory of networks to the study of variation within and between networks; and how a large social field, including its history and culture, shapes the typical representations, interactions, and strategies at local levels in a text or social network.

  5. 24 CFR 882.510 - Adjustment of utility allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowance... Moderate Rehabilitation-Program Development and Operation § 882.510 Adjustment of utility allowance. The PHA must determine, at least annually, whether an adjustment is required in the Utility...

  6. 24 CFR 891.785 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.785 Adjustment of utility allowances. In... adjustment of utility allowances provided in § 891.440 apply....

  7. 24 CFR 880.610 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Management § 880.610 Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as...

  8. 24 CFR 884.220 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Adjustment of utility allowances. In connection with annual and special adjustments of contract rents, the owner must submit an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances. Such data as changes in utility...

  9. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted kernel weight. 981.401 Section 981.401... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.401 Adjusted kernel weight. (a) Definition. Adjusted kernel weight... kernels in excess of five percent; less shells, if applicable; less processing loss of one percent...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5120 - Manual adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual adjustable hospital bed. 880.5120 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5120 Manual adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A manual adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a manual...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable...

  12. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  13. 75 FR 59682 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, Office of Trade Programs, FAS, USDA, or by phone at...

  14. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjusted internal rate of return. 436.22 Section 436.22... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation...

  15. 10 CFR 35.605 - Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. 35.605... Installation, maintenance, adjustment, and repair. (a) Only a person specifically licensed by the Commission or an Agreement State shall install, maintain, adjust, or repair a remote afterloader unit,...

  16. A NEW SOLUTION MODEL OF NONLINEAR DYNAMIC LEAST SQUARE ADJUSTMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶华学; 郭金运

    2000-01-01

    The nonlinear least square adjustment is a head object studied in technology fields. The paper studies on the non-derivative solution to the nonlinear dynamic least square adjustment and puts forward a new algorithm model and its solution model. The method has little calculation load and is simple. This opens up a theoretical method to solve the linear dynamic least square adjustment.

  17. 40 CFR 72.91 - Phase I unit adjusted utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase I unit adjusted utilization. 72... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.91 Phase I unit adjusted utilization. (a) Annual... annual compliance certification report the unit's adjusted utilization for the calendar year in Phase I...

  18. Social relationships, knowledge and adjustment to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, C P; Brewin, C R

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors thought to influence psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis were studied. Patients' knowledge about their disorder was assessed, but neither their knowledge, level of disability, nor demographic characteristics were related to adjustment. Better adjustment was however associated with having more contact with able-bodied people. PMID:6726262

  19. 7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...

  20. 7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...

  1. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  2. Social Support and Parental Adjustment to Pediatric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gary R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial adjustment of (N=107) parents whose children had cancer. Different patterns of association between 11 sources of social support and adjustment were found among groups of parents. Psychosocial adjustment of parents with a child in treatment was correlated more frequently with perceived social support. (Author)

  3. 8 CFR 1209.1 - Adjustment of status of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 1209.1... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 1209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure...

  4. 8 CFR 209.1 - Adjustment of status of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of status of refugees. 209.1... STATUS OF REFUGEES AND ALIENS GRANTED ASYLUM § 209.1 Adjustment of status of refugees. The provisions of this section shall provide the sole and exclusive procedure for adjustment of status by a...

  5. Beam Current Measurement and Adjustment System on AMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShao-yong; HEMING; SUSheng-yong; WANGZhen-jun; JIANGShan

    2003-01-01

    The beam current measurement and adjustment system of HI-13 tandem accelerator mass spectrometry detector system is consisted of the faraday cup, fluorescent target and a series of adjustable vertical slits(Fig. 1). The system's operation is very complicated and the transmission is low for the old system. A new system is instalated for improvement. We put the adjustable vertical slit, Faraday cup.

  6. Scale interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, John T.

    Since the time of the first world war, investigation of synoptic processes has been a major focus of atmospheric research. These are the physical processes that drive the continuously evolving pattern of high and low pressure centers and attendant frontal boundaries that are to be seen on continental-scale weather maps. This effort has been motivated both by a spirit of scientific inquiry and by a desire to improve operational weather forecasting by national meteorological services. These national services in turn have supported the development of a global observational network that provides the data required for both operational and research purposes. As a consequence of this research, there now exists a reasonable physical understanding of many of the phenomena found at this synoptic scale. This understanding is reflected in the numerical weather forecast models used by the national services. These have shown significant skill in predicting the evolution of synoptic-scale features for periods extending out to five days.

  7. Scale Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R; Garay, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present a new correspondence between a d-dimensional dynamical system and a whole family of (d+1)-dimensional systems. This new scale-holographic relation is built by the explicit introduction of a dimensionful constant which determines the size of the additional dimension. Scale holography is particularly useful for studying non-local theories, since the equivalent dual system on the higher dimensional manifold can be made to be local, as we illustrate with the specific example of the p-adic string.

  8. Relation between Emotion Adjustment and Perceived Social Support with Quality of Life of Athletes with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Astaraki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotional cognitive adjustment and perceived social support and determining the share of each one of these variable in quality of life for disabled athletes is an important factor to know. We selected 100 people among disabled athletes through convenience sampling and were asked to fill emotional cognitive adjustment strategies scale questionnaire, perceived social support questionnaire and quality of life scale. Results revealed that social support parameters have significant relation with parameters required for quality of life. Similarly, all the parameters regarding emotional cognitive adjustments (except perspective taking revealed positive and significant relation with all parameters of quality of life (including physical, psychological, interpersonal relation and environment. However, the perspective taking parameter has only positive and significant relation with psychological dimension of quality of life, and it has no significant relation with other dimensions. Meanwhile, negative parameters of emotional cognitive adjustment, self-blaming and catastrophic thinking has no significant relation with any parameters of quality of life. Rumination has only negative significant relation with interpersonal relation dimension of quality of life and blaming others parameter had negative and significant relation with the environment. Results of stepwise regression table show that among studies parameters, positive refocusing and important people are in the regression equation. In nutshell, positive refocusing and social support of influenced people impart to raise their quality of life.

  9. Comparison of Propensity Score Methods and Covariate Adjustment: Evaluation in 4 Cardiovascular Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gregson, John; Baber, Usman; Williamson, Elizabeth; Sartori, Samantha; Mehran, Roxana; Nichols, Melissa; Stone, Gregg W; Pocock, Stuart J

    2017-01-24

    Propensity scores (PS) are an increasingly popular method to adjust for confounding in observational studies. Propensity score methods have theoretical advantages over conventional covariate adjustment, but their relative performance in real-word scenarios is poorly characterized. We used datasets from 4 large-scale cardiovascular observational studies (PROMETHEUS, ADAPT-DES [the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents], THIN [The Health Improvement Network], and CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity]) to compare the performance of conventional covariate adjustment with 4 common PS methods: matching, stratification, inverse probability weighting, and use of PS as a covariate. We found that stratification performed poorly with few outcome events, and inverse probability weighting gave imprecise estimates of treatment effect and undue influence to a small number of observations when substantial confounding was present. Covariate adjustment and matching performed well in all of our examples, although matching tended to give less precise estimates in some cases. PS methods are not necessarily superior to conventional covariate adjustment, and care should be taken to select the most suitable method. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon rabies adjusted for multiple covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulldorff Martin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the objective of identifying spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon variant rabies, a spatial scan statistic was utilized to search for significant terrestrial rabies clusters by year in New York State in 1997–2003. Cluster analyses were unadjusted for other factors, adjusted for covariates, and adjusted for covariates and large scale geographic variation (LSGV. Adjustments were intended to identify the unusual aggregations of cases given the expected distribution based on the observed locations. Results Statistically significant clusters were identified particularly in the Albany, Finger Lakes, and South Hudson areas. The clusters were generally persistent in the Albany area, but demonstrated cyclical changes in rabies activity every few years in the other areas. Cluster adjustments allowed the discussion of possible causes for the high risk raccoon rabies areas identified. Conclusion This study analyzed raccoon variant rabies spatial and temporal patterns in New York that have not been previously described at a focal (census tract level. Comparisons across the type of spatial analysis performed with various degrees of adjustment allow consideration of the potential influence of geographical factors for raccoon rabies and possible reasons for the highest risk areas (statistically significant clusters.

  11. Analysis of relationship between emotional intelligence and social adjustment in teenager male students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad yarmohammadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and social adjustment in a sample of teenager students from Fasa city. Method: For this purpose, 150 students, who were volunteers to participate in this research, of three age groups- 10-12 years old(first grade of guidance school, 13-15 years old (third grade of guidance school, and 16-18 years old (third grade of high school- were selected by multiple clustral random sampling. All participants were asked to complete the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS and the Social Acceptance Questionnaire (SAQ. Analysis of the data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics including means, standard deviations and regression analysis. Results: The results of multiple regression analysis showed that there is a significance relationship between the emotional intelligence and the social adjustment of the students of 10-12-year old group and 13-15 year old group (P0/05. There was also a significance relationship between the total emotional intelligence and social adjustment at the level (P0/05. Conclusion: The results of regression analysis showed that the social adjustment of teenagers could be predicted by emotional intelligence. That is, when emotional intelligence will be high, the social acceptance and social adjustment is high and vice versa. Based on findings, it can be concluded that emotional intelligence improves the quality of social and emotional relationship skills. It also helps individual to coping with life problems and stress.

  12. The limits of modifying migration speed to adjust to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Both, Christiaan

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the range of variation over which organisms can adjust to environmental change is a major challenge in ecology. This is exemplified in migratory birds which experience changes in different habitats throughout the annual cycle. Earlier studies showed European population trends declining strongest in migrant species with least adjustment in spring arrival time. Thus, the increasing mismatches with other trophic levels in seasonal breeding areas probably contribute to their large-scale decline. Here we quantify the potential range of adjusting spring arrival dates through modifying migration speeds by reviewing 49 tracking studies. Among-individual variation in migration speed was mainly determined by the relatively short stop-over duration. Assuming this population response reflects individual phenotypic plasticity, we calculated the potential for phenotypic plasticity to speed-up migration by reducing stop-over duration. Even a 50% reduction would lead to a mere two-day advance in arrival, considering adjustments on the final 2,000 km of the spring journey. Hence, in contrast to previous studies, flexibility in the major determinant of migration duration seems insufficient to adjust to ongoing climate change, and is unlikely to explain some of the observed arrival advancements in long-distance migrants.

  13. Sliding Mode Robustness Control Strategy for Shearer Height Adjusting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Su

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly established mathematical model of height adjusting hydro cylinder of the shearer, as well as the state space equation of the shearer height adjusting system. Secondly we designed a shearer automatic height adjusting controller adopting the sliding mode robustness control strategy. The height adjusting controller includes the sliding mode surface switching function based on Ackermann formula, as well as sliding mode control function with the improved butterworth filter. Then simulation of the height adjustment controller shows that the sliding mode robustness control solves buffeting of typical controller, and achieves automatic control for the rolling drum of the shearer.

  14. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changeover date by the taxpayer or a predecessor and shall, with respect to both the asset and reserve... amount which bears the same ratio to the adjustment as the unadjusted basis of the property so held bears... 1956 adjustment date. (c) Adjustment for part of terms-letter reserve applicable to property...

  15. Reflexivity and adjustment strategies at the interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Teomiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I argue in this work that Reinhart & Reuland’s (1993 conditions A and B hold for Spanish. I provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that this language makes use of both SE and SELF-anaphors. Inherent reflexive verbs undergo an internal argument reduction operation in the lexicon. However, the syntax always requires two arguments. Therefore certain clitics, which are SE-anaphors, are inserted in these derivations. This is a last-resort mechanism that makes an adjustment between the valence of the lexical entry of the verb and the requirements of the syntax in order for the derivation to converge at the C-I interface. These clitics are syntactic arguments. Nevertheless, they are not interpreted as semantic arguments since they violate the double chain condition, which forces nominal elements to share both a tense and thematic features with the verb and the tense heads. Non- inherent reflexive verbs require the presence of a SELF-anaphor, which is formed out of a SE-anaphor along with a protector SELF element. Therefore, both syntactic elements are interpreted as two distinguishable semantic elements at C-I despite the fact that there is binding between them both. The interpretation of both syntactic elements as just one semantic element is a pragmatic epiphenomenon.

  16. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  17. Structural adjustment and health policy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenson, R

    1993-01-01

    World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) have been introduced in over 40 countries of Africa. This article outlines their economic policy measures and the experience of the countries that have introduced them, in terms of nutrition, health status, and health services. The evidence indicates that SAPs have been associated with increasing food insecurity and undernutrition, rising ill-health, and decreasing access to health care in the two-thirds or more of the population of African countries that already lives below poverty levels. SAPs have also affected health policy, with loss of a proactive health policy framework, a widening gap between the affected communities and policy makers, and the replacement of the underlying principle of equity in and social responsibility for health care by a policy in which health is marketed commodity and access to health care becomes an individual responsibility. The author argues that there is a deep contradiction between SAPs and policies aimed at building the health of the population. Those in the health sector need to contribute to the development and advocacy of economic policies in which growth is based on human resource development, and to the development of a civic environment in Africa that can ensure the implementation of such policies.

  18. Adjustment of endogenous concentrations in pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Wolfsegger, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    Estimating pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of an endogenous concentration is not straightforward as cross-reactivity in the analytical methodology prevents differentiation between endogenous and dose-related exogenous concentrations. This article proposes a novel intuitive modeling approach which adequately adjusts for the endogenous concentration. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out based on a two-compartment population pharmacokinetic (PK) model fitted to real data following intravenous administration. A constant and a proportional error model were assumed. The performance of the novel model and the method of straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration from post-dose concentrations were compared in terms of terminal half-life, area under the curve from 0 to infinity, and mean residence time. Mean bias in PK parameters was up to 4.5 times better with the novel model assuming a constant error model and up to 6.5 times better assuming a proportional error model. The simulation study indicates that this novel modeling approach results in less biased and more accurate PK estimates than straightforward subtraction of the observed baseline concentration and overcomes the limitations of previously published approaches.

  19. Suicidal Tendency Among Adolescents With Adjustment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.

  20. Uncertainty in Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, G. A.; Lecavalier, B.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjaer, K.; Wolstencroft, M.; Wake, L. M.; Simpson, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the interpretation of geodetic data in Greenland to constrain recent ice mass changes requires knowledge of isostatic land motion associated with past changes in the ice sheet. In this talk we will consider a variety of factors that limit how well the signal due to past mass changes (commonly referred to as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)) can be defined. Predictions based on a new model of Greenland GIA will be shown. Using these predictions as a reference, we will consider the influence of plausible variations in some key aspects of both the Earth and ice load components of the GIA model on predictions of land motion and gravity changes. The sensitivity of model output to plausible variations in both depth-dependent and lateral viscosity structure will be considered. With respect to the ice model, we will compare the relative contributions of loading during key periods of the ice history with a focus on the past few thousand years. In particular, we will show predictions of contemporary land motion and gravity changes due to loading changes following the Little Ice Age computed using a new reconstruction of ice thickness changes based largely on empirical data. A primary contribution of this work will be the identification of dominant sources of uncertainty in current models of Greenland GIA and the regions most significantly affected by this uncertainty.